"Vikings" against the Janissaries. The incredible adventures of Charles XII in the Ottoman Empire

"Vikings" against the Janissaries. The incredible adventures of Charles XII in the Ottoman Empire

Swedish King Charles XII contemporaries compared with Alexander the Great. This monarch, like the great king of antiquity, already at a young age achieved the fame of a great commander, he was also unpretentious in campaigns (according to the Saxon general Schulenberg, “he dressed like a simple dragoon and just had lunch”), as well personally participated in battles, risking their lives and injuring themselves.



David Klöcker-Ehrenstral. Karl XII. 1697 year

However, in my opinion, he is much more like Richard the Lionheart - the knight king, who was looking for “the most sophisticated dangers” in the war.

And Karl, too, according to the testimony of many memoirists, did not hide his joy at the sight of the enemy and even clapped his hands, turning to those around him: “Come, go!”

And he was in a bad mood if the enemy suddenly retreated without a fight, or, did not show strong resistance.

Richard often returned after the battle "prickly, like a hedgehog, from the arrows that gnawed on his shell."

And Charles XII played with fate, constantly getting involved in unnecessary fights and skirmishes in the most adverse conditions. In 1701, it suddenly occurred to him to raid the territory of Lithuania: taking with him only 2 thousand people, he disappeared for a month, surrounded by Oginsky’s troops, reached Kovno, and returned to his camp with only 50 cavalrymen.

During the siege of Thorne, Karl set his tent so close to the walls that bullets and Saxon nuclei constantly flew up to it - several officers from his retinue were killed. Count Piper tried to defend the king, even if he placed a haystack in front of the tent - Karl ordered to remove him.

In 1708, at the Grodno bridge on the bridge over the Neman, the king personally killed two officers of the enemy army. In the same year, he, at the head of the Ostgotland Cavalry Regiment, attacked the superior forces of the Russian cavalry. As a result, this regiment was surrounded, a horse was killed under Karl, and he fought on foot until other Swedish units approached.

In Norway, in a battle at the Göland Manor, during a night attack by the Danes, Karl defended the camp gate by killing five enemy soldiers, and even engaged in hand-to-hand combat with the attacking commander, Colonel Kruse - this is indeed an episode worthy of any "Royal Saga" .

Richard was captured in Austria, and Karl spent several years in the Ottoman Empire.

Charles XII had better starting conditions (and he was also born “in a shirt”) - Sweden, at the time of his accession to the throne, was the second largest European state (second only to Russia). The kingdom included Finland, Karelia, Livonia, Ingermanland, Estonia, most of Norway, part of Pomerania, Bremen, Ferden and Wismar. And the Swedish army was the best in the world. By 1709, it had already suffered losses, and its qualitative composition worsened, however, the Saxon general Schulenberg wrote about the army, which went to Poltava:

“The infantry struck order, discipline and piety. Although it consisted of different nations, deserters were unknown in it. ”


Having started well, Richard and Karl ended equally, almost ruining their states and leaving them in a state of deep crisis.

And the death of these monarchs was equally inglorious. Richard was mortally wounded during the siege of Viscount Ademar V castle, Karl was killed during the siege of the Fredriksten fortress, becoming the last monarch of Europe to fall on the battlefield.


Richard I, portrait at Windsor Castle


Charles XII, engraving

Karl XII himself understood that his behavior did not correspond to the royal rank, but said: "Better let me be called crazy than a coward."

But after the Battle of Poltava, Charles XII was no longer compared with Alexander the Great, but with Don Quixote (because he got into an unnecessary skirmish with the Russians on the eve of the most important battle) and with Achilles (because during this ridiculous clash he was wounded in the heel):
No worse than a Russian shooter
I will stalk the enemy at night;
Dump like a Cossack today
And exchange for a wound
,
- A.S. Pushkin wrote about this.


Charles XII before the Battle of Poltava

Charles XII after Poltava


It is with the defeat of the Swedes at Poltava that we will begin our main story. Then Charles XII, yielding to the requests of his close associates, left the army and crossed the Dnieper, heading for Ochakov. The next day, his entire army (according to Swedish data, 18 people), left on the other side, surrendered to the 367th cavalry detachment of Alexander Menshikov.


Goransson Goethe. “Captive Swedes in Moscow”, an illustration from the book of Oberg and Joransson “Caroliner”

Zaporizhzhya Cossacks were not included in this number, since they were not considered prisoners of war, but traitors. General Levengaupt, whom Karl left the commander, negotiated quite decent conditions for the surrender of the Swedish soldiers and (especially) officers, but did not bother with the “untimely”, willingly betraying the unlucky allies. He dined with appetite with Menshikov, observing how the Cossacks were “driven off like cattle,” killing those who showed the slightest disobedience in place.


A. D. Menshikov


General Levengaupt

Charles XII was accompanied by about 2800 people on his way - Swedish soldiers and officers, as well as part of the Mazepa Cossacks. These Cossacks were extremely hostile to the hetman, and only the Swedes then protected him from reprisal. Some of the Cossacks left the retreating altogether - and this turned out to be an extremely wise decision.


Gustav Sederstrom. Mazepa and Charles XII after the Battle of Poltava on the banks of the Dnieper

The detachments of Karl and Mazepa were forced to linger at the Bug due to the fact that the Ochakov commandant Mehmet Pasha, embarrassed and even frightened by so many armed people who wanted to go to territory controlled by him, allowed only the king and his retinue to cross. The rest were forced to stay on the opposite bank, waiting for permission from the Sultan, or to higher authorities, to which the commandant sent messengers with a notice of the situation that had arisen at the borders of the empire. Having received a bribe, he nevertheless gave permission to transfer the units of Karl and Mazepa to his shore, but it was too late: Russian cavalry units appeared at the Bug. 600 people managed to cross the Turkish coast, the rest were killed, or drowned in the river, 300 Swedes were captured.

According to some reports, Karl sent a complaint to Sultan Ahmet III about the actions of Mehmet Pasha, as a result of which he received a silk cord, which meant an unspoken order to strangle himself.


Karl XII and Mazepa in Bender


On August 1, 1709, Karl XII and the Hetman Mazepa arrived in the city of Bender, which is now part of the Transnistrian Republic. Here, the king was received with all possible respect by the seraskir Yusuf Pasha, who greeted him with a salute of artillery guns and even presented the keys to the city. Since Karl decided to settle outside the city, a house was built for him in the camp, and then houses for officers and barracks for soldiers: it turned out to be something like a military town.


Engraving of a plan of the camp of Charles XII in Bender

But seraskir scorned Mazepa - when he complained that he was not given premises in Bendery, he said: if the hetman was not satisfied with the magnificent palaces that Peter I gave him, then, moreover, he could not find him a decent room.


Medal prepared by Peter I for Mazepa

September 21 (October 2), 1709, an unsuccessful traitor and the current hero of Ukraine died in Bender.

