“Object 490” in terms of protection

“Object 490” in terms of protectionFull-size mock-up of Object 490, late 80s

Since the late eighties, the Kharkov Design Bureau of Mechanical Engineering (KHMB) has been working on various options for promising tanks. One of the most interesting and daring developments of that time was the “Object 490”. This project proposed the construction of an unusual type of tank, a characteristic layout and special characteristics. Consider this machine in terms of measures to increase the level of protection.


Tank theory


During R&D on the topic “490”, several architecture options for the promising MBT were worked out - both classic and several new ones. High performance promised a new layout with the division of the tank into several compartments for various purposes. In this case, the body was made in the form of a horizontal wedge with a sloping roof. It was proposed to divide a single caterpillar mover into two pairs of tracks.

The tank of the new architecture was to be distinguished by an increased level of resistance to all major threats. The combat qualities were planned to be improved due to the automated fighting compartment and increased caliber guns. A new unusual chassis improved mobility.

Layout Protection


The main feature of the “Object 490” was an unusual layout with the separation of the hull and tower into compartments with different equipment and tasks. The proposed option for the placement of units in itself made it possible to cover the most important elements of the tank, as well as protect the crew from the main threats.

The nose compartment, it was proposed to give for the placement of a large fuel tank, separated by longitudinal walls. The armor and tank were supposed to cover other compartments, protecting them from the main threats from the bow angles. The tank design in case of damage allowed the loss of part of the fuel, but allowed to maintain mobility and combat efficiency.

Behind the fuel compartment and under the tower was located the engine-transmission compartment. With this arrangement, the engine and transmission were covered with armor, a tank and a tower. All this minimized the likelihood of damage and complete loss of mobility.


The layout of the machine. 1 - a fuel compartment; 2 - MTO; 3 and 4 - fighting compartment; 5 - crew compartment

The fighting compartment was divided into two parts. The first, including weapons and part of the automatic loading system, was arranged in the form of a tower of the monitors on the roof of the building. The mechanized laying of the ammunition and the means of supplying shots to the turret were placed in its own compartment in the hull, behind the MTO. Like the engine, the styling had the highest possible protection due to several factors.

For the crew provided their own compartment capsule in the stern of the hull. This placement of the capsule virtually eliminated crew damage from the front corners. When attacking an anti-tank weapon that hits a tank from the upper hemisphere, the likelihood of hitting the capsule also decreased due to its reduced area. The habitable volume was equipped with a system of anti-nuclear protection.

Thus, the layout of "Object 490" has been optimized with t.z. mutual arrangement of units and taking into account the most probable threats. When attacking from the main directions, front and top, compartments and units covered each other, providing the best protection for the most important. In addition, a powerful crew protection was provided.

Armor Protection


Reservation of “Object 490” was worked out taking into account protection from armor-piercing shells of foreign 120-mm guns. It was proposed to use combined and homogeneous reservations, as well as dynamic protection units.

The upper frontal part was carried out at the same time with an inclined roof of the body in the form of a combined barrier with the possibility of mounting DZ. Also in the forehead was used steel armor with DZ, covering the fuel compartment. The roof with an inclination of 81 ° had the maximum possible reduced thickness and the corresponding level of protection. With all the advantages, such a roof of the hull seriously complicated the development of shoulder straps for the tower.

Crew protection was provided by circular reservation of the aft compartment and combined protection from above. The aft wall of the capsule had openings for hatches.


The frontal part of the tower was also supposed to receive a combined frontal barrier. The roof and sides were made of homogeneous armor of limited thickness. So, the roof of the tower with a slight slope forward had a thickness of only 50 mm - but a significant reduced thickness when fired from the front.

It was proposed to use the bottom of the hull with differential booking, incl. with combined plots. Under the most important compartments and assemblies was a 100 mm bottom, on others - from 20 mm.

