Military Review

The situation around the retrofitting of the 108 zrp with the S-300ПМ-2 division. A challenging long-range upgrade

32

As shown by a superficial review of eminent domestic military-analytical sites, information about the intercession on combat duty near Voronezh (as part of the 108th anti-aircraft missile regiment of the Tula 32nd Air Defense Division) of the long-range anti-aircraft missile system S-300PM-2 Favorit caused some bewilderment among numerous observers aware of the tactical and technical parameters of its more modern modification - the S-400 Triumph air defense system.


In particular, some of the regulars of the Military Review informational-analytical online publication were puzzled by the following question: what criteria did the command of the anti-aircraft missile forces of the Russian Aerospace Forces guide in deciding whether to equip the 108 anti-aircraft defense system with less long-range and interference-free (in comparison with 400 “Triumph”) anti-aircraft missile system C-300ПМ-2 “Favorite”? Indeed, at first glance this issue looks more than relevant, because for covering strategically important military and industrial facilities in the southern part of the Central Federal District, an air defense system is used, equipped with a less "far-sighted" and interference-protected 30Н6Е2 radar and guidance (with a target capture range of EPR in 1 sq. M of the order of 170 — 180 km against 350 — 400 km on the 92Н6E radar of the Triumph complex, as well as a less “long-range" ammunition based on 48Н6Е2 anti-aircraft missiles with a range of 200 km scientific research with 250 km at the "triumph" interceptor missiles 48Н6DM).

The modernization and network-centric potentials of the S-300ПМ-2 air defense systems do not cease to amaze


Meanwhile, if you look at this situation in the planes of the well-known modernization reserve of the C-300ПМ-2 element base, as well as the level of harmonization of the radio-electronic “stuffing” of the 54K62 combat control station with modern automated control systems for mixed anti-aircraft missile brigades, you can come to a completely different opinion . In particular, despite the fact that the first prototypes of the 30Н6Е2 illumination and guidance radars were manufactured at the end of the 90-s, their radio-electronic architecture was unified as much as possible (by more than 85%) with the elementary more modern 92Н6Е anti-aircraft missile systems with -400 "Triumph."

Both radars are represented by passive phased array antennas with 10000 transmitting-transmitting modules (PPM) of the centimeter X-band and have differences only in the power of transmitters based on pulsed klystrons, which feed certain groups of transmitting-transmitting modules through ferrite phase shifters (92Н6Е radars are equipped significantly more powerful klystrons). There are also differences in the noise immunity of the 30Н6Е and 92Н6Е receiving radar paths formed by the combined use of linear and nonlinear channels for processing radar information.

And if you achieve a significant increase in the energy potential (respectively, and the detection range) of the 30Н6Е2 radar it will be very difficult due to the hardware "sharpening" of phase shifters and klystrons 30Н6Е2 for lower voltage and current, then re-equip the radar data with more advanced devices for processing radar information 92Н6Е radars will be much easier. Moreover, the functioning of the entire abovementioned element base is carried out by means of computing systems of the Elbrus-90micro family in the architecture of both the S-300PM-2 Favorite air defense system and the S-400 Triumph. Consequently, the issue of increasing the noise immunity of the S-300ПМ-2 air defense system can be successfully resolved even within the framework of a short modernization program.

As for the network-centric capabilities of the S-300PM-2 Favorit, they are at the level of four hundred. "Information fields" in general and multiplex data buses, in particular, of the 54K6E2 combat control points of the Favorit complexes are fully adapted to interface with both the automated control systems for the Polyana-D4M1 mixed anti-aircraft missile brigades (they receive target designation from any ground and airborne radar and radio-technical intelligence), and directly with modern all-altitude detectors 96L6 and low-altitude detectors "Podlyot-K1", which increase the efficiency of reflection of all-aspect missileaviation attacks from the enemy.

