Military Review

Torpedo bomber Grumman TBF: I will bring you your death, samurai ...


Yes, it turned out a kind of large-scale transition in the cycle from the European theater of operations to the Pacific Ocean. But what to do in our stories the war in the Pacific was not given due attention, and the cuts were at sea and in the air were terrible.

Our today's participant was born just before the war, in 1939, when the United States took, and very seriously, for the rearmament of the sea aviation. It was assumed that the frankly outdated aircraft will be replaced by a new generation of sea-based aircraft F4U "Corsair", F6F "Hellket" and SB2C "Helldiver".

But it turned out with a rearmament completely not as planned, and the 1941 year the American naval aviation met in about the same way as the Red Army Air Force. That is, in some “process of rearmament,” that is, in complete discord.

But with regards to the torpedo bombers, one thing has definitely become clear: the Douglas TBD-1 “Devastator” must be sent to rest, because it’s definitely everything.

And at the end of 1939, the US Navy strained aviation companies with an order for a new torpedo bomber. The requirements were very acceptable for that time: a crew of three people, a maximum speed of 480 km / h. Armament of one torpedo or three bombs of 500 pounds must be placed inside the fuselage, the plane had to have self-tightening fuel tanks, armor, and a turret with defensive weapons on a servo drive.

There were many offers, but the fleet I liked only two projects, from “Voot” and “Grumman”. These prototypes were built and handed over for testing.

In general, the “Grumman” until that time did not make either bombers or torpedo bombers, but was the main supplier of fighter jets for the fleet, from FF-1 to F4F Wildket. It is probably not surprising that the torpedo bomber acquired some features of the F4F family. Such a fat man with an air-cooled engine and a rather thick belly where weapons were hidden.

The fuselage turned out to be high, but there was enough space in it for everything from the bomb bay to the lower rear defensive rifle point immediately after it. The internal bomb bay was a novelty for naval bombers, but the Grumman plane even exceeded the requirements put forward by the US Navy: it could accommodate a torpedo weighing 2000 pounds or four 500-pound bombs.

The crew of three people: pilot, radio operator and gunner. All were located in a long cabin, closed by a lantern. At the end of the cockpit was an electric Olsen rifle turret.

The Olsen rifle turret was a very interesting construction. She, in fact, was a separate module with weapons, controls and ammunition, sheathed in a spherical plexiglass cap in the rear of the cockpit. Yes, there was also a shooter in the turret kit.

The shooter was armed with the familiar 12,7 mm Browning and was sitting in an armored chair, protected by half-inch thick armor plates mounted in front of the turret and on its sides, as well as an inch armor plate under the armchair and a half-inch thick panel made of armored glass directly in front of him.

The turret was controlled by one handle-joystick horizontally and height, and on the handle was a machine gun trigger drive. The turret was powered by electric motors powered by the onboard network of the aircraft.

The rest of the mechanization, the mechanism for cleaning the landing gear, folding the outer wing consoles, flaps and opening the flaps of the bomb bay - everything was powered by hydraulics.

The Grumman company designed the wings of the aircraft so that they folded, turning back, and occupied a position on the sides of the fuselage parallel to it. This was done in order to solve the problem of the insufficient height of the hangar decks of aircraft carriers, where a rather high plane had to be shoved.

Torpedo bomber Grumman TBF: I will bring you your death, samurai ...

Thanks to the hydraulic drive, the wings could be removed or spread out by the pilot himself in just a few seconds, and this did not require any assistance from ground personnel. By the way, this became one of the components of the Grumman victory in the competition.

Another useful factor was that, as a bomber, the Grumman could even dive. Not like a normal dive bomber, but pretty well. The role of air brakes was pretty well played by the landing gear, which in the released state reduced speed to 300 km / h.

The aircraft successfully passed all the tests and was launched into series. Since the end of the tests fell on the time following the attack on Pearl Harbor, the plane was given the name Avenger.

The first production TBF-1 left the assembly line on January 3, 1942 and January 30, after completion of factory tests and acceptance flights, the aircraft was officially handed over to the US Navy.

By the way, Avenger was one of the first aircraft to receive radar. The radar began to be installed on the Avenger in the first year of its production. Yagi air-to-surface type B (ASB) radar antennas were mounted under each wing on its external panels. The radar equipment itself was installed in the radio operator’s compartment, the ASB radar was the standard radar that supplied all versions of the Avengers.

The first combat use of the Avengers is by no means successful. Of the first 21 crews based at Pearl Harbor, six were selected and sent to Midway, over which the threat of a Japanese offensive loomed. Volunteers went to Midway, although in general all members of the twenty-one crew expressed their willingness to fly to Midway.

