Military Review

Americium-242. For a change of nuclear war

148

Americii, which will be discussed in this article


Small-sized and low-power nuclear charges have historically been unlucky. In those blessed times, when all types of nuclear charges were actively developed and tested, there was no suitable isotope for them. Only plutonium-239 and uranium-235 were available, and you cannot make a compact nuclear charge out of them. Of course, the American W54 warhead weighing 23 kg looked very profitable against the background of the “Fat Man” weighing 4,6 tons, but still it was not as compact as we would like.

This warhead, apparently, was one of the last that was actually experienced by a nuclear explosion. The subsequent moratorium on nuclear tests sharply slowed down the work, due to which mainly powerful products remained in the nuclear arsenal. Now that the non-proliferation regime and nuclear restrictions weaponsseems to be on the verge of dying, it is becoming possible to return to the development of new types of nuclear weapons that can diversify nuclear war.

Americii is the best candidate


Plutonium as a filling of a nuclear charge is good for everyone, only it does not allow creating a truly compact charge, since it has a rather large critical mass - 10,4 kg. At a density of plutonium in 19,8 g per cubic centimeter, the volume of the ball will be 525,2 cubic. cm, and its diameter is 10,1 cm. In addition, in order to break out, one must take not one critical mass, but several more, say, 1,2 or 1,35 critical mass. This is due to the fact that the detonation system and the neutron fuse in a compact charge are not as good as in an air bomb or a missile warhead, and to achieve the effect, you need to have a larger supply of fissile material. Therefore, compact plutonium charges usually used 13-15 kg of plutonium (for 13 kg the diameter of the ball is 10,7 cm), which is formed into an egg-shaped or cylindrical core.

In principle, it turned out, although heavy, but quite suitable for large-caliber artillery shells, missiles and mines, charges in the power range from several hundred kg to 10-15 ct of TNT equivalent. But there was a serious objection: why use precious weapons-grade plutonium on a low-power charge, if it is possible to make thermonuclear munitions with an incomparably greater power? The 400-kiloton warhead will achieve an effect far greater than the 10-15 ct or even less.

In general, there were two reasons for the dismissal of low-power nuclear charges: not too compact dimensions, which made them difficult to use, and military-economic arguments for the irrationality of spending a valuable isotope.

In the 1950's there was nothing to replace uranium and plutonium as weapons isotopes. But since then some time has passed and a good candidate has appeared - America-242. This isotope is formed during the decay of plutonium-241 (formed by neutron capture by uranium-238), and is contained in plutonium processing waste and spent nuclear fuel (SNF). After 26 years, all plutonium-241 will decay into americium-241, whose half-life is much longer - 432,2 years. Thus, spent nuclear fuel discharged from the reactors and put into storage at the end of the 1980's - the beginning of the 1990's should already contain a significant amount of americium-241. To distinguish it, as far as one can judge, is not particularly difficult.

Americium-242. For a change of nuclear war

Americium-241 is used in industry, for example, in devices for continuously measuring the thickness of rolled steel, such as that shown in the photo

If am-241 is irradiated with neutrons, an even more remarkable isotope of americium-242m will be obtained. Since Obninsk designed the America-242 reactor, designed to receive neutron radiation for medical purposes, some data on its production was provided. 1 gram am-242m is formed by irradiating 100 grams of am-241 (it was obtained at the now dismantled BN-350 reactor in Shevchenko, Kazakhstan), and to obtain this amount it is enough to reprocess 200 kg of the spent SNF. We have a fair amount of this good: about 20 thousand tons of SNF and annual production of about 200 tons more. The accumulated SNF is enough to produce about 1000 kg am-242m.

What am Xnumxm good at? Extremely small critical mass. Pure isotope has a critical mass of only 242 grams. At a density of americium in 17 g per cubic centimeter, this will be a ball with a diameter of 13,6 cm.If you take 1,33 of critical mass, the ball will be 1,35 cm in diameter.With a reflector and a detonation system, it is possible to fit into the dimensions of an 1,45-mm projectile. The energy release of 40 g am-1m corresponds approximately to 242 kg of TNT, so such a charge with 4,6 g of the isotope will yield approximately 22,9 kg of TNT.

You can use a mixture of am-241 and am-242m. With the content of the latter in 8%, the critical mass will be 420 grams. The diameter of the ball will be 3,8 cm. It can be a nuclear grenade for RPGs, a mine for an 82-mm mortar, and so on. The energy output will be about 2 tons of TNT equivalent.

In general, the best candidate for the role of filling for very compact nuclear charges, up to small-caliber nuclear shells. Americium is also good in that it dissipates little heat during decay, hardly warms up, and therefore the storage of nuclear ammunition filled with americium does not require refrigerators. Long half-life: am-241 - 433,2 years, am-242m - 141 year, also allows you to produce and accumulate americium for future use. Such ammunition can be stored 30-40 years without a significant change in their characteristics, while plutonium after 10-15 years must be sent to clean up decay products.

The American charge can be used on its own, as well as as a nuclear neutron fuse for more powerful charges. If it turns out that the americium charge can initiate a thermonuclear reaction (which may well be), then the possibility of creating very compact and light, but powerful thermonuclear charges will open up.

Guided missile warhead


An important question is why such a very compact americium charge can be used. As an example, we’ll take a charge equipped with approximately 500 grams of americium and an energy release of 2,3-2,5 tons of TNT. The total weight of this product may be in the range of only 2-3 kg. Where and how can it be applied?

Air-to-air and air-to-air missiles, that is, anti-aircraft and aviationdesigned to destroy aircraft. For an airplane, an overpressure of 0,2 kgf / cm2 is definitely dangerous (the wing load on the Su-35 can, for example, reach 0,06 kgf / cm2). Such an overpressure will cause an explosion of a compact nuclear charge with a capacity of 2,3 tons at a distance of about 210 meters, and an overpressure of 1,3 kgf / cm2, at which the destruction of the aircraft will definitely occur, will create an explosion at a distance of 60 meters. Non-contact fuses of aircraft missiles usually initiate a charge at a distance of 3-5 meters from the target, and in this case, the target aircraft definitely does not shine - a guaranteed defeat! Small splashes of metal and a cloud of radioactive vapor.

Anti-ship missiles. Small anti-ship missiles, such as the X-35 and similar, most convenient for use (there are aircraft, helicopter, ship, ground and even container launchers), unfortunately, are so weak that they cannot but sink, but even seriously damage any large ship. This is clearly seen in the firing on the decommissioned USS Racine tank landing ship (LST-1191). It hit 12 anti-ship missiles similar to the X-35, while the ship remained afloat. Only a torpedo did away with him. This is not surprising if the warhead of the missiles has 150-250 kg of weight and their power is relatively small. Equipping an X-35 missile with an American nuclear charge of the above characteristics makes this missile much more dangerous even for large ships. If an destroyer like Arleigh Burke is hit by a similar missile, then in the best case scenario, it will require a lengthy factory repair. But you can count on drowning, since an explosion of such power could well destroy the ship's hull.


USS Fitzgerald (DDG-62) after a collision with a Philippine container ship 17 on June 2017. This type of destroyer has a structural defect, which is why after the collision and breach the ship lost speed due to flooding of the engine room. If a missile with an American charge gets into such a destroyer, it’ll probably sink

Torpedoes. In general, a charge of 2,3 tons of TNT installed in a torpedo, not even the most modern, turns it into a weighty argument against even large ships and ships.

ATGM. If the weight of the entire ammunition is in the 2-3 kg range, then they can equip missiles for anti-tank missile systems, for example, the Cornet. It has a good firing range, up to 5,5 km, which makes it quite safe to use a compact and low-power nuclear charge. Any, even the newest and most protected tank, will be guaranteed destroyed by such a missile.

Already from this very brief overview, it can be seen that the best carrier for such very compact nuclear charges are various types of guided missiles. The American charge will turn out quite expensive and they can be produced not so much, several hundred, perhaps up to a thousand pieces. Therefore, they need to shoot something valuable and important, which, at least economically, will justify its use. Objectives: airplanes, ships, air defense systems, radars, possibly also the latest (i.e. the most expensive) Tanks and self-propelled guns. Combining the accuracy of guided missiles with a much higher power of the americium charge compared to standard explosives will make such a weapon very effective.
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  1. svp67
    svp67 16 December 2019 06: 05
    +8
    With a reflector and a detonation system, it is quite possible to fit into the dimensions of a 40-mm projectile.
    In our case, a 57-mm shell
    so such a charge with 22,9 g of the isotope will yield approximately 105 kg of TNT equivalent.
    And in turn in a couple of shells, this is 200 kg of TNT equivalent. And this is a pair of light shells ... the prospects are certainly impressive.
    1. D16
      D16 16 December 2019 07: 51
      +42
      It remains to estimate the area of ​​radioactive contamination after using such shells. And after how many years this territory can be used somehow. Nobody wants to remember this side.
      1. Chaldon48
        Chaldon48 16 December 2019 09: 49
        +2
        And after any massive application, you will have to remember, so for whoever to do harm will be more useful. And the hostilities begin in order to significantly improve their position, especially when you consider that human losses for the attacker are not inevitable.
        1. Narak-zempo
          Narak-zempo 16 December 2019 10: 17
          +3
          Quote: Chaldon48
          And the hostilities begin to significantly improve their position

          Start to improve. But they continue because it is more difficult to finish than to start. And here all means are already good.
          1. Hlavaty
            Hlavaty 16 December 2019 22: 24
            +4
            Yeah. The phrase is especially touching:
            It allows the safe use of a compact and low-power nuclear charge.

            Then they are not going to live on this planet?
            1. psiho117
              psiho117 17 December 2019 04: 26
              +4
              Quote: Hlavaty
              Then they are not going to live on this planet?

              Just for reference - from 1945 to 2016 - more than 2000 nuclear tests have been conducted on our globe, of which 10 are super-powerful from 10 to 25 Megatons, and one Tsar bomb explosion is 58 Megatons.
              From 1945 to the present, the United States, according to reports, conducted 1045 nuclear weapons tests, the USSR - 715, France - 210, Britain and China - 45 each, India and Pakistan - 6 each, North Korea - 5. In total, for over the past few decades, more than 2000 nuclear tests have passed on the planet, and there has not been a single two-year break in which the planet would not have been shaken by nuclear explosions.

