Military Review

Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant. Tanks and aliens

126

T-29 was to become the first combat vehicle ChTZ


T-28 or T-29


The main plans for mobilizing the production facilities of ChTZ appeared from the first days of laying the factory buildings. At the same time, the specialists responsible for this actively attracted foreign experience in this area: in the archives you can find translations of Western open access magazines, which describe the serial production of military equipment. In particular, in the beginning of the 30-s, the magazine Machinery was written out at ChTZ, in one of the issues of which there was an article about the production of aircraft in Blackburn. The factory’s library also received specialized brochures on industrial mobilization in France and Poland.


C-60 - the first-born of the plant

The ChTZ mobilization plan itself first appeared in 1929 and had the S-30 index. This directive, among other things, included information on the preservation of the necessary number of workers and production equipment in the event of war. In the future, this plan was transformed into MV-10, which already provided for production tanks T-28 until the end of 1937. Later, the M-3 mobplan appeared, created in accordance with the requirements of the People's Commissariat of Defense. Mobilization plans included the deployment of military production, primarily at the Experimental Plant, followed by expansion to all ChTZ buildings. The plant’s technical director or chief engineer was responsible for monitoring the implementation of mobilization plans. They had to monitor the implementation of the ever-changing requirements of the People’s Commissariat and, most importantly, maintain the technical equipment planned for mobilization in working condition.




C-65: the first diesel tractor in the USSR

Lennart Samuelson in his work “Tankograd: Secrets of the Russian Rear 1917-1953” mentions the preparation at the end of the 1934 year of the Pilot Plant for the production of the T-28 tank. The drawings of the tank were planned to be transported to Chelyabinsk from Leningrad and to quickly equip the site for launching the tank in series. So it was seen by the leadership of the People’s Commissariat of Heavy Industry, and from there they pushed the factory management in every way with the implementation of the idea. At the beginning of the 1935 year, an order came to launch the production of a pilot batch of three T-28 tanks. Alexander Bruskin, director of the plant, responded to the order:

“As you know, we are completely unprepared for the production of 3 pcs. T-29 tanks, since work in this direction has not yet begun "
.

He demanded to send the tank to the factory as a sample and deliver the blueprint drawings. In addition, an order was issued to constantly inform the engineering staff of ChTZ about all changes in the design of the tank that are being introduced at the manufacturing plant. At the same time, the leadership of the People’s Commissariat did not finally decide what to do in case of mobilization: T-28 or T-29. During February 1935, this issue was in limbo. As a result, Sergo Ordzhonikidze signed 26 on February 1935 of the year Order No.51-ss (top secret) on the deployment of the production of the wheeled-tracked T-29-5. What happened. The reasons were the complexity of the design of the machine, the unreliability of the chassis, the changing priorities of the leadership of the tank-building industry and the high price of the machine itself - up to half a million rubles. The expert Yuri Pasholok cites as an example the cost of BT-7 in 120 thousand rubles, and the price of T-28 ranged from 250 thousand to 380 thousand rubles. As a result, the T-29 program was closed.

The main products of the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant all the pre-war time were C-60 tractors, the production intensity of which by 1936 year reached the planned 100 units per day. Already by 1937, the total volume of production fell from 29059 tractors to 12085, this was largely due to the development of the first serial diesel C-65. By the way, the index of the car meant the fact that the tractor immediately replaced 65 horses in agriculture! By the way, this has become one of the slogans for attracting labor from the village to the power of the Chelyabinsk Tractor. Cadres, as usual, decided everything in this case.

Everything at the Chelyabinsk Tractor!


Consideration of the pre-war readiness of the plant to become the legendary Tankograd is impossible without a separate story about the people who raised ChTZ with their own hands and worked in its workshops. In the first part of the story this was already discussed, but it is worthwhile to dwell on some points. Already in 1931, because of the chronic labor turnover, the management of the unfinished plant was forced to turn to the residents of the villages of the Urals:

“The tractors that our plant will produce will change your life, facilitate work, and improve the position of the collective farm. To finish the construction of ChTZ on time, your help is needed. ”
.

It was also a kind of mobilization, only in peacetime. In 1932, more than 7000 people arrived to work under an agreement with collective farms. Also, the management of the plant under construction was forced to deal with staff turnover in not the most traditional ways. So, the self-fixing of the worker at the plant was practiced on the basis of his written application, and many builders were obliged to work at the plant after its construction, that is, practically for life.














Pages of ChTZ's first gift album

No matter how it seemed socialist propaganda, the Stakhanov movement played an important role in the construction of the plant and its work. So, the leader of the socialist competition Leonid Bykov, with the norm in 560, stamped for changing 1859 links of tracks, and the grinder Irina Zyryanova processed 2800 piston wheels for a change at a norm of 2 thousand. But even at such an emergency pace of operation, the plant reached the planned operating mode only once - in 1936 year. One of the reasons for this was the weak professional staff at the plant, who did not have experience in such a serious and mass production. I had to “buy brains” abroad - the peak of attracting them to ChTZ was in the 1930-1934 years.

Two types of foreign citizens worked at the enterprises of the South Urals. The first came exclusively to earn money and received a salary in dollars or even gold. These were highly qualified specialists who held senior positions (they had young Soviet engineers as deputies), or advised when installing equipment and setting up. They received equivalently up to 1500 rubles per month with an average salary of the enterprise in 300 rubles. Specialists from abroad received part of the money in rubles in cash, and part in foreign currency to bank accounts. It was expensive for the Soviet state, and after the expiration of two or three year contracts, they usually did not extend. Thus, most of the most important specialists returned to their homeland by the 1933 year. The second category included ideological volunteers, often communists employed in jobs of medium complexity. Often, they simply escaped from unemployment that erupted in the West. At the same time, ChTZ, with its 168 foreign workers, was far from being the leader in the region in this regard - at the Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works, an 752 worker was immediately attracted from abroad.













Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant. Tanks and aliens




















Pages of ChTZ's first gift album

It is noteworthy that the most tense were the relations between foreign engineers and their Soviet colleagues. This was largely a result of claims from foreign guests. The blame was laid on the desire of the factory workers to fulfill their planned tasks at all costs, reluctance to borrow Western work ethics, the confidence of Soviet engineers in the fatal inevitability of losses, poor quality of work, and unsatisfactory performance discipline. In response, foreigners were regularly accused of sabotage and espionage, and 1931 engineers from Europe were immediately removed from the ChTZ under construction. Another reason for the feud could be a different household level, which provided the plant management with its workers and visitors from abroad. Foreigners, as is customary for us, got the most comfortable conditions: a separate room, free medicine, annual leave, food and non-food supplies. A fair indignation on the part of Soviet specialists was caused by the fact that even this was not enough for the guests. Foreign workers were created such living conditions that ordinary people from the Urals could not even dream of. But for the visitors themselves, in comparison with their homeland, this was nothing more than wretchedness.















A little ChTZ infrastructure

But how did our compatriots living in the construction of ChTZ live? At first it was barracks with bunk beds for 30-40 families, fenced off with bales and sheets. Later, nearby villages were settled, the conditions in which were no better. The barracks were dilapidated, without running water, with broken glass, in dugouts with an area of ​​8-10 m2 lived by 10-12 people. Typical complaint of one of the employees:

“In the evening, in our damned village of Kirsara, there is no way to go anywhere, it’s dark around. Going into a city or club is far and dangerous, hooligans hang around a lot. ”


In March 1937 of the year (CTZ was working hard), the NKVD carried out an unofficial check of the situation with the living conditions of factory workers. It turned out that there are six villages near Chelyabinsk, to which at least 50 thousand workers live! Most huddle in barracks and half dugouts.