On June 4, 1942, shortly after dawn, the Catalina flying boat discovered a Japanese invasion fleet bound for Midway.

At 05.45, six TBF-1s armed with torpedoes took to the air and headed for Japanese ships. The targets were discovered at around 7 a.m., and the Avengers launched an attack on the invasion fleet.

It is regrettable, but the attack by torpedo bombers was foiled by a fighter patrol from a Japanese aircraft carrier. The Avengers, who did not have fighter cover, dived to the water and continued flying towards enemy ships on a low-level flight, but 5 of 6 aircraft were shot down by the A6M2 Zero and were not even able to drop torpedoes.

Given this, the combat debut of the Avengers cannot be called successful. However, within two months, all American aircraft carriers that had torpedo-bearing squadrons received the Avengers, and the Devastators were decommissioned.

So the Avengers began their service in the Navy, but at the same time problems began. By the end of 1942, “Grumman” produced 60 cars a month at its plants, but given the intense fighting in the Pacific Ocean, the fleet demanded more aircraft to be replaced by a downed and badly damaged one.

But Grumman simply couldn’t produce more, the company, in addition to Avengers, was heavily loaded with F4F Wildket production and was preparing to switch to the next-generation marine fighter, the F6F Hellket.

In this regard, an interesting decision was made: to find a subcontractor for the release of torpedo bombers.

The choice fell on ... General Motors, which by that time had significantly reduced the production of cars and closed several plants. That is, there was enough production space.

Probably, the GM leadership was very surprised when the leadership of the US Navy arranged a meeting with Grumman regarding aircraft production.

As a result, the Eastern Aviation Branch of General Motors was organized, which eventually engaged in the production of aircraft. The Eastern Aviation Branch produced TVM-1 Avenger, and Grumman produced TBF-1 Avenger, the planes were absolutely identical, and they could be distinguished only by comparing the serial numbers. All the difference was only in the numbers and letters of the name.

By 1945, the Eastern Aviation Branch reached a phenomenal rate of 350 aircraft per month. March 1945 was the record month for TVM production, when the Eastern Aviation Branch built 400 aircraft in thirty days.

Grumman eventually switched to the production of the F6F Hellket fighter jets, and from December 1943 the Vostochny branch became the sole manufacturer of the Avengers. Before the end of the war, the branch manufactured a total of 7546 TVMs, or 77% percent of all Avengers produced.

So, the Avengers began to fight. And the very first battles showed that with the armament of the torpedo bomber, to put it mildly, not very. It was originally not very: in the turret of Olsen a 12,7-mm machine gun, firing back, and under the hood of the engine there was a synchronized 7,62-mm machine gun.

The Japanese quickly realized this and began to easily go into frontal attacks. Given that the samurai did this very calmly, the Americans started in real trouble.

The solution was found by engineers from the 10th torpedo squadron (VT-10), who in the field were able to install a 12,7-mm machine gun with ammunition and a synchronizing mechanism outside on the root of each wing of the aircraft.

This field modification turned out to be quite successful, and the drawings of this project were sent to the Grumman design department. There, the project of military engineers was improved as follows. that machine guns began to be installed inside each wing, outside the area swept by the propeller, which made it possible to do without synchronizers.

7,62 mm machine gun from under the hood removed.

The second, which required refinement, turned out to be a torpedo. The standard American naval aviation torpedo, Mk 13, was too slow and unreliable, which is why the Avengers attacks often failed due to the failure of the torpedoes. Plus, the low speed of the torpedo allowed enemy ships to perform evasion maneuvers.

Repeated improvements were carried out, which basically boiled down to increasing the height of the torpedo’s discharge and the flight speed during the discharge, which was already an achievement, since it greatly increased the chances of survival of the crew of the torpedo bombers.

But the Avengers were very often used as ordinary bombers. The rather large torpedo bomb bay fit perfectly both the 2000-pound (900 kg) General Purpose bomb and the 1600-pound (725 kg) Armor Percing armor-piercing bomb. It was possible to use bombs of smaller caliber.

When attacking a maneuvering ship, the Avengers tactics consisted of dropping a “pack” of up to four bombs using an intervalometer, a device that controlled the time interval between dropping bombs.

The intervalometer control panel was installed in the radio operator’s compartment and on it the radio operator manually set the Avenger flight speed and the required interval between the dropping of bombs.

The target was attacked in a dive at an angle of 30 to 45 degrees, to a height of 500 feet or lower.

The pilot dropped bombs at the peak exit and, thanks to the intervalometer, the bombs hit the target at intervals of 60 to 75 feet, which practically guaranteed one or more hits on the target when dropping a “pack” of four bombs. This tactic proved to be highly effective, and the Avengers earned a reputation as a very well-aimed bomber aircraft.