              There were even tests carried out by no one at all - in 79 a 3-kiloton bomb explosion of unknown origin was recorded in the Indian Ocean, and 2 more outbreaks in an area that were not watched so closely:
              On September 22, 1979, the American satellite Vela recorded in Antarctica, in the area of ​​the Prince Edward Islands, two very bright flares, corresponding in strength to nuclear explosions. The United States conducted a thorough investigation, but no country admitted to conducting tests on that date in the area.


              Plus, the Soviet "peaceful explosions":
              In the period from 1965 to 1988, 124 peaceful nuclear explosions were carried out in the USSR in the interests of the national economy (including 117 outside the borders of nuclear testing grounds). Of these, three (Globus-1 in the Ivanovo Region, Kraton-3, and Crystal in Yakutia) were accompanied by accidents in which there was a leak of radioactive decay products.
              At the same time, academician Yablokov gives other figures. In 169 "peaceful" nuclear explosions, 186 nuclear devices were blown up. Moreover, according to the VNIPI Minatom’s data, the territory was contaminated in 4 cases (Kraton-3, Kristall, Taiga and Globus-1 objects). According to the data of the Central Scientific Research Institute of Atominform of Minatom, by 1994 (that is, 20-30 years after the MYA) in 24 cases out of 115 there were "local over-the-surface pollution around the wells"
              1. psiho117
                psiho117 17 December 2019 04: 53
                +5
                So why are we all still alive, and not even about two heads? Yes because
                а - exaggerated
                б - erodes

                For example, the Bikini Atoll - 23 nuclear and thermonuclear explosions, while one heavy-duty one that left a funnel 3 km away - is now carrying tourists to watch, there are funky pellets of sand sintered in glass on the beach bully

                or here is Hiroshima and Nagasaki: there are several times fewer deaths from explosions than from a fire of paper halups, and the ensuing powerful tsunami that followed a week later. So what now?
                after a couple of decades, in these cities almost nothing reminded of what happened. This is what the colonel of the American army said, who, by the will of fate, was in Nagasaki during the days of the bombing: “Hiroshima is now, like Nagasaki, completely renewed. It’s not clear how they succeed at all ... "


                Well, or ours, dear - in Pripyat, crowds of people rummage


                Even the Ferris wheel is already running for fun

                1. CAT BAIYUN
                  CAT BAIYUN 17 December 2019 22: 43
                  +4
                  I would not compare the consequences of explosions from nuclear weapons and the consequences of industrial accidents. As a set of isotopes formed later, and, accordingly, the consequences are VERY VERY different.
                  After using even a tactical special warhead, everything was calculated up to the minute ... when, for example, you can appear at the scene of an explosion as part of a unit, and what is possible and what is not possible. But the consequences of technological accidents are an extremely unpredictable thing. The fact that tourists are brought there is not an indicator. Ukraine is now all a solid ugly attraction. But where no guide can go to where you can’t be at all (for example, the basement of the hospital there), he himself will not go for any money.
                2. Alien From
                  Alien From 25 December 2019 18: 33
                  0
                  You know, because there is no big mind in Pripyat, these "citizens" are walking ...
          2. Chaldon48
            Chaldon48 18 December 2019 01: 54
            0
            Well, yes, it's like having a cat sticking his head in a pot of hot porridge easily, but taking it out of there you have to try and it doesn’t always work out, the last example is the Americans in Afghanistan.
        2. Vol4ara
          Vol4ara 17 December 2019 18: 00
          0
          Quote: Chaldon48
          And after any massive application, you will have to remember, so for whoever to do harm will be more useful. And the hostilities begin in order to significantly improve their position, especially when you consider that human losses for the attacker are not inevitable.

          If you look at the progression of the increase in the population of the earth by people, then soon some countries will not care for human losses. WWII began as a small victorious war, with a blitzkrieg, nothing will stop you from starting another war, reassuring yourself that the enemy will definitely strike you
      2. Kalmar
        Kalmar 16 December 2019 12: 22
        +4
        Quote: D16
        Nobody wants to remember this side.

        They also like to circumvent the issue of cost. Somewhere I came across information that 1g of plutonium costs about 4 thousand dollars, but America is already weighed 140k per gram. With such a price tag about RPG / ATGM: it will be cheaper to buy a tank from the enemy along with the crew)

        Second question: how fast can it be produced? How long will it take to equip the troops with at least some significant number of "American" anti-aircraft and anti-ship missiles? Wouldn't it be easier / faster / cheaper to pack them (troops) with an equivalent number of conventional missiles?
        1. wehr
          16 December 2019 12: 46
          +4
          A modern tank costs 6-7 million dollars, and South Korean even up to 10 million, and 22 grams of americium - 3 million dollars.
          1. asv363
            asv363 17 December 2019 08: 10
            0
            California 251 is even better; bullets can be made from it. But he gets very warm due to gamma, so he will have to carry bullets with a refrigerator.
        2. tima_ga
          tima_ga 16 December 2019 23: 37
          +1
          Probably, of all the things listed in the article, the idea with anti-ship missiles and torpedoes seems real. Well, on these products, and so there is a special warhead, including in the order of development of the topic and improvement of performance characteristics. After all, if space is vacated for a more voluminous and heavier warhead while maintaining external dimensions, this space can be used for guidance and rap systems, for example - thus increasing the chances of hitting a target.
        3. opus
          opus 17 December 2019 01: 08
          -2
          Quote: Kalmar
          The second question: how fast can it be produced?

          by years, by isotope, in the table.

          But it's not clean
    2. Mikhalych
      Mikhalych 16 December 2019 09: 53
      0
      I am not a nuclear physicist, but I read that the critical mass (km) drops dramatically with increasing pressure. Those. at normal pressure km of uranium is about 20 kg, then at a pressure of 1000 atm. significantly less.
      feel
      1. opus
        opus 16 December 2019 10: 14
        +7
        Quote: Mikhalych
        that the critical mass (km) decreases strongly with increasing pressure.

        belay
        CM (NUCLEAR CRITICALITY) depends on the fission cross section and radiation capture, on the density (of the substance itself), the amount of impurities, the shape of the product, and also on the environment (reflection / absorption)

        Pressure is for the synthesis reaction.

        it is necessary to overcome the "antagonism"
        1. Storekeeper
          Storekeeper 16 December 2019 15: 13
          +1
          Depends on the form? I did not know, I will know thanks. You can write in more detail or drop a link please where you can read. I’ve thought all my life that they’re made krukly or a ball because it’s more convenient technologically. Live and learn!
          1. opus
            opus 16 December 2019 17: 56
            +4
            Quote: Storekeeper
            Depends on the form?

            Well, of course.
            Scope:
            -All points of the sphere equally deleted from the center.
            -Any section of a sphere by a plane is a circle.
            - The scope has the largest volume among all spatial figures with uniform surface area.

            But there is a cylinder

            Quote: Storekeeper
            You can write in more detail or drop a link please where you can read.


            sphere is an implosive scheme
            there is still a cannon scheme
            biphasic nuclear ammunition (though this is already a thermonuclear)
            You can read just at an affordable, quite interesting level in
            - "The fourth protocol" of Forsyth, at the same time you will get acquainted with the peculiarities of the British electoral system and the salty "bomb" (although this is not only geometry)
            http://nuclearweaponarchive.org/Nwfaq/Nfaq1.html#nfaq1.6

            Nanoweapons A Growing Threat to Humanity Louis A. Del Monte- here about mini-nuclear bombs, including
            and so on.
            Quote: Storekeeper
            round or ball because it’s more convenient technologically.

            sometimes a cylinder is required, and sometimes 2 initialization centers are required - two focuses: in this case an ellipsoid. There are still interesting processes with compression, rarefaction waves
            1. Storekeeper
              Storekeeper 16 December 2019 21: 14
              0
              Thank. I read.
          2. Simargl
            Simargl 16 December 2019 18: 35
            +2
            Quote: Storekeeper
            . I’ve thought all my life that they’re made krukly or a ball because it’s more convenient technologically.
            The price is such that giving any form is a trifle.
            At "Kid" the cylinder was pushed over the cylinder, at "Fat Man" a hollow ball was squeezed ...
            1. opus
              opus 16 December 2019 21: 25
              -2
              Quote: Simargl
              At "Kid" the cylinder was pushed over the cylinder, at "Fat Man" a hollow ball was squeezed ...

              The cylinder "flew into the cylinder"

              the cannon scheme is easy to calculate, manufacture and synchronize, practically knows no failures (1 boom or 28 booms (I don’t remember the lap) to synchronize, it’s simple as a crowbar (therefore, the exact drawings of the bomb are still classified)).
              different neutron flux initiators
              no tamper
          3. Vol4ara
            Vol4ara 17 December 2019 18: 10
            +1
            Quote: Storekeeper
            Depends on the form? I did not know, I will know thanks. You can write in more detail or drop a link please where you can read. I’ve thought all my life that they’re made krukly or a ball because it’s more convenient technologically. Live and learn!

            https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N2cmOZGRIew Можно осмотреть этот канал и это видео в частности, много интересного
    3. eagle owl
      eagle owl 16 December 2019 15: 20
      +2
      Americium phonite is just hellish, plutonium was not lying around. How to carry the ammo rack? A pair of 57-mm "light" shells and two meters of leaded bricks around the perimeter?
      1. abc_alex
        abc_alex 17 December 2019 12: 17
        0
        Quote: Uhu
        America phonite is just hellish, plutonium was not lying nearby


        Are you sure? In fact, Americium is used in medical and measuring devices as a radiation source. In addition, it phonite alpha and soft (60 keV) gamma radiation. Where is hell?
        1. eagle owl
          eagle owl 17 December 2019 17: 14
          0
          I am sure. In microscopic quantities, STEEL confidently sews. Steeper shields only lead. Those. steel against floodlighting - no protection
        2. Vol4ara
          Vol4ara 17 December 2019 18: 18
          0
          Quote: abc_alex
          Quote: Uhu
          America phonite is just hellish, plutonium was not lying nearby


          Are you sure? In fact, Americium is used in medical and measuring devices as a radiation source. In addition, it phonite alpha and soft (60 keV) gamma radiation. Where is hell?