To be continued ...
Author:
Photos used:
warspot.ru, arakoom.com, ssgen.livejournal.com, visz.nlr.ru, chelchel-ru.livejournal.com, chel-dpsh.ru, coberu.ru, ww2db.com, researchgate.net
Articles from this series:
"Tankograd." How the forge of caterpillar equipment of the USSR was born
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  1. svp67
    svp67 14 December 2019 04: 18
    +4
    At the beginning of 1935, an order came to launch the production of a pilot batch of three T-28 tanks. Alexander Bruskin, director of the plant, responded to the order:
    “As you know, we are completely unprepared for the production of 3 pcs. T-29 tanks, since work in this direction has not yet begun "

    It is a pity that there was not enough strength then to deploy tank production, but alas, the realities of that time.
    It is noteworthy that the most tense were the relations between foreign engineers and their Soviet colleagues.
    Grabin well described such a conflict in his book.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 14 December 2019 05: 51
      +9
      But still, well done South Ural, they raised such a plant! Moreover, Magnitogorsk and the Chelyabinsk Tractor really rose from their knees with a creak and at the expense of the peasantry! Just two hundred miles to the north, Yekaterinburg (Sverdlovsk) was in much better starting conditions, pumping for its giants Visa, Uralmash, UZTM and other workers from old Ural plants, including from the Chelyabinsk region (Kasli, Nyaze-Petrovsk, Upper Ufaley and others.).
      A number of districts of Yekaterinburg are still inhabited by the descendants of the labor mobilization of the 30s! For example, Verkh-Isetsky district - hamayuns (from Serginsky, Atigsky, Mikhailovsky, Verkhny-Ufaleysky plants).
      Good day to everyone and thank you for the article, respectfully Kote!
      1. Doliva63
        Doliva63 14 December 2019 20: 49
        +3
        "... for their giants Viz, Uralmash, UZTM, etc."
        So Uralmash - this is UZTM laughing
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 14 December 2019 21: 00
          +1
          Then I repent, I was imprinted - I meant the Kalinin plant (ZiK) recourse
          1. Mordvin 3
            Mordvin 3 15 December 2019 06: 46
            +1
            Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
            had in mind the Kalinin plant (ZiK)

            And I vote for the Zlatoust Instrument Plant. Also ZIK! yes
            1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka 15 December 2019 08: 06
              +2
              I agree, but in part! Zlatoust is a monocity, an old factory settlement, which itself had its own labor reserves initially! Similar examples in Pervouralsk, Verkhnyaya Pyshma, Kamens-Uralsk,
              The construction of factories of the giants of Chelyabinsk, Orenburg, Orsk, Nizhny Tagil, Yekaterinburg and Perm had a slightly different basis!
              For example, at the beginning of the last century, the Nizhneserginsky plant was inhabited by 25 thousand people. About 10 thousand people moved to Sverdlovsk on Komsomol and big trips, for a long ruble and just for steam heating !!! In this case, mainly at the Verkh-Isetskiy plant! Such a mobilization is surprising, but I gave only one (close to me) example!
              1. Mordvin 3
                Mordvin 3 15 December 2019 08: 12
                +2
                Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
                Kamens-Uralsk,

                Somewhere in that area I caught crayfish. Hands. You shine a flashlight and collect. The bastard, the bastard, was collecting tongs with confectionery, and my uncle and I were hands. Noble careers there. 60 meters deep. Those who drown are not even searched until they come up.
                1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                  Kote Pan Kokhanka 15 December 2019 08: 15
                  +3
                  We mainly go for crayfish to Chelyabinsk lakes or to Old Bukhara. We catch traps (snouts)!
                  hi
                  1. Mordvin 3
                    Mordvin 3 15 December 2019 08: 23
                    +1
                    Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
                    we go for crayfish to Chelyabinsk lakes

                    But the devil knows where they brought me ...
                    Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
                    We catch traps (snouts)!

                    They put three pieces, but with flashlights it is better. You walk, shine in the water, and collect ... In a couple of hours, half a bucket was collected. Somewhere near Gornouralsk.
                    And here I catch in a cliff. I dive two meters, I shove my hand into a cliff, there are holes ... Bite, bastards ... crying
                    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                      Kote Pan Kokhanka 15 December 2019 08: 58
                      +2
                      Probably still do not bite, but pinch! Although you don’t need teeth with such claws ... But it hurts, I definitely agree !!!
                      1. Mordvin 3
                        Mordvin 3 15 December 2019 09: 05
                        +2
                        Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
                        But then, in a filthy way it hurts, I definitely agree !!!

                        To the blood ... I came as from this hunt for crayfish, so I had all my fingers cut off. Put your hand in the hole, and he hisses, bastard. Somehow I tried to catch a mask, so I was scared of him. Who was there against the stone for cancer, still had to look. crying
      2. Mavrikiy
        Mavrikiy 16 December 2019 21: 54
        +1
        You do not understand, all industrialization was carried out with the help, at the expense of and on the bones of the peasantry. Until this is said, the civil war will not end. The endless claims of the Cossacks and national minorities against our savior Stalin and his will - the executor of the CPSU (B.). What is and was the peasantry - 85-90% of the country's population, the people. The people saved themselves by industrialization, not contrary to, but thanks to Stalin and the CPSU (b).
        What could the Ural plants of 1-5 thousand workers give? (We all judge by today, Chelyabinsk is a millionaire, when 50-60 thousand people began.) Specialists, skilled personnel who could train thousands, but decided by millions of workers.
  2. kalibr
    kalibr 14 December 2019 08: 18
    +4
    "In March 1937 (ChTZ was in full swing), the NKVD conducted a tacit check of the situation with the living conditions of the factory workers. It turned out that there are six villages near Chelyabinsk, where at least 50 thousand workers live! Most of them huddle in barracks and semi-dugouts."
    It would be interesting to know when these people moved at least to Khrushchev and how happy they were!
    1. Olgovich
      Olgovich 14 December 2019 09: 04
      0
      Quote: kalibr
      It would be interesting to know when these people moved at least to Khrushchev and how happy they were!

      Before the Khrushchev was thirty more years from the time described ....

      here is the post-war data (a lot has also passed:
      :
      At first it was barracks with bunk beds for 30-40 families, fenced off with bales and sheets

      And the huts themselves are like cowsheds ...

      For several years, at the turn of the 30s, 12-15 million fled from collectivization and starvation into cities, and the level of housing construction was ... military 1918 to 1938!

      Naturally, the number of births dropped sharply (plus hunger "helped".) ...

      Bottom line: the ban on abortion as early as 1936 - the demographic losses were so great (mostly Russians) ..
      1. Operator
        Operator 14 December 2019 09: 59
        +1
        Sometimes it's good to read what you post laughing

        According to ChTZ: 45700 lived in comfortable conditions and only 25300 - in uncomfortable ones.
        1. Olgovich
          Olgovich 14 December 2019 10: 55
          +2
          Quote: Operator
          Sometimes it's good to read what you post

          According to ChTZ: 45700 lived in comfortable conditions and only 25300 - in uncomfortable ones.

          Not only, but FULL 25 300 people in basements, attics and corridors. Few?!

          Did they spawn a lot in the corridors?

