Military Review

Combat aircraft. Air Volkssturm weapons and its collapse

57
Combat aircraft. Air Volkssturm weapons and its collapse

May 8, 1945. British troops occupy Lecc airfield. In this last month of the war, a difficult unit was based at this airfield - JG.1, which was armed with He-162A-1 / A-2 jet aircraft.


Thirty-one aircraft met the British. It is clear that the crews who received the order to cease hostilities did not join the partisans, and they could not fight anyway due to the complete lack of fuel for their “birds”.



A month earlier, the Americans in Eger captured an entire underground plant with several dozen He.162 in varying degrees of readiness.


It is clear that all the captured items were “honestly” divided between the allies, and two He.162 fell into the Soviet Union. Plus, our "got hold" in Rostock quite a lot of technical documentation for the aircraft.

Why such an interest? Everything is simple. The Salamander was wooden! And in the Soviet Union of that time, the simpler the materials and the cheaper the equipment, the more likely it was to be in the series.

Aircraft - in particular.

Therefore, on the 162nd, our specialists from the GLITS of the Air Force of the Red Army twisted in all projections and ... were disappointed! The Salamander did not meet the criteria that the Soviet military had regarding what a jet should be.

From the captured and carefully studied reports, it became clear that the He-162 is still a fruit, therefore the attitude towards it was appropriate: “I want it and I’ll prick it”. Therefore, the first flight as experimental No.162 was completed only on May 8, 1946, under the control of test pilot Georgy Shiyanov.


A number of flights were conducted, as a result of which the idea of ​​releasing a copy of He.162 at Soviet plants was solemnly buried. Despite the fact that flights were very much limited in speed and load on the structure, it turned out that He.162 does not have satisfactory aerobatic qualities. The aircraft is unstable in terms of track, has a small margin of longitudinal stability and lateral stability close to neutral.

From an aerodynamic point of view, everything was not very good either. High separation speed (230 km / h against the passport 190 km / h), long take-off run (1350 meters), low rate of climb, quick loss of speed with a decrease in engine speed. On the whole, He.162 flew, but he did it clearly reluctantly.

Positive points were also noted, but they were mostly in engineering solutions. Powder catapult, for example. Or a fuel tank, which the Germans made inside the wooden wing, covering the inner surface of the wing with a special compound. Or a system for cleaning the landing gear and flaps using springs, which was very cheap in design and witty by decision. The release was made hydraulically.

But in general, having fulfilled He.162, it was decided to close the topic. Lavochkin, Mikoyan and Yakovlev had more confidence, and their jet planes were already starting to fly.

It is clear that the most interesting part in the design was probably used in domestic developments.

In general, a natural result for this aircraft. The allies were about the same. Familiarized and shoved through museums and collections.


In principle, as he was born and lived and served, he left the stage.

And He. 162 was born not only notably, but partly naturally. Only in Germany of the 1944 model, where everything was already cracking at the seams, could such a project as the Volksjäger / People's Fighter be born. That is, the plane is simple, cheap, suitable for mass production from cheap materials and with the use of low-skilled labor.

On September 8, 1944, the Technical Department prepared the basic requirements for such an aircraft and sent them to all German aircraft manufacturers.

According to the requirements, the aircraft had to have one BMW-003 turbojet engine, weigh no more than 2000 kg, carry weapons from one or two 30-mm guns, develop a speed of 745 km / h, and have a flight duration of 30 minutes. The aircraft should have been prepared for serial production by January 1, 1945, and outline designs should have been provided by September 20, 1944.

It immediately became clear to all German aircraft engineers that the plane should be made of manure and sticks, as cheaply and simply as possible. A sort of ersatz for kamikaze in a European way.


Messerschmitt, who was still fighting for his Me.262, refused to submit anything at all to the competition; Focke-Wulf and Arado presented something completely unrealistic. The remaining ... In general, the "project 211" of the Blom and Foss company was initially recognized as the best, which really looked very much like those planes that went into series after the war.



Heinkel did not agree, and through open fusion and closed undercover intrigues, they outplayed the competition in their favor. And in the end, it was decided to begin production of the Heinkel aircraft with the monthly production of 1000 aircraft.

Initially, the fighter was called He.500, but in order to deceive the intelligence of opponents, the Technical Department assigned the aircraft the designation He.162. This number was originally carried by the Messerschmitt project of a high-speed bomber, which did not go into mass production. At the same time, the plane received the nickname "Salamander", which was originally the designation of the entire program.