          In medical devices and cobalt 60 is used, that's where the hell is that exact. So, the fact that americium is used in medicine does not mean anything
    4. Vol4ara
      Vol4ara 17 December 2019 17: 49
      0
      Everything would be fine if it were not for the half-life of America 242 at 16 o’clock. But there are no technologies for producing metastable 242 isotope in large quantities, or rather they can be developed, but who needs it. And whence infa about the energy release of 4,6 kg of trotyl, this is some kind of nonsense, here is the formula which should be guided by E = mc2 = 0.001kg x (9x10 in 16st m / s) = 10x9 in 13st J = 21,5 kilotons of trotilla. We multiply by 17 and we get 365 kilotons for 17 grams of americium, of course, this is in ideal conditions when all the matter turns into energy, which never happens. During the first nuclear explosion, 700 g of a substance from 64 kg of uranium reacted, and a mass defect of 0,7 g. 0.7 gr = 15 ct. If the mass defect in the americium bomb is the same (0.000448%), then this will correspond to an explosion equivalent to 400 kg of TNT. And yet, the baby was of the cannon type, then they began to use the implosive type, what type of nuclear weapons now - no one knows, but the% of the substance involved in it does not compare with the 1% explosion over Hiroshima, so theoretically these 400 kg grow in a few tons. Well, the fact that America’s atomic bombs are not used as fuses for thermonuclear weapons as it hints, as it is tempting, no isotopes, only light, neutrons and a shock wave
  2. Vladimir_2U
    Vladimir_2U 16 December 2019 06: 21
    +5
    There was a monkey with a simple grenade, but it became a nuclear one! Here and a fairy tale animal, northern fur!
    1. Sergey_G_M
      Sergey_G_M 16 December 2019 13: 45
      -1
      America, radioactivity - some garbage!
      They just do not know Kalmykia, Tatarstan, Mordovia and very active movement, they can still be watered with Slavs, but it is not enough. And with America let them sit on their island and not climb out.
      1. Vladimir_2U
        Vladimir_2U 16 December 2019 13: 46
        +5
        And for the Tatars can be in Mordovia! But it is not exactly! laughing
        1. Sergey_G_M
          Sergey_G_M 16 December 2019 13: 50
          +2
          Tatarstan and Mordovia behave together as catalysts, I know there, guys are separately norms, but it’s better not to mix! )))
          Neighbors what to take, this is America far away, lucky for them.
          1. tima_ga
            tima_ga 16 December 2019 23: 41
            0
            Do not mix better with Bashkir :)
  3. pmkemcity
    pmkemcity 16 December 2019 06: 36
    +16
    You can carry one charge in your pants pocket. And in two pockets, respectively - two charges. The prospects are awesome! In 24 working days, 48 ​​charges can be carried out! If you place all this in the garden using the square-nested method and grind, then the potatoes can be planted directly in the frozen ground.
    1. venik
      venik 16 December 2019 10: 05
      +4
      Quote: pmkemcity
      You can carry one charge in your pants pocket. And in two pockets, respectively - two charges.

      =======
      laughing good The question is different - but for WHAT will your own Fabergés be good for after such "dragging in your pockets"? wassat
      1. pmkemcity
        pmkemcity 16 December 2019 11: 12
        +1
        "Faberge" is in the duck, and the duck is in the hare, and the hare is in the chest of the empire king. And the stern Siberian (Ural) peasant has cast-iron eggs. In addition, two oppositely directed gamma rays from americium, according to British scientists, self-annihilate at the point of collision of particles. This is why deep pockets are much preferable.
        I’m thinking about something else now - about the accelerated transport of the substance of an always late electrician bypassing two stops of the tram. How much is needed (in TNT equivalent) of this americium for the delivery of a carcass weighing 90 kg. so 600-700 meters in a medium-rise building? Can someone tell me the formula?
        1. venik
          venik 16 December 2019 12: 59
          +7
          Quote: pmkemcity
          In addition, two multidirectional gamma rays of americium, according to British scientists, self-annihilate at the point of collision particles.

          =======
          Wow! And what, "British scientists" are not "aware" that Gamma radiation is not corpuscular, but WAVE nature ??? request Here are the donkeys !!!!! fool
          -------
          Quote: pmkemcity
          I’m thinking about something else now - about the accelerated transport of the substance of an always late electrician bypassing two stops of the tram. How much is needed (in TNT equivalent) of this americium for the delivery of a carcass weighing 90 kg. so 600-700 meters in a medium-rise building? Can someone tell me the formula?

          =======
          Well, in the field of theoretical physics and ballistics, I somehow "not really" ..... I think that the "pendel" even from a more massive "comrade" will not be enough .... (especially in conditions of "middle-rise buildings") ... But I will tell you one recipe:
          During the Second World War in the North Caucasus, the movement of the mountain rifle regiment was greatly delayed by a donkey dragging the regimental cash desk and distinguished by phenomenal stubbornness ..... The political officer arrived at the place of detention, listened to the soldiers who complained that it was easier to move the mountain gun off the meta than this "animal ".... I was surprised:" And ingenuity - WHERE? "..... I rummaged in my bag, took out a pod of red pepper, went up to the donkey, and lifted his tail, inserted a pod ...... Yes, yes! It is THERE!!! .... Donkey, ahead of ALL! Even the scouts and arrived at the top FIRST! For this feat, he was subsequently released!
          Your electrician certainly doesn’t have a tail ..... Well, except if the tailbone is a rudiment ..... But I think THIS method is suitable for him !!!! laughing drinks
          1. pmkemcity
            pmkemcity 16 December 2019 14: 08
            +3
            Gamma radiation (gamma rays, gamma rays) is a type of electromagnetic radiation characterized by an extremely short wavelength of less than 2-10-10 m and, as a result, pronounced corpuscular and weakly expressed wave properties [1]. Refers to ionizing radiation, that is, to radiation, the interaction of which with a substance can lead to the formation of ions of different signs [2].
            Gamma radiation is a stream of high energy photons (gamma rays). It is conventionally believed that the energies of gamma-ray quanta exceed 105 eV, although the sharp boundary between gamma and x-ray radiation is not defined. (this is not personally confirmed data from Wikipedia by me).
            Some British scientists claim that everything in this world is of a wave nature, but we, due to limited consciousness, can only observe corpuscular manifestations of a standing wave (soliton in theirs). The Germans are to blame for everything - they’ll come up with different nonsense, and then the Russian people will suffer! Personally, I really like the theory of solitons.
            1. venik
              venik 16 December 2019 14: 39
              +1
              Quote: pmkemcity
              Gamma radiation is a stream of high energy photons (gamma rays).

              -----
              Quote: pmkemcity
              Personally, I really like the theory of solitons.

              =======
              Oooh! My friend! Yes, in your head it looks like: "... Everything is confused! Horses, people and volleys of thousands of guns merged into a drawn-out drone ..."
              Let's not litter this site with our "discussion"! Write me a PM! After all, the topic is "not alien" to me - I have been studying it for more than a quarter of a century !!!
              Sincerely, venik (Vladimir)!
              With impatience - I wait, sir!
              1. pmkemcity
                pmkemcity 16 December 2019 18: 25
                0
                He was fond of in his youth. Considered as a "conspiracy theory" when he was an active sonar. For thirty years I have not held diffura in my hands. So, I can only support the conversation at the level of "British scientists"!
                1. venik
                  venik 17 December 2019 08: 47
                  0
                  Quote: pmkemcity
                  He was fond of youth.

                  Quote: pmkemcity
                  So, I can only support the conversation at the level of "British scientists"!

                  ========
                  Yes, I - too, already quite a long time ago departed from science, but before that for more than a quarter of a century I have been studying the problems of crystal optics and scattering of short-wave radiation (X-ray and gamma -) ....
                  I still remember something (although I have already forgotten a lot). and the fact that electromagnetic waves - DO NOT ANNIHLATE (!!!) - they can only interfere, and even then under certain conditions, while their penetrating ability DOES NOT CHANGE from this !!
                  Maybe in recent years something has been discovered or invented (although I have not heard anything like that). But most likely - this is another "pseudoscientific duck" (how many I have already seen while I was engaged in physics!) .......
                  1. pmkemcity
                    pmkemcity 17 December 2019 08: 59
                    -1
                    About the annihilator, of course a joke, the word did not like the familiar. But the result of interference may be completely unexpected.
      2. Polite Moose
        Polite Moose 16 December 2019 12: 24
        +6
        Quote: venik
        for WHAT after such "dragging in pockets" own "Faberge" will be good for?

        It will be possible to walk through the night forest without a flashlight, in the New Year without garlands and even it will be possible to go fishing at night for squid without bait. Always shine! Shine everywhere! laughing
      3. asv363
        asv363 17 December 2019 08: 32
        0
        Quote: venik
        The question is different - but for WHAT will your own Fabergés be good for after such "dragging in your pockets"?

        If you want to be a father, wrap the egg with lead!
    2. Chaldon48
      Chaldon48 16 December 2019 12: 40
      +1
      Here only one single question arises how long this "pocket carrier" will live in this world after he has these grenades to the place of donnset. Pushkin has such a poem "Anchar" read there a very similar situation is described: "And the sweat flows down the poor brow in cold streams and, he laid down a hut on the bast under the saody, and the poor slave died at the feet of the unconquerable ruler"
      1. venik
        venik 16 December 2019 15: 06
        +5
        Quote: Chaldon48
        Here only one single question arises how long this "pocket carrier" will live in this world after he has these grenades to the place of donnset.