The main elements of the armored hull were proposed to be performed in the form of combined protection from two sheets of steel with a filler between them. It was proposed to combine steel grades to reduce the bare-walled effect of the fragments. External and medium elements of the reservation were required to be made of high hardness steel, internal - medium hardness.

It was planned to supplement the metal reservation with dynamic protection. In the eighties, the Research Institute of Steel developed new types of such products, and with their help it was possible to strengthen the reservation of tanks. The use of armor and remote sensing allowed not only to protect the tank from modern threats, but also to provide a reserve for the future.

Mobility protection


Speed ​​and maneuver are one of the components of the survivability of MBT on the battlefield. In the project "490" these factors were not only taken into account, but also were one of the key. It was with them that the creation of a special power plant based on two power units, working with two tracked engines, was connected.

With an estimated weight of up to 52-54 tons, the Object 490 needed a power plant with a total capacity of up to 1450-1470 hp. The presence of two engines and two transmissions not only ensured the operation of four tracks, but also to some extent increased survivability. The defeat of one of the power units did not deprive the tank of mobility.

Protection Characteristics


According to calculations, the frontal projection of "Object 490" really could withstand the hit of existing foreign armor-piercing shells. The upper projection of the hull had resistance to cumulative ammunition equivalent to 600 mm of homogeneous armor. At the same time, the roof of the tower was much less durable.

Layout rear view. Tower deployed

However, the defeat of the tower not in all cases could have fatal consequences. In particular, a single penetration of armor threatened only with the failure of individual devices of the fighting compartment and, in the worst case, only one unit of the power plant. After such a defeat, the tank retained mobility and, possibly, combat effectiveness. It is important that the chances of the crew to survive and maintain health increased many times over.

Thus, at least at the level of theory, a promising tank had significant advantages over existing equipment in the field of protection and survivability. “Object 490” could engage in battle with modern and promising enemy MBTs and be exposed to minimal risk. To a certain extent, all this was to facilitate the fight against enemy armored vehicles and the solution of combat missions.

At the stage of the layout


The development of “Object 490” with the characteristic features of protection was completed in the late eighties. By this time, KHKBM produced a number of models and prototypes for testing various ideas and solutions. The result of such work was the construction of a full-size prototype MBT "490". However, the project did not advance further.

At that time, the political and economic situation did not contribute to the further development of the project and the launch of the series. Due to the collapse of the USSR, the prospects for many projects have become hazy. Subsequent events actually put an end to the “Object 490” and other developments of HCMB. The army of independent Ukraine was not interested in promising domestic tanks, and there were no other potential customers.

Long and important research and development gave a real result in the form of a mass of developments on various topics, but most of them were never used in practice. Nevertheless, the main decisions of the "490" project are still of great interest, both with technical and historical points of view.
Author:
Photos used:
Btvt.info, Bmpd.livejournal.com
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  1. antivirus 9 January 2020 18: 19 New
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    here is the new metal from Azovstal and Zaporozhye. went for export from the outskirts of the tank was gone
    1. Chaldon48 9 January 2020 20: 31 New
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      If it weren’t just the tank, the lives of engineers and other middle-level workers like me flew upside down.
      1. antivirus 10 January 2020 08: 06 New
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        I remember the results of the referendum on the independence of the outskirts - where did you look? get and don’t cry (if you are from Kharkiv)
        for that we learned how many pairs of boots (without boxes) fit in a plaid blue bag-bag
  2. Klingon 9 January 2020 18: 24 New
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    a very interesting project, as if from some fantastic shooter of the post-apocalyptic era, it’s a pity that it didn’t reach any real prototype ((
    1. Shurik70 9 January 2020 19: 05 New
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      Or vice versa - it’s good that it didn’t.
      If the Ukrainian authorities could import the production of such tanks (and such an arrangement could turn out to be very successful and attractive), it could save the production from collapse by the time of the civil war. And then Donbass would be harder.
    2. SHURUM -BURUM 9 January 2020 20: 09 New
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      When attacking an anti-tank weapon that hits a tank from the upper hemisphere ...,
      It turns out that our cunning Javelin will come soon, back in the late 80s. So what?
    3. Ax Matt 11 January 2020 00: 53 New
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      In the series of computer games "HALO" there is a similar (not peeped ...?) Tank "Scorpio". It is very similar, but, as always, it is massive in the west. And in the third part of the NF-novel "SEVEN DAYS OF THE FUTURE", so there generally ours are rolled out on a similar Tarantula tank ... https://ridero.ru/books/sem_dnei_budushego/
      I am sure that this concept is the future of tank building. Indeed, to date, the mass and overall characteristics of armored vehicles are affected by those of delivery vehicles - railway platforms and transport aircraft. Modularity is the solution to the problem ...! good
  3. Mavrikiy 9 January 2020 18: 27 New
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    Interestingly, especially at such angles of inclination.
    The layout of the tank is a firework of ideas that are partly implemented today.
    1. DRM
      DRM 9 January 2020 19: 43 New
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      Quote: Mavrikiy
      Interestingly, especially at such angles of inclination.
      The layout of the tank is a firework of ideas that are partly implemented today.