March 11, 1710 Peter I, at the request of a new hetman (Skoropadsky) issued a manifesto prohibiting insulting the Little Russian people, reproaching him with betrayal of Mazepa. The attitude of the Little Russians themselves to Mazepa is characterized by rumors circulating among them that the hetman did not die, but, having adopted the schema, took refuge in the Kiev Pechersk Lavra in order to pray for the sin of betrayal.

And in vain there is a sad alien
I would look for the hetman's grave:
Forgotten Mazepa for a long time!
Only in the triumphant shrine
Once a year, anathema to this day
Threatening, the cathedral rattles about him.

(A.S. Pushkin.)

King's strange behavior


Meanwhile, in Bender, events began to develop according to a completely unbelievable and phantasmagoric scenario. France and the Netherlands offered Carl help, offering ships that would bring him to Stockholm. Austria promised him free passage through Hungary and the Holy Roman Empire. Moreover, Peter I and Augustus the Strong made a statement that they would not prevent the return of their adversary to Sweden. For some reason, Charles XII refused to return to his homeland. He entered into correspondence with Sultan Ahmet III, was engaged in horseback riding, trained soldiers, played chess. By the way, his manner of playing was distinguished by a rare originality: more often than any other figures he moved the king, therefore he lost all games.

The Sultan ordered free supplies of the camp of Charles XII, and the Swedes liked the local dishes very much. Upon returning home, the “caroliners” (sometimes also called the “carolins”) brought along some recipes. Familiar to many tourists who visited Turkey, the kufta turned into Swedish meatballs and dolma into cabbage rolls (since grapes do not grow in Sweden, they began to wrap minced meat in scalded cabbage leaves). November 30 - the day of the death of Charles XII, Sweden is now celebrating Stuffed cabbage Day.


The cookbook Cajsa Warg, in which for the first time in 1755 a recipe for Swedish cabbage rolls was recorded


Frontispiece Cajsa Warg

In addition to the funds allocated for the maintenance of the detachment that arrived with the king, Charles XII from the Sultan treasury was paid 500 ecu per day. France also provided financial assistance to the king, and he borrowed money from the merchants of Constantinople. Karl sent part of these funds to the capital to bribe the sultan's close associates, wanting to drag Turkey into the war against Russia. The king thoughtlessly spent the remaining money on gifts to his officers and the janissaries guarding him, thanks to which he became very popular both among them and among the townspeople.


Janissaries, engraving of the XVIII century

His favorite, Baron Grottguzen, who was appointed treasurer, did not lag behind the king. It is said that, once, reporting to Carl about the spent 60000 thalers, he said:

"Ten thousand were given to the Swedes and Janissaries by order of your Majesty, and the rest I spent on my own needs."


The king’s reaction is simply amazing: smiling, he said that he liked such a short and clear answer - not like the former treasurer Müllern, who forced him to read multi-page expense reports for each thaler. A certain elderly officer told Karl that Grottern simply robbed them all, and heard the answer: "I give money only to those who know how to use it."

Karl's popularity was growing and soon people began to come to Bendery from all over the province to look at the strange but generous overseas king.

Meanwhile, the situation in Sweden worsened every day. Russian troops took Vyborg (which Peter I called "a sturdy pillow for St. Petersburg"), Riga, Revel. In Finland, the Russian army approached Abo. Expelled by Charles from Poland, August II the Strong captured Warsaw.


Louis de Sylvester. Augustus the Strong, Elector of Saxony, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania

Prussia claimed Swedish Pomerania, Mecklenburg declared claims to Wismar. The Danes were preparing to seize the Duchy of Bremen and Holstein, in February 1710 their army even landed in Scania, but was defeated.

Relations of Charles XII with the Turkish authorities


The Sultan still could not decide what to do with this uninvited, but, in the literal sense, very “dear” guest. The presence of Charles XII in Turkish territory exacerbated relations with Russia, immediately took advantage of the local "hawks" (including even the mother of Akhmet III), and French diplomats assuring the Sultan that, having finished with the Swedes, the Russians would go against the Ottoman Empire. But the Russian ambassador P. Tolstoy (whose servants were now Swedes captured under Poltava - and this impressed both the Sultan and the Ottoman nobles), generously spending Swedish trophy gold, obtained from Akhmet III a letter confirming the 1700 Constantinople Peace Treaty.


Georg Gzell, Portrait of P. A. Tolstoy, between 1722-1727

It seemed that the fate of Karl, who was tired of everything, was decided: under the protection of a detachment of 500 Janissaries, he had to go through Poland to Sweden “only with his people” (that is, without the Cossacks and Poles). As a farewell gift (and compensation), on behalf of the Sultan, Karl was sent 25 Arab horses, one of which was driven by the Sultan himself - her saddle and cap were decorated with precious stones, and stirrups were made of gold.

And the great vizier Köprülü sent the king 800 wallets with gold (each contained 500 coins) and in the letter attached to the gift he advised to return to Sweden via Germany or France. Karl took horses and money, but Bender refused to leave the hospitable. The Sultan could not afford to break the laws of hospitality, and forcibly send the king out of the country. Together with the vizier, he entered into negotiations with Karl, and went to meet him, agreeing to allocate a 50-strong army to accompany the Swedish king through Poland, occupied by Russian troops. But Peter I stated that he would let Karl through only on condition that the size of his escort would not exceed 3 thousand people. Carl, who was clearly trying to provoke a conflict between Russia and the Ottoman Empire, did not agree to this.

Russian-Turkish war


And in Port at that time, a certain vizier was a certain Baltaji Mehmet Pasha - a native of a family whose men were traditionally engaged in logging (“balta” - “ax”), who turned out to be a “hawk” and an ardent Russophobe. He summoned Devlet Giray to the Crimean capital: together they managed to persuade the Sultan to declare war on Russia. On November 20, 1710, the Russian P. Tolstoy and his subordinates were arrested and put in the Seven-Tower Castle. The French ambassador, Desaler, boasted that "he contributed most to this, since he led the whole matter with his advice."


Plan of the Seven-Tower Fortress, executed by Francesco Scarella in 1685

It was during this unfortunate war for Russia that the so-called Prut catastrophe occurred: underestimating the strength of the enemy, Peter I accepted the offer of Moldavian ruler Dmitry Cantemir to meet the Turks. Kantemir vowed to provide the Russian army with everything necessary - and, of course, did not fulfill his promises.


So, by the Prut River, Peter I appeared in the role of Charles XII, and Cantemir in the role of Mazepa. It all ended with the bribery of the former lumberjack, Baltaji Mehmet Pasha and some of his subordinates, and the signing of a shameful peace, among which there was even an obligation to renew the payment of tribute to the Crimean Khan.