        =======
        No, well, it can live for a long time ... That's just with fractures of the radial foot bones !! lol Since Americium 241 shines in the main "soft" gamma radiation, then if a ball with a diameter of 10 cm is shoved into lead a container with walls of 1 cm will completely "absorb" ...... Here are just the elastic of the pants - WILL NOT WITHstand !!! And then - "fracture" of the foot !!! wassat
    3. tima_ga
      tima_ga 16 December 2019 23: 44
      0
      You can plant it, but beets grow, scarlet and with a pleasant eye shine :)
  4. A man with a capital letter
    A man with a capital letter 16 December 2019 07: 37
    0
    will economically justify its use. Goals: airplanes, ships, air defense systems, radars
    People, of course, are free
    1. Boa kaa
      Boa kaa 16 December 2019 18: 25
      +2
      Quote: Man with a capital letter
      will economically justify its use.

      This is unlikely ... Because. after the detection of nuclear weapons, the "stop-cock" for the use of nuclear weapons in the theater of operations will be disrupted, yes, I think, and not only in the theater ...
      The SMZ from americium will be that little stone that will lead to a colossal (intercontinental) rockfall ...
      This is precisely its danger. We, by the way, warned the Ams about this in due time ... There is evidence that they have already tested the SMZ in combat conditions ... But there were "short-lived" isotopes ...
      But.
  5. knn54
    knn54 16 December 2019 07: 42
    +14
    To obtain one gram of americium with a 50% content of 242Am, 100 g of 241Am irradiated in a thermal reactor will be required. which, in turn, requires the processing of 200 kg of spent fuel aged over 10 years.
    As the Armenian radio says: Is it possible to get gold from water? It is possible, but it will be more expensive than platinum.
    It's a shame another thing about the use of americium as a fuel for compact reactors (for PEACEFUL purposes). It seems nobody is interested?
    1. Mountain shooter
      Mountain shooter 16 December 2019 08: 14
      +2
      Quote: knn54
      As the Armenian radio says: Is it possible to get gold from water? It is possible, but it will be more expensive than platinum.
      It's a shame another thing about the use of americium as a fuel for compact reactors (for PEACEFUL purposes). It seems nobody is interested?

      For starters, gold is now more expensive than platinum, almost doubled. laughing
      The cost of this type of ammunition will undoubtedly be great. But like any product, in mass production it will drop in value ... it's scary when such devices appear in the hands of terrorists.
    2. Deathmaker
      Deathmaker 16 December 2019 08: 48
      0
      Nuclear and nuclear weapons are done on a depleted version of military substances. You will understand further?
    3. Boa kaa
      Boa kaa 16 December 2019 18: 36
      +3
      Quote: knn54
      Is it possible to get gold from water? It is possible, but it will be more expensive than platinum.

      Why is gold cheaper than platinum? It seems to me all the BEYOND: (RUB / gram)

      Date / Gold / Silver / Platinum / Palladium(!)


      17.12.2019 / 2981.48 /34.18 /1880.83 final match.
      14.12.2019 2957.63 33.92 1886.48 3959.99
      13.12.2019 2997.70 33.87 1910.79 3917.11
      12.12.2019 3000.21 34.08 1878.13 3880.93
      11.12.2019 2993.49 33.97 1843.78 3842.92
      10.12.2019 2998.60 34.71 1823.42 3845.57
      07.12.2019 3021.37 34.56 1837.59 3826.78
      06.12.2019 3025.36 35.14 1823.92 3816.07
      05.12.2019 3046.02 35.11 1874.03 3836.81
      04.12.2019 3032.19 34.80 1858.00 3837.66
      03.12.2019 3018.22 35.13 1853.38 3812.38
      .................................. ...............................
      18.06.2019 2756.91 30.56 1652.25 3033.60
      (http://mfd.ru/centrobank/preciousmetals/?left=0&right=2&from=16.06.2019&till=)
      It turns out that your Armenian radio is not right! It must be compared with Palladium, and even better - with Osmium!
      1. Chaldon48
        Chaldon48 16 December 2019 23: 59
        0
        Much depends on the degree of purification, the cleaner the substance the more expensive it is. Particularly pure water of 16th grade is more expensive than gold and is stored in glass ampoules, formerly made of very pure quartz, I don’t know now. By the way, ordinary glass slowly but surely dissolves in water. I myself saw a bidetelat, in which thin spangles floated.
    4. Vadim237
      Vadim237 16 December 2019 18: 51
      0
      In such a charge, along with America 242nd, other elements such as beryllium, boron, and several kilograms of powerful explosive in size will be needed, such a charge will be comparable to a 152 mm shell - therefore, there can be no talk of miniaturization.
    5. psiho117
      psiho117 17 December 2019 05: 04
      0
      Quote: knn54
      Is it possible to get gold from water? It is possible, but it will be more expensive than platinum

      Platinum is departure when mining silver ...
      Until the 19th century, it was simply thrown away in most cases ... Until the merchant Demidov proposed to mint a coin from it (he also supplied platinum wassat )
  6. tarabar
    tarabar 16 December 2019 08: 07
    +2
    Of course, I am far from being a pacifist, but the desire to put a nuclear charge into almost F-1 is already too much, reading an article I began to understand why Academician Sakharov was called a maniac for less radical decisions.
    1. opus
      opus 16 December 2019 09: 49
      +3
      Quote: tarabar
      but the desire to put a nuclear charge in almost F-1 is already too much,

      "walk, so walk"
      A group of physicists from Texas recently published the results of a military bomb experiment. from hafnium isomer. In the Texas experiment, the excited hafnium core was irradiated with X-rays - and immediately released 60 times more energy than was spent on the initiation of the explosion. Energy was released as deadly gamma radiation for living things. According to the destructive (blasting) ability, 1 gram of hafnium is equivalent to 50 kg of TNT

      or "our"


      California - an isotope with an atomic weight of 252

      the cartridges were stored in a special refrigerator, which was a massive (about 15 cm thick) copper plate with nests for 30 rounds. The space between the nests was filled with channels through which liquid ammonia circulated under pressure, providing the bullets with a temperature of about minus 15 degrees. This refrigeration unit consumed about 200 watts of power and weighed about 110 kg, so it was possible to transport it only on a specially equipped UAZ. In classical atomic bombs, the heat removal system is an integral part of the structure, but here it was external if necessary.

      However, even a bullet frozen to minus 15 had to be used within 30 minutes
    2. wehr
      16 December 2019 12: 48
      +3
      A nuclear "lemon" is a bright dream of any nuclear militarist :))))
      1. tima_ga
        tima_ga 16 December 2019 23: 52
        0
        The Japanese should be interested in the idea, the business thing is to create detachments of grenadiers-kamikazes ...;)
        1. wehr
          17 December 2019 02: 32
          0
          A nuclear "lemon" would be very suitable for battles for radioactive ruins. Only on it it is necessary to write: "Throw only from the shelter."
        2. psiho117
          psiho117 17 December 2019 05: 07
          0
          the Nihonts no longer have kamikazes ... They were completely Americanized there, and die for the Chrysanthemum throne, shouting "Ten thousand years to the Emperor!" - no more willing angry
  7. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 16 December 2019 08: 08
    -5
    A few years ago I went on excursions in the Chernobyl zone. On the official ... With a guide, in a group, on a bus ...
    This day firmly convinced me that the atom is all the same evil. In the form in which people are casually treating him.
    This is another rider of the apocalypse. The voluntary assistant of those four ...
    The author so easily thinks about the use of small charges here and there, absolutely not thinking about the fact that the map of the area will turn into a "minefield" for 141 years with spots that no engineer can remove! This is terrible.
    And then one of the signs of victory - the seizure of territories, will disappear by itself ...
    1. opus
      opus 16 December 2019 10: 00
      +9
      Quote: Leader of the Redskins
      that atom is still evil

      "atom" is good
      curvatured use of evil, and not just atom.
      Visit the place of any man-made disaster- stunned
      example:
      Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and the DuPont / Teflon Lawyer

      By the 1990s, DuPont had dumped 7100 tons of PFOA-containing waste into a landfill at Dry Run.

      “We see,” says Joe Keeger, “that the situation has evolved from the Washington Works to the state, then to the country, and now it is global. We pulled the cork out of a vessel. And it's not just DuPont. Lord, yes, 60 unregulated chemicals are used in the world. We have no idea what we use. ”
      And wherever scientists look for PFOA in water, they find it. It is present in the blood or vital organs of animals such as the Atlantic salmon, swordfish, striped mullet, gray seal, cormorant, Alaska polar bear, brown pelican, sea turtle, sea eagle, bald eagle, California sea lion, dark albatross from the Sandy Island of the Midway Atoll, located in the northern part of the Pacific Ocean (in the western group of the Hawaiian archipelago), in the middle between North America and Asia.
      1. psiho117
        psiho117 17 December 2019 05: 09
        +2
        Quote: opus
        in place of any technological disaster

        Or the same Bhopal - without any atom, so fucked up ...
    2. Narak-zempo
      Narak-zempo 16 December 2019 10: 13
      +3
      Quote: Leader of the Redskins
      And then one of the signs of victory - the seizure of territories, will disappear by itself ...

      As the proverb says, happiness is not in my cow calving, but in the death of a neighbor. The territory does not have to be captured - it is enough to make it unsuitable for use by the enemy. By the way, the places of the First World War in France - the so-called. "red zone" - are still unsuitable for use due to the prohibitive content of lead, arsenic and other substances useful in war. Moreover, these are not radioactive isotopes, they will not decay even after a thousand years.
    3. Winnie76
      Winnie76 16 December 2019 12: 16
      +4
      Quote: Leader of the Redskins
      A few years ago I went on excursions in the Chernobyl zone. On the official ... With a guide, in a group, on a bus ...
      This day firmly convinced me that the atom is all the same evil.

      And if you get into an accident - then cars are evil. And if the gopnik fucks you with a brick on the head - then the bricks are evil. And if you slap from the top bunk - it means the train is evil.
    4. Shopping Mall
      Shopping Mall 16 December 2019 12: 45
      0
      Quote: Leader of the Redskins
      A few years ago I went on excursions in the Chernobyl zone. On the official ... With a guide, in a group, on a bus ...
      This day firmly convinced me that the atom is all the same evil. In the form in which people are casually treating him.
      This is another rider of the apocalypse. The voluntary assistant of those four ...
      The author so easily thinks about the use of small charges here and there, absolutely not thinking about the fact that the map of the area will turn into a "minefield" for 141 years with spots that no engineer can remove! This is terrible.
      And then one of the signs of victory - the seizure of territories, will disappear by itself ...