          Stalin, 1934: us 168 million
          Stalin, 30,35 we grow 3 million people per node
          Census 37 g: 162 million

          WHERE 15 million ?!
        2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 14 December 2019 11: 02
          +2
          Andrew! Ural people, at the beginning of the century before last there was quite a "rebellion"! Given the Bashkirs, Tatars, Voguls and Ostyaks !!! That in the days from Ivan IV the Terrible to Alexander I and the decade was not without turmoil, rebellion or rebellion !!! Either the Bashkirs are agitated, the Nogais roam, the Tatars burn towns or vice versa the Tatar yurts Orthodox Nagaybaks burn. In the north, Pelym and Konda worried more than once; in the south, foreign Kalmyks "calmed" their "volkolovye"! The Pugachev phenomenon may not be mentioned, but until the advent of advanced forms in the form of strikes, rallies and protests - the iron ore Ural constantly raged !!! Either the Kaslinsky gigars of the clerk will be put in a coal pit, or the owner's hammocks are not allowed into the factories! All this was interspersed with a thistle of iron caravans and suffering !!! Even at the end of the century before last, the Urals was quietly seething and suffered from the "deadbeat" syndrome! In fact, a class of "idolaters" of cast iron and steel was formed from serf workers !!! They were even afraid of the priests! For example, the dam could interrupt the Easter service during the spring flood !!!
          To this day, in small towns of the supporting edge of the state, being a hereditary metallurgist, steelworker and foreman is a brand steeper than the “son of the mayor”!
          So the skilled and unskilled workers of small Ural factories were lured by good housing, hot water and steam heating. The trouble is that they were not enough! So the locksmith’s apprentice from the Bisertsky factory went on a Komsomol ticket to work at the Verkh-Isetsky factory in a specific communal room as a locksmith, and his counterpart from the village of Tyulgash, on a similar ticket, occupied one bed in the next room and worked as a loader.
          According to the living conditions of workers, Chelyabinsk enterprises have always been inferior to neighbors from the Molotov, Sverdlovsk and Chkalov regions! Too much has been thrown to Magnitogorsk, the second and third have already collected the remaining resources!
          For the sake of example, I will give one fact! During the years of the first five-year plan alone, over a thousand families moved from the Nizhny Serginsky District to Yekaterinburg “to the Verkh-Isetsky Steel”, which is almost 6 - 000 people !!!
          Regards, Vlad!
          1. Operator
            Operator 14 December 2019 14: 31
            +7
            You and Olgovich cannot understand a simple thought - first the country must be protected, and then rebuilt (that is how it is written in the English business manual of the late 17th century in relation to investments). For Russia, the defense process began with the very formation of the state in the 9th century and continued regardless of the political regime.

            Our country became protected from any external aggression only at the end of the 80s of the 20th century, then the tired people allowed themselves to relax a bit and only now began to raise the standard of living to international standards.

            Unlike us, in a historical competition of 1250 years long, the West and the East could not solve the problem of their defense, since they set priorities according to the olgical principle bully
            1. Olgovich
              Olgovich 15 December 2019 08: 45
              +1
              Quote: Operator
              You and Olgovich cannot understand a simple thought - first the country must be protected, and only then rebuilt

              This is an excuse for those who DO NOT know how to lead and build, to justify their stupidity.

              Before the VOR, the country was deciding everything perfectly: see the growth of the country, the growth of its population, the growth of consumption (the consumption level of 1913 was reached only after 40-50 years).
              1. Den717
                Den717 16 December 2019 14: 19
                -1
                Quote: Olgovich
                Before the thief, the country was deciding everything perfectly: see the country's growth, its population growth, and consumption growth.

                It seems so to you. The normal average peasant saw neither meat nor bread without bran. Agriculture stagnated in the complete absence of modern agricultural technology at that time. And then World War I exacerbated the situation. The military department noted that about 90% of draftees first tried meat in the army.
                1. Olgovich
                  Olgovich 17 December 2019 08: 07
                  -1
                  Quote: Den717

                  It seems so to you. The normal average peasant saw neither meat nor bread without bran. Agriculture stagnated in the complete absence of modern agricultural technology at that time. And then World War I exacerbated the situation. The military department noted that about 90% of draftees first time meat tried in the army.

                  Leave this nonsense for the 70s of the last century.

                  Report of the Central Statistical Bureau of the USSR 55 to help you.
              2. Mavrikiy
                Mavrikiy 16 December 2019 22: 15
                -2
                Quote: Olgovich
                Quote: Operator
                You and Olgovich cannot understand a simple thought - first the country must be protected, and only then rebuilt

                This is an excuse for those who DO NOT know how to lead and build, to justify their stupidity.

                Before the VOR, the country was deciding everything perfectly: see the growth of the country, the growth of its population, the growth of consumption (the consumption level of 1913 was reached only after 40-50 years).

                What did you build, builder Dawood? Oh, they didn’t trust you, well then in the garden ... request
                the consumption level of 1913 was achieved only after 40-50 years).
                Yes, filling the gut is a long and creative process, but Khrushchev helped you with the problem, put a monument to him. feel
                1. Olgovich
                  Olgovich 17 December 2019 08: 09
                  -3
                  Quote: Mavrikiy
                  What did you build, builder Dawood? Oh, they didn’t trust you, well then to the garden ..

                  A good city built, with all communications.
                  Quote: Mavrikiy
                  Yes, filling the gut is a long and creative process, but Khrushchev helped you with the problem, put a monument to him.

                  Go back to the Khrushchev era and chew something that was not in the stores: meat, milk, etc.
                  1. Mavrikiy
                    Mavrikiy 17 December 2019 08: 12
                    -1
                    Go back to the Khrushchev era and chew something that was not in the stores: meat, milk, etc.
                    I would return to the Khrushchev era, but where to get Stalin?
                    1. Olgovich
                      Olgovich 17 December 2019 08: 38
                      -2
                      Quote: Mavrikiy
                      I would return to the Khrushchev era, but where to get Stalin?

                      belay for anything yes
        3. AU Ivanov.
          AU Ivanov. 14 December 2019 11: 59
          0
          What did they consider comfortable conditions? Separate bunk bed? Imagine uncomfortable conditions.
          1. Saxahorse
            Saxahorse 19 December 2019 00: 05
            0
            Quote: AS Ivanov.
            What did they consider comfortable conditions? Separate bunk bed? Imagine uncomfortable conditions.

            Try to compare with the year 1899. About 30% of the workers rented a room, about 55% of the workers rented a bed in a hut, and another 15% rented half of the bed, i.e. took turns sleeping with someone. But also not for free.

            And yes, this is not Chelyabinsk, it was Moscow.
      2. chenia
        chenia 14 December 2019 10: 41
        +4
        Quote: Olgovich
        And the huts themselves are like cowsheds ...


        If they hadn’t built a plant (plants), they would have lived not in barracks, but in German concentration camps.

        Quote: Olgovich
        ban on abortion as early as 1936


        The ban increased the birth rate by 1/5. But the increase jumped by almost 50%.
        1. Olgovich
          Olgovich 14 December 2019 10: 57
          -6
          Quote: chenia
          The ban increased the birth rate by 1/5

          But NEVER returned to the level of 1928
          But the increase jumped by almost 50%
          .Yes Yes:

          Stalin, 1934: us 168 million
          Stalin, 30,35 years: we grow 3 million people per node
          Census 37 g: 162 млн

          WHERE 15 million ?!
          1. evgen1221
            evgen1221 14 December 2019 14: 49
            +3
            And what are you measuring with today's standards? Comfort, patriotism, needs and other universal humanity and constantly transfer it to that time? You can not do it this way. You are mistaken, comrade.
          2. chenia
            chenia 14 December 2019 21: 25
            0
            Quote: Olgovich
            Census 37 g: 162 million


            For a start 1937 - 164,5 million (census)
            On 1930- 156,5 million
            The increase was up to 1937 million before 2, and only then (1936 ban on abortion under 3 million)
            Yes shortage. 5 million (hunger, and falling birth rates from this cause).
            1. Olgovich
              Olgovich 15 December 2019 08: 38
              -2
              Quote: chenia
              For the beginning of 1937, 164,5 million (census)

              Do not bring nonsense: the leadership of the country I. Kraval (TSUNHU) was informed that
              “The total population of the census on January 6, 1937 was 162 003 225 people
              Quote: chenia
              For 1930- 156,5 million

              Stalin, 1934 - "us 168 млн"
              do we know arithmetic?

              WHERE 15 million ?!
              1. chenia
                chenia 15 December 2019 09: 24
                0
                Quote: Olgovich
                do we know arithmetic?


                We know.
                1939 - 170 million
                HOW?
                Do not use muddy springs.
                1. Olgovich
                  Olgovich 15 December 2019 11: 18
                  -2
                  Quote: chenia
                  We know.

                  no. So what about the 1937 census?
                  Quote: chenia
                  1939 - 170 million
                  HOW?
                  Do not use muddy springs.

                  All sources are OFFICIAL and irrefutable.

                  3 million for the census 39 g-REGISTRY is also an official fact.