The possibility of retrofitting the “Favorites” with the latest 9М96Е / E2 missiles can be an extremely unpleasant surprise for a potential enemy


Finally, another significant advantage of the upgraded C-300ПМ-2 against the background of a noticeably lower cost in comparison with the C-400 Triumph is the ability to adapt the Favorita weapon-control system to the use of promising ultra-maneuverable anti-aircraft guided missiles 9М96Е / E2 equipped active radar seekers of the Slate type and gas-dynamic transverse control engines.

This is indicated not only by the unification of the “Favorites” and “Triumphs” in terms of the used computing systems of the Elbrus-90micro line, but also by the fact of the recent demonstration at the Ashuluk training ground (as part of the Russian-Serbian exercises “Slavic Shield 2019”) of an unusual modification of the launcher 5P85 systems of the C-300ПМ1 complex, equipped with both a transport and launch container with a 48Н6Е SAM, and a quad transport-launch "package" with 9М96Е anti-aircraft missiles.

The probable retrofitting of the S-300PM-1 and S-300PM-2 air defense systems with these interceptor missiles will bring their anti-aircraft / anti-missile potential to the level of the promising S-350 Vityaz air defense systems, allowing them to intercept targets hidden behind the radio horizon, as well as advanced American operational-tactical ballistic missiles "Deep Strike", undergoing field tests as part of the ambitious LRPF project and capable of implementing intense anti-aircraft maneuvers. As for the shorter range of the S-300PM-2 air defense system in comparison with the S-400 Triumph (200 versus 250 km), this problem may well be solved through support from the long-range MiG-31BM interceptors, because the 108th anti-aircraft - the missile regiment is deployed more than 180 km from the Russian-Ukrainian border - outside the range of the S-300V1 air defense missile systems inherited by the "independent" air defense system.
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  1. svp67
    svp67 14 December 2019 04: 25
    +5
    Voronezh, this is still the rear, albeit close. But ahead of these S-300s there are S-400 divisions, so I think that the "puff pie" that has now formed for any air enemy will be very difficult to overcome, if at all possible
    1. bessmertniy
      bessmertniy 14 December 2019 07: 25
      0
      Now our defense can be loved twice as much.
    2. YOUR
      YOUR 14 December 2019 10: 19
      +9
      With the development of offensive weapons, an increase in launch range, the word rear loses its meaning, especially if the rear is the Voronezh NPP
      1. Tiksi-3
        Tiksi-3 14 December 2019 10: 52
        +7
        Quote: YOUR
        especially if the rear is the Voronezh NPP

        there is no such thing in nature !! .... there is a Novovoronezh NPP !!!
        1. YOUR
          YOUR 14 December 2019 14: 02
          +2
          I agree. The name Novovoronezh NPP is located about 40 km from Voronezh. And what will cause her explosion scary to think.
          1. Dreama
            Dreama 15 December 2019 05: 33
            +2
            It's not scary to think, because "she" will not explode. The maximum is destroyed, but only either from a nuclear charge, or from hitting several conventional ones at the same point, which is unlikely. Much more realistic is the destruction of an electrical substation, which in terms of the short-term (relatively, of course) effect of a power outage is equivalent to the destruction of the station as such.
      2. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I 16 December 2019 01: 16
        +2
        The information in this article about the 48N6E3 zur in the S-400 "ammunition" in a certain sense confirms your opinion (or statement ...) in our previous dispute about the "purpose" of 48N6E3 ... Of course, Damantsev is not "the ultimate truth "and he may be wrong, but still .... It is very likely that I, nevertheless, was wrong! Therefore, I apologize to you for not listening to your arguments ... hi
        PS My opinion that the zuras of the "family" 48H6 are currently a "morally obsolete design" has not changed. When upgrading the S-300/400 in the future, these systems should be re-equipped with new missiles based on 9M96 and 40N6 ... It is not excluded that the 48N6 can be upgraded by equipping these missiles with active radar seeker, as is done in the 9M82MV missiles, but there are some doubts about the rationality of this "Events"...
      3. Charik
        Charik 16 December 2019 10: 54
        0
        Novovoronezh NPP, in Voronezh TPP
        1. Charik
          Charik 16 December 2019 11: 09
          0
          There she puffs dear in the window
    3. bayard
      bayard 14 December 2019 17: 04
      0
      Quote: svp67
      Voronezh, this is still the rear, albeit a neighbor.