Three assembly lines at Heinkel and Junkers were planned for the production of the “national fighter,” with a general plan for the production of 2000 aircraft per month. For the production of wooden parts, two plants were specially urgently created in Erfurt and Stuttgart, and four Heinkel plants and five Junkers plants throughout Germany were to produce fuselages and other metal-intensive components.

It was planned to finish the first thousand He. 162 in April 1945, and in May to release 2000 aircraft.

The He.162 fuselage was a monocoque of light alloy with a wooden bow cone. The integral wing was mainly made of wood with plywood sheathing and metal tips. The plumage and rudders were of light alloy, with the exception of the wooden keel.


The engine was mounted directly on the fuselage, behind the cockpit. Bolted. It was fastened in front with two vertical bolts, and behind - horizontal. The normal fuel supply consisted of 700 liters in one soft fuselage tank and in one additional tank in the wing of 180 liters. The fuel supply was enough for 20-30 minutes of engine operation, depending on the operating mode. Served as fuel aviation kerosene J2.

Everything was very simple in the cockpit too.


The chair is the simplest, but with a pyrotechnic charge. The radio equipment set was also the simplest and consisted of the FuG-25a transponder, the simplest ZVG 16 radio train and the FuG 24 radio station. The radio station was designed only for 5-10 hours of operation and was made specifically for He.162, since this aircraft did not threaten a longer life. The transmitter and receiver had separate antennas on the left and right keel, respectively. The direction finder of the radio compass was mounted above the engine. In the left keel was also a FuG-25a antenna.

The armament consisted of two cannons placed on the sides of the fuselage. In the modification of He.162A-1, it was a 30-mm MK.108 gun with 50 rounds of ammunition per barrel, but such ammunition was just ridiculous, because in the end they returned to the original weapons scheme (rejected at one time by the Technical Department) of two 20- mm MG.151 / 20E cannons with 120 rounds of ammunition per barrel. Sleeves and links were thrown through holes in the lower part of the fuselage. The reloading and descent of the MK.108 guns is electropneumatic, of the MG.151 / 20 - electric.

In mandatory modifications (as the Germans had without!), It was planned to install other weapons options, including 55-mm R4M unguided missiles and an 80-mm Panzerblitz.

The first official flight, still experimental He.162-V1 made on December 6, 1944 under the control of the flight-captain Peter. In general, by that time the aircraft was already in production, and its series really began.


During the first 20-minute flight, the He.162-V1 reached a speed of 835 km / h at an altitude of 6000 m, but the flight had to be stopped, because the landing gear wing flap had a defective hinge in the air.

We decided to continue, not paying attention to defects. However, exactly 4 days later the same Peter showed the plane to the representatives of the party and the Luftwaffe, and during the high-speed passage the wing was destroyed. As a result, the plane crashed, exploded, the pilot did not have time to eject and died.

And nothing! The next aircraft, He.162-V2, in the first flight led the director of Heinkel Franke himself! Franke showed on the plane the ultimate flight data, which, in general, saved the entire project.


And the Salamander went into the series. In general, the He.162a-2 modification, on which the replacement of weapons has already occurred, was mass-produced. MK-108 did not take root, since vibration from recoil seriously threatened some structural elements. Therefore, the aircraft was rearmament on MG-151/20, and the name was changed to He.162a-2.

This was beneficial in that two MG-151s with 120 rounds of ammunition per barrel weighed only 121 kg, and two MK-108s with 50 shells each - 215 kg. The MK-108 guns were planned to be mounted on the He.162a-3, for which its fuselage should have been strengthened, but this option was not really available.

As variations were not produced in which it was planned to install engines of other manufacturers, since BMW really did not have time to produce their BMW-003E engines, installation options for Junkers Jumo-004D, Heinkel-Hirt 011A, and Argus-Ror were considered.

In general, to plan to produce one of the modifications of He.162 with two engines from Argus in 1946 was somewhat ... naive.


Nevertheless, in December 1944, the Ne.162 flew, which means that it is time to think about the pilots who will sit at the helm of the "People’s Fighters".

There is a very interesting nuance.

During December 1944 - February 1945, tests were conducted in Rechlin and Munich-Reim, which showed that the He.162 is not the easiest aircraft to fly. Unfortunately.