                  But even if 170 million

                  168 + 3 * 5-170 = 13 million

                  WHERE 13 (16 actually)) million?
                  1. chenia
                    chenia 15 December 2019 14: 58
                    0
                    Quote: Olgovich
                    All sources are OFFICIAL and irrefutable.


                    Recently "official" sources reported, and you also pointed out to them that in 1941 the population of the USSR was 203-206 million (or maybe even 209). Well, that would have been more losses in the Second World War. It was after all.
                    Do the numbers not bother you?
                    1. Olgovich
                      Olgovich 16 December 2019 07: 44
                      -1
                      Quote: chenia
                      Recently, "official" sources reported, and you also pointed out to them, that in 1941 the population of the USSR was 203-206 million (and maybe even 209). Well, that would be more losses in the Second World War. It was.
                      Do the numbers not bother you?

                      Do not shy away from the topic: WHERE 13-15 million people (and this is even according to obviously false statements and censuses)?
                      1. chenia
                        chenia 16 December 2019 11: 25
                        0
                        Quote: Olgovich
                        Census 37 g: 162 million


                        The census of 1939 -170 million people.

                        You do not bother.

                        How? You, what muddy sources show. Mind needs a lot. to see the discrepancy.
                      2. Olgovich
                        Olgovich 16 December 2019 11: 29
                        -1
                        Quote: chenia
                        The census of 1939 -170 million people.

                        You do not bother.

                        According to the 1939 census, -167 million.
                        Three million to 170 million postscript-read the census history
                        Quote: chenia
                        How? You, what muddy sources show. Mind needs a lot. to see the discrepancy.

                        WHAT muddy, what, say, finally! Stalin, the census, WHAT ?!
                      3. chenia
                        chenia 16 December 2019 11: 40
                        0
                        Quote: Olgovich
                        WHAT?!


                        July 1941-196 млн. An increase of 7 million from 1939 (January) + 19 million (according to other sources 16 million), new territories.
                        AS? What is the 1941 registry post ?.
                      4. Olgovich
                        Olgovich 16 December 2019 12: 06
                        -1
                        Quote: chenia
                        July 1941-196 million. An increase of 7 million from 1939 (January) + 19 million (according to other sources 16 million), new territories.
                        AS? What is the 1941 registry post ?.

                        What are the "muddy" sources of those that I am you brought?
                        Your numbers
                        Quote: chenia
                        1941-196 million. Growth of 7 million from 1939 (January) + 19 million (according to other sources 16 million), n
                        -In general, they’re not worth a penny, there are no justifications
                      5. chenia
                        chenia 16 December 2019 13: 35
                        0
                        Quote: Olgovich
                        -In general, they’re not worth a penny, there are no justifications


                        What do you justify, you and the thought is not visible. You. what you don’t see, according to your estimates, from 1937 to 1939 an increase of 8 million is obtained. AS (? it was not more than 3 million, and then from the 37th year of the year of mass repressions and the year of the largest population growth in 20 years).
                        And if you follow that there were postscripts (i.e., yours is 167 million), then HOW in 1941 was 30 million more?
                      6. Olgovich
                        Olgovich 16 December 2019 14: 53
                        -1
                        Quote: chenia
                        What do you justify, you and the thought is not visible. You. you don’t see, according to your estimates, from 1937 to 1939, an increase of 8 million is obtained.

                        THIRD TIME
                        :
                        Census 39 g - 170 million

                        168 + 3 * 5-170 = 13 million

                        WHERE 13 (16 actually)) million ?!
                        Quote: chenia
                        And if you follow that there were postscripts (i.e., yours is 167 million), then HOW in 1941 was 30 million more?

                        At 41 g there was a census ?!
                      7. chenia
                        chenia 16 December 2019 16: 41
                        0
                        Quote: Olgovich
                        THIRD TIME


                        Well, how can one think so?
                        So the census of 1926 (Stalin certainly did not intervene) -147 млн.
                        With an average increase from 1920 to 1,6 million, not terror, nor collectivization. NEP and grace.

                        Let the increase to 1934 be 1,9, then + 8 * 1,9 =15 million
                        From here in 1934 162 млн.and this is the maximum figure.

                        Under three million growth will be after the ban on abortion in 1936 (which means in 1937, this is the subtleties of physiology).

                        In 1937 (census) -164 млн. but here they base on falsification, although this figure shows the loss ofabout 5 millionperson (hunger, collectivization, repression)

                        But the next famous figure is 1939 (census) -170,6 million (That's an increase of 3 million)
                        Official data. What do you need?

                        Where do you get the information from?
                      8. Olgovich
                        Olgovich 17 December 2019 08: 05
                        -1
                        Quote: chenia
                        Where do you get the information from?

                        See above: STALIN and CENSUS.
                        Все.
        2. AU Ivanov.
          AU Ivanov. 14 December 2019 11: 47
          0
          It was possible, instead of barracks, to build more comfortable housing. It is not much more expensive.
      3. Olgovich
        Olgovich 14 December 2019 12: 42
        -5
        foreign specialists. The second category included ideological volunteers, often communists employed in jobs of medium complexity


        How many of them survived by 1940?
        I'm afraid that none.
    2. Atomic cosmic
      Atomic cosmic 14 December 2019 09: 05
      -14
      Hmm, in Russia there has always been a bestial attitude towards your people! Why was it impossible to create good human conditions? Good salaries, etc.? But no, we must drive them to construction sites like cattle!
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 14 December 2019 09: 55
        +5
        Quote: Atomic
        Hmm, in Russia there has always been a bestial attitude towards your people! Why was it impossible to create good human conditions? Good salaries, etc.? But no, we must drive them to construction sites like cattle!

        Two centuries before the Chelyabinsk Tractor Count, the Stroganovs began to build the Bilimbaevsky Mining and Metallurgical Plant. At the same time as the dam, a hospital and an elementary school were built. At least 20 acres were allocated for gardens and houses, about 2 hectares per head for mowing! Houses with three or four windows are still found in the village! What is a social project of the 18th century !!! Even the park - marina grove, is still preserved.
        Even the Demidovs did not forget about people when building their “empire”. In the Nizhneserginsky and Verkhneserginsky plants, the family was allocated about 15 acres in the city, mowing land up to 3 hectares. True, the houses were built on their own, but for the skilled labor of the "artisans", streets and aisles of special buildings were built. And this is the second half of the 18th century!
        1. Atomic cosmic
          Atomic cosmic 14 December 2019 10: 43
          0
          What then prevented ChTZ from doing the same?
          1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka 14 December 2019 17: 17
            +1
            Quote: Atomic Cosmic
            What then prevented ChTZ from doing the same?