The Avenger also took place as an anti-submarine aircraft. I had to use them as a PLO plane, since the Doenitz guys really got the British allies, and really had to do something with submarines, because only in February 1943, German submarines sent more than 600 tons of displacement to the bottom of ships.

Often, Doenitz's submariners went so far into the ocean that the base patrol planes could not get them. Then the Avengers, along with the Wildcat, registered on the decks of escort (converted from bulk carriers mainly) aircraft carriers.

With a large range and the ability to carry four depth bombs of 350 pounds in the bomb bay, the Avenger proved to be a highly effective anti-submarine aircraft.

In 1943, attempts began to equip the Avenger with the ASD-1 radar. To do this, a parabolic dish was placed on a plane in a fairing mounted on the front edge of the right wing. The ASD radar was capable of detecting both ground and air targets at a much greater distance than the old ASB radars could.

In addition to the ASD-1 radar fairing installed, the TBF / TBM-1D series carried additional yagi radar antennas mounted on each wing, immediately behind the main landing gear struts.

There was also an interesting field modification, "Night Owl." These were night submarine hunters. Since submarines usually surfaced at night to charge batteries, it was also easier to search for them at night.

Such aircraft were dismantled rifle turret, wing machine guns and all reservations. Additional fuel tanks were installed in the fuselage and bomb bay, which significantly increased the flight duration of these Avengers.

The crew of the Night Owl consisted of a pilot and a radar operator, the Owl could take off at sunset and fly over the sea all night. If the crew of the Owl found a submarine, then a normal plane was pointed at her by radio.

The tactics turned out to be very successful, and by the time the war ended, 14 aircraft carrier anti-submarine groups operating in the Atlantic had sunk a total of 53 German submarines and captured one - U-505. In the Pacific, successes were more modest, where 8 anti-submarine groups on escort aircraft carriers sank 11 Japanese submarines.

Avenger also worked in the Royal Air Force. 958 cars of all modifications were delivered to the UK under the Lend-Lease. The British called the aircraft “Tarpon / Avenger Mk I” until 1944, when the “Tarpons” were renamed “Avangers”, so as not to cause confusion in the joint actions of the allies in the Pacific Ocean.

Numerous experiments were conducted with the Avenger to equip it with radar equipment. When the Grumman specialists managed to push the APS-20 radar into the bow and arrange TWO (!) Places for the operators in the radio operator’s place (removing the rifle turret and making a huge flashlight), the TVM-3W turned out, in fact, an aircraft of early location detection, which allowed “See” even airplanes flying at low altitude at an altitude of 100-150 meters.

In this role, the Avengers served in the US Navy until the mid-50s.

In the campaign in the Pacific, Avengers first seriously proved themselves in the battle of the Solomon Islands, when the Ryudze aircraft carrier was hit by torpedoes (at least one, a maximum of three) from the Avengers to the engine room. Then he was finished off with bombs, which left the Japanese squadron (stronger in composition) without air cover. The Americans were able to retreat, and the Japanese, fearing air raids during the day, did not actively pursue.

On November 8, 1942, a naval battle took place in the Guadalcanal area with a Japanese squadron landing troops on an island in which the Americans lost two light cruisers and four destroyers. The losses of the Japanese were much more modest, two destroyers, and the battlecruiser Hiei, who tried to leave the battlefield and go into repair, was seriously damaged by shells and bombs, but a torpedo to the engine room slowed it down very much.

The next morning, nine Avengers from the Enterprise aircraft carrier caught up with the cruiser and sent it to the bottom. A little later, on November 14, another group of Avengers planted four torpedoes in the Kinugas heavy cruiser, which was more than enough for the ship to drown.

During the battle in the Philippine Sea (June 19-24, 1944), 194 Avengers were on the decks of American aircraft carriers (seven shock and eight escort). During this operation, they took part in the sinking of the Hayo aircraft carrier and severely damaged the Chiyoda and Zuykaku aircraft carriers. However, this time the Everngers worked as bombers, with 227 kg bombs instead of torpedoes. The operation can hardly be called successful, since the loss of aircraft in total exceeded 200 aircraft.

But on October 24, 1944, the Avenger torpedoes played a decisive role in the sinking of the Musashi superlinkor. 19 torpedoes - and the beauty and pride of the Japanese fleet rested at a kilometer deep in the Sibuyan Sea.

Musashi under the bombs

Why torpedoes? Because the bombs could not do any serious damage to the superbly armored giant. In the same battle, about two dozen bombs fell into the Yamato, and could not do anything besides minor damage.