Charles XII, learning about the environment of the Russian army, rushed to the camp of the Turks, drove 120 miles without stopping, but was late: the Russian troops had already left their camp. Reproaches he managed to anger Mehmet Pasha, who mockingly said:

“And who would rule the state in his (Peter's) absence? It is not appropriate that all the kings of the giaurs are not at home. ”


Enraged, Karl allowed himself an unprecedented audacity - with a sharp blow of his spur, he tore the floor of the vizier’s robe and left his tent.

In Bender, he found his camp flooded by the spilled Dniester, but out of obstinacy remained for a long time in it. Nevertheless, it was necessary to move the camp to the village of Varnitsa, where a new “military town”, called Karlopolis, was built for him. It had three stone houses (for the king, his retinue and treasurer of Grotguzen) and wooden barracks for soldiers. The largest building (36 meters in length) was called the Charles House, another in which the king received guests - the Great Hall.

And the angry Mehmet Pasha now demanded the expulsion of Karl from the country, and the Austrian emperor agreed to let him through his possessions. The king said that he would leave only after the punishment of the vizier and accompanied by a hundred thousandth army. Mehmet Pasha, in response, ordered him to reduce the "taim" - the content that was issued to foreign guests and diplomats. Upon learning of this, Karl reacted very peculiarly, telling the butler: “Until now, they gave me food twice a day; from tomorrow I order to give food four times. ”

To fulfill the king’s order, I had to borrow money from usurers at high interest rates. 4 thousand ecu was given by the English ambassador Cook.

Unhappy with the outcome of the war, Sultan Ahmet nevertheless ousted Mehmet Pasha, sending him into exile on the island of Lemnos. The new vizier was Yusuf Pasha, who at the age of 6 was captured in the territory of Southern Russia by the Janissaries. As for Karl, tired of his quirks and antics, the Sultan sent him a letter saying:

“You must prepare to leave under the auspices of Providence, with an honorable guard in the future of winter, in order to return to your state, taking care to drive through Poland in a friendly manner.” Everything that you need for your trip will be delivered to you by the High Port, both money, people, horses and carts. We especially exhort you and advise you to order in the most positive and clear way all Swedes and other people who are with you to not make any disturbances and no actions that may directly or indirectly lead to violations of this world and friendship. ”


In response, Karl “nabednichalis” the Sultan about the non-compliance with the terms of the Prut Treaty by the Russians, which provoked a new crisis in Russian-Turkish relations. P. Tolstoy was again sent to Seven-Tower Castle, but the environment of the Sultan no longer wanted war, a compromise was reached, according to which the Russian troops were withdrawn from Poland, and Karl was to go to Sweden.

But the king said that he could not leave without paying his debts, and asked for this purpose 1000 purses of gold (about 600 thalers). Ahmet III ordered to give him 000 wallets, having received which, the Swedish king, without batting an eye, demanded another thousand.


Sultan Ahmed III with his son. Thumbnail Levni

The pissed off sultan gathered up the High Ports Sofa, on which he asked a question:

“Will the deportation of this sovereign (Karl) be a violation of the laws of hospitality and will the foreign powers be able to accuse me of violence and injustice if I have to send him by force?”


The sofa sided with the Sultan, and the great Mufti said that "hospitality is not prescribed for Muslims in relation to infidels, and even more so to the ungrateful."

War of the "Vikings" with the Janissaries


At the end of December 1712, a sultan decree and fatwa mufti approving him were read to Karl. The king, completely lost touch with reality, said in response: "We will prepare for everything and give strength a rebuff."

The Swedes stopped issuing money for maintenance, and the Poles and Cossacks saved it, leaving the royal camp. Karl XII responded in his own unique style, ordering the killing of 25 Arabian horses presented by the Sultan.

Now the king has 300 left at his disposal - only the Swedish "caroliners".


Swedish pike caroliners, book illustration

He ordered his camp to be surrounded by trenches and barricades, and he himself had fun, periodically attacking the Ottoman pickets. Janissaries and Tatars, fearing to injure him, did not enter the battle and drove away.

At the end of January 1713, the commandant Bender Ismail Pasha received a new decree of the Sultan, which ordered the capture of Charles XII and sent him to Thessaloniki, from where he was to be sent by sea to France. The decree said that in the case of Karl’s death, not a single Muslim would be declared guilty of his death, and the supreme mufti sent a fatwa, according to which the faithful said goodbye for the possible murder of the Swedes.

But Karl was popular among the Janissaries, who, although they called him stubbornly “demirbash” (“iron head”), nevertheless, did not want his death. They sent delegates who begged the king to surrender and vouched for his safety - both in Bender and during the journey. Karl, of course, refused.

To storm the Swedish camp (in which, recall, only 300 people remained), the Turks gathered up to 14 thousand soldiers with 12 guns. The forces were clearly unequal, and, after the first shots, Grottguzen again tried to enter into negotiations, arguing (for the umpteenth time) that the king was not opposed to leaving, but that he needed time to prepare, but the Turks did not believe these words. But after Karl’s direct appeal to the Janissaries, they rebelled and refused to go on the assault. At night, the instigators of this revolt were drowned in the Dniester, but, unsure of the loyalty of those remaining, the seraskir in the morning invited the Janissary elders themselves to enter into negotiations with the crowned madman. Carl, seeing them, said:

“If they don’t leave, I command them to burn their beards. Now it's time to fight, not talk. ”


Now the Janissaries were already indignant. On February 1, they still attacked Karlopolis. On this day, Drabant Axel Eric Ros three times saved the life of his king. But most Swedes, realizing the senselessness of resistance, immediately surrendered. The lightly wounded Karl, led by twenty drabants and ten servants, took refuge in a stone house, where there were 12 more soldiers. Having barricaded himself in one of the rooms, he made a sortie into the hall, filled with marauding Janissaries. Here, the king personally killed two of them, wounded the third, but was captured by the fourth, who was let down by the desire to take Karl alive - as a result, the royal cook shot him. Karl then killed two more Janissaries who ended up in his bedroom. Forcing the Turks to retreat, the Swedes took up positions at the windows, and opened fire. It is claimed that during the assault, up to 200 Janissaries were killed and injured. The Swedes killed 15 people, were seriously injured 12. The Turkish leaders ordered the shelling of the house with cannons, and the Swedes were forced to move away from the windows, and the Janissaries, having encased the house with logs and hay, set fire to them. The Swedes decided to fill the fire with the contents of the barrels found in the attic - it turned out that they were filled with strong wine. Trying to support and encourage his people, Karl shouted: “There is still no danger until the dresses light up” - and at that moment a piece of the roof fell on his head. Having regained consciousness, the king continued to shoot at the Turks, killing another one of them, and then, making sure that it was completely impossible to be in the burning house, he agreed to try to break into another, in the neighborhood. On the street, the Janissaries surrounded and captured all the Swedes, including the king. “If they (the Swedes) defended themselves, as the duty commanded them, they would not have taken us in ten days,” he said, standing in front of the seraskir.