            I won’t surprise you, but many haven’t done anything like that!
            According to the Stroganovs, I will give one more interesting example. Few people know, but at the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries a number of Bashkir (Tatar) yurts asked for “serfs” to the counts !!! Yes, yes to serfs - bondage with land and land for a thousand hectares with a tail! Under the reforms of Catherine, most of the Bashkirs received the Cossack “help”, but a number did not. So the Akbash and Tulgash Tatars went the other way and secured themselves in replacement of those social benefits that the Stroganovs offered for their workers.
            Now a little about the specifics of the ironworks of the Urals !. In fact, serf workers and registered peasants worked at all mining plants without exception! By accounting all lay down to cattle and small cattle. Which, like people, had its own labor lesson in the construction and repair of dams and dams! The difference between a serf and a worker was only that the first lived in the village and worked at the factory for service (corvée), the second lived at the factory, which for the latter was both daily bread and the "fiery" devil! The peasants came and went, and the worker lived in a factory! The working day is 12 hours, the process is continuous (round-the-clock) in three shifts (you work for half a day - you relax for a day). The work is fiery, but the plowman with difficulty is incomparable! The rest of the gigari, horse breeders, etc. work for the lesson. One plus in daylight, and so the norm for a coal burn is 500 pounds of coal per month! To do this, he allocated a horse, a plot, a place under the house with a garden and mowing! Spin further as you can. If you have a strong family, then you are in the ladies. If you complete the lesson in two, well done get a second horse and grasslands! All this is a system of self-organization and high quality production. The serf worker had a chance to advance higher with his mind and hard work! The breeder, in turn, was vitally interested in training his staff! From here the Ural matrix of “apprenticeship” and the veneration of “artisan man”! Remember Bazhov and Mom’s Siberian! Workshop is the top of the working socio-economic system! The truth is simple if you know how to cook steel, you are a “god and a devil” who has the right to give the owner an attorney in the mouth and be the first to speak with the owner! For this they could have beaten and hunted down by a bear, but there could not be more than three fire masters per blast furnace (1 shift) !!! So baiting the "master" is equivalent to losing a third of the income! The ore miners, dams, caravans, casters enjoyed the same privilege. Advanced merchants, even trained their specialists at state-owned factories (Kamensky and Yekaterinburg). Moreover, in the 30s of the century before last, mining workers were equated with servicemen!
            If the native Ural worker knew on his fingers that he would burn with iron all his life, but from the factory he would have a piece of bread, his own five-wall house, a burenka in the backyard, mowing and garden! Even if you stand out for a lesson or a shift, the Plant is obliged to give you all this !!! Up to two weeks vacation, for the time of suffering! Therefore, the Ural worker could hate the breeder, but idolized the factory! This system collapsed along with serfdom! The factory worker could not understand why he should work for money? Pay for mowing? Fortunately no one hinted at paying for the garden and land !!! Who such defaulters can google and read!
            Many factories simply stood up and people lived on their own farm! To reanimate the Ural plants did not work out for everyone and not immediately. So not surprisingly, ordinary workers supported the Reds. The Bolsheviks promised that the factories would work and did not deceive; Uralmash, Elmash, Himash, Yuzhmash, the Chelyabinsk Tractor, Nizhny Tagil Carriage Building and many other plants vacuumed labor reserves from small Ural plants. The war gave a new impetus, which is hard not to appreciate. Evacuated plants were built in a snowy forest. Near the railway a forest fell from which barracks and factory buildings were built. But this is a different story, therefore I will not be ahead of the Author!
            I will answer only my vis-a-vis! People went to work for the priest, for the future, for metal !!!
        2. Krasnoyarsk
          Krasnoyarsk 14 December 2019 11: 03
          +7
          Quote: Kote pane Kohanka

          Two centuries before the Chelyabinsk Tractor Count, the Stroganovs began to build the Bilimbaevsky Mining and Metallurgical Plant. Along with the dam, was

          There is one "insignificant" nuance - the graphs had nowhere to rush, and I think they had no problems with funds.
          Unlike them, the Soviet government was in a hurry and no one gave loans to them, and if it did, they only had enough to purchase the necessary equipment. As they say - not to fat, to be alive.
          If a person commits something, then they say - he accomplished a feat. In the 30s, the whole country performed a labor feat! All the people performed an incredible labor feat. And one person organized this feat - I.V. Stalin.
          1. Atomic cosmic
            Atomic cosmic 14 December 2019 11: 39
            +7
            Here is a nuance for you to read how, at all times, a working man was considered cattle, and don’t forget the countess lived in the time of serfdom Russia, which we lost ”: factory hell in tsarist Russia

            As for everyday life, a person who does not know what a working barracks is has no idea of ​​“Russia that we lost”. In many factories, workers used housing from the owner. Sometimes these were houses where the family could get a room and even a piece of land for a garden for a reasonable fee, but it was so rare that you could not take it into account.

            completely ... So, at the Obukhov plant, one of the largest and richest in St. Petersburg, only 40 families of 2 thousand working people used good rooms. The barracks of the Maxwell factory were considered good - however, there were no separate rooms even for family rooms, and a place in a bed cost 2 rubles. 25 kopecks But, for example, brick factories - they were grouped along the Shlisselburg tract. The word to factory inspectors is better than them, you will not say.

            “At every factory there are working huts consisting of a room for a kitchen and an attic. This last serves as a room for workers. There are bunks on both sides of it, or simply planks are laid on the floor, replacing bunks covered with dirty matting with some clothes in their heads .. The floors in the workrooms are so clean that they are covered with a layer of dirt for several inches ... Living in such dirt, workers spread such a huge number of fleas, bugs and lice that, despite great fatigue, sometimes after 15-17 hours of work, they cannot fall asleep for a long time ... Not a single brick factory has a slop pit, slops spill out near the workers' dwellings , all kinds of impurities immediately fall, workers immediately wash themselves ... ”

            Now about the "free" homes. “On the Petersburg tract, apartments for workers are arranged in this way. Some woman rents an apartment from the owner, sets the plank beds around the walls as much as she can fit, and invites tenants to her, taking 5 kopecks from each of them. per day, or 1 rub. 50 kopecks per month. For this, the worker uses half the bed, water and free laundry. ”

            And here is a genuine cesspool, in the vicinity of the powder factories. “The basement of house number 154 is especially terrible: it is a depression in the ground of at least 2 arshins, it is constantly filled, if not with water, then with liquid from a nearby latrine, so that the rotten boards that make up the floor literally float, despite the fact that his tenants are diligently engaged in drying their apartment, daily scooping up several buckets. In such a room, with a content of 5,33 cubic meters. Sazhen (with a ceiling height of 2 with a small meter, this room is about 20 square meters) of killer air in itself, I found up to 10 residents, including 6 minors. ” (He found so much. And how many was at work during his visit?) What was Dostoevsky with his “humiliated and insulted”? Is it poverty? After all, even the impoverished Marmeladov family lived, though in a passage room, but in a separate one-family home and not in the basement - factory workers would consider such conditions imperial!

            And now, as the author of The Position of the Working Class in Russia says, “we will stock up on courage and take a look into the interior of Russia.” Indeed, courage is required - even to read about such an existence, if you, of course, are a person with imagination and not from the “new Russians” who dream of a company without a trade union. In most factories in the interior of Russia, the premises for workers were divided into two categories: barracks and cellars. What is a barracks, everyone who reads the history of the Gulag knows that this is an ordinary hut with bunks, at about the same or greater crowding. But the prisoner at least had his own separate place on the plank beds, but the worker did not have it - the plank beds, like the workshops, were used in two shifts. Lockers - this is the same hut, but divided into separate cells - this housing is intended for family workers. Just do not think that the room fits in one family - usually two or three, but sometimes up to seven. However, even such closets for families are not enough - what kind of people this is, there is no way to get bread in the sweat of the face and calm down on this, but they still want some kind of personal life there! Quite spoiled!

            In anticipation of their turn for a piece of the room, couples are placed in the same barracks. In these cases, they separate their seats on the bunks with curtains. “Sometimes manufacturers meet this natural desire of the workers and make plank partitions with a height of one and a half arshins (about a meter) on the platform of the bunk bench, so that a row in the full sense of the word stall for each pair is formed on the bunks.” After some time, a cradle appears at the feet of such a “dwelling” - which means that people also manage to make love in this room! Truly, for which man cannot adapt ...

            Finally, “in most factories, for many workers, as usual, they don’t make special bedrooms.” This means that workers sleep in the same workshops where they work. Weavers (hand) sleep on machines, joiners on workbenches, unfortunate gunmen on the same washcloths and gun mats they make, in the same damp and suffocating rooms. Considering that the gunners also have the longest working day in Russia — up to 18 hours, then their whole life passes in these dark stuffy shops. And work here mainly, we remind once again, women and children.