Indeed, a large ship, if not a large torpedo, then a large number of ordinary ones.

"Yamato" and "Musashi" - the pride of the Japanese fleet

As happened on April 7, 1945 with the Yamato. 10 torpedoes is 10 torpedoes, and the flagship of the Japanese fleet has gone after history with the sistership ...

Last photo "Yamato"

In general, with varying degrees of success, the Avengers fought the entire war in all theaters of war. The Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, even the North, where two squadrons hunted (albeit unsuccessfully) for the Tirpitz. In short, where the British and American aircraft carriers swam, there were the Evenings.

In general, a very balanced aircraft was obtained, with practically no weak points. And very strong one.

Its versatility has become the key to long service. Although he quickly left the arena as a torpedo bomber, he served for a very long time as a radar detection and fire-fighting aircraft.

Well, in the end, one cannot fail to mention the incident, which still excites the minds, the main characters of which were “Avengers”. It is clear, probably, that we are talking about the incident of December 5, 1945 in the Bermuda Triangle.

On this day, five crews were supposed to perform a routine training flight from Fort Lauderdale.

The lead aircraft was controlled by an experienced pilot, Lieutenant Charles Taylor, but the other crews did not have experience flying over the sea. At the appointed time, the aircraft did not return to base. It was only received a radio message from the pilots, which spoke of their loss of orientation. A rescue operation was undertaken, which, however, did not bring any result. In addition, one of the flying boats that took part in it, the Martin Mariner, disappeared during its course.

The mystery of the disappearance of aircraft has remained unsolved until now, but everything indicates that the cause was severe weather conditions in the vicinity of the flight path and a magnetic storm that could lead to the failure of on-board devices. Under such conditions, airplanes could easily crash into the surface of the ocean and drown. Although many still consider supernatural phenomena to be the cause of the death of aircraft, there is nothing to be done about it.

LTX modification of TBM-3

Wingspan, m: 16,51
Length, m: 12,16
Height, m: 5,02
Wing area, sq.m: 45,52

Weight, kg:
- empty aircraft: 4 913
- normal takeoff: 7 609
- Maximum takeoff: 8286

Engine: 1 x Wright R-2600-20 Cyclone 14 x 1900 hp

Maximum speed km / h
- at height: 444
- by the ground: 404
Cruising speed, km / h: 243

Practical range, km: 1 626
Speed, m / min: 630
Practical ceiling, m: 7090
Crew, prs: 3

- two 12,7 mm machine gun wing, one 12,7 mm machine gun in the dorsal fuselage and one 7,62 mm machine gun in the fuselage position;
- up to 907 kg of weapons in the bomb bay and attachment points for NURS, drop tanks or container with a radar or machine guns under the wing.

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  1. DAC scratch
    DAC scratch 18 December 2019 18: 21
    "The Eastern Aviation Branch built 400 aircraft in thirty days." This is what it turns out, more often than a plane a day was produced by a company not related to the production of aircraft - some kind of nonsense, well, fantasy whatever, and even such a fancy bomber
    1. Alf
      Alf 18 December 2019 19: 28
      Quote: DAC scratch
      "The Eastern Aviation Branch built 400 aircraft in thirty days." This is what it turns out, more often than a plane a day was produced by a company not related to the production of aircraft - some kind of nonsense, well, fantasy whatever, and even such a fancy bomber

      13 planes a day is abnormal? Quite possible. Especially if you recall the working conditions, machine tool fleet, and the qualifications of workers. For example, out of 49000 Shermans, 35000 were produced by automobile and steam engine plants.
    2. opus
      opus 18 December 2019 21: 59
      Quote: crap scratch
      "The Eastern Aviation Branch built 400 aircraft in thirty days." This is what it turns out, more often than the company produced an aircraft per day,

      Americans they are. (they ship faster in a week than the Japanese drowned in a month)

      One thousand plans day: Ford, Grumman, General Motors and the Arsenal of Democracy1
      Robert G. Ferguson

      'Ford would make 1,000 planes a day,' New York Times, 29 May 1940, 9. See also Flink, The Automobile Age, 273–74; Baldwin, Henry Ford.
      'Ford would make 1,000 planes a day.'

      You simply do not understand the word branch - there are 5 factories
      “General Motors Converts Actual Automobile Production into Aircraft,” Wall Street Journal, December 23, 1942, 3; "Five car factories are now building aircraft”, New York Times, December 23, 1942, 14. General Motors East Aviation Division, A History, 46.

      what is translated

      During the war they produced more than seven thousands T4F and almost 10 thousand TDF, including the one that piloted, future president George W. Bush.