Edouard Armand-Dumaresq. Skirmish in Bender

The events of this day in Turkey are called “Kalabalyk” - literally translated as “playing with a lion”, but in modern Turkish it means “quarrel”. This word has entered the Swedish language with the meaning of “bustle”.

A.S. Pushkin, who visited Bender, devoted the following lines to this event:

In a country where a number of winged mills
Surrounded by a peace fence
Bender desert peals,
Where buffalo horn roam
Around the war graves
The remains of a ravaged canopy
Three recessed in the ground
And moss overgrown steps
They say about the Swedish king.
The mad hero reflected them
Alone in the crowd of domestic servants
Turkish rat attack noisy
And threw the sword under the bunchuk.



Commemorative Sign in Bender

Continuation of the "Turkish tour" of Charles XII


Despite the king’s apparent inadequate behavior and the losses suffered by the Ottomans during the assault, Carl was still treated well. At first he was taken to the house of Seraskir and spent the night in the room and on the master’s bed, then he was transported to Adrianople. It is difficult to say how the Sultan would have acted with Karl - not a guest, but a prisoner. But the king was helped by General Magnus Stenbock, who just at that time won his last victory over the Danes - at Gadebusch in Pomerania.


Magnus Stenbock. Portrait of Anton Ulrik Berndes

Having learned about this, the sultan ordered him to be transferred to the small town of Demirtas near Adrianople and left him alone. And Karl now changed his tactics: from February 6, 1713 to October 1, 1714, he enthusiastically played Carlson (who lives on the roof), pretending to be seriously ill and not getting out of bed. The Turks only rejoiced at the transition of the “guest” psychosis from the manic to the depressive phase and did not pay much attention to his “suffering”.

Meanwhile, in May 1713, the army of the last successful Swedish commander, Magnus Stenbock, capitulated in Holstein. Almost all of Finland was occupied by Russia, Peter I wrote then: “We don’t need this country at all, but we need to occupy it in order for the world to have something to give in to the Swedes.”

To the letter of his sister Ulrika, to whom the Senate proposed the regency, Karl answered with a promise to send his boot to Stockholm, which the senators would have to ask for permission.

But further to remain in the territory of the Port was pointless, this was already understood by Karl himself, who began to gather home. The great vizier Kömürgyu said to Grotguzen, who had asked for another batch of gold:

“The Sultan knows how to give when he wants, but below his dignity to lend. Your king will be provided with everything you need. Maybe the High Porta will give him gold, but there’s nothing to count on for sure.


Kemyurju Ali Pasha was the son of a coal miner, and became the vizier and son-in-law of the Sultan. If you recall that one of his recent predecessors was from a family of woodcutters, and the other came to Porto as a captive at the age of 6, you have to admit that the “social elevators” in the Ottoman Empire of those years were in perfect order.

Return of the King


On October 1, Ahmet III nevertheless presented the assembled, finally, to leave Karl with a scarlet tent embroidered with gold, a saber, the hilt of which was decorated with gems, and 8 Arabian horses. And for the Swedish convoy, on his orders, 300 horses and 60 carts with supplies were allocated.

The sultan even ordered to pay the debts of the "guest", but without interest, since usury is prohibited by the Qur'an. Karl was again offended and invited creditors to come to Sweden for debts. Oddly enough, many of them really got to Stockholm, where they received the required amounts.

On October 27, Karl left his convoy and then went light - under a stranger's name and with a few "caroliners." On November 21, 1714, Charles XII, who had left the retinue, arrived at the Stralsund fortress belonging to Sweden. And the very next day, the king, "rested" in Turkish "resorts", signed a decree on the resumption of hostilities against Russia and its allies.

His war will end at the Fredriksten Fortress on November 30, 1718. Many historians are sure that he was killed by one of his close associates, who understood that the king was ready to fight for a very long time - until the last surviving Swede. And he helped Karl to go to Valhalla, from which this king, similar to a berserker, apparently escaped - at the neglect of the Valkyries.


Tunic of Charles XII, in which he was dressed on the day of death
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  1. Aerodrome 18 December 2019 05: 54 New
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    respect for the historical excursion to the author. the boots of Charles XII were striking ... they really sewed on one leg, there were no left or right.
    and just for myself ... why did the ancestors draw so poorly? or are we so "grown up"? Now with a pen or pencil, they are drawing so that it can not be distinguished from the photo! this is not Malevich’s “Black Square” ... and not Picasso’s “children's drawings”. what's the matter then?
    1. Edward Vashchenko 18 December 2019 07: 08 New
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      What do you mean by "drawing"? laughing
      Naturally, technology and technology are growing significantly in all areas: previously sawed with a jigsaw, and now laser cutting.
      But Malevich is "not primitive", like Picasso - but a direction in painting.
      Painting and illustration are significantly different.
      Malevich is Suprematism, a revolutionary trend in painting, which meant “the end of art” and the Black Square is a manifesto, not primitive, or do you think that Malevich, with a classical education, could not draw?
      And the meaning of his manifesto was as follows: the end of art, in which he was right, in part.
      Now they are painting, but not creating works of art: where are such battle-men as David or Vereshchagin: now are stilted images, stiffness of figures, mannequins, not people.
      Great artists are revolutionaries, and now most of all are graphic designers. Moreover, the classical image technique drops significantly.
      I mean, this is neither good nor bad.
      By the way, in sculpture, when working with marble, technology is clearly behind, but in miniature - no.
      1. Gumma 18 December 2019 08: 25 New
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        No, no - Malevich’s squares, according to his contemporary and colleague Lissitzky, were a Suprematist experiment. Starting point. Zero color, zero figurativeness - that’s the verdict on the “Black Square” of the early 1920s. And they were compared with the Lobachevsky geometries. There are infinitely many Suprematist (artistic) spaces, and the reality (as in the case of parallel lines) is one.
      2. Aerodrome 18 December 2019 09: 03 New
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        Quote: Edward Vashchenko
        I mean, what is it

        thank you for spending time on me hi I understand that Michelangelo and Tsereteli are two big differences, but, I’m far from art, and the "puffy faces of kings and queens" on old canvases, I am inspired by thoughts of their total drunkenness ... lol excuse me. repeat
        1. Edward Vashchenko 18 December 2019 09: 23 New
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          "the muzzle of the kings and queens"

          Who is not without sin! kings are also people and nothing human is alien to them laughing
          And there is nothing to apologize for, everyone has the right to see how he sees, as an artist in "The Adventures of Prince Florizel": I see so.
          And without jokes, I agree with you that, for example, at the beginning of the XNUMXth century, artists viewed antiquity differently, such as Richard’s image in the article, based on modern ideas, is very primitive. hi
          1. Aerodrome 18 December 2019 09: 27 New
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            Quote: Edward Vashchenko
            "the muzzle of the kings and queens"