            I wonder what the Adelkhanov factory looked like, which was brought by the father of 11-year-old Joseph? What was the working day there, how much did workers receive and where did they sleep? Youngsters were taken there - this is understandable. Perhaps the reason that Catherine told everyone that her husband was dead was because she saw when she arrived in Tiflis to visit her son. She found Coco in a stinking hut or in a workshop where cobblers worked and slept, and said to her husband: “What are you doing, where did you bring your only child? I don’t want to know you anymore; you are dead to me! ”

            For sure, Mr. Pazhitnov's favorite was the Khludov manufactory, the one where the toilets were not cleaned so that the workers did not rest in them. “Serving as the nest of every infection, the millionth factory of Khludov is at the same time a model of the ruthless exploitation of national labor by capital,” says the study of the Zemstvo Sanitary Commission (1880). “Work at the factory is extremely unfavorable: workers have to inhale cotton dust, be under the influence of suffocating heat and suffer a suffocating smell spreading from badly arranged retiree. Work goes on day and night, everyone has to work 2 shifts a day, after 6 hours taking a break, so in the end the worker can never get enough sleep. At the factory, workers are housed in a huge damp building, divided like a giant menagerie into cages or lockers, dirty, stinking, stained with latrines. Residents are stuffed in these closets, like herring in a barrel. The Zemsky Commission cites the following facts: a cubicle of 13 cubic meters. Sazhen serves as a room during work for 17 people, and on holidays or while cleaning machines - for 35 to 40 people ...

            The exploitation of child labor was carried out on a large scale. Of the total number of workers, 24,6% were children under 14 years old, 25,6% were teenagers under 18 years old. The fatigue associated with labor at the factory was so great that, according to the Zemstvo doctor, children who suffered some kind of mutilation fell asleep during the operation with such a strong, as if lethargic sleep that they did not need chloroform ...

            On January 23, 1882, the Khludov manufactory caught fire, and from the huge five-story building there were only stone walls. However, Khludov was not at a big loss - he received 1 million 700 thousand rubles. one insurance amount, but the victims were the same workers. After the fire, seven carts of corpses remained. By order of the director Milench, the workers were locked in a burning building so that they would not run up and put out the fire better, and the watchmen outside would even drive away those who wanted to help the burning ...

            In conclusion, we can say that net income was 45% per year. ”15 Marx, it seems, said that there is no crime that the capitalist would not commit for the sake of 500% profit? Really, he thought too well of people!

            In the biography of the same manufacturer Khludov, there is such a case: he made a donation to support a printing house that printed liturgical books for schismatics of the same faith, and then, returning home, ordered compensation to reduce his workers' salaries by 10% - that was his understanding " Christian feelings. "

            There is only one explanation for the fact that the workers put up with such an inhuman existence - they were mainly seasonal workers, peasants who came to the cities to work. Not without reason at many enterprises, especially small ones, the final settlement was made “by Easter” - because the workers left for the village for the whole summer. One hundred years later, many shift workers, co-workers, etc., also lived, if not in such conditions, then not in the best, and also worked for 16 hours, and calmly endured all this, because then they returned with money to their families. But everything changed when the workers began to break away from the village, and this existence became their only one. And when this terrifying life became the only life of people, clusters of anger began to ripen in their souls. But how, tell me, should a person react when the owner donates 120 thousand to the printing house, and then cuts the beggarly wages of workers by 10%?
            1. Krasnoyarsk
              Krasnoyarsk 14 December 2019 16: 16
              -1
              Quote: Atomic Cosmic

              Here is a nuance for you to read how, at all times, a working man was considered cattle, and don’t forget the countess lived in the time of serfdom Russia, which we lost ”: factory hell in tsarist Russia

              Everything is correct, but I don’t understand why this whole opus is an answer as an answer to my post. What did you want to tell me?
            2. karabass
              karabass 14 December 2019 22: 47
              0
              Thank you for your comment, it will be useful for many to read
          2. Olgovich
            Olgovich 14 December 2019 12: 33
            -8
            Quote: Krasnoyarsk
            There is one "insignificant" nuance - the counts had nowhere to hurry, and with the funds, as I think, they had no problems.
            Unlike them, the Soviet government was in a hurry and loans to them no one gave, and if he did, then they were enough only for purchase nnecessary equipment.

            So it was necessary to leave those who have money were and brains in place.
            Quote: Krasnoyarsk
            If a person commits something, then they say - he accomplished a feat. In the 30s, the whole country performed a labor feat !.

            Feats often, alas, appear where leaders do not know how and cannot organize normal routine daily work (as in other countries).
            1. Krasnoyarsk
              Krasnoyarsk 14 December 2019 16: 19
              +5
              Quote: Olgovich

              Feats often, alas, appear where leaders do not know how and cannot organize normal routine daily work (as in other countries).

              Yes, the Soviet leaders failed to organize the work. It was the Martians who organized the construction of thousands of plants and factories, eliminated illiteracy, etc., etc., etc.
              1. Olgovich
                Olgovich 15 December 2019 09: 00
                0
                Quote: Krasnoyarsk
                Yes, the Soviet leaders failed to organize the work. .

                Naturally, NO: the demographic catastrophe of the Russian people, which began simultaneously with collectivization and sterilization to help you.

                ,
                It is the Martians who organized the construction of thousands of factories, eliminated illiteracy, etc., etc., etc.
                .No, it was under the Martians that the WILD, hungry deaths unprecedented in the world of 1922, 25, 33, 47 were organized by themselves.

                And the largest country in the world - with the strongest young people, with 130 thousand schools, with hundreds of teachers' TVs, with world universities, with the working class, with thousands of factories - these are foreign tourists with them, they brought them from the Swiss to the "desert" of Mars, to tattered bowler hat ich, apparently
                1. Krasnoyarsk
                  Krasnoyarsk 15 December 2019 10: 10
                  +1
                  Quote: Olgovich
                  Naturally, NO:

                  What not? Did not organize construction, industrial breakthrough?
                  See your doctor, something is wrong with your head.
                  Don’t bother me with your stupidities.
                  1. Olgovich
                    Olgovich 15 December 2019 11: 07
                    0
                    Quote: Krasnoyarsk
                    What not? Did not organize construction, industrial breakthrough?

                    Before them, there was no building, there weren’t factories ?! Before VOR-Russia, it is the country with the highest growth rate of production in the world. The collapse and DEindustrialization occurred after the Thief.

                    These "organizers" reached the production level of 1913 only by 1928; more than ten years of development down the drain! The same applies to schools, workers, etc.

                    Did it get there?
                    those. by 1940 the country without "! organizers"would have come to BETTER results than those achieved at the cost of the death and suffering of millions of" blessed. "
                    Which, by the way, NEVER, ANYWHERE to the organizers SO were not allowed to organize.

                    What organisms, by the way, were embarrassed to talk about the death of millions from starvation in 1933, to hold elections after that, eh?


                    Were afraid of an answer for "progynization", eh?
                    Quote: Krasnoyarsk
                    something is wrong with your head.
                    Don’t bother me with your stupidities.

                    Coupons for shorts, the Russian Cross and the borders of the 17th century are the result of your shopping cart.

                    Don’t bother me with your stupidities.
                    belay
                    fool This is YOU Hitched to my comment with your bullshit, forgot?
                    1. Mordvin 3
                      Mordvin 3 15 December 2019 11: 12
                      +2
                      Quote: Olgovich
                      Coupons for pants

                      Cowards and T-shirts were introduced to the Red Army in the 1940th year, if sclerosis does not confuse me. feel
                      1. Olgovich
                        Olgovich 15 December 2019 11: 45
                        0
                        Quote: Mordvin 3
                        Cowards and T-shirts introduced in the Red Army in the 1940th year

                        cowards, yes, in 1940 coupons on them 1991 yes
                      2. Mordvin 3
                        Mordvin 3 15 December 2019 11: 50
                        +1
                        Quote: Olgovich
                        and coupons on them, but 1991

                        Show me at least one coupon for underpants, otherwise I don’t remember such. I had a buyer's card, so I went to the store on it, and there I also sold my underpants.
                      3. Olgovich
                        Olgovich 15 December 2019 11: 55
                        -2
                        Quote: Mordvin 3
                        Show me at least one coupon for underpants

                        Pzhlsta:
                      4. Mordvin 3
                        Mordvin 3 15 December 2019 12: 02
                        0
                        Quote: Olgovich
                        Pzhlsta:

                        Absolutely in Belomorsk. Would come to us, a whole bunch would fit them. fellow Although I also sometimes asked for a non-resident customer card. Sorry, threw it about five years ago, it was a cool thing. Without it, the store did not sell. smile
                      5. Olgovich
                        Olgovich 15 December 2019 12: 34
                        -2
                        Quote: Mordvin 3
                        Although I also sometimes asked for a non-resident customer card.