In general, it was originally planned that pilots from the so-called “Goering's call”, that is, in fact graduates of flying clubs, if in our opinion, would be put on the “Salamander”. However, "suddenly" it turned out that the Ne.162 is difficult to pilot not only for inexperienced pilots, but even experienced pilots had problems controlling this fighter.

So the dreams of "air Volkssturm" crumbled to dust and remained only dreams. And I had to retrain and put in the cabin "Salamander" completely completed pilots, with whom in Germany the sample in April 1945 had real problems.

Plus, delays in the supply of aircraft began. Despite the fact that the production of aircraft was puzzled by a large number of factories, nevertheless, the bombing of German cities by the Allies yielded certain results, and the German aviation industry gradually turned into broken brick and rubble.


Therefore, by April 11, 1945, in two groups and the headquarters squadron JG1 instead of 120 assigned to the state of He-162, only I / JG1 had 16 machines (of which 10 were combat-ready), and the pilots recruited no more than seventy people.

So, despite all the efforts, the JG1 group did not become combat ready. Moreover, without even entering the war, from mid-March 1945 until the end of the war, JG1 lost nine pilots in accidents and disasters, and another five were injured.

However, isolated cases are known when He.162 entered into battle with Allied aircraft.

The first such incident was noted on April 15, when during a flight from Ludwiglust to Lecc, Lieutenant Rudolf Schmitt, acting as commander of I / JG1, met with several English Spitfires. There were no losses, because Schmitt, using the advantage in speed, simply washed away.

On April 19, several He-162A-2s rose from the Lecc airfield to intercept Allied fighter-bomber aircraft that could be sent to the airfield.

In this battle the first officially recorded victory was won (P-47 Thunderbolt, the pilot jumped with a parachute and was captured) by Gunther Kirchner. True, Kirchner was shot down almost immediately by another P-47 and died, becoming the first and only JG1 pilot who died in a battle on He.162. Catapults really helped out.

And the participant of the first battle Schmitt on May 4, 1945 shot down the British Tempest. This was the last recorded victory of He. 162. On May 8, the war for JG1 was over.


From captured documents, it became known that Heinkel continued to develop jet fighters during 1944-45, using the successful experience of creating the He-178 in 1939 and the He-280 in 1941.

During this time, Heinkel worked in detail on 20 projects of single-seat fighters with various engines and layout. But only He.162 went into business, because the own HeS-11 engine was never brought to mind, so I had to play from other people's developments (BMW and Junkers), and the time I went into the series He.162 made me do the car is the simplest and cheapest.

Surprisingly, Heinkel managed to simultaneously produce the masterpiece He.219 and the frank self-propelled (albeit reactive) He.162.


Evaluating the project as a whole, we can confidently say that He.162, despite the cheapness and advancement in some engineering issues, was still a hasty home-made. With all the ensuing consequences.

The aircraft was developed not just in the shortest - as soon as possible on the basis of previously made developments (the Sparrow project at Heinkel) as cheap as possible, in the expectation that it will become weapons "Air volkssturm", but the glory of the creators, was so difficult to manage that it did not.

It is clear that even a thousand Salamander would hardly have drastically changed the situation on the German air front, since the Mustangs, Thunderbolts, Spitfires, Yakovlevs and Lavochkins had already firmly gained air supremacy. And they would not give it back.

And the plane itself, let’s say, despite the novelties and the turbojet engine, was nothing like that. Therefore, he was deservedly set aside from the side of the Allies and ours.



Deservedly. Haste has never generated anything decent, and even more so in aviation.

LTX He.162a-2

Wingspan, m: 7,02
Length, m: 9,03
Height, m: 2,60
Wing area, м2: 11,1

Weight, kg
- empty aircraft: 1 664
- normal takeoff: 2 600
- Maximum takeoff: 2800

Engine: 1 x BMW-003E-1, turbojet
Thrust, kgf
- rated: 800
- afterburner: 920

Maximum speed km / h
- by the ground: 885
- at height: 900

Practical range, km: 970
Maximum rate of climb, m / min: 1 404
Practical ceiling, m: 12 000
Crew: 1

Armament: two 20-mm MG-151/20 guns with 120 rounds per barrel.
Author:
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  1. Sergey39
    Sergey39 22 December 2019 05: 16
    -12
    "Haste has never produced anything decent,"
    And now the same thing. Haste gives birth to monsters like Zamvolt or F-35. And an oversupply of money.
  2. mark1
    mark1 22 December 2019 07: 28
    +10
    His task was to intercept bombers and not to arrange "dog dumps". We just didn't get statistics. maybe something would have happened with longer use
    1. svp67
      svp67 22 December 2019 08: 23
      +5
      Quote: mark1
      He had a task