            Who is not without sin! kings are also people and nothing human is alien to them laughing
            And there is nothing to apologize for, everyone has the right to see how he sees, as an artist in "The Adventures of Prince Florizel": I see so.
            And without jokes, I agree with you that, for example, at the beginning of the XNUMXth century, artists viewed antiquity differently, such as Richard’s image in the article, based on modern ideas, is very primitive. hi

            yes yes ... they wrote earlier, not like today ... wink
            hi
      3. Catfish 19 December 2019 18: 01 New
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        I don’t remember who, it seems Oscar Wilde said, art is a mirror that reflects not reality, but the one who looks into it. I'm afraid that the fans of Malevich have an empty and black soul. And so, yes, he owned a brush and quite academically, but there was no talent, but he wanted fame. Herostratus in a similar situation burned the temple. request smile
        1. Crimea26 8 February 2020 21: 34 New
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          And his "black square" was not the first .... Perhaps - we have the simplest plagiarism ...
      4. Sergey S. 4 January 2020 18: 27 New
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        Malevich is Suprematism, a revolutionary trend in painting, which meant “the end of art” and the Black Square is a manifesto, not primitive, or do you think that Malevich, with a classical education, could not draw?

        1. Malevich is a fraudster. He set a date in the "paintings" of the early 1920s, I remember, 1915, so he became the founder and champion of the revolution ...
        2. Malevich is definitely the end of art. There is nothing to argue about.
        3. If the "Black Square" manifesto, then what is the "Black Cross", "Black Circle" .... And how many manifestos can be ...
        4. Why did Malevich climb onto the post of people's commissar? And he proposed "ingenious solutions", for example, buildings in the form of a sickle and a hammer? Or is this another brilliant direction in art - Superpointlifting?
        5. Malevich knew how to draw, and no worse, for example, than I did, or maybe you or someone else from our forum. But this is not I.K. Aivazovsky and not I.I. Shishkin.
        6. About the thumbnails did not understand.
    2. Bar2 18 December 2019 09: 23 New
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      for a better view of that time, I’m showing a map of Ivan Tessing Amsterdam, but in Russian. In general, Ivan Tessing is not a bad name for a Dutchman.

      To the victorious and the most august Tsar, Tsar and Grand Duke Pyotr Alekseevich, all the great, small and white Russia autocrats to the great immortal glory of His Most Imperial Majesty's desired heart The sign, with all due respect to this card, is described below even part of the great and small Russia of the Polish lands, Tatarsky, Pontus Sea, Anatolia, is contained in the lowest and most humble privilege of Ivan Tessing of Amsterdam.


      as we see on the map of those times, there is both Tartaria and the Belgorod Horde, the Budzhak Horde-Danube Cossacks are not shown.
      And the most interesting Yurts? Don Cossacks. I think that the word yurt is a distortion of the word Horde, because the Cossacks never lived in yurts.

      https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b53040729z/f1.item.zoom
    3. the finish 18 December 2019 21: 36 New
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      In the armory there are Peter's boots like a twin brother of Karl’s boots!
    4. Bar2 19 December 2019 04: 51 New
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      Familiar to many tourists who visited Turkey, the kufta turned into Swedish meatballs and dolma into cabbage rolls (since grapes do not grow in Sweden, they began to wrap minced meat in scalded cabbage leaves). November 30 - the day of the death of Charles XII, Sweden is now celebrating Stuffed cabbage Day.


      and that Ryzhov is just that, how-and-so-called platter is called a dish in Sweden? And of course your cabbage rolls from Sweden came to the Russians later? But this is your speculation. Even Russophobe Fasmer, and he ascribes cabbage rolls to the Slavs ..

      cabbage rolls pl., cf. polish goɫębki plural - the same, Serbohorv. golub̀biħ “dumpling”. Probably from the depths (see) by the similarity of form with a dove. It is unlikely to be connected by the alternation of vowels with a galushka, contrary to Ilyinsky (RS, 6, 219) and Goryaev (ES 73). You can not also take loans. out of it. Kohlblatt "cabbage leaf, stuffed cabbage", as suggested by Convert. 1, 142.

      The origin of the word cabbage rolls in Fasmer M.'s etymological online dictionary


      true stuffed cabbage doesn’t look like a pigeon — it’s a frame of OI that the farmer couldn’t cross.
      Since the Russians and Gala (Latgals, Semigals, Galicians, Galich, Galia, Holland) are one people, respectively, they have the same cuisine for example
      -galantine jelly
      -Daisies dumplings
      -sausage
      -labers
      the words sausage and cabbage rolls are relatives, KOLO and GALO are sunny initial meaning, the meaning is the following is Circle / Round.
      And the second word BAS or BAM has the meaning of ROUND (carbas
      And there are no pigeons in this word.

      -bread / kleb (in some Slavic languages ​​bread is pronounced like that)
      comes from Kolo i.e. from the sun, the first loaves of bread were round and accordingly gold / sunny.
      -shoko-sho / se / this _Kolo_d
      The whole old world was based on a cult of the Sun, from here comes the whole human culture.
  2. solovald 18 December 2019 06: 04 New
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    Interesting and exciting, thanks to the author for the historical excursion.
  3. Korsar4 18 December 2019 06: 36 New
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    There is a chess task of Samuel Loyd: Charles XII plays with his minister under bullets. Announces checkmate in three moves. A bullet knocks down Karl’s horse. Then he declares a checkmate in the 4th move. Then the bullet knocks down another pawn. In this case, a checkmate in five moves is declared.
  4. Far B 18 December 2019 06: 41 New
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    What the hell is a knight king? From what is read, it suggests that this is a complete eccentric letter "M" laughing But you can laugh, no doubt laughing
    1. VLR
      VLR 18 December 2019 07: 11 New
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      The Knight King is Richard. And Karl is a typical berserker. However, among the knights, scumbags were also the rule rather than the exception.
      1. Far B 18 December 2019 07: 21 New
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        Well, after all, a berserker is not a synonym for the word "h (m) udak" And before us looms a typical, I would even say, reference "h (m) udak")))
      2. Stirbjorn 18 December 2019 09: 16 New
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        Quote: VlR
        The Knight King is Richard. And Karl is a typical berserker. However, among the knights, scumbags were also the rule rather than the exception.

        I would argue, a berserker is still just a warrior, fighting, in fact, alone, in a fit of rage. Karl was undoubtedly a talented commander who did not lose a single battle (Renshild commanded near Poltava). An outstanding tactician, capable of personally turning the tide of the battle, but as a strategist was weak. Walter Scott likened him to Richard as well ... in general, I would have likened him to Peer, who won battles but lost wars.
      3. Edward Vashchenko 18 December 2019 09: 29 New
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        Valery,
        Thank you, an interesting, exciting story.
      4. Pane Kohanku 18 December 2019 10: 22 New
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        And Karl is a typical berserker.