      There is no need to compare the chemical release of tens of tons of radioactive substances and the use of nuclear weapons - people have been living in Hiroshima and Nagasaki for a long time, despite the much greater power of the explosion and the relatively "dirty" technology of those bombs.

      Moreover, small-sized nuclear charges can be used primarily against ships and aircraft - the most dangerous opponents, without which a ground invasion is doomed to failure. Or over foreign territory in compact striking means of large radius of action of low visibility, concrete-piercing air bombs - against airfields, bunkers, launch missiles, etc.
      1. Operator
        Operator 16 December 2019 13: 21
        +2
        Low-power nuclear charges have one very harmful property - the degree of use of fissile material (uranium, plutonium, ameretia) does not exceed 1-2%, the remaining 98-99% fall in the form of radioactive fallout from long-lived elements.

        In two-stage thermonuclear charges with a capacity of 100 Ktn and higher, the degree of use of fissile material is 100%, and radioactive fallout consists of short-lived elements.

        There are also three-stage thermonuclear charges of the 100-Mtn type of warhead NPA "Poseidon", the fission products of the third degree of which fall out in the form of radioactive fallout, consisting of long-lived elements. But here is the case - the main area of ​​application of such charges (North America) is removed from Eurasia at the maximum possible distance and is surrounded by oceans, which allows us to speak of minimal pollution of the territory of Russia.

        In addition, nothing prevents replacing the third step from uranium-238 with a lead shell, since the remaining power will reach 60 Mtn - enough to completely destroy objects with a shock wave in the air and light radiation within a radius of several tens of km.
      2. tima_ga
        tima_ga 16 December 2019 23: 59
        0
        Yes, everything in the world depends on the scale of Human thought and decisions. Imagine if the Americans in Vietnam, along with the orange, would also use tactical nuclear weapons ... The jungle would shine even now ...
        1. wehr
          17 December 2019 00: 08
          0
          Unlikely. All the radiation there would be washed away into the sea and pretty quickly.
  8. Flooding
    Flooding 16 December 2019 08: 37
    -1
    Of course, the American W54 warhead weighing 23 kg looked very favorably against the background of the 4,6 ton "Fat Man", but it was still not so compact, as I would like.

    Now that the non-proliferation regime and nuclear weapons restrictions seem to be on the verge of dying, it is becoming possible to return to the development of new types of nuclear weapons that can diversify nuclear war.

    The author either does not own the syllable at all, or a maniac.
    1. tima_ga
      tima_ga 17 December 2019 00: 01
      +1
      Each of us is a maniac in his own way.
  9. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 16 December 2019 08: 38
    +2
    That would be better radiation (area of ​​radioactive contamination ...) calculated ... what I think that such calculations will be needed, especially after Verkhoturov promised to "kill" planes, helicopters, tanks, armored personnel carriers on any battlefield in countless numbers ... belay One thing can console any "warrior .... (wow, what a warrior! soldier ) ", from the fear of getting an" American "grenade in the" place opposite the codpiece "is the fact that the" American "grenade is far from a budget option! As some tovarischi tell me, the price of 1 grammericium is $ 140.000 at a cost of 1 gram .plutonium in 4.000 bucks ... belay Maybe they are lying ...! And if not ? stop How can we not remember the Armenian friends of Nicholas, who had doubts about extracting gold from the water! And also ... where have you been before, Dimochka; when Putin has not yet launched the "Petrel" ?! And what kind of bottom-hole should you scrape now to get americium for at least one "anti-fascist" grenade, if you have revealed the main secret of the Kremlin ?! Now even the Chukchi know not only "who is the head of the party"; but also where americium has gone ... am
    1. opus
      opus 16 December 2019 09: 24
      +5
      Quote: Nikolaevich I
      As some comrades tell me, the price of 1 grammemerization is $ 140.000 at a cost of 1 gram. 4.000 bucks plutonium ..

      1500 dollars per gram 241 Am, the cost does not change
      83 kg is enough to produce 400 million smoke detectors.
      1. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I 16 December 2019 09: 58
        +2
        Quote: opus
        1500 dollars per gram 241 Am,

        So, after all, they lied to me! That's what I was surprised at such an awkward difference in price! fool Perhaps the "ochepyatka" intervened! But, unfortunately, a situation arose again when there was no time to check! request To blame! I will be corrected feel And thank you in the order! soldier
        1. opus
          opus 16 December 2019 10: 07
          +4
          Quote: Nikolaevich I
          To blame! I will be corrected And to you, thanks in the order!

          yes to me for what?
          all the same, $ 10 are not lying on the road (for me, for sure)
          And you’ll sweat this kilogram.
          Not in vain:
          America (and Neptune), although they may undergo division and are materials and the BoNB can be blinded from them- they are not under IAEA safeguards / control and prohibition
          probably every 10m house has a smoke detector (that 0,235 gr 241 Am)
          It’s like that Joe whom no one is looking for, because he’s not figs not needed
          1. Narak-zempo
            Narak-zempo 16 December 2019 16: 57
            +1
            Quote: opus
            because no one in figs needs him

            https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Хан,_Дэвид
            1. opus
              opus 16 December 2019 17: 58
              -1
              Quote: Narak-zempo
              https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Хан,_Дэвид

              Yes, I read about him.
              does not matter
              Quote: opus
              It's like that Joe that no one is looking for, because no one needs him in FIG
        2. Undecim
          Undecim 16 December 2019 14: 46
          +4
          The price depends on the isotope
          241Am - $ 1500 / gram
          243Am - 100 - $ 000 / gram
          The price of 242m Am is generally difficult to name.
          1. Nikolaevich I
            Nikolaevich I 16 December 2019 15: 31
            +3
            Quote: Undecim
            The price depends on the isotope

            Thank you for your clarification! And then this americium with different interpretations in prices to me already "broke all the brains into pieces ... braided all the convolutions"! And then, it turned out that the matter is, perhaps, not in the "mess, but it was necessary to look more attentively at the numbers with the" americium "! hi
          2. Nikolaevich I
            Nikolaevich I 16 December 2019 15: 46
            +2
            Quote: Undecim
            241Am - $ 1500 / gram
            243Am - 100 - $ 000 / gram
            The price of 242m Am is generally difficult to name.

            It's good that I didn't have to ask the price of "antimatter"! 62 trillion dollars hardly managed to "pull"!
            1. opus
              opus 16 December 2019 18: 09
              -2
              Quote: Nikolaevich I
              62 trillion dollars hardly managed to "pull"!

              Are you planning to fly to Proxima Centauri?
              Why do you need antimatter?
              how much trouble
              1. Vadim237
                Vadim237 16 December 2019 19: 02
                0
                To do this, it will be cheaper to put tanks into the orbit into 200000 tons of hydrogen, oxygen and fluorine, the YAZhRD module and a large spacecraft - the flight to Proxima Centauri will take 8 years at a speed of 150000 kilometers per second.
                1. opus
                  opus 16 December 2019 19: 49
                  0
                  Quote: Vadim237
                  the flight to Proxima Centauri will take 8 years at a speed of 150000 kilometers per second.

                  1.Error
                  Proxima Centauri is about 4,244 light years from Earth, which is 270 thousand times the distance from Earth to the Sun.
                  Earth-Sun = 149 million km
                  149 million km /
                  Quote: Vadim237
                  at a speed of 150000 kilometers per second.
                  = 997,3 seconds = 16,62 minutes
                  16,62 minutes *
                  Quote: opus (Anton)
                  270 thousand times the distance from the Earth to the Sun.
                  = 4 minutes / 480 = 000 hours = 60 days = 74,5 years wink
                  you just wattage this don't forget laughing :
                  1. The speed of 150000 kilometers per second at the moment you can’t pick up.
                  What would be something tolerable - this is 1 g = 1 a = 9,982 m / s ^ 2
                  total you will recruit it:
                  (150 - 000 (I will subtract RMB, so be it)) m / s: 000 m / s ^ 8000 = 9,982 seconds = 2 hours11,6 years
                  2. At 150000 kilometers per second / s flying past Prokisma, what will you do?
                  To land?
                  Conclusion: it is necessary to slow down for another 11,6 years
                  3. Among well-designed projects that have challenged the problem of interstellar flight, the two-stage Daedalus probe stands out.

                  Accelerating to a speed of 36 km / sec, Daedalus would reach its destination in about 38 years.
                  THIS WITHOUT BRAKING - span!
                  The Daedalus, which today is called Icarus, would have grandiose dimensions. Of the 54 tons of starting weight, 000 are fuel - liquefied deuterium and helium-50, and about 000 tons will take on scientific workload. There is practically no helium-3 on Earth. Before sending it to a far, very distant path, the probe will be loaded by it in orbit near Jupiter, in the atmosphere of which special factories will fly on "balloons" collecting this rare isotope. After 500 years of acceleration, the first stage will accelerate the device to 3c, after which the second stage will separate - a small copy of the first. After 2 years, she will pick up speed of 0.07s and continue her cruise flight for decades.

                  and you about 150 000 km / s
                  4.
                  Quote: Vadim237
                  it will be cheaper to put tanks into the orbit into 200000 tons of hydrogen,

                  200000 tons / 20 tons per launch = 10000 launches at a price of $ 60 (Mask) = $ 000
                  600 trillion $ or what? what
                  / there is one mathematician on the site who handed over all mathematics to 5- he will correct, if something /
                  and isho
                  In 2018, ALL countries made 114 launches into orbit (large and tiny) for the year. let it be 100
                  10000 starts / 100 per year =100 years
                  We don’t need such hockey!