      1945-1942 (in my opinion then the eastern one reached its full capacity) = 3years = 3 * 365 = 1095 days
      7000 T4F / (1095: 30) = 192 in 30 days
      10 TDF / (000: 1095) = 30 in 274 days
      Total 466 for 30 days.
    3. Lelik76
      Lelik76 19 December 2019 12: 04
      No wonder. My grandfather in the Second World War worked at the Irkutsk aircraft plant. They did 1 and when and 2 planes a day, and in conditions when the country fought and many men went to the front. In the USA, however, there were much more capacities and people and equipment at that time.
  2. sivuch
    sivuch 18 December 2019 18: 36
    also an inch armored plate under an armchair and a half-inch thick armored glass panel directly in front of it
    An armor plate with a thickness of an inch (25.4 mm) and half-inch armored glass - are you confusing anything?
    Yes, and Hellket, NYA, appeared only because there were serious problems with Corsair
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 18 December 2019 20: 04
      Quote: sivuch
      Yes, and Hellket, NYA, appeared only because there were serious problems with Corsair

      "Hellcat" and "Corsair" were ordered in parallel - USN generally lived widely. smile
      A preliminary contract (No. 88263) for the construction of two prototypes was signed on June 30, 1941. Ironically, on the same day, a contract was signed for the release of the first series of Chance Vought F4U Corsair fighters.

      Initially, Grumman began making the Hellcat as a replacement for the Wildcat - immediately after the Wildcat was adopted.
      1. Octopus
        Octopus 19 December 2019 03: 04
        Quote: Alexey RA
        "Hellcat" and "Corsair" ordered in parallel

        Actually, in the 39th, they ordered the Corsair as an advanced aircraft for the future and Wildcat as a temporary solution, from one contest. But the prospect turned out to be too distant and another temporary solution was needed.
        Quote: Alexey RA
        USN generally lived widely

        Rather stupid. In particular, Grumman instinctively tried to make a drummer and fighter on the same engine (first Hellcat on Wright 2600, like drummers, then a tigercat on 2800 double wasp, like fighters), but it did not grow together. Fighters stayed on PW, even Birket, and fighters on Wright, even Skyrider.
        1. Octopus
          Octopus 19 December 2019 08: 16
          Quote: Octopus
          Actually in the 39th

          38th, to blame.
    2. Vladimir_2U
      Vladimir_2U 19 December 2019 04: 29
      Yes, the author confuses a lot of things, but raises good topics and writes funny, sometimes. But I’m dying from this:

      Did the pilot pull anything in the back of his head in flight? )))
    3. Dooplet11
      Dooplet11 19 December 2019 07: 49
      Yes, 12mm bulletproof glass - that's cool!)))))
  3. The popuas
    The popuas 18 December 2019 18: 36
    400 planes per month is not bad good The article is interesting!
  4. DAC scratch
    DAC scratch 18 December 2019 18: 37
    listen, and if such a wing retraction system is simple and not heavy, then why is it not used today? Or is it still more complicated?
    1. Corn
      Corn 18 December 2019 20: 08
      Still used

      However, any wing folding system or sweep changes will be difficult. Therefore, whenever possible, they try to refuse them.
  5. bubalik
    bubalik 18 December 2019 18: 53
    captured one - U-505

    1. Catfish
      Catfish 18 December 2019 23: 20
      Seryoga, hello! hi Thanks for the nice addition to the good article. )))
      1. bubalik
        bubalik 19 December 2019 10: 06
        ,, U-67, sunk July 16, 1943 in the Sargasso Sea.

        Lt. Williams and his radio operator Grinstead next to the torpedo bomber TBF-1 .USS Core (CVE-13)

        ,,, and this is Lieutenant Williams attacking U-185.
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 19 December 2019 10: 32
          And the lieutenant already has captain sleepers on his collar. Beautifully they covered the boat. good
          1. bubalik
            bubalik 19 December 2019 11: 40
            ,,, small setbacks.