      Wait soon in China ((
    2. Sergey_G_M 10 January 2020 04: 48 New
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      Fireworks of ideas yes, are these viable ideas for the most part?
      The car does not have a turret, and this will greatly affect the conduct of hostilities on rough terrain and especially in the city.
      In general, the idea of ​​a reckless tank is not very good, but it is more correct to classify this vehicle as a tank destroyer, which was also assigned to tank tasks.
      1. garri-lin 10 January 2020 08: 33 New
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        There is a tower.
        1. Sergey_G_M 10 January 2020 15: 36 New
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          Look at the section of the machine, with such an inclined location of the turret, the elevation angles of the gun when turning on board will be about 15 degrees, aft 30, and there are practically no declination angles, plus the layout shows that the gun is charged only when the gun is turned forward.
          Those. formally there is a tower, but in fact it will not work (most likely the horizontal sector is limited to approximately +/- 45 degrees).
          1. Cananecat 10 January 2020 17: 28 New
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            I support, the tactics of using even a platoon of such machines would have to be rewritten again. Frankly, I do not understand in this case the meaning of 360 degree rotation of the tower. Unless the elevation angle of the gun in proud conditions and mountains will give a plus, with which it is doubtful.
          2. garri-lin 10 January 2020 19: 07 New
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            About corners completely agree. And about charging there everything is more complicated. It seems that the tower was supposed to be MZ or AZ with a small number of shots. Plus in the case there is an ammunition box that this MZ recharged. Tank in general is the fruit of the creation of more than gloomy genius. It is not clear why all this was. But he still had a tower.
      2. Mazuta 11 January 2020 12: 11 New
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        see all the pictures ... take a closer look
  4. illi 9 January 2020 19: 03 New
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    The tank is very interesting. Of course, they are too much. 4 geese of course in the furnace. 2 engines there too. Well, then the finished one is most likely the cheapest and most secure platform for any tasks. Put the light tower, remove the fighting compartment and the heavy IFV is ready.
    In general, the designers got a little in the wrong place, they rested on innovation and tried to make everything as complex as possible (more secure). And with this scheme, and so the protection is not bad, if you still focus on cheapness and maintainability, the price of such a tank will not.
    Just a question, what about his engine repair? Where to climb and how to shoot?
    1. The comment was deleted.
  5. Klingon 9 January 2020 19: 09 New
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    Quote: Shurik70
    Or vice versa - it’s good that it didn’t.
    If the Ukrainian authorities could import the production of such tanks (and such an arrangement could turn out to be very successful and attractive), it could save the production from collapse by the time of the civil war. And then Donbass would be harder.