                  \ ass will die
                  1. tima_ga
                    tima_ga 17 December 2019 00: 14
                    +2
                    Applause :)
                  2. Vadim237
                    Vadim237 19 December 2019 15: 48
                    0
                    What do you take 20 tons for launch - if the missiles are returned fully like Mask's ITS project with a lifting capacity of 550 tons, then the delivery of these 200000 tons of hydrogen and oxygen will be much cheaper than the declared 60 million at 20 tons of payload. 22 billion dollars at 60 lemons per launch - 364 launches - is quite achievable in 6 years.
                  3. ycuce234-san
                    ycuce234-san 22 December 2019 19: 37
                    0
                    [quoteThis hockey we do not need!] [/ quote]

                    "Daedalus" is a very good project for its time and very, so to speak, romantic, but now it is somewhat outdated and expensive. For example, the project "Breakthrough Starshot" or flying on ion engines will now be cheaper - their technical problems can be solved for a fraction of its cost; Finally, after waiting for 50-80 years, you can get a cheap thermonuclear engine - because now thermonuclear scientists are gradually starting to build experimental-industrial thermonuclear installations instead of research ones. The only argument to build a thermonuclear explosion, which is Daedalus, is a great military danger of the Breakthrough Starshot project - a launched explosion will fly away from the end and forever, and if a laser sail is launched, a working super-powerful laser installation will remain on the planet - right in the sweaty arms of the overwhelmed all kinds of passions and interests of people.
              2. Nikolaevich I
                Nikolaevich I 17 December 2019 00: 00
                +1
                Quote: opus
                Why do you need antimatter?

                Duc, what am I? Shaw me? request Anto truncated Americans Bermut! yes They promise to start developing a space cruiser with an annihilation engine ... then the bonbu is the same! am
                1. opus
                  opus 17 December 2019 00: 55
                  -3
                  Quote: Nikolaevich I
                  Shaw me?

                  Nikolaitch !!!
                  Write in a personal, I will send a couple of hundred kg of anamezon with a patch
                  Anamezon -
                  a substance with destroyed meson bonds of atomic nuclei, which has a close to the light velocity of the outflow


                  Slow down and then fly without fuel - an anamezon - one and a half parsec with the speed of the oldest lunar rockets? Two thousand years later ..
                  .
                  1. psiho117
                    psiho117 17 December 2019 05: 15
                    0
                    I think it's worth considering the work of Alcubierre bully
                    There, even though the mathematical apparatus has already been developed.
                  2. Nikolaevich I
                    Nikolaevich I 17 December 2019 07: 26
                    +1
                    Anamezon is a valuable weight! good When I read "Andromeda Nebula" by O. Efremov, then the "anamesonic engine" was in me and the anameson was our "everything" in front! fellow And now you are a little late with the offer! Yes, and I have nowhere to put it ... getting ready to move to other lands .. recourse Maybe somewhere closer to you? For "safekeeping"? what
  10. Amateur
    Amateur 16 December 2019 09: 01
    0
    The nuclear isomer of americium-242m has a high fission cross section for thermal neutrons (6000 bar), a large number of emitted neutrons per fission (3,6) and a relatively long half-life (141 years) [9], which makes it a suitable fuel for supercompact nuclear reactors (critical weight - 3,78 kg, less only in some isotopes of California). ... however, obtaining this isotope in gram quantities so far only being discussed (It is supposed to receive it from 241Am, which is contained in SNF in the amount of the order of a kilogram per ton). (Wikipedia)

    At first I thought that the author is prof. A.V. Yablokov, who scared nuclear suitcases with which KeJiBi blocked the whole world. But it turned out that he died in 2017. But his work lives on!
  11. Undecim
    Undecim 16 December 2019 09: 34
    +9
    Most of the site authors have a nasty habit of "secreting" the sources of their innermost knowledge, so it is difficult to verify their reliability.
    Therefore, the question arises, where did the author get the evidence that "The pure isotope has a critical mass of only 17 grams." and immediately began to create a "superweapon" on the basis of this figure.
    Let's try to check data from competent sources. This will be the Atomic Weapons Establishment (National Nuclear Laboratory) - an organization engaged in the development of nuclear and thermonuclear weapons in the UK.

    As can be seen from the table, the critical mass is 9-14 kg. The use of neutron reflectors allows to reduce the critical mass to 3-5 kg. Scientists can’t name more exact figures yet because the properties of the element have not been sufficiently studied, and its production is measured in grams around the world, and the price is hundreds of thousands of dollars per gram.
    Therefore, the same British do not yet consider americium as a component of warheads, but exclusively for peaceful purposes - this year they have already demonstrated an operating "battery" with a service life of 400 years.
    1. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I 17 December 2019 00: 09
      +2
      Quote: Undecim
      Therefore, the question arises, where did the author get the data that "a pure isotope has a critical mass of only 17 grams." and immediately began to create a "superweapon" on the basis of this figure.

      Quote: Undecim
      The same British do not yet consider americium as a component of warheads, but exclusively for peaceful purposes - this year they have already demonstrated a working "battery" with a service life of 400 years.

      You have noticed it right! yes For some reason, I also did not find "promising projects" on the Internet for creating "miracle-horror-bonba" ... more and more for "peaceful purposes"! smile
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 17 December 2019 00: 11
        +2
        It's just that there is no need to write articles for the VO site every day. Moreover, some even give out two. This is not something that about "bonby" from americium, here about rubber bombs will soon have to write.
        1. Nikolaevich I
          Nikolaevich I 17 December 2019 04: 23
          +3
          Quote: Undecim
          This is not something that about "bonby" from americium, here about rubber bombs will soon have to write.

          About "rubber bombs" you "prophetically" succeeded! good "Somewhere on some" site there was already an article about rubber bombs and bombs from ... "human waste" ... belay Moreover, I cannot guarantee 100% that it was not IN! In any case, a "cycle" of articles by D. Verkhoturov was published on the building site of VO on how to establish production in wartime conditions, using any kind of crap and corpses as raw materials! ("Efficiency of war. Thermal energy of enemy corpses". July 2, 1018; "Valuable raw materials within us. Urine for war" May 7, 1018 .... and other "waste products" of D. Verkhoturov ...!) Rudolf Spanner applauded would Verkhoturov, having "managed" to read these articles!
  12. opus
    opus 16 December 2019 09: 46
    +5
    Quote: Author
    In those blessed times, when all types of nuclear charges were actively developed and tested, there was no suitable isotope for them.

    ?
    the first ones were deliberately synthesized in 1944 by the Seaborg group from Berkeley, California (named after North and South America, in 1945: 241 Am and 242 Am, their production and compounds were patented by Seaborg

    Quote: Author
    What is am-242m good for? Extremely small critical mass. A pure isotope has a critical mass of only 17 grams.

    confused the author
    241Am spherical assembly that will support fission of the chain reaction (if it was initiated by fast neutrons)
    The critical mass of only a 241Am sphere (without entrails) will have a radius about 11,5 cm and weight 83 kg.
    The 242m Am isotope (half-life 141 years) has the largest thermal neutron absorption cross sections (5,700 barns), which leads to a small critical mass for a stable nuclear chain reaction. The critical mass for a bare 242m Am ((without tripe) sphere is about 9-14 kg (results are uncertain due to insufficient knowledge of its properties) PROBABLY can be reduced to 3-5 kg ​​with a metal reflector and can become even smaller with a reflector ofwater..
    mass = 3000-5000 g, density = 12 g / cm ^ 3. V = 250-416,67
    R = 3.9-4.6cm ^ 3
    / Canadian Nuclear Society Americium-241 vs. Plutonium-239 Fact Sheet /
    therefore
    Quote: svp67
    In our case, a 57-mm shell

    forget it sad
    mk
    Spherical critical mass 239Pu will be approximately 8 kg, depending on the technology used. Since 239Pu has a much longer half-life, it would be a less intense radiation source than a similar 241Am sphere -emitting emitting only menmit 2% energy per unit time than the sphere of americium.

    Quote: Author
    Americium is also good in that it dissipates little heat during decay, barely heats up

    Heat is what?
    Is this energy not?
    These are all sorts of gamma + fragments (including electrons / protons) + neutrons that get stuck somewhere and "energy"

    power output 114,7 mW / g for 241 Am
    6,31 mW / g for 243 Am
    and 390 mW / g for 238 Pu (more neutrons)
    He's not so "cold"
  13. faterdom
    faterdom 16 December 2019 11: 19
    +2
    Horror, of course, but what to do? Human curiosity on the destruction systems of their own kind is sharpened no less than on nutrition and reproduction.
    And when some kind of horror becomes technologically possible - it will be done in spite of any prohibitions and agreements.
    These are all axioms.
    The other end of this stick is expediency, so to say, price / quality ratio. That is, at such a cost - what are the goals that can be called expedient? Airplanes, aircraft carriers, destroyers and submarines of the enemy? Perhaps, the more so because the use of such a small weight and size in a warhead will increase either the range of destruction or the size of the carrier and the difficulty of detecting it.
    But there is another tasty target for such systems: led by "partner" countries. No limousine will save, and already the third or fourth liquidated person from the top five will really clear the minds of any "exceptional" aggressor.
    1. Butchcassidy
      Butchcassidy 16 December 2019 11: 57
      0
      In principle, there is an unspoken principle in international politics - the non-use of force against state leaders.

      Now it is being violated, take the same Saddam. Nevertheless, there is such a principle. After all, not only we can arrange a "hunt" for the leader, but also our "partners".
      1. Shopping Mall
        Shopping Mall 16 December 2019 12: 59
        +2
        Quote: ButchCassidy
        In principle, there is an unspoken principle in international politics - the non-use of force against state leaders.

        Now it is being violated, take the same Saddam. Nevertheless, there is such a principle. After all, not only we can arrange a "hunt" for the leader, but also our "partners".


        Saddam, Gaddafi, Milosevic - everyone who gets in the United States on the way goes to the other world, and we all toiled by unspoken principles. We would crash into the war 08.08.08 Saakashvili and events in Ukraine might not have happened, Poroshenko would have immediately figured a wooden cliff on himself and would remain a seller of chocolates. And so everyone knows that you can safely go to Russia, in which case you can hand it back - there will be no special answer. Here is a question of principle, if someone came out, he should have one road - to the ground, and in the case of open hostilities and in the case of provocations.
        1. Butchcassidy
          Butchcassidy 16 December 2019 13: 58
          0
          This is also there. We continue to be guided by certain principles in our foreign policy activities. And it gives a result.
  14. Butchcassidy
    Butchcassidy 16 December 2019 11: 50
    0
    In principle, the article is interesting. The author didn’t indicate that after getting into a ship with a missile filled with americium-232, even if it does not sink and does not require factory repairs, it will definitely require its decontamination, because no one has yet canceled radiation pollution.