        Valery (I don’t know how about the priest!), Good morning! What I read voraciously - not to say, everything was much more exciting. This is just an adventure of some kind! - with a good syllable, very finely “seasoned” with humor, with elements of thrash action movie a la “Doom” and comedy of the absurd! Personally, I have an attitude to this work, as to your best article. hi "Bravo, the French, bravo!" (Prince P. Bagration) good
        He ordered his camp to be surrounded by trenches and barricades, and he himself had fun, periodically attacking the Ottoman pickets. Janissaries and Tatars, fearing to injure him, did not enter the battle and drove away.

        Straight frostbitten minx Carlson ... wassat Elements of psychopathy are evident. what Apparently, in childhood they forgot to flog, and excess self-confidence does not bring to good ... no
        I bow to you, Panah Kohanku! drinks
      5. Xenofont 18 December 2019 11: 24 New
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        Karl is more like King Pyrrhus: the same crazy desire to fight for war! And the ending is similar.
  5. Far B 18 December 2019 06: 52 New
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    And in the picture “Captured Swedes in Moscow”, the Swedish merchant’s merchandise shoots on a smartphone, galleries ??? laughing
    1. VLR
      VLR 18 December 2019 07: 07 New
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      Yeah. "Traditional historians" lie to us, and the Battle of Poltava, in fact, occurred in 2014 during the Kiev Maidan. Proponents of the "New Chronology" will not let smile
      1. Far B 18 December 2019 07: 12 New
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        That’s what I think - something vague doubts torment me all the time? And there it is! Cho! "In this life, everything is not just like that - even sheep in sheepskin coats!" ((c) "Election Day") laughing
    2. andrewkor 18 December 2019 07: 48 New
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      I also drew attention to that merchandise! You + from me☺ !!?
    3. Cetron 18 December 2019 20: 59 New
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      I showed my wife a picture - a man is holding a mobile. She: yes, what a mobile, he holds a glass of red glass, little merchants under Peter rose: to whom is war, to whom is mother dear!
    4. awdrgy 19 December 2019 12: 12 New
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      Yes, what a merchant's merchandise?! - this is Kirillov from the 22nd Scientific Research Institute only an unkempt beard! And I thought that that Swedish broadsword was a remake on his wall!
    5. IGOR GORDEEV 20 December 2019 07: 07 New
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      Quote: Far In
      And in the picture “Captured Swedes in Moscow”, the Swedish merchant’s merchandise shoots on a smartphone, galleries ???

      And the truth is very similar :)
  6. The leader of the Redskins 18 December 2019 07: 34 New
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    Thanks to the author, read with great interest.
  7. Nasrat 18 December 2019 09: 01 New
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    Great article! Easy to read .. respect to the author!
  8. VLR
    VLR 18 December 2019 09: 15 New
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    Quote: Aerodrome
    "the muzzy faces of kings and queens" on old canvases, I am inspired by thoughts of their total drunkenness

    And what is wrong? smile
    It also embellished them
  9. Stirbjorn 18 December 2019 09: 20 New
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    Charles XII had better starting conditions (and he was also born “in a shirt”) - Sweden, at the time of his accession to the throne, was the second largest European state (second only to Russia). The kingdom included Finland, Karelia, Livonia, Ingermanland, Estonia, most of Norway, part of Pomerania, Bremen, Ferden and Wismar. And the Swedish army was the best in the world.
    But at the same time, the population, and as a result, the army was small, so Sweden could not rise above the regional power. By the way, the caroliners were a prototype of the assault squads, precisely because of the small number of Swedish troops, relatively large powers. Therefore, the linear tactics that prevailed at that time were unsuitable for the Swedish army. I attach video
    1. VLR
      VLR 18 December 2019 09: 36 New
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      Well, Russia is far from the first in Europe in terms of population and population density. Population density has always been inferior and inferior to Germany, France, and many other countries.
    2. Pane Kohanku 18 December 2019 10: 24 New
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      By the way, the caroliners were a prototype of the assault squads, precisely because of the small number of Swedish troops, relatively large powers.

      yeah, a completely different tactic than the troops of opposing armies + religious frostbite. yes We somehow tried to discuss them on the forum ... drinks
  10. Talgarets 18 December 2019 09: 23 New
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    Throughout history, the position of the Sultan is surprising. Instead of driving an impudent guest into the neck, he gathers advice and asks for the opinion of theologians.
    Clearly, he needs an energetic ally, but still ...
    1. VLR
      VLR 18 December 2019 09: 34 New
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      Turkey is generally great slandered by "civilized" Europeans.
      Recall, for example, that in 1845, during the Great Famine in Ireland, the Ottoman sultan Abdul-Mejid wanted to donate 10 thousand pounds, but Queen Victoria asked him to reduce this amount to 1000 pounds - because she herself gave the starving Irish only 2 thousand.
      And look at how quickly at first talented people advanced in Ottoman Turkey - they captured a Slavic boy in captivity or according to the devshire system, sent to the Yanichar corps, and after 15-20 years he was already a major military leader or governor of the province. Here at the end, when social elevators stopped working, Turkey rolled downhill.
      1. Aerodrome 18 December 2019 10: 08 New
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        Thank you very much to everyone noted in the topic, it is nice when adequate people talk, without any "mihanov". hi
    2. Pane Kohanku 18 December 2019 11: 48 New
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      Throughout history, the position of the Sultan is surprising.

      well, by the way, Michael, really interesting. The Sultan was perhaps the noblest in the whole story. But, pay attention, both the English ambassador and the French participated in it. Diplomacy took its course, and all parties (except for a belligerent parasite) observed etiquette. hi In the middle of the article, the Sultan already just felt sorry. laughing It is strange that the proverb did not appear in Turkey: "An uninvited Swedish guest is worse than all the other uninvited guests" drinks
  11. raki-uzo 18 December 2019 10: 47 New
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    Many thanks! I did not know many moments with this king. Our "textbooks" either do not know, or do not retell about some moments of our history.
  12. tlauicol 18 December 2019 10: 51 New
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    Great story good
  13. Mihaylov 18 December 2019 11: 17 New
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    the kufta turned into Swedish meatballs, and dolma into cabbage rolls (since grapes do not grow in Sweden, minced meat was wrapped in scalded cabbage leaves). November 30 - the day of the death of Charles XII, Sweden is now celebrating Stuffed cabbage Day.

    Interesting! Did not know...
    1. tlauicol 18 December 2019 11: 34 New
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      Quote: Mihaylov
      the kufta turned into Swedish meatballs, and dolma into cabbage rolls (since grapes do not grow in Sweden, minced meat was wrapped in scalded cabbage leaves). November 30 - the day of the death of Charles XII, Sweden is now celebrating Stuffed cabbage Day.