    Yes they could not, do not worry! there the boxer (or the hammer?) was also made on the KKBM in the same place, even the prototype was with a 152mm trunk, did you see such tanks to Svidomo somewhere or something similar? only T-64 on which a bunch of boxes hung and called Bulat
  6. knn54 9 January 2020 20: 10 New
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    If you use the barrel of the gun for air intake OPVT (lifting height of 4,6 meters), then the tank was an excellent opportunity to overcome water obstacles.
  7. Mordred79 9 January 2020 20: 28 New
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    There was already an article about six months ago about this shushpantser, one of the plant employees wrote that this was a fake
    1. Vladimir_2U 10 January 2020 04: 34 New
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      3D fantasies about a cross between Swedish articulations and for some reason, “Fixies” is even more plausible.
  8. opus 9 January 2020 20: 30 New
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    Quote: Ryabov Kirill
    “Object 490” in terms of protection
    (1)
    start 2020.
    Quote: Ryabov Kirill
    Tanks without a future. Bold technical solutions and lack of prospects

    29 April 2019


    Quote: Yuferev Sergey
    490 object. Soviet "Armata"
    (2)

    18 November 2018
    Shl. If you look at articles (1) and (2), you get such a light impression that Sergey Yuferev and Kirill Ryabov are one and the same person, well, at least brothers or clones.
    wink
    Quote: Yuri Apukhtin
    The myth of the creation in the USSR of the most powerful tank in the world

    October 31 2018

    Quote: Ilya Legat
    "490 Object". The USSR could create the most powerful tank in the world

    30 October 2018

    / further laziness /
    I believe that the topic of "object 490" has not yet been fully disclosed.
    good
    1. Simargl 10 January 2020 06: 19 New
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      Quote: opus
      I believe that the topic of "object 490" has not yet been fully disclosed.
      I already wrote, in previous articles, that this design is utterly snowstorm.
      The fact that this is indicated by yet another “joke”: look at how the shells are drawn: firstly, they are unitary (which is strange, at least for 125 mm, and even more so for 152 mm), and secondly, judging by the location shells, for loading, you need to feed the cannon to the loading line, for which you need to not only raise it, but also rotate the tower. Wildness.
      The author replayed in WoT, where he was stuck with Strv 103.
      1. opus 10 January 2020 14: 22 New
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        Quote: Simargl
        The author replayed in WoT,

        Damn, I, too, seems to have outplayed the New Year.
        Well, it really hurts pretty girls

        especially our snow maiden
        1. Simargl 10 January 2020 17: 57 New
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          Quote: opus
          Damn, I, too, seems to have outplayed the New Year.
          I only have on smart, but the Internet does not allow me to work.
          On a nubuck Linux and the integrated video card - does not promote games.
      2. prodi 10 January 2020 17: 26 New
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        Yes, not such a rotten concept: one engine, on both sprockets; crew in front, similar to Almaty; the fighting compartment slides back completely
        1. Simargl 10 January 2020 18: 08 New
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          Quote: prodi
          not such a rotten concept: one engine, on both sprockets
          No. Here is the wild rotten:
          Quote: Object 490. Soviet “Armata”
          The power plant of “Object 490” was supposed to include two identical engines (a 5TDF engine on the layout, in the future it was planned to install two - 4TD). The tank’s transmission with hydrostatic transmission made it possible to control the amount of power transmitted to each tracked contour.
          They stop one gusli and the uselessness of this intricate design abruptly rolls over (despite the fact that with a fully functional design - reliability is so-so).
          Quote: prodi
          crew in front, similar to Almaty;
          The crew in ... in the same place as the SU-76M
          Quote: Object 490. Soviet “Armata”
          5 - crew compartment