      In light of the events of the past 6 years, Voronezh has long been not the rear, but rather a border / front-line (in the future) region. Especially in the context of aerospace attack means - flight time from non-brotherly territory is minimal.
      And Novovoronezh NPP certainly needs to be covered. And it’s good.
      1. Charik
        Charik 16 December 2019 10: 58
        0
        A couple of tori and Carapace would be put on duty right on the chalk mountains
        1. YOUR
          YOUR 16 December 2019 13: 27
          0
          Thor is not in service with the Aerospace Forces, it is the air defense of the ground forces. The VKS is armed with S-300, S-400 and Pantsir-S. The shell closes the "dead" funnel of the S-400 air defense system, most likely will be delivered to the brigades which are armed with the S-300
  2. Pravdalyub
    Pravdalyub 14 December 2019 05: 24
    0
    ... equipped with active radar seekers of the “Slate” type and gas-dynamic transverse control engines.

    It will be right - transverse gas-dynamic engines for maneuvering, and not transverse control.
    Dear Evgeny Damantsev! A lot of happy in your article!
    1. Amateur
      Amateur 14 December 2019 07: 41
      +3
      Dear Evgeny Damantsev! A lot of happy in your article!

      receive-transmit modules (ППМ) centimeter X-band, and have differences only in the power of the transmitters based on pulsed klystrons, which feed certain groups of transmit-receive modules through ferrite phase shifters

      Yes, to write such a phrase is definitely happy belay
      1. Pravdalyub
        Pravdalyub 14 December 2019 09: 36
        +6
        The amateur (Victor)! I did not write about this paragraph, I wanted to write in a personal, in view of the atrocities of the minusers and other well-wishers. At PFAR, one PRD is used on a span (multi-cavity) klystron to amplify microwave oscillations, to power all radiating elements of the grating through ferrite phase shifters (there are no pulsed action klystrons - this is stupid of the author). Apparently Damantsev was mistaken, having in mind the wiring of the transmitter circuits through the receiving PFAR modules. And of course, the PRD feeds through the ferrite phase shifters all the radiating elements of the lattice. Technically illiterate slang - but he is a journalist, you need to study him if you write on technical topics.
        1. Amateur
          Amateur 14 December 2019 09: 42
          +6
          Technically illiterate slang - but he is a journalist, you need to study him if you write on technical topics.

          Mr. Damantsev in principle does not understand how the locator works. I wrote to him repeatedly so that he would at least read it on the wiki. Unfortunately, he prefers to write rather than read.
          1. Pravdalyub
            Pravdalyub 14 December 2019 10: 14
            +11
            The amateur (Victor)! I want to teach everything to consider Damantsev’s range of detection of radar targets, according to their image intensifier, given the radar parameters. But you have to change the accounts. He recently taught Linnik and Zubrik about the shortcomings in their last article - as a result, he received an eternal ban. Although they were wrong, I behaved quite correctly.
            1. YOUR
              YOUR 14 December 2019 14: 11
              +3
              The height of the target is forgotten.
              Detection range depends on the height of the target, the image intensifier of the target and the radar parameters. The radar parameters are too multifaceted here and the wavelength and dimensions of the antenna system and signal power ..
            2. zyablik.olga
              zyablik.olga 15 December 2019 03: 36
              -4
              Quote: Truthfulness
              The amateur (Victor)! I want to teach everything to consider Damantsev’s range of detection of radar targets, according to their image intensifier, given the radar parameters. But you have to change the accounts. He recently taught Linnik and Zubrik about the shortcomings in their last article - as a result, he received an eternal ban. Although they were wrong, I behaved quite correctly.