      Interesting! Did not know...

      eh, such an excuse is gone drinks
  14. Earth 18 December 2019 12: 16 New
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    Perhaps the eccentricities of Charles 12 seem to be a modern eccentricity (and even contemporaries too) - but he was formed under the influence of the situation, character and Caesar's book under his pillow. He also read A. Macedonsky more than once - which is why he got excited about the idea war.
    There are such people - they live in battles ... the household routine kills them. But in war and in battle they catch their meaning of life. In general, war is a drug for them. Their life is short but bright. Like drug addicts.
    Only they enter history, and ordinary drug addicts only statistics.
    The last king who died on the battlefield sat on the needle of war.
    Although kings, kings, emperors and princes continued to command the battlefield and sometimes in the thick of events. They simply did not take risks without the need.
    A fatal wound in front of Poltava was brought to him by a Cossack patrol (nefig to drive around anywhere).
    A deadly during the siege of the fortress. And then his sister began to restore order ... in a long-suffering country where the trouble is where "the king is young and young"
  15. Undecim 18 December 2019 13: 11 New
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    His war will end at the Fredriksten Fortress on November 30, 1718. Many historians are sure that he was killed by one of his close associates, who understood that the king was ready to fight for a very long time - until the last surviving Swede.
    Based on this version, almost all Swedes were interested in the death of Charles XII, starting from simple soldiers tired of the war and ending with the son-in-law of the king, who less than two years later occupied the Swedish throne under the name of Frederick I.
    And how did the wealthy Swedes want to get rid of the king ... After all, Karl’s right hand, his faithful ally Baron Hertz, was preparing the introduction of a seventeen percent "luxury tax"! It is not without reason that Hertz did not survive three months after the death of Karl. He was immediately arrested and hanged in February 1719.
    The embalmed body of Charles XII was exhumed three times - in 1746, 1859 and 1917 - and in the last of these cases, X-rays of the corpse were performed and a full autopsy was performed.
    But in all cases, clear evidence that the king was killed in a conspiracy was not received. Moreover, the version with the murder has a mystical component.
    In 1924, at the site of the death of the king, the blacksmith Andersson found a button.

    It seems to be nothing special - an ordinary button. True in diameter corresponds to the entrance bullet hole in the royal hat. And very much like the buttons of the royal uniform. Barbo Klein, a professor of ethnology at Stockholm University, summed up under this version that this button was specially cut from his uniform and used as a bullet, since so many believed that the king was invulnerable to ordinary bullets.
    In 2001, they even performed DNA analysis with the buttons and bloodied gloves of the king. In both samples, the analysis showed the presence. The analysis showed a DNA mutation that is observed only in Sweden and in less than one percent of the country's population.
    So there is no final version of the death of Charles XII.
    1. Pane Kohanku 18 December 2019 13: 21 New
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      blacksmith Andersson

      the very name of the blacksmith is already pushing for the "conspiracy theory", Viktor Nikolaevich! wink Wow adding information! here, that which did not know, that did not know! hi drinks
      1. fuxila 18 December 2019 16: 37 New
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        Especially if it turns out that the blacksmith was called a Christian and he was a secret member of the Sanhedrin, a Mongol of the Inner Temple and a Freemason 33 degrees of initiation!
        1. Pane Kohanku 19 December 2019 15: 17 New
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          Especially if it turns out that the blacksmith was called a Christian and he was a secret member of the Sanhedrin, a Mongol of the Inner Temple and a Freemason 33 degrees of initiation!

          and the Swedish authorities are hiding it! wink By the way, there was no Mongol. Proved by Mr. Samsonov. wassat there were only Russians, they are arias laughing drinks
    2. Crimea26 8 February 2020 21: 42 New
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      But judging by the hole in Karl’s skull - obviously there wasn’t a button there - they beat for sure !. But in fact, what if the button went in diameter to the nearest gun? A lead ball, stone or gold, is a normal bullet.
  16. Mihaylov 18 December 2019 14: 54 New
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    In the winter of 2018-2019, an exhibition was held at the Artillery Museum: "A bullet for the king. The riddle of the Kaulbars nipple. On the 300th anniversary of the death of Charles XII."
    The same fitting was also exhibited.
    1. Pane Kohanku 18 December 2019 15: 10 New
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      "A bullet for the king. The riddle of the Kaulbars nipple. On the 300th anniversary of the death of Charles XII."

      Have you been to her? and there is no photo from there? hi
      1. Mihaylov 18 December 2019 15: 29 New
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        Yes, I did, but I didn’t take a photo. Actually, only a fitting was exhibited from exhibits related to Charles XII. The rest is descriptive materials about the history of the study of his death.
        Here is a link about this exhibition on the website of the Artillery Museum:
        http://www.artillery-museum.ru/ru/library/temporal/exhibitions-archive/kaulbars.html
        1. Pane Kohanku 18 December 2019 15: 37 New
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          Hmm .. Thanks for the info! Will I post a little information on the forum by clicking on your link? wink With respect, Nicholai drinks
          However, disputes have still not ceased on which side this bullet flew. From the side of the Norwegian fortress or from the very opposite? And in this case, a reasonable question arises - could someone from the royal retinue have done this? Moreover, in the very place where the tragedy occurred, a man appeared who had no official need to be there. The senior adjutant of the king’s son-in-law, Frenchman Andre Sigier, appeared in the trench.
          According to eyewitnesses, several years later, during a serious illness, in delirium and with a high temperature, Sigye admitted that he had shot Charles XII. From the window of his apartment, he shouted to passersby that he was shooting at the king. Recalling himself, he said that these confessions were made in delirium.
          Sigye was part of the closest circle of the Swedish monarch, whose adjutant general was Johann Friedrich Kaulbars, who was next to the king during his death and became an unwitting witness to the tragedy. Being a great hunter to shoot at targets, Sigye often went to Baron Kaulbars to take advantage of the last fitting. For some reason, this fitting was especially fond of the Frenchman, and he filled his leisure time with shooting. Once Sigye, as usual, went to the baron and asked to use a fitting. Having taken the weapon, he retired, and after a few hours the news of the death of the king spread throughout the camp. On the same day, Sigye disappeared without a trace, and in his apartment the aforementioned fitting was found with traces of powder burning in the trunk. Further, as the family legend says: "Suspicion of the malicious killing of the king fell on Sigye, which since then has never been found by anyone."
          1. Mihaylov 18 December 2019 15: 47 New
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            I remember that at the stand it was written that negotiations are underway on the next exhumation of Karl’s body, but have not yet agreed on who it depends on (really forgot who: the royal family or the Swedish government) for the reason that several previous exhumations did not brought clarity to the question of his death. And as Undecim rightly noted above: "So there is no final version of the death of Charles XII."
          2. Undecim 18 December 2019 17: 47 New
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            This fitting does not fit. The caliber is small, 13 mm. And the hole in the hat and in the skull shows that the caliber should be 19-20 mm.
            1. Undecim 18 December 2019 17: 50 New
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              Description of the fitting and its history in an article by A. N. Kulinsky.
            2. Catfish 18 December 2019 19: 19 New
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              Hi victor Even if the caliber were suitable, in any case, in relation to the button, it is not a fitting. The fitting is a rifled weapon, and there are no marks on the button.
              1. Undecim 18 December 2019 19: 43 New
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                Yes, the threaded fitting has 8 rifling. They are not screw, straight. But in any case, traces would remain.
          3. Trilobite Master 18 December 2019 20: 34 New
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            I rummaged a bit on the net and that's what I dig.
            On the night of November 30, Charles XII went to inspect the construction of siege trenches and fortifications, and was unexpectedly hit by a bullet that went straight to the temple. Death was instant. At that moment, only two were beside him: Sigur - his personal secretary and Megre, a French engineer. The bullet hit him in the right temple; his head threw back, his right eye went inside, and his left completely jumped out of orbit. At the sight of the dead king Megre, the original and cold man, did not find anything else but to say: "The comedy is over, let's go to dinner."