      To become "popular", that is, the plane of "total war", which means that it had to be widely used. And the pilots are not very qualified. But they could not make such a plane. all their attempts were in vain
      Everything is simple. The Salamander was wooden!
      Not really, somewhere around 3/4 it was wooden, part of the fuselage was made of aluminum.
      1. mark1
        mark1 22 December 2019 08: 35
        +4
        Quote: svp67
        To become "popular"

        "Narodny" does not mean at all. that any German would be able to fly to a neighboring city for a conventional sausage. In 1944, the German people had one common problem - the bombing of the Allies. it was for this that the people's fighter was "sharpened" by "Narodny", but it was called because of the supposed cheapness and simplicity.
        1. svp67
          svp67 22 December 2019 08: 38
          +4
          Quote: mark1
          In 1944, the German people had one common misfortune - the Allied bombing. under this the people's fighter and "sharpened"

          But in 1945, the German people added one more misfortune - the action of the Allied forces already on the territory of Germany, which already supported tactical-level aircraft, and the Wehrmacht remained without air cover
          1. mark1
            mark1 22 December 2019 11: 50
            +1
            Quote: svp67
            But in 1945, the German people added one more trouble-

            This disaster had nothing to do with TK.
      2. Dooplet11
        Dooplet11 22 December 2019 08: 37
        +3
        Not really, somewhere around 3/4 it was wooden, part of the fuselage was made of aluminum.

        Not at all like that fuselage cook It was made of bakelite plywood, and a couple of removable sheets of casing, and the rest of its construction (a very significant part, almost the entire fuselage!) was metal. And certainly not 3/4 of the plane was made of wood. Much less when comparing fractions in the weight of the structure.
        1. svp67
          svp67 22 December 2019 08: 39
          0
          Quote: Dooplet11
          And certainly not 3/4 of the plane was made of wood. Much less when comparing fractions in the weight of the structure.

          In weight, maybe, but wings, tail is a tree ... so that in terms of area it turns out somewhere
          1. Dooplet11
            Dooplet11 22 December 2019 08: 43
            +3
            tail tree
            - "tail" - what's this on the plane? "By area" ... laughing And why is the proportion of wood in the structure not measured in parrots?
            1. svp67
              svp67 22 December 2019 08: 45
              +1
              Quote: Dooplet11
              And why is the proportion of wood in the structure not measured in parrots?

              Good idea, it would be necessary to measure the power of the aircraft engine in them ...
              What do you think our Yak-15 can be considered an analogue of the Salamander?
              1. Dooplet11
                Dooplet11 22 December 2019 08: 51
                0
                Good idea, it would be necessary to measure the power of the aircraft engine in them ...

                - Liked it? I give it. Measure. But with such measurements, do not go out in public. They will laugh.
                What do you think our Yak-15 can be considered an analogue of the Salamander?

                -Analogue of what? Design, purpose?
                1. svp67
                  svp67 22 December 2019 08: 53
                  +1
                  Quote: Dooplet11
                  Design, purpose?

                  Yes
                  Quote: Dooplet11
                  They will laugh.

                  And horsepower is better ... what kind of defamation?
                  1. Dooplet11
                    Dooplet11 22 December 2019 08: 56
                    0
                    And horsepower is better ... what kind of defamation?
                    - there are accepted technical standards. Deviation from them is fraught with the fact that you will not be understood, or misunderstood. Or they will understand that you are "floating" in the question.
                    1. svp67
                      svp67 22 December 2019 15: 06
                      0
                      Quote: Dooplet11
                      - there are accepted technical standards.

                      Well, all are so extraordinary. I understand everything perfectly, I just wanted to joke ...
                  2. Dooplet11
                    Dooplet11 22 December 2019 08: 57
                    +1
                    Yes
                    - "no" and "yes".
                    1. svp67
                      svp67 22 December 2019 15: 07
                      0
                      Quote: Dooplet11
                      - "no" and "yes".