    If uranium dust from Abrams’s armor plates after its shelling is dangerous, what can be said after being hit by a rocket?
    1. tima_ga
      tima_ga 17 December 2019 00: 25
      +1
      So there are already special warheads for anti-ship missiles and torpedoes, we can talk about their improvement. But above, a number of comrades questioned the author’s claims regarding the critical mass of America, including, perhaps, the article does not have the stated scientific and practical basis ...
  15. Indifferent
    Indifferent 16 December 2019 11: 51
    +3
    The author was dreaming ... Nuclear weapons were created for that, that they are "vigorous". Fuck it, fuck it. In order not to send 300 bombers to bomb, but to solve the case with one missile. That is why nuclear weapons are scary, because from one explosion in the ruins of a small city and it takes decades to restore, and even then, if people are still alive. And making bonbu from americium is almost the same thing as from california. It will be expensive. Because everything needs to start from scratch. And for the sake of a "bullet" for the tank? An ordinary 155mm round can be dealt with a tank twice, tearing off the turret and heads from the tankers, and with anything, either with or without armor.
    I also want to note that in modern munitions with uranium and plutonium, scientists have learned to be sophisticated by using additional neutron sources and screens to reflect and concentrate them in the place of detonation, that the critical mass has become so small that its uninitiated person in a nuclear charge can can not found. So the bicycle was invented a long time ago, and a small clown terry wheel is expensive exotic.
    And the worst thing about it !!! The threshold for using nuclear weapons is blurring. It can be applied by any of the countries capable of its development. Well, what is 2 tons of TNT? This is a good bomb. And the fact that it is nuclear, so what. Uranium cores are used. Further more. At the beginning, 3 tons, then 10 tons, then 100 tons, and then kilotons will go into business ...
  16. Operator
    Operator 16 December 2019 11: 58
    +3
    Everything is exactly the opposite - the minimum critical mass of plutonium 239 is only half that of the minimum critical mass of ameretium 242, while the half-life (non-release during storage) of the first is two hundred times less than that of the second.

    And yes - the "complete" (99%) decay of plutonium 239 in americium 241 takes several million years laughing
    1. vadimtt
      vadimtt 16 December 2019 12: 38
      +2
      You do not confuse the 242nd isotope with the 242m isomer? The whole chip in large capture cross sections is precisely with isomers. And there really is a lot of interesting and not explored. A very fashionable topic recently. Only this is all about thermal neutrons, so it's not about weapons for any laughing
      1. Operator
        Operator 16 December 2019 13: 04
        +3
        The half-life of the isomer m1 of the Am-242 isotope is 141 years, and the half-life of the Pu-239 isotope is 24000 years.

        The minimum critical mass under comparable conditions of the isomer m1 of the Am-242 isotope is 3,7 kg, and the Pu-239 isotope is 6 kg.
  17. Knell wardenheart
    Knell wardenheart 16 December 2019 12: 06
    0
    As far as I understand, we are categorically against the development of compact charges - because this will mean another arms race (which we will not be able to pull off), because from the point of view of our state, this "lowers the threshold for the use of nuclear weapons and strives to blur the red line of their use" ( something similar was said by our propagandists about the recent development of American free-fall bombs with compact charges, which they want (or already) to place in Europe)).
    Not to mention the fact that the construction of several enrichment / processing enterprises will require a lot of investments (it’s a disaster now), which these enterprises will not pay for.
    Finally, I see the problem of wider access to nuclear weapons - more people will get access, the risk of a human factor will be higher, a number of new bases will have to be converted to store this case ---> All this is a dumb and expensive haemorrhoid for our authorities.
    IMHO, our country is not going to fight and really is not preparing for this. We still hope for propaganda of power and classical nuclear deterrence. I mean a large-scale war, not a batch on a corn field in a third world country. This is the nightmare of our bourgeoisie, and therefore the nightmare of our policy in principle.
    1. opus
      opus 16 December 2019 12: 36
      -2
      Quote: Knell Wardenheart
      As far as I understand, we are categorically against the development of compact charges

      why only "we".
      ?
      Все.
      see 4th Protocol / The Fourth Protocol /: there is something in reality (it was)
      Quote: Knell Wardenheart
      Not to mention the fact that the construction of several enrichment / processing enterprises will require a lot of investments

      ours has everything. no need to build
      Quote: Knell Wardenheart
      Finally, I see the problem of wider access to nuclear weapons - more people will gain access,

      top control of the performer.
      here our Kremlin’s the word is crossed out and also Washington the word is crossed out .
      moreover, they are wandering about us, as if the people had not rebelled and did not ask amertsia for the Kremlin
      and Washington is fearful of an otvetka for all sorts of Afghanistan / Iraq / Libya
      1. Knell wardenheart
        Knell wardenheart 16 December 2019 12: 55
        0
        No, just about "everyone does not want" - then I disagree with you) The United States will only benefit from such developments (I in no way demonize them) - because it will perfectly fit into their strategy of BSU (fast glob strike), and in their plans for targeted and effective neutralization of key enemy infrastructure in cases where there is a desire to avoid unnecessary spending on a major military operation, losses, unnecessary image dirt, etc.
        For a major war, these charges would also fit (in many ways) better than a "large". The big stuff smells of such bad things as nuclear winter / autumn, epic fires, mass deaths of civilians, hum. catastrophe, the-most-guaranteed-destruction (well, even theoretically).
        And the calculation there is clear - they want a real weapon for a real war (in which case) - not necessarily with us (but this is implied) - for example, with "tough nuts" like North Korea / Iran - possibly China. The Americans are less "bastard" than we are about the theory of "guaranteed deterrence through guaranteed destruction" - because they have the first army and the first defense budget on the planet (even without NATO). They do NOT need to bet on deterrence - but they do need tools for real impact and tactical solutions.

        So contracts, contracts, and they are digging / will dig in this direction. The price of the contracts was very well shown by the recently terminated INF Treaty.
        1. opus
          opus 16 December 2019 13: 16
          -4
          Quote: Knell Wardenheart
          Sha such developments will only be on hand

          the US has problems. They are sorely lacking in radionuclides.
          Not to fat, would have to provide their own nuclear power plants
          Quote: Knell Wardenheart
          They don’t need a bet on deterrence - but they need real impact instruments and tactical tasks.

          The US no longer needs nuclear weapons.
          they would love to put the genie back in the bottle
          Quote: Knell Wardenheart
          The agreement terminated by the recently terminated INF Treaty very well.

          about RSMD, it seems to me ORT. Russia 1 Kissel / yes Nightingale cured our electorate
          1. Life has shown that Americans have nothing. (This amusing MK41 cell on the trailer, 1/2 year after the release, can only be misleading to Zakharov Mashka
          2. Just turn on the brain:
          who has mobile ground launchers with cruise missiles, with ballistic missiles from the INF Treaty participants (and not only participants, except for China)?



          and let them only "hit" at 499 km. belay
          You can only believe in this crap if you watch Sunday night with the nightingale regularly
  18. Sancho_SP
    Sancho_SP 16 December 2019 12: 11
    0
    A very bad idea. The non-use of nuclear weapons rests solely on its excessive permitting power.

    The creation of ultra-small nuclear charges will erase the boundary between “already possible” and “not yet”.
    1. Shopping Mall
      Shopping Mall 16 December 2019 13: 01
      0
      Quote: Sancho_SP
      A very bad idea. The non-use of nuclear weapons rests solely on its excessive permitting power.

      The creation of ultra-small nuclear charges will erase the boundary between “already possible” and “not yet”.


      It will be instantly "washed out" if they can, the same USA. The whole problem is technical obstacles, not political or humanistic ones.
  19. Comrade Michael
    Comrade Michael 16 December 2019 12: 35
    0
    We need a warhead with elements with fast decay after use. That the territory was suitable for life.
    1. Operator
      Operator 16 December 2019 13: 26
      +4
      Such "clean" charges make up approximately 90% of the modern nuclear arsenals of the United States (excluding variable power charges) and the Russian Federation (excluding three-stage charges).
  20. Pashhenko Nikolay
    Pashhenko Nikolay 16 December 2019 13: 23
    +4
    Where did the author get that the critical mass of americium is 242 17 grams, I did not understand. The critical mass of americium is 242 3,78 kilograms. In addition, its receipt in gram quantities is still planned. And therefore, reasoning about its use of water by water.
    1. opus
      opus 16 December 2019 18: 11
      -1
      Quote: Pashhenko Nikolay
      Where did the author get that the critical mass of americium is 242 17 grams

      he took this from ESA's Radioisotope Power Source Project (Riteg).
      ESA believes that it is more profitable to use it, well, the error went further
  21. Bersaglieri
    Bersaglieri 16 December 2019 14: 41
    0
    And now I propose to the author of the material to estimate the cost of a grenade for an RPG or a 40mm projectile with Am 242 :)
  22. Al_lexx
    Al_lexx 16 December 2019 14: 49
    0
    Probably the most interesting article on VO, for the last month. Comments also brought a lot of informative, funny and sad.
    Thank you.
    I will not dream of the topic of combat use. Here, without me, at least shoveling rowers.
  23. bk316
    bk316 16 December 2019 14: 59
    +4
    In 26 years whole plutonium-241 will decay into americium-241,