          Quote: prodi
          the fighting compartment slides back completely
          In the middle, the shoulder strap of the tower at an angle, the carousel with the ammunition is stationary, i.e. rate of fire greatly depends on the angle of rotation of the turret: it should be on the line of supply of the projectile, charge, and return to the line of fire. Shooting back ... howitzer only
          1. prodi 10 January 2020 18: 55 New
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            I didn’t understand what was wrong with the “conditionally” blocked differential between the two inner sprockets on the side? Those. after the front caterpillar is killed, it is quite possible to move, almost normally, in any direction.
            Secondly, all the sprockets have the size of the rollers and fully fulfill their function (leaving the length and weight of the machine within reasonable limits)
            Placing the BO in the back allows you to do everything right in the existing technological capabilities without looking at the initial sketches
            1. Simargl 10 January 2020 19: 16 New
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              Quote: prodi
              Those. after the front caterpillar is killed, it is quite possible to move, almost normally, in any direction.
              Those. the rollers will not bury, the gusl itselfя Will not interfere?

              Quote: prodi
              Secondly, all the sprockets have the size of the rollers and fully fulfill their function
              No. In the photo of the "concept" - standard undersets: sloth, drive wheel and three !!! supporting (6 on board) ...

              Quote: prodi
              Placing the BO in the back allows you to do everything right in the existing technological capabilities without looking at the initial sketches
              These are your fabrications. In the scheme of the “concept” it’s like this: the crew behind.
              1. prodi 10 January 2020 19: 47 New
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                well, after the caterpillar is killed, it would be necessary to hand it back before it is unwound.
                As for everything else, the concept is completely crude, and even the need for four gusli is doubtful, given the scale and practice of using armored vehicles today
                1. Simargl 10 January 2020 20: 03 New
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                  Quote: prodi
                  As for the rest, the concept is completely crude
                  Everything there is nonsense, not raw.
                  1. Mazuta 11 January 2020 12: 22 New
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                    but first we’ll try to get to the gearbox and engine (even if it’s the boxer, even if it’s in a monoblock with GMT and GOMP ...)
                    Better in the "Tiger" KP change ...
                    1. Simargl 11 January 2020 18: 52 New
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                      Quote: Mazuta
                      but first we’ll try to get to the gearbox and engine
                      Bullshit "war": the tower tore - everything is in full view. True, there should be 40 opposers to the cylinders (for that - flat).
        2. Mazuta 11 January 2020 12: 16 New
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          read carefully ... two engines and two transmissions!
          a more "non-rotten concept" would be a "joint", and so-delirium ...
  9. 75 Sergey 9 January 2020 20: 58 New
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    Pampering, the search for an idea, the flight of the designer’s thoughts, but in this form he had no chance, especially since nowadays they are pounding on tanks in all projections.
  10. Bersaglieri 9 January 2020 22: 05 New
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    "And again they dug up the stewardess ..." This concept, which appeared several years ago as a render on an alternative historical resource, never existed in reality.
    1. Ivan Pchelin 9 January 2020 23: 42 New
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      So, is Ryabov-Yuferev a science fiction?
      1. Bersaglieri 10 January 2020 14: 13 New
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        Yes. As well as Shityakov at the air forum, about 15 years ago (with "stealth helicopters" based on the Mi-24VP)
  11. tank-master 10 January 2020 00: 40 New
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    This is not project 490 ... it's just a sick imagination of the author and about tank experts.
  12. svp67 10 January 2020 07: 03 New
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    This looks more like an anti-tank or assault gun than a tank.
    Separation of the tracked engine and the use of two engines is certainly interesting, but how much did this solution reduce the contact area of ​​the track and increase the pressure on the ground, and therefore reduce the permeability?
  13. Cruorvult 10 January 2020 07: 18 New
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    That year, Yuri Apukhtin wrote on this subject.

    “The article describes that it was as if the Morozov Design Bureau in the 80s was developing a two-turret tank with two engines and four tracks and a crew of two people. At this time, we developed the promising Boxer tank in KB, and there’s no they have never heard a miracle. The person who wrote this article has little idea of ​​what a tank is. How can a tank be designed in which there are two towers on the same level? How can a round cannon be laid around the main gun? "

    https://topwar.ru/149092-mif-i-sozdanii-v-sssr-samogo-moschnogo-v-mire-tanka.html

    But network hamsters do not appease.