  6. Alf
    Alf 18 December 2019 19: 34
    This is out of luck ..
    1. Zeev Zeev
      Zeev Zeev 18 December 2019 20: 08
      This is definitely not George W. Bush.
  7. Paul Siebert
    Paul Siebert 18 December 2019 20: 00
    Tasty article!
    Already relished.
    And for a snack also the Bermuda Triangle.
    I heard about the event more than once, but for the first time correlated with a certain type of aircraft.
    Thanks to the author!
  8. Cat Kuzya
    Cat Kuzya 18 December 2019 20: 10
    The story of the incident on December 5, 1945 in the Bermuda Triangle with the Avengers turned out to be even more "strange" than it was originally. The fact is that the entire link, nevertheless, was recently discovered in shallow water near Florida, however, the numbers of the aircraft found at the bottom do not coincide with the numbers of the aircraft of the lost link, worse, there are no such registration numbers at all, among the machines produced ... ...
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 18 December 2019 21: 53
      Another conspiracy theological fable.
      Aircraft on the coast of Florida at a depth of more than 220 meters were discovered 28 years ago, in 1991. He found the famous British shipbuilder Graham Hawks while searching for sunken galleons. After 12 years, using an underwater deep-sea vehicle, one of the aircraft was identified - aircraft number 23990, which disappeared in 1943. The remaining machines could not be identified.
      There is a BBC documentary - "The Bermuda Triangle: Beneath the Waves".
      There is no mysticism.
      1. kig
        kig 13 February 2020 11: 47
        In the mid-1960s, a plane with the remains of two people was found near Sebastian in the state of Florida. The U.S. Navy said the plane belongs to link 19, but then denied it. The remains could not be identified.

        In 1986, off the coast of Florida, during the search for the wreckage of the Challenger shuttle, the remains of the Avenger aircraft were discovered. In 1990, aviation archaeologist John Muret, thinking that he belonged to link 19, picked up several debris from the bottom, but the Naval Military Library reported later that this plane was not related to this link. [6]

        In 1991, the Deep Sea crew, looking for Spanish gold galleons led by Graham Hawks on the ocean floor, announced that they had found the remains of five Avenger aircraft off the coast of Florida, but the flight numbers that they managed to read did not coincide with the flight number 19. In 2004, for filming the BBC documentary, Hawks returned to the place of finds with new equipment and this time he was able to clearly determine the number of one of the aircraft - 23990. An investigation showed that this aircraft does not apply to link 19 and in fact is another "Avenger", which crashed on October 9, 1943 (all of its crew escaped). The numbers of the remaining aircraft Hawks could not determine. In March 2012, Hawks unexpectedly stated that in 2004 he did not have enough funds to properly examine the wreckage, and therefore now (recognizing that there is no direct evidence) he still believes that these aircraft belong to link 19.

        In turn, special reports showed that between 1942 and 1945, 95 training flights were completed from Ford Lauderdale, which ended in accidents, as a result of which there is no guarantee that the remaining four unidentified planes belong to link 19.
  9. Alexey RA
    Alexey RA 18 December 2019 20: 13
    The internal bomb bay was a novelty for naval bombers, but the Grumman plane even exceeded the requirements put forward by the US Navy: it could accommodate a torpedo weighing 2000 pounds or four 500-pound bombs.

    Nevertheless, it was the bomb bay that was the Avenger's main problem. More precisely, its length, which allowed only the "short" Mark 13 torpedo to be placed in it.
    The British who received the plane were in a foolish position: their torpedoes did not fit into the bomb bay, and American relatives sometimes gave more failures than discharges. As a result, the torpedo bomber had no torpedoes.

    By the middle of 1943, the statistics for Mark 13 were extremely depressing: for 105 torpedo discharges, 36% of engine start failures, 20% simply drowned, 20% left the course, 18% left the depth, 2% jumped to the surface and only 31% worked regularly. In total, this is more than 100% - because part of the torpedoes gave several failures.
    1. bubalik
      bubalik 19 December 2019 12: 00
      place only the "short" torpedo Mark 13 in it

  10. Corn
    Corn 18 December 2019 20: 21
    Everything was interesting with the radars, as they weren’t set.

    and still were built into the wing, I did not find a picture
    1. Alf
      Alf 18 December 2019 20: 27
      Is there a radar on the blue board, not a PTB?
      1. Zeev Zeev
        Zeev Zeev 18 December 2019 20: 46
        Like a radar. The PTB has a different form, and there is no defensive armament.
        1. Alf
          Alf 19 December 2019 21: 05
          Quote: Zeev Zeev
          Like a radar. The PTB has a different form, and there is no defensive armament.

          Nothing like?
          1. Zeev Zeev
            Zeev Zeev 20 December 2019 08: 16
            Sorry, I confused the blue board with the last photo. And on blue, most likely also a radar. We look at the shape of the fairing
            1. Alf
              Alf 20 December 2019 19: 14
              Quote: Zeev Zeev
              And on blue, most likely also a radar.