                        we called, in my opinion, "invitation to buy: 1,2,3, ... "
                      6. Mordvin 3
                        Mordvin 3 15 December 2019 12: 48
                        +1
                        Quote: Olgovich
                        we called, in my opinion, "invitation to buy: 1,2,3, ..."

                        No. Buyer's business card. With a photo. Cardboard with photos and passport data, looks like a standard business card. In the store, at one time, only upon presentation of this card was sold. That is, you show, and then only the goods are sold. It’s a pity, I threw it out about five years ago, when I was engaged in repair ...
                      7. Liam
                        Liam 15 December 2019 12: 08
                        0
                        Quote: Olgovich
                        Quote: Mordvin 3
                        Show me at least one coupon for underpants

                        Pzhlsta:

                        Do not give fake as a fact.
                      8. Olgovich
                        Olgovich 15 December 2019 12: 32
                        -1
                        Quote: Liam
                        Do not give fake as a fact.

                        don't talk
                      9. Liam
                        Liam 15 December 2019 12: 36
                        0
                        In this case, it’s you talking nonsense.
                        https://pikabu.ru/story/surovyie_devyanostyie_3622234
                      10. Olgovich
                        Olgovich 15 December 2019 13: 19
                        -2
                        Quote: Liam
                        In this case, it’s you talking nonsense.
                        https://pikabu.ru/story/surovyie_devyanostyie_3622234

                        1.and what? :
                        0
                        Paulunolv
                        4 years ago
                        I am also from Belomorsk, and i remember them
                        is from the comments on the link
                        2. coupons for clothes were - I bought them for them. Specifically, we didn't have any panties, but that doesn't mean anything: we had our own factory. Here's another "fake"
                        .
                      11. Liam
                        Liam 15 December 2019 13: 23
                        0
                        And you do not see any differences between this ticket and the previous one?
                      12. Olgovich
                        Olgovich 16 December 2019 07: 42
                        -1
                        Quote: Liam
                        And you do not see any differences between this ticket and the previous one?

                        None: how is the need for cowards different from the need for socks?
                        Explain the same.
                      13. Mordvin 3
                        Mordvin 3 15 December 2019 12: 51
                        0
                        Quote: Olgovich
                        don't talk

                        But I, too, don’t remember coupons for underpants. I remember a whole bunch of coupons, but not for my underpants. It looks like a fake.
                    2. Krasnoyarsk
                      Krasnoyarsk 15 December 2019 13: 42
                      +1
                      Quote: Olgovich

                      Coupons for shorts, the Russian Cross and the borders of the 17th century are the result of your shopping cart.

                      fool fool You have confused the achievements of the Stalinist government with the achievements of Gorbachev. You are not able to separate flies from cutlets. To the doctor immediately.
        3. Atomic cosmic
          Atomic cosmic 14 December 2019 11: 41
          +1
          “On the Petersburg tract, apartments for workers are arranged in this way. Some woman rents an apartment from the owner, sets the plank beds around the walls as much as she can fit, and invites tenants to her, taking 5 kopecks from each of them. per day or 1 rub. 50 kopecks per month. For this, the worker uses half the bed, water and free laundry. ”

          And here is a genuine cesspool, in the vicinity of the powder factories.

          “The basement of house number 154 is especially terrible: it is a depression in the ground of at least 2 arshins, it is constantly filled with water, if not water, then from a nearby latrine, so that rotten boards that make up the floor literally float, despite that his tenants are diligently engaged in drying their apartment, daily scooping up several buckets. In such a room, with a content of 5,33 cubic meters. fenced (at a ceiling height of 2 with a small meter this room is about 20 sq.m. - Aut.) of killer air itself I found up to 10 residents, of whom 6 were minors (he found so many. And how many were during his visit at work? - E.P.) ”.

          What is Dostoevsky with his "humiliated and offended"? Is it poverty? After all, even the impoverished Marmel-Dov family lived, even in a passage room, but in a separate one-family house and not in a basement - factory workers would consider such conditions imperial!

          And now, as Pazhitnov says, “we will stock up on courage and look deep into Russia.” Indeed, courage is required - even to read about such an existence, if you, of course, are a person with imagination, are creepy. In most factories in the interior of Russia, the premises for workers were divided into two categories: barracks and cellars. What is a barracks, everyone who reads the history of the Gulag knows that this is an ordinary hut with bunks, at about the same or greater crowding.

          But the prisoner at least had his own separate place on the plank beds, but the worker did not have it - the plank beds, like the workshops, were used in two shifts. Lockers - this is the same hut, but divided into separate cells - such housing is intended for family workers. Just do not think that the room fits in one family - usually two or three, but sometimes up to seven. However, even such closets for families are not enough - what kind of people are there, there is no way to get bread in the sweat of the face and calm down on this, and they still want some kind of personal life there! Quite spoiled!

          In anticipation of their turn for a piece of the room, couples are placed all in the same barracks. In these cases, they separate their seats on the bunks with curtains.

          "Sometimes the manufacturers meet this natural desire of the workers and on the platform of the bunks make plank walls with a height of one and a half arshins (about a meter. - Auth.), So that a row, in the full sense of the word, is formed of stalls for each pair."

          After some time, a cradle appears at the feet of such a “dwelling” - which means that people also manage to make love in this room! Truly, for what only man will adapt ...

          Finally, “in most factories, for many workers, as usual, they don’t make special bedrooms.” This means that workers sleep in the same workshops where they work. Weavers (hand) sleep on machines, joiners on workbenches, unfortunate gunmen on the same washcloths and gun mats they make, in the same damp and suffocating rooms. Considering that the gunners also have the longest working day in Russia - up to 18 hours, then their whole life passes in these dark stuffy shops. And work here mainly, we remind once again, women and children.

          For sure, the favorite of Mr. Pazhitnov was the Khludov manufactory, the one where the toilets were not cleaned so that the workers did not rest in them.

          “Serving as the nest of every infection, the millionth factory of Khludov is at the same time a model of the ruthless exploitation of national labor by capital,”
        4. AU Ivanov.
          AU Ivanov. 14 December 2019 11: 54
          +1
          Morozovs are textile kings. They built housing for their employees, hospitals, schools and even theaters, and trained talented children at their own expense in various educational institutions, including foreign ones. They introduced paid maternity leave and temporary disability leave at their enterprises.
          1. The comment was deleted.
          2. Mordvin 3
            Mordvin 3 15 December 2019 11: 15
            0
            Quote: AS Ivanov.
            Morozovs are textile kings. They built housing for their employees, hospitals,

            Gee ... And didn’t you try to read Uncle Gilyay? How he worked in a textile factory, where people died like flies. In time, he unscrewed from there.
        5. Alexander Greene
          Alexander Greene 14 December 2019 22: 41
          0
          Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
          Even the Demidovs did not forget about people when building their “empire”.

          And people did not forget the Demidovs, told how they tortured and starved the guilty workers in casemates and dungeons. As counterfeit coins were minted in the dungeons, and when the inspector was sent to hide the traces of the crime, Demidov ordered the locks to be opened and the cellars to be flooded along with equipment and people.
          1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka 15 December 2019 05: 18
            +3
            Quote: Alexander Green
            Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
            Even the Demidovs did not forget about people when building their “empire”.

            And people did not forget the Demidovs, told how they tortured and starved the guilty workers in casemates and dungeons. As counterfeit coins were minted in the dungeons, and when the inspector was sent to hide the traces of the crime, Demidov ordered the locks to be opened and the cellars to be flooded along with equipment and people.