                      I would like a detailed answer
                      - what is - no?
                      - what is yes?
                      I think that our Yak fighters just fall under the definition of "total war plane" and its transformation into a jet is quite natural.
                      I was wondering why the Germans didn't go the same way? Although after a little analysis I realized that they did not have such an aircraft. "Messerschmitt" obsolete by the end of the war as a piston, could not have gone through such a "alteration", in particular because of its "chassis" And the "Foker" was very much needed as a fighter-bomber and interceptor, in the "Dora" version, its production was definitely not worth touching, otherwise Germany would have ended up without fighters at all.
                      1. Dooplet11
                        Dooplet11 22 December 2019 15: 40
                        +1
                        Structurally, it is not an analog. In terms of functionality, it’s a cheap jet fighter, an analogue.
                      2. svp67
                        svp67 22 December 2019 15: 44
                        0
                        Quote: Dooplet11
                        Structurally, it is not an analog. In terms of functionality, it’s a cheap jet fighter, an analogue.
                        Thank you, this is in tune with my thoughts
                      3. niksfromru
                        niksfromru 26 December 2019 10: 38
                        0
                        We can also say that the He.162 is also configured according to the "red" scheme. Only "redan" - "upside down";)
                      4. Dooplet11
                        Dooplet11 26 December 2019 10: 47
                        +1
                        We can also say that the He.162 is also configured according to the "red" scheme.
                        “I would not say that.” With the redannounced scheme, the engine is still located in the fuselage, and not outside it, as was done in He.162.
                      5. niksfromru
                        niksfromru 26 December 2019 10: 50
                        0
                        More precisely, "half in the fuselage";) In both cases, the thrust vector passes "past" the center of mass, which creates additional disturbances in the pitch channel. True, on the Yak this phenomenon was less pronounced due to the closer location of the engine to the CM and the deviation of the thrust vector axis. But Heinkel was almost 100% free from the risk of sucking anything into the engine when driving on the ground.
                      6. Dooplet11
                        Dooplet11 26 December 2019 11: 04
                        +1
                        I agree. But the installation of the engine on the He-162 can be attributed to the pylon rather than the redannoy.
        2. mark1
          mark1 22 December 2019 11: 53
          +1
          Quote: Dooplet11
          Much less when comparing fractions in the weight of the structure.

          Even the most wooden LaGG had a share of wood in weight of just over 30%
          1. svp67
            svp67 22 December 2019 15: 08
            0
            Quote: mark1
            Even the most wooden LaGG had a share of wood in weight of just over 30%

            And so I understand that the I-16, by weight, was 90% "iron"
            1. mark1
              mark1 22 December 2019 15: 21
              +1
              And you check the weight summary
              1. svp67
                svp67 22 December 2019 15: 24
                0
                Quote: mark1
                And you check the weight summary

                Thank. Ok, i'll look
            2. Dooplet11
              Dooplet11 22 December 2019 15: 40
              0
              I-16, - a plane of mixed design.
              1. svp67
                svp67 22 December 2019 15: 42
                0
                Quote: Dooplet11
                I-16, - a plane of mixed design.

                So by definition they are ALL such, I mean, and NOT-162. Immediately the issue of weight percentages.
                1. Dooplet11
                  Dooplet11 22 December 2019 15: 59
                  +1
                  So by definition they are ALL such, I mean, and NOT-162. Immediately the issue of weight percentages.

                  When they say that the aircraft is all-wood, all-metal, or of a mixed design, then they mean the design of the airframe, leaving out the propulsion system, weapons, armature and devices. Thus, LaGG-3 or Mosquito are all-wood, I-16, Yak-1, He-162 aircraft of mixed design, Pe-2, Bf-109, R-51 all-metal. But the percentage of structural materials in the airframe of a mixed-design aircraft is determined by weight, and not by the area of ​​the elements. hi
    2. knn54
      knn54 22 December 2019 17: 22
      +2
      Having the Me-262, experiencing a shortage of jet engines, fuel and much more, and "pumping" funds when the enemy is at the gate into a "simple" jet plane is not a gamble, this is madness.
  3. Dooplet11
    Dooplet11 22 December 2019 08: 10
    +23
    Haste has never spawned anything decent
    -This also applies to this article (retelling of an article from "Aviation and Cosmonautics No. 3 1996? Http://litrus.net/book/read/155712?p=14). Haste with compilation gives rise to bloopers:
    We look proof

    We read the novel:
    Why such an interest? Everything is simple. The Salamander was wooden!

    And the BNT MAP claims that the design of the He-162 was mixed:

    We read Skomorokhov further:
    The chair is the simplest, but with a pyrotechnic charge.