              In which place ?
      2. Corn
        Corn 18 December 2019 20: 49
        Not exactly, I took the picture from Google and I can’t vouch for reliability. I hope knowledgeable people correct me, if that.
    2. Undecim
      Undecim 18 December 2019 22: 25
      and still were built into the wing, I did not find a picture
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 18 December 2019 22: 27

        There was such an option.
  11. Ryaruav
    Ryaruav 18 December 2019 21: 13
    reliable holding damage like all Grumman vehicles is quite technologically advanced in production (especially how engine hoods look like fighters) in this regard are akin to our IL-2, despite the shortcomings, both vehicles went to the end of hostilities
  12. smaug78
    smaug78 18 December 2019 21: 50
    "The Japanese realized this very quickly and began to easily go into frontal attacks. Considering that the samurai performed this very calmly, the Americans began to have real troubles." - what kind of links, etc., can you please?
  13. Engineer
    Engineer 18 December 2019 22: 39
    Oh, my first and last airplane model. In Amer's camouflage, he looked very stylish even despite my flaws. A kind respectable gentleman.
    Workhorse, nothing outstanding, but good equipment. I remember the surprise when I found out that his Japanese rival peer B6N Tenzan is noticeably superior to the American in LTX and, most importantly, has a much better torpedo.
    The operation can hardly be called successful, since the loss of aircraft in total exceeded 200 aircraft.

    I don’t understand where the author picked up such numbers of American casualties for the first battle in the Philippine Sea. what
  14. Earthshaker
    Earthshaker 18 December 2019 22: 59

    USS Roosevelt, 1946
    Thank you for the article. I heard about TBM-3W for the first time. I wonder how often the pilots hurt the "belly" on landing? Airborne AWACS in 1946, pattern break.
  15. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 18 December 2019 23: 44
    I, like many of the Soviet boys, probably learned about this plane when I bought a box with a model. There was zero information at that time! Only an image and an uninformative inscription ... Something like "sea attack aircraft", but I can also be confused. My comrades and I raised all the available books and magazines on aviation, but still could not find anything. And only half a year later, in a reprint of some imported model catalog, the name surfaced, and then the father of a friend, an engineer at the Antonov plant, found those characteristics somewhere in the depths of a special library ...
    He still lies somewhere on the mezzanine. Glued from dark brown plastic ... Without stickers ...
    1. Alf
      Alf 19 December 2019 21: 14
      Quote: Leader of the Redskins
      I, probably, many of the Soviet boys, learned about this plane when I purchased a box with a model.

      You confuse it with Bofayter. Avenger in the USSR was produced only by the MIC cooperative since 1987.
      Quote: Leader of the Redskins
      Only an image and an uninformative inscription ...

      Quote: Leader of the Redskins
      Glued from dark brown plastic ...

      Avenger plastic was only light gray.

      Quote: Leader of the Redskins
      No stickers ...

      The model was released only with decks.
      1. Engineer
        Engineer 19 December 2019 21: 26
        He himself, options for coloring (painting) are still different. I chose the blue one. Beautiful, saturated color
        1. Alf
          Alf 19 December 2019 21: 38
          Quote: Engineer
          He himself, options for coloring (painting) are still different. I chose the blue one. Beautiful, saturated color

          Blue is beautiful, yes, but the most beautiful is the Atlantic version of the PLO airplane, gray-white.
          1. Engineer
            Engineer 19 December 2019 21: 43
            Also beautiful. This is not British Sky Blue
            1. Alf
              Alf 19 December 2019 21: 50
              Quote: Engineer
              Also beautiful. This is not British Sky Blue

              I once assembled and sold custom-made models in the model store, so this particular option was the most watchable and bought.
              1. Engineer
                Engineer 19 December 2019 21: 53
                sky blue?
                Well I do not know. Inexpressive very as for me. For fun with a friend in the early 90s, he looked at the model in this color against the sky. Very decently disguises. Against the background of St. Petersburg sky is probably even better). Against the tropical sky, probably in any way)
                1. Alf
                  Alf 19 December 2019 21: 56
                  Quote: Engineer
                  sky blue?
                  Well I do not know. Inexpressive very as for me.

                  No, such as in the picture, pure white bottom and sides and medium gray top.
                  1. Engineer
                    Engineer 19 December 2019 21: 59
                    I understood. British camouflage for this particular model of Avenger was remembered for its rich "swamp" color. It sucks.) I don't remember gray and white. Maybe not all MIK issues had
                    1. Alf
                      Alf 19 December 2019 22: 03
                      Quote: Engineer
                      Gray-white I do not remember. Maybe not all issues of MIK were

                      And this option was not on the MIK box at all. I just bought a Traverse deck for 8 Avenger options and there was this option with reference to a specific machine and part.
                      1. Engineer
                        Engineer 19 December 2019 22: 07
                        We didn’t know such details then. Kids yet. The friend who gave me the model painted his evangelor in camouflage il-2 with deck-red stars. because he squandered his IL-2, and someone must protect our sky)
  16. Undecim
    Undecim 18 December 2019 23: 50
    At the end of the cockpit was an electric Olsen rifle turret.