              It is not surprising that you are constantly being banned, since you regularly slide into direct insults. Before teaching other radars, ask how much power Turkish radars radiate, and why this is so. And please learn to spell my nickname correctly.
              1. Pravdalyub
                Pravdalyub 15 December 2019 04: 47
                +2
                Quote: Sergey Linnik US missile defense system. Part 2. March 29, 2016.
                Transportation of the AN / TPY-2 radar is possible by air and sea, as well as in towed form on public roads. At 1000 km warhead detection range and a scanning angle of 10-60 °, this station has a good resolution, sufficient to distinguish the target against the background of fragments of previously destroyed missiles and separated stages. According to Raytheon's advertising information, the AN / TPY-2 radar can be used not only in conjunction with the THAAD system, but also as part of other missile defense systems.

                Quote: Sergey Linnik Turkey's air defense radar: will they ensure the safety of air lines? December 9, 2019.
                The AN / TPY-2 mobile early warning missile radar deployed in Turkey is located at an altitude of 2000 m above sea level, and approximately 700 km from the border with Iran. According to information published by Raytheon Corporation, a radar operating in the frequency range 8,55-10 GHz is capable of fixing ballistic targets above the horizon at a distance of up to 4700 km.

                Do you see the difference? Today is 15.12.2019/XNUMX/XNUMX.
                zyablik.olga (Olga)! What do you say to that? So how right? I hope you and the author S. Linnik fix this! At the time of my statement, this is not fixed.
                Waiting for your comments on the parameters of the Turkish AN / TPS-44 radar! There may be a mistake in the original source, but maybe not.
                1. zyablik.olga
                  zyablik.olga 15 December 2019 07: 25
                  -2
                  Quote: Truthfulness
                  The AN / TPY-2 mobile missile warning radar deployed in Turkey is located at an altitude of 2000 m above sea level, and approximately 700 km away from the border with Iran. According to information published by Raytheon Corporation, a radar operating in the 8,55-10 GHz frequency range is capable of fixing ballistic targets over the horizon at a distance of up to 4700 km.

                  Where did the figure of 4700 km come from? The author wrote in the comments.
                  Quote: Truthfulness
                  Waiting for your comments on the parameters of the Turkish AN / TPS-44 radar! There may be a mistake in the original source, but maybe not.

                  Your problem is that you consider yourself the ultimate "truth". No. How old are these radars, do you think that the Turks operate them at maximum power? The article indicates the real range, and not the passport for new radars. Data taken from English-language resources describing NATO air defense.
                  1. The comment was deleted.
    2. YOUR
      YOUR 14 December 2019 14: 03
      +3
      All his articles are all so joyful. And no comments are valid.
  3. Thrifty
    Thrifty 14 December 2019 08: 16
    +2
    Eugene, why worry, this is an element of INTEGRATED AIR DEFENSE - PRO! Some elements have the same characteristics, while others have the same search range - target detection is lower, but in general everything works EFFECTIVELY as a single working mechanism.
  4. Eug
    Eug 14 December 2019 09: 44
    +1
    If you need to "close" the area and the capabilities of the S-300PM-2 are enough for this, then why the redundancy of the S-400? They can be used with great benefit in other directions ...
  5. Starper-xnumx
    Starper-xnumx 14 December 2019 11: 18
    -3
    Well, missile launches in our direction, Russia can now detect all of them all ....
    But with the interception, so far only Moscow can boast, well, some regions of the country ... We are still far from the level of the USSR, but there are still "cunning systems" ... And the West understands this perfectly and is trying to put pressure on us from the inside (with its agents of influence )
    So the men watch, read, think, and as we say, "Don't believe. Don't be afraid, don't ask ..!"
    Work is going on ..
    1. Nick Russ
      Nick Russ 14 December 2019 12: 26
      +3
      The main thing is that the enemy understands that retaliation is inevitable, that we will respond to each missile with two: the first to where it flew from, and the second to where the decision was made. Then the anti-missile defense that Russia possesses will be more than enough.
      1. Starper-xnumx
        Starper-xnumx 14 December 2019 15: 14
        -1
        Quote: Nick Russ
        The main thing is that the enemy understands that retaliation is inevitable, that we will respond to each missile with two: the first to where it flew from, and the second to where the decision was made. Then the anti-missile defense that Russia possesses will be more than enough.