    Is it really that simple? Why "pyrotechnic charge? For New Year's crackers? We look at the description of BNT MAP, and we see that the chair is not quite simple, and the charge is not in the chair, but in the catapult:


    He-162 was one of the pioneers in the use of not at all simple ejection seats.
    The novel writes:
    Therefore, on the 162nd, our experts from the GLITS of the Air Force of the Red Army destroyed He.162 in all projections and ... were disappointed! The Salamander did not meet the criteria that the Soviet military had regarding what a jet should be.

    I don’t know where Roman got about the disappointment of specialists from the Red Army Air Force GLITs, but the BNT MAP wrote the following in its conclusions:

    No disappointment. Only a sober assessment of the design and its capabilities.
    In general, this "article" by Skomorokhov is another retelling of other people's articles, moreover retelling "on top". Not surprising. You have to write a lot and more often, right, Roman?
    Haste has never spawned anything decent.

    and in articles about
    aviation - especially
    1. dauria
      dauria 22 December 2019 12: 48
      +3
      You need to write a lot more often


      I will add one point of view from a very serious article.
      "The plane also got its own name Spatz (Spatz - Sparrow). It should be noted that during many books about He 162 mention the name “Salamander” (Salamander), but it was not directly related to the aircraft, but related to the program for the production of wings and other wooden parts of the aircraft by woodworking companies. "
      The article itself is here-
      https://royallib.com/book/ivanov_s/ne_162_volksjager.html
  4. nexus
    nexus 22 December 2019 08: 28
    -1
    The progress of the military industry in the world over 6 years of the World War defies rational explanation: biplanes at its beginning and jet aircraft at the end, archaic artillery at the entrance, winged F1 and ballistic F2 upon completion, etc. and of course the crown of everything is "kid" and "fat man" neither earlier nor later did military (and not only) science make such a leap.
    1. sergevl
      sergevl 22 December 2019 10: 25
      +2
      The jet Gloucester pioneer flew long before the WWII, biplanes and archaic planes, on the contrary, were issued during the war in large numbers to the modern models.
      Artillery reached a range of 180 km back in WWII, the Chinese generally invented rockets.
      A kid and a fat man would not have been possible without the Skłodowska Curie who worked at the beginning of the century. The war only threw progress back, forcing ugly non-technological fast-paced stamps
      1. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 22 December 2019 11: 45
        +4
        The war contributes to the rapid implementation of pre-war scientific and technological discoveries.
        1. sergevl
          sergevl 22 December 2019 17: 07
          -3
          War is a massacre that destroys young men in the prime of life in the first place, and the Second World War destroyed everyone.
          No discoveries were made in the war, and nothing new was invented.
          1. voyaka uh
            voyaka uh 22 December 2019 17: 18
            +4
            I respect your pacifism, and also against wars. But, unfortunately, it is not possible to avoid them at the current evolutionary level of human development.
            And science and technology is constantly evolving. Both for peace and for war. There is a consumer boom in peacetime, and there is a military-technical boom in wartime.
            And there are technology transitions from peaceful to military and vice versa.
            Alas, if there were no slaughter of the First World War, then surgery, antibiotics, blood transfusion, prosthetics, skin transplants, treatment of burns, etc. would be as backward as in the more peaceful 1th century.
            1. sergevl
              sergevl 22 December 2019 18: 31
              0
              Aviation during the war stagnates.
              Take, for example, the Russian hero of the Murom. Which became the forerunner of all 4 motor aircraft with a large fuselage.
              War to him was invented by no means before the war.
              Now surgery ... Is it that amputations without funerals in the war are flourishing ((((
              Let's list the most popular operations today:
              Aortic bypass surgery, implantation of the hip joint, appendectomy, removal of tumors, stones in the bladder of the kidneys, pediatric heart surgery, orthopedic surgery, neurosurgery removal of hernias, artificial lens, removal of the tonsils of the adenoids of the polyps, implantation of dental pins, dentistry all surgery for tooth removal, denture channels, removal of hemorrhoids, orthodontic interventions the same bracket.

              Here, military surgery is generally no side to any of the most popular interventions.
              Even burn centers and those are tied to mine cities and settlements.

              What is military surgery strong? Amputations of limbs of all kinds.
              Yes, and even the mass anesthesia of the military. Each soldier in the first-aid kit so as not to die from a pain shock a syringe with an opiate.
              And opiate courses in the treatment process. I'm not talking about the massive introduction of smoking in the first and second world wars.
              About alcoholism and the People’s Commissariat daily rations of vodka I’m silent ....