    This turret is called the "Grumman 150SE turret".
  17. Klingon
    Klingon 19 December 2019 00: 02
    read with interest, thanks to the author!
  18. Rudikot
    Rudikot 19 December 2019 00: 26
    Will there be material about Martin Mariner or Catalina?
    1. Dooplet11
      Dooplet11 19 December 2019 08: 05
      Has already.
      War in the Air N118. Catalina.
      Very decent material. Either read it yourself, or wait for Skomorokhov to retell it.
  19. Sentinel-vs
    Sentinel-vs 19 December 2019 06: 22
    Although Skomorokhov is trying to reach out, Oleg Kaptsov’s syllable is still like the moon!
    Even the title is crooked - "I am yours." Learn and learn more about literary storytelling.
  20. Dmitry V.
    Dmitry V. 19 December 2019 14: 37
    Missing in 1945 Avengers were found at the bottom of the sea - loss of orientation, landing on water to generate fuel.
  21. Dmitry V.
    Dmitry V. 19 December 2019 14: 52
    It was the arrows of the Avengers who sent two bullets of 12,7 mm to the hospital of the Japanese ace Saburo Sakai, who received a rebound in the head.

    Here is how he described this meeting in his memoirs:

    A few minutes later over the coast of Guadalcanal, a few miles from us, I distinguished a group of aircraft. Soon it became clear that these were 8 aircraft flying with 2 links. Enemy. Our planes have never used such a system. I broke away from my comrades and quickly went closer to enemies. I attack those planes on the right, leaving the others as my slaves. The enemy closed the line, excellent! They looked like Wildcat, and the fact that they are closing means that they don’t see me.

    If they continue to fly the same course, I can suddenly attack them, coming up from behind and from below. A few more seconds ... I can shoot down at least 2 planes at the first call. I became as close as possible. The distance was rapidly declining. 200 yards ... 100 yards ... 70 yards ... 60 yards ...

    And I fell into a trap. Enemy aircraft were not fighters, but bombers. These were the new [475] Avenger torpedo bombers that I had never seen before. At the back, they looked very much like Wildcats, but now I noticed that they are much larger, have an upper turret and a lower firing point with the same 12,7 mm machine gun.

    No wonder they closed the line. They were waiting for me, and now it is I who will be under the gun of 8 heavy machine guns if I turn right. If I turn left, the same thing happens. My engine was powered by afterburner, so I could not quickly go down.

    The way back was also closed. If I try to carry out a coup, the enemy shooters will rip out the defenseless belly of my Zero. I had no chance to get away from their fire. I could only do one thing - fly forward and shoot with all the guns and machine guns. I resolutely pressed the trigger. Almost at the same moment, all American machine guns opened fire. The crackle of machine guns and the coughing of guns blocked other sounds. Enemy aircraft were only 20 yards in front of me when 2 bombers broke out. That was all I managed to see. A terrible explosion shook my body. It seemed to me that knives mercilessly stuck in my ears. The world exploded in scarlet flame, and I went blind.

    The three pilots who followed me later informed the commander that they saw a burning Aanger, which was falling into the sea next to my plane. They also added that a tail of fire and smoke appeared behind the second enemy aircraft. Therefore, I officially counted the 61st and 62nd victories. But official US documents deny the loss of the Grumman TBF Avenger torpedo bombers in this battle, operating from 3 aircraft carriers maneuvering southwest of Guadalcanal. Probably, these 2 aircraft still managed to return to their ships. When my plane tumbled down and I lost consciousness in the cockpit
    1. Private SA
      Private SA 21 December 2019 19: 23
      [quote = Dmitry Vladimirovich] It was the arrows of the Avengers who sent two bullets of 12,7 mm to the hospital of the Japanese ace Saburo Sakai, who received a rebound in the head.
      [/ quote] [/ quote]
      In the translator's notes to the book "Samurai" by Saburo Sakai (AST Publishing House, 2005, p. 6)
      it was stated that "these were the Dountlesss from VB-6 from the Enterprise ...
      The aircraft of Ensign Robert Shaw was at the rear. "
  22. Martin
    Martin 20 December 2019 19: 26
    ... 1944 Avenger torpedoes played a decisive role in the sinking of the Musashi superlinkor

    I re-read 3 times before I understood. The meaning of the phrase is explained in the following sentence, but it is still necessary to read it before. smile
  23. kig
    kig 13 February 2020 11: 34
    The 41st President of the United States fought on this plane.