            from the site https://bendery-fortress.com/karl-xii-i-ego-otstuplenie-v-bendery
            The death of Charles XII gave rise to a lot of speculation.
            In the museum of the city of Varberg, you can see the so-called bullet button. According to legend, the king was killed by a button melted into a bullet from his own military uniform. They say that a warliner tired of wars shot his commander.
            Several times they dug up the king’s grave for forensic and ballistic examinations, which could help solve the riddle.
            The last study, conducted in 2005 by historian Peter From, states that the king was killed by a Norwegian bullet. Both the direction and the distance between the Swedes and the Norwegian defenders of the fortress correspond to the nature of the wound in the king’s head.

            During the Second World War, Charles XII was a favorite of the local Nazis, the Swedish Fuhrer.
            In the Royal Garden in Stockholm stands a monument to Charles XII. In one hand he has a naked sword, with the other he points to the east, where his enemy is waiting.
            On the day of his death, racists and Nazis gather at the monument.
            Interestingly, neo-Nazis consider Charles XII a hero. The king was a fourth-generation migrant (great-grandfather ended up in Sweden after the Thirty Years War in what is now Germany). His mother was born in Denmark, which was then the sworn enemy of the Swedish state.

            https://inosmi.ru/history/20160710/237132331.html
            Finally,
            There are almost no traces of Karl under the walls of the Bendery fortress. But his image remained on the old city coat of arms from the time of the Russian Empire: he is depicted in the image of a lion with a human face. By the way, such a case is almost the only one in world practice when human features are literally “woven” into heraldry. The city returned this emblem to its 590th anniversary (it was celebrated in 1998). The double-headed eagle in the upper field means belonging to the Russian Empire. In the lower field lies a golden lion on a black background Bendery fortress. The predator is not simple: it is peaceful, without signs of militancy, with a pleasant "human face." Previously, such details were easily read by dedicated people, but now this science for many is a mystery with seven seals. Still, something needs clarification. Usually animals are depicted standing, with powerful claws, with an open mouth, so that fangs and a red tongue are visible. These are signs of militancy. Two such lions are on the coat of arms of Sweden, and two more animals are holding it, that is, they serve as shield holders. One of these four-legged was transferred to the coat of arms of Bender, only here he was pretty “tamed”. It’s not difficult to guess who the transformed lion with a human face represents. So the Swedish king forever remained in Bender.

            http://aif.md/priklyucheniya-karla-xii-v-benderax/

            Funny ... smile
            1. Korsar4 18 December 2019 22: 46 New
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              George the Victorious over the lower part would have looked nice.
  17. faterdom 18 December 2019 16: 22 New
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    What a reasonable, zealous and logical king! What a glow of democracy!
    "We have to negotiate!" - the then liberals would repeat in chorus if Peter allowed them to "glasnost". (He, however, did not allow, he had, let’s say, no matter with this)
    Oddly enough, the Turks look the most Christian in this story.
  18. voyaka uh 18 December 2019 16: 36 New
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    Interesting information. Karl did not know the adventures of the Turks.
    Truly, the reckless king was a knight "sick at the head" laughing
    ---
    In Stockholm, I ate their meatballs and cabbage rolls in restaurants - traditional Swedish food. I did not know that she came from Turkey.
    good
  19. svp67 18 December 2019 16: 50 New
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    His used energy, but for peaceful purposes ...
  20. wow
    wow 18 December 2019 17: 27 New
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    Dog - dog death ....! This is me about Mazepa.
  21. Doliva63 18 December 2019 18: 04 New
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    Picture from article: Goranet Goransson. “Captive Swedes in Moscow”, an illustration from the book of Oberg and Joransson “Caroliner”
    It seemed to me alone that captured Swedes were being removed to a mobile phone? laughing
  22. Catfish 18 December 2019 19: 31 New
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    Valery, thanks a lot! good
    It turns out I’m not at all and didn’t know about our twelfth Charles. And frankly, I didn’t expect such behavior from the Turks, it’s how much Christian patience the true Muslims have! And I learned a lot about Cantemir for myself, because I judged it by the "immortal and highly artistic" cinema production of the Moldova film "Dmitry Cantemir". And it is - there it is! Thanks again! For me, as for a dunno, a lot has turned upside down, or rather, on the contrary, in its place. smile

    To all friends an evening of good and best wishes! smile drinks
  23. 3x3zsave 18 December 2019 21: 21 New
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    My respect, Valery! Despite the fact that the facts presented in the material did not become a “revelation” for me (I know about Karl’s “Turkish adventures”), however, the article was a success !!!
  24. iouris 19 December 2019 23: 18 New
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    Author, bravo bravissimo! One feels both qualification and love for the subject. Special thanks for the illustrations. Other authors - learn how to properly format the material.
  25. Vanya Vasilievich 25 December 2019 22: 55 New
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    About this is written in one half-child book.
    Now I will look for the name
    1. XII Legion 26 December 2019 07: 56 New
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      "Winds of the Kulikov field." There about the adventures of Charles 12 after Poltava in Turkey
  26. bbss 22 January 2020 13: 15 New
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    Thank you for the article! I read it with great pleasure!
  27. old friend 27 January 2020 19: 31 New
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    Thank you so much for the article!
    Not the king, but the real God of war))
    The Turks surprised with their unexpected nobility. The law of hospitality and all that ...
    Mazepa’s response from the Turks really liked. The unfortunate country of Ukraine, if you choose such creatures as heroes.
  28. Crimea26 8 February 2020 21: 11 New
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    Goransson Goethe. “Captive Swedes in Moscow”, an illustration from the book of Oberg and Joransson “Caroliner”

    The picture could be called "Russian merchant removes captured Swedes on a smartphone"
  29. Seal 18 February 2020 15: 21 New
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    But after direct appeal Carla to the Janissaries, they rebelled and refused to go on the assault
    . Interesting, and in what language was this direct appeal of Charles XII to the Janissaries? Moreover, the appeal was clearly pathetically strong if, after this direct appeal (speech ??), the Janissaries rebelled.