              Or is the daily Ukrainian grenade in the hands of warriors what?
              1. Alf
                Alf 22 December 2019 21: 34
                +1
                Quote: sergevl
                Aviation during the war stagnates.

                That you tell the creators of the B-29.
      2. nexus
        nexus 22 December 2019 12: 27
        -1
        Gloucester was not built in series, had no practical use, what archaic biplanes were produced by the masses before 1945? firing range is not the only parameter, you can keep silent about Chinese missiles, it’s not F1 and F2 and you understand this, but if you take Curie’s research, you can say, for example, that electricity has been known since ancient times, and its practical use only from the end of the 1XX century, and quick-work, by definition, implies a high level of technology, do not confuse production technology and design solutions.
        1. sergevl
          sergevl 22 December 2019 17: 14
          0
          Mass produced y-2, and then an-2. Machines are very necessary and useful, but no innovations, and where is the mythical progress?
          F 1 and f 2 can and could be attributed to the trend of progress, but if we take for example the Skud missile or any other ballistic missile, we will see that without apples they are no use. That is, the missile is an application to the apple, and without it, it’s just a stupid barrel with acid and a smelly poisonous slurry that needs to be guarded, and after 30 years passed to the metal.
          1. Dooplet11
            Dooplet11 23 December 2019 06: 02
            0
            Mass produced y-2, and then an-2. Machines are very necessary and useful, but no innovations, and where is the mythical progress?

            Well, between U-2 and An-2 progress - more than enough! Instrumentation, wing mechanization, materials used, overall efficiency.
        2. sergevl
          sergevl 22 December 2019 17: 18
          -1
          The war showed that it was necessary to produce in three shifts any scrap metal such as stupid push-pull diesel engines, deutroit diesel engines with a resource of 50-100 hours like db605 or v-2.
          1. Dooplet11
            Dooplet11 23 December 2019 06: 07
            +2
            The "stupid" V-2 and ASh-82 brought into the war in their civilian versions were produced and worked for decades after the war.
            PS. I am not for the usefulness of war. But the arguments you have given are unsuccessful.
    2. Alf
      Alf 22 December 2019 21: 30
      0
      Quote: Nexus
      The progress of the military industry in the world for 6 years of the world war cannot be rationally explained:

      Just the explanation is a simple-war.
  5. Observer2014
    Observer2014 22 December 2019 10: 53
    -1
    Interesting article. Thanks hi By the way, many German jet planes guess the future images of planes and cruise missiles at a military aviation post.
  6. Undecim
    Undecim 22 December 2019 16: 19
    +2
    Only in Germany of the 1944 model, where everything was already cracking at the seams, could such a project as the Volksjäger / People's Fighter be born.
    In Germany, in 1944, the Jägernotprogramm program was born as an attempt, with limited resources, to oppose something to the Allied bombing. Within the framework of this program, the Volksjäger He 162 was created and the Miniaturjägerprogramm type BV P 213 by Blom & Foss was created.
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 22 December 2019 16: 29
      +5
      As for the creation of "emergency" ersatz weapons, Germany was by no means the first.
      Specifically, aviation, the British in 1940 hastily created the Miles M.20 - an all-wood aircraft using a stock of parts from the training Miles Master, fixed landing gear and eight machine guns of rifle caliber. However, British industry coped with the production of Spitfires and Hurricanes, "the ersatz fighter was not needed.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 22 December 2019 16: 34
        +4
        And even the "mighty" USA in 1941, fearing a shortage of strategic materials, hastily created the all-wood "ersatz fighter" Bell XP-77.
      2. The leader of the Redskins
        The leader of the Redskins 22 December 2019 17: 29
        -3
        And our Yak -6? Simple, "like a plywood box"! They wanted to fly to bomb the enemy.
    2. Dooplet11
      Dooplet11 23 December 2019 06: 20
      +1
      In the Reich, until the last days, they worked under the program of a by no means a cheap promising fighter with the Heinkel-Hirt 011A engine.
      1. niksfromru
        niksfromru 26 December 2019 10: 47
        0
        Well, there was a lot of different things. ;) For example, a light Me.328 bomber with two PuVRD. Apparently, Willy experienced certain complexes about the V-1;)
  7. Kostadinov
    Kostadinov 23 December 2019 15: 26
    0
    The idea of ​​a national fighter is brilliant and it was realized in the USSR - the Yak-9.
    The Germans beat everything they needed to technically do much better, but private aircraft manufacturers did not beat capable of this. They had an innate desire for maximum nailed and always got something expensive and only for wealthy pilots.
    1. niksfromru
      niksfromru 26 December 2019 10: 44
      0
      Suppose that for the control of the Bf-109 and FW-190 from pilots no unique skills were required. Especially considering the control unit for the BMW motor. And the rate of return for capitalists was limited by law.
  8. ivanneger
    ivanneger 25 December 2019 14: 04
    0
    But the British very much liked the salamander, the article is somewhat .. one-sided
  9. verp19
    verp19 8 January 2020 10: 52
    0
    The radio semicircle was designed only for 5-10 hours of operation