    That is, in two half-lives, all atoms decay. belay
    You can’t read further and further, delete the article, send the author to the ninth grade.
  24. srha
    srha 16 December 2019 15: 07
    0
    The energy release of 1 g am-242m approximately corresponds to 4,6 kg of TNT,
    VIKI writes about 81 TJ / kg released during the division of U235, against 4,184 MJ / kg of TNT equivalent, which is about 20 million times more (and not 4600). Americas in the same row. Check the sources where tons per kg have been replaced.
  25. Gogia
    Gogia 16 December 2019 15: 09
    0
    God forbid such a life to anyone !!!! ...
  26. Basarev
    Basarev 16 December 2019 15: 31
    -2
    Are there any reverse substances with negative radioactivity? That is, they are able to safely absorb the entire dose and leave behind a Zero background.
    1. faterdom
      faterdom 16 December 2019 16: 24
      +3
      No, only antimatter, which annihilates everything with an order of magnitude greater energy than thermonuclear. But it is very expensive and so far we have few of it.
      And you thought, where did the trillion divide that Kudrin, like, is looking for and cannot find?
      Our businessmen and officials, out of habit, try to steal, but in the end even stolen picograms lead to big fires in those places where they hide, for example, in a hangar on ul. Salov in St. Petersburg, or on the Warsaw highway in the south of Moscow.
      1. Arthur 85
        Arthur 85 16 December 2019 17: 08
        0
        This trillion is UNDEFECTED! That is, the extra budget remained. Could not stick it. Well then what is it? Our journalists (to their machine for 10 years!) Write stupid headlines, and the whole country thinks that this trillion was stolen! Because no one except the headlines reads the news and delves into it! .. I apologize if there was sarcasm above.
    2. Arthur 85
      Arthur 85 16 December 2019 17: 01
      0
      Radioactivity can be alpha, beta, gamma, neutron ... Another type: radioactive infection (isotopes) and induced (ionization of atoms). What are you interested in?
    3. opus
      opus 16 December 2019 18: 38
      -2
      Quote: Basarev
      Are there any reverse substances with negative radioactivity?

      thyroid in relation to the isotopes of iodine and cesium ...
      recourse
      picks up, and then pour into concrete.
      -------------------------------------------------- ---
      for biological systems - these are radioprotectors (humic acids, CISTAMIN, INDRALINH (B-190), PEPPOTSHIN, PECHTATSHIN) you can buy, for example, an individual AI-4 first-aid kit

      or first-aid kit individual AI-2 (until 2005, you probably won’t get it anymore)

      radionuclide storage plants
      mushrooms (one fruiting body is able to accumulate radioisotopes from an area of ​​1 sq. m;
      it will contain 20 times more cesium than in the surrounding soil.)
      mosses

      Quote: faterdom
      and we still have a little of it.

      she is not at all.
      1-2 antiprotons, this is not antimatter
      and during anihilation, a physical process in which a particle and its corresponding antiparticle turn into photons or other particles - quanta of physical fields of a different nature ...
      Mass turns into energy. And energy can be both gamma quantum and hard X-ray.
      as a result of such parsley you will get induced radiation

      only the electron and positron are photons (eyes burn out, burn)
      e- + e + → 2γ
      (If the photon energy is very high, then it can produce any pair of particle-antiparticle, for example, a pair of muons.)
      and all sorts of quarks, gluons, andron jets, π-mesons can appear
  27. Arthur 85
    Arthur 85 16 December 2019 16: 59
    +1
    Something is wrong with the equations at the top of the article. The index of an isotope is its atomic weight. If uranium 238 captures a neutron, it will be uranium 239 (not sure how stable). If plutonium 241 disintegrates, then it will disintegrate into parts smaller in mass than 241. By the way, what is the index "m", into americium 242m?
  28. faterdom
    faterdom 16 December 2019 17: 13
    +1
    Quote: Arthur 85
    This trillion is UNDEFECTED! That is, the extra budget remained. Could not stick it. Well then what is it? Our journalists (to their machine for 10 years!) Write stupid headlines, and the whole country thinks that this trillion was stolen! Because no one except the headlines reads the news and delves into it! .. I apologize if there was sarcasm above.

    It is mastered. They bought antimatter from the Anunaki. In a row: few antiprotons, few positrons, back and forth, there are different quarks. It's just that Kudrin is not supposed to know about this, military secret. And from it, the hosts from across the ocean are demanding ... They say that everything is annoying, it cannot be that nobody needs a trillion.
  29. Operator
    Operator 16 December 2019 18: 36
    +3
    Quote: Storekeeper
    Depends on the form?

    Modern nuclear charges and the first steps of thermonuclear charges in the Russian Federation and the USA are made in the form of a hollow toroid of plutonium filled with tritium (power amplifier), coated with a beryllium neutron reflector and a layer of chemical explosive of variable thickness. Charge implosion is provided by two-point detonation of explosives.

    The weight of the plutonium toroid is practically equal to the weight of the hollow sphere (used in implosive charges of the old design with multipoint detonation of explosives) of the same material (~ 6 kg).
    1. Vadim237
      Vadim237 16 December 2019 19: 13
      0
      If mini charges could be made from America 242, now all the countries of the nuclear club would have made them, but this is not, then America 242 does not meet the criteria: cost, efficiency, ease of production. Therefore, Plutonium 239 Uranium 235 Uranium 238 Lithium deuteride 6,7, gaseous hydrogen will be unchanged components of thermonuclear charges.
      1. Operator
        Operator 16 December 2019 19: 36
        +3
        The critical masses of plutonium 239 and ameretium 242 are of the same order.

        Amerizium 242 in scanty amounts is formed from isotopes of uranium-235 and plutonium, because the cost of americium is at least two orders of magnitude higher.

        When installed in the charger, the neutron flux from amethium 242 is two hundred times greater than from plutonium 249, which will require a corresponding increase in the thickness of the shield and the heat sink capacity.

        After 17,5 years, 6% of ameretia 242 as a result of spontaneous decay will turn into ameretia 241 with much worse critical mass. For plutonium 239, a similar situation will arise in a few thousand years.
  30. cat Rusich
    cat Rusich 16 December 2019 19: 38
    0
    Use am-242m to create compact land mines for "breaking" especially important objects. For example - a dam, a bridge ... Naturally, in a "special period" when "any" means are suitable.
  31. NordUral
    NordUral 16 December 2019 20: 32
    +1
    I read and finally decided - we are far from the first human formation on planet Earth. I wanted to write civilization first, but changed my mind.
    1. aybolyt678
      aybolyt678 16 December 2019 21: 10
      0
      Quote: NordUral
      we are far from the first human formation

      previous formations clearly could not build socialism smile
      1. NordUral
        NordUral 16 December 2019 22: 46
        +1
        What a subtle irony.
    2. psiho117
      psiho117 17 December 2019 05: 57
      0
      Quote: NordUral
      we are far from the first human formation on planet Earth

      Well, it's not for nothing that the Hindus in the Ramayana and Mahabharata, speaking of a certain "weapon of Brahma", almost literally describe nuclear explosions and the subsequent radioactive contamination of the area.
      The Indians on the "Rio Code" also described animals affected by radiation sickness.
      And biblical Sodom, Gomorrah and 2 more cities (yes, in fact, there were four of them) with their "shedding fire from heaven" also hint at something hi
      And also alt lovers. stories mysteriously nod towards those of your completely unsuspecting round craters and lakes, scattered in abundance in places of the supposed range of settlement of ancient people ... Yes, it seems like meteorites - but the era of meteorite bombing had already ended by that time, and it’s strange how then they look like holes in the Semipalatinsk test site ...
      And the bible directly describes the fall of a meteorite in the sea:
      “And as if a big mountain, burning with fire, was cast down into the sea ...”
      As a result of which the following happened:
      “And there were voices and thunders, and lightnings, and an earthquake ... and hail and fire became mixed with blood, and fell to the ground; and the third part of the trees burned, and all the green grass burned " "Revelations of John the Theologian"
      In my opinion, it is very clearly described ...

      All of the above was on the charge for the mind - to take it seriously or not - it's up to you wassat
      love
      feel
  32. Jurgens
    Jurgens 16 December 2019 21: 43
    0
    Awesome ability - stubbornly give birth to letters, without understanding anything in the subject. One word - humanities ..
  33. Bear040
    Bear040 16 December 2019 22: 23
    +1
    If it can be used as a new fuel for nuclear power plants, it can be interesting .... For military purposes, it is unsuitable, due to excessively long contamination of the area.
  34. tima_ga
    tima_ga 17 December 2019 00: 31
    0
    Quote: Narak-zempo
    Quote: opus
    because no one in figs needs him

    https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Хан,_Дэвид

    An interesting comrade, remembered Sheldon Cooper :)
  35. Evil Booth
    Evil Booth 17 December 2019 13: 53
    0
    am Stop the addiction!
  36. Evil Booth
    Evil Booth 17 December 2019 13: 58
    0
    Quote: Al_lexx
    shovel rowing

    maybe that? with a shovel
  37. LeonidL
    LeonidL 17 December 2019 22: 42
    0
    Expert opinion "As for americium. The author is right. Moreover, I know that work with this material on the indicated topic was carried out. True, the material itself is also" phonite ", God forbid, and work with it in production is also" raked ", but the main thing is why Is that all? Is it necessary to create a new "Mayak"? and for what, for air-to-air or surface-to-air missiles? Wouldn't it be a little fat with the non-nuclear weapons that exist today? " Firstly, it is very reminiscent of "a cannon on the sparrows." Second, lowering the threshold for tactical nuclear weapons increases the likelihood of their use, which will automatically lead to the use of a more powerful operational-tactical warhead, and, most likely, as a result, to a full-fledged exchange of already strategic charges. I think it makes sense to think about concluding a Treaty on the Non-Use of Tactical Nuclear Weapons in general, and not about developing and putting them into service.
  38. shinobi
    shinobi 18 December 2019 20: 25
    +2
    The idea is interesting, but has no prospects. Modern tactical ammunition for uranium plutonium "puff", 15-25 kt, fits into a standard 152 mm artillery shell. The matter has long been not in the size of ammunition, but in the safety of storing nuclear weapons in warehouses, because they steal everything . At all. Everywhere. And having reduced the size of the charge to RPG type "Bumblebee" and in the same form factor, well, you understand what set of problems we get with a trailer.
    1. psiho117
      psiho117 19 December 2019 04: 20
      0
      Quote: shinobi
      Modern tactical ammunition ... fits in a standard 152 mm artillery shell

      They were placed in this form factor back in the 60s.
      Davy Crockett in the 62nd experienced, 20 Ct

      1. shinobi
        shinobi 22 December 2019 01: 11
        0
        That's it hithat's it!