        Nicely written ..! But you don't count our "fifth column"
        After all, there can be betrayal and sabotage ..? It is so ..
        Now all of us (especially our children and grandchildren) are being processed in social networks .. Like "Katz offers to surrender .. heh heh"
        and live not to push hot dogs with cola to eat in Moscow ..
        And the rest did not fit into the market economy of Russia. request
        These are the things in the Urals and Siberia ..
        1. Nick Russ
          Nick Russ 14 December 2019 16: 04
          +1
          "Nicely written ..! But you do not take into account our" fifth column "
          After all, there can be betrayal and sabotage ..? It is so ..
          Now all of us (especially our children and grandchildren) are being processed in social networks .. Like "Katz offers to surrender .. heh heh"
          and live not to push hot dogs with cola to eat in Moscow ..
          And the rest did not fit into the market economy of Russia. request
          These are the things in the Urals and Siberia .. "

          It is clear that there is a lot of sad things, but I assure you that in case of war, there will be much fewer people who want to surrender than those who are ready to fight.
      2. 1Alexey
        1Alexey 14 December 2019 15: 48
        -1
        Quote: Nick Russ
        The main thing is that the enemy understands that retaliation is inevitable, that we will respond to each missile with two: the first to where it flew from, and the second to where the decision was made. Then the anti-missile defense that Russia possesses will be more than enough.

        In this situation, two missiles are not enough. After all, it will take more missiles to bring down an enemy missile, and this is another 1-2 missiles, i.e. a total of 3-4 missiles.
  6. Engineer
    Engineer 14 December 2019 21: 37
    +4
    Quote: Truthfulness
    (there are no klystrons of pulsed action - this is the stupidity of the author)

    Dear, how do you think the abbreviation of the name of the device (klystron) KIU is deciphered?
    1. Pravdalyub
      Pravdalyub 15 December 2019 05: 24
      +4
      Dear هندس (Sadik)! You are well done! It’s just that with those klystrons that I was familiar with earlier, there were KU klystrons that can work in continuous and pulsed mode ... In fact, everything depends on the power and heat removal. The pulse power is equal to the average power times the duty cycle. Example: Klystron No. 6 had an original design
      [3] and was intended for radar. He alternately
      worked in two modes, differing in power
      100 times. When tested experimentally
      multipath double-gap klystrons
      resonators obtained gain band more
      10%. For super beam (61 beam) klystron
      with single-gap resonators this value
      составило 18%. https://docviewer.yandex.ru/view/961755944/?page=1&*=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%3D%3D&lang=ru
      However, many pulsed klystrons operate continuously. Example:
      "Aerostat" had a smooth phase-frequency characteristic
      characteristics, pulse power 4 MW, medium
      nude power 20 kW, pulse duration
      up to 40 μs or more. It was provided with a gesture
      focusing electron beam thanks
      its magnetic accompaniment. This klystron
      intended to excite a large phase
      lattice of one of the system options
      missile defense. By agreement of the USSR–
      USA (1972) this missile defense option was excluded. The link is the same.
  7. Alex20042004
    Alex20042004 15 December 2019 07: 03
    -5
    Quote: Amateur
    Dear Evgeny Damantsev! A lot of happy in your article!

    receive-transmit modules (ППМ) centimeter X-band, and have differences only in the power of the transmitters based on pulsed klystrons, which feed certain groups of transmit-receive modules through ferrite phase shifters

    Yes, to write such a phrase is definitely happy belay


    Not happy only - the presence of all kinds of Chatterboxes in the VO.