    In the sense of a radio tube, did they put some "Chinese" ones or what?

    For the sake of fun:
    In one computer game (with a claim to realism), He.162 is implemented. Takeoff is not straightforward. Runway can really not be enough. An engine pylon interferes with the rear view. More precisely, it completely closes the rear hemisphere. The throttle response is terrible. If you do not accelerate on time and do not keep speeds, then the top pistons do you at a time. 20s (guns) are ineffective against bombers. Rate of fire helps of course, but the effect is small.
  10. kig
    kig 6 March 2020 09: 00
    0
    Adding from airpages.ru:

    Combat application
    The first He 219A-2 / R1 entered service with the 1st group of the 1943st night fighter squadron in XNUMX.

    On the night of June 12, 1943, Not 219A-0, under the command of Major Streib, made his first sortie. During this sortie, Streib shot down at least five British bombers. Upon returning to Venlo, Streib discovered that flaps were not released. The plane descended at high speed from the landing strip and was crashed, although the pilot and radio operator Non-Commissioned Officer Fischer were not injured. Over the next 10 days after Streib's success, several He 219 from I / NJG.1 headquarters shot down 20 British bombers in six flights, including six mosquitoes that were previously considered invulnerable. On July 1, 1943, Streib became a colonel and commander of NJG.1. The headquarters continued to use several pre-production He.219A-0s, but despite Kammukhber’s demands to give Heinkel the highest priority, over the next six months only one I / NJG.1 squadron was rearmament, and the rest continued to fly on Bf.110.

    Although the group constantly lacked these aircraft, the effectiveness of its actions was constantly increasing. On January 21, 1944, the group commander, Captain Manfred Meurer, died when his Ne.219 collided with Lancaster. Meyrer, who had 65 victories, was one of the most experienced night-time pilots. He was followed by captain Hans Dieter Frank with 55 victories. He died on September 27, 1944 over Hanover, when his Ne.219 collided with another night fighter. But combat losses were significantly less than the number of victories won, and did not go to any comparison with them until the appearance of night Mosquito fighters over Germany.

    In the service of I / NJG.1, Ne.219A proved to be easy to maintain, since from the very beginning easy access to all units was provided. In the maintenance parts, even large units were replaced, and six fighter jets were generally assembled from spare units by maintenance personnel. Although these aircraft did not even receive serial numbers and were not officially registered anywhere, they were used in battles. From the point of view of the pilots, the He.219A stood out for its excellent fire power even with the installation of minimal caliber guns. The stock of shells, 300 pieces for 20 mm guns and 100 for 30 mm, was quite sufficient. The crew, engines, and ammunition were well-armored. In addition, He.219 was the first combat aircraft to receive ejection seats - Heinkel was a pioneer in this area. Even with a full load, the Ne.219 had an excess of power, so a motor failure on take-off was non-hazardous. Actually recorded cases of take-off on one engine.

    On October 1, 1944, the group lost its third commander, Major Forster, crashed. From October 2, 1944 until the end of the war, the group was commanded by Werner Baake. By that time, the major had 41 victories. Some pilots on He.219 showed simply amazing success. So Chief Sergeant Morlock on the night of November 3, 1944, shot down six planes in just 12 minutes, and one more presumably, but the next night he himself died from the Mosquito attack. Losses at the end of 1944 were constantly growing. From the beginning of 1945, losses from assault strikes at airfields were added to them.

    On January 10, 1945, 1 / NJG.1 had 64 He.219A, of which 45 were combat-ready. The headquarters of NJG.1 had 20 He.219 and Bf.110, of which 18 were combat-ready. Although I / NJG.1 remained the only part using He.219, two or three fighter units were in the so-called night fighter squadron of Norway in the V Air Fleet.