            Good morning, Alexander!
            Your comment has a rational essence, but alas, a storehouse of stamps in content!
            Now on the shelves!
            1. Demidov - Demidov strife! Almost two dozen descendants of the founder of Nizhny Tagil (Nevyansk plant was presented) !!! If averaged, then people of their time and their factories built with an iron hand, blood, sweat and sometimes “money”!
            I say this as a descendant of hamayuns, which N.N. at one time bought Demidov and his daughter Romadanov and moved to the Urals - to build factories !!!
            An example, I will give only one. Ankifiy Demidov, once a bit did not start a war with V. Tatishchev because of the whetstone deposit in the city of Volchikha! From Revda they even started dragging guns ... the benefit of changing his mind !!!
            2. About counterfeit coins - it’s true that only the Nevyansk tower, which has grown over this legend, has no basements! So with the flooding of people and equipment - a fairy tale!
            On counterfeiting A.Demidov was caught in the time of Anna Ioannovna! Punished with exemption in favor of the treasury of the Kyshtym plant.
            3. During the time of the first Demidovs, the population of the Urals consisted mainly of Kerzhaks (Old Believers), people of far from soft nature! The human resource was valuable, especially in the uninhabited Urals in those years! So Nevyansk, Tagil, both Shaitanki and Revda were built on blood. By the forces of involuntary people and ascribed peasants. Dissatisfied planted in pipes (mines). In turn, the workers rebelled and the first Demidovs repeatedly asked for "help by the soldiers" first in Kungur, then in Yekaterinburg. Riots were suppressed by iron and blood. People fled, they were caught! Etc!!! In addition, the Demidovs bit with the Bashkirs and Tatars, who in turn cut out factories and villages of ascribed peasants! The workers were armed and they raided the raiders' yurts, and sometimes the neighboring rebel factories !!! In fact, according to documents in the Urals of the first half of the 18th century, there was also that meat grinder!
            1. Alexander Greene
              Alexander Greene 15 December 2019 09: 40
              +1
              Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
              Demidov - Demidov strife!

              A bullseye from an apple tree is not far rolling. All of them are oiled in one world, the main thing is profit.
      2. Olgovich
        Olgovich 14 December 2019 11: 03
        -9
        Quote: Atomic Cosmic
        Hmm, in Russia there has always been a bestial attitude towards your people! Why was it impossible to create good human conditions? Good salaries, etc.? But no, we must drive them to construction sites like cattle!


        The "cheapest", "inexhaustible" and "abundant" resource, according to the so-called. "Bolshevik leaders.

        Although already in 1936 they were forced to have abortions, and in 1940 they introduced paid trainingto drive the poor in the Federal Labor Law (workers were already scarce).

        The last remnants were pumped out of the Russian village in early 1980.

        Then we went to the cities already, in large part, Gaster ...
        1. Atomic cosmic
          Atomic cosmic 14 December 2019 11: 43
          +4
          Was last year at Polyus Gold as part of foreign investors, I’ll tell you there is serfdom right now! Treating hard workers like cattle! Separate dining room for the Guide with fresh herbs and earthenware dishes and dirty canteens with iron bowls for workers!
          1. Akuzenka
            Akuzenka 14 December 2019 13: 32
            +5
            So capitalism is the same !!!!! Then we go up to the level of 1880. The main thing is that there is a profit.
            1. 16329
              16329 14 December 2019 14: 28
              -2
              Under any system, the conditions of heavy low-skilled labor remain poor, and the payment is appropriate
              And the bosses, respectively, always in a better position, have always been and always will be, otherwise people will not have an incentive to develop and advance
            2. Atomic cosmic
              Atomic cosmic 14 December 2019 14: 57
              +3
              Excuse me, but I have been working abroad for many years and there the top manager and workers are sitting in the same canteen and eating the same food! And the conditions are much different from Russian! Although the same capitalism!
              1. Aaron Zawi
                Aaron Zawi 14 December 2019 17: 11
                0
                Quote: Atomic Cosmic
                Excuse me, but I have been working abroad for many years and there the top manager and workers are sitting in the same canteen and eating the same food! And the conditions are much different from Russian! Although the same capitalism!

                Also surprised. We have all the plant managers, if they come for breakfast or lunch, sit down at any table, regardless of who the turner or toolmaker is sitting there. Although of course they prefer to sit down with the elderly. And they know them well, and more calmly.
              2. Mordvin 3
                Mordvin 3 15 December 2019 06: 53
                +1
                Quote: Atomic Cosmic
                but I have been working abroad for many years and there the top manager and workers are sitting in the same canteen and eating the same food!

                Also me .... laughing And I and the director cut into a goat for money ... laughing
              3. 16329
                16329 17 December 2019 02: 48
                +1
                What a coincidence, I have also been working abroad for 10 years, we have two canteens and a buffet on our territory, one canteen in the workshop for hard workers and Factory workers, the second in the office, there are all office staff, and small management, the bosses Above sometimes also go there, but the tops - they do not favor this place, however, in the good old days and with decent small and medium management it was considered to go to the canteen in a bad form, they went to a restaurant outside the territories
                And in our Bavarian branch, the authorities eat separately and are very decent in the special dining room for receptions, no democracy
                Again, parking for superiors is separate well, etc.
                About bonuses and salary, I don’t want to talk at all
      3. 16329
        16329 14 December 2019 14: 24
        +2
        Who needs in difficult climatic conditions, having abandoned their own home and household, to work on a construction site, with minimal mechanization of work, doing heavy physical unpromising work.
        What "good salary" are you willing to pay to diggers and porters
        Find out what “good” salaries were paid at road construction sites and US infrastructure facilities, at about the same time, in the process of overcoming the Great Depression
        In any case, this is a work for food, which breaks people's health and expels them from their native places and familiar conditions.
        For this, they carried out collectivization, drove peasants from villages to construction sites, and then, as they say, natural selection
        All countries underwent similar processes in different periods of changes in economic formations.
        Our recent shift took place in the 90s, remember how many victims were then.
        1. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 16 December 2019 18: 21
          +1
          Quote: 16329
          Find out what “good” salaries were paid at road construction sites and US infrastructure facilities, at about the same time, in the process of overcoming the Great Depression

          EMNIP, 1 dollar per day.
          But in the USA, everything was strictly voluntary: if you don’t want to work for a dollar a day, no one will force you, you can die completely free without work and without money.
      4. Mordvin 3
        Mordvin 3 15 December 2019 08: 50
        0
        Quote: Atomic Cosmic
        But no, we must drive them to construction sites like cattle!

        My uncles with pleasure went to these construction sites.
    3. Mordvin 3
      Mordvin 3 15 December 2019 06: 50
      0
      Quote: kalibr
      It would be interesting to know when these people moved at least to Khrushchev and how happy they were!

      I can tell you. In the 60s my uncle was sent to Nizhny Tagil, first they settled in a hut, in the early 70s they gave a three-room apartment. Very decent, my brother-bourgeois and does not crawl out of there.
    4. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy 16 December 2019 21: 58
      0
      Quote: kalibr
      "In March 1937 (ChTZ was in full swing), the NKVD conducted a tacit check of the situation with the living conditions of the factory workers. It turned out that there are six villages near Chelyabinsk, where at least 50 thousand workers live! Most of them huddle in barracks and semi-dugouts."
      It would be interesting to know when these people moved at least to Khrushchev and how happy they were!

      I know that some of the years 1960-1970, you can rejoice. Yes, a bit late, thanks to the Khrushchev-opportunist who overwhelmed our economy.
  3. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 14 December 2019 09: 00
    +1
    Thanks for the interesting article. I read it with pleasure.
  4. Alex 1970
    Alex 1970 14 December 2019 09: 07
    +3
    Great article, thanks to the author! Particularly interesting is the moment about work ethics and the quality of work. Nevertheless, it was worth paying attention to this and introducing into the production precisely the emphasis also on quality. Maybe now there would not be so many problems with this. Indeed, motor resources and oil culture, and much more, stems from this. After all, all the same, life made me come to this, albeit with a delay.
  5. Vladimir_2U
    Vladimir_2U 14 December 2019 10: 44
    +2
    the grinder Irina Zyryanova processed 2800 piston wheels per shift at a rate of 2 thousand Probably not wheels but rings
    1. Cetron
      Cetron 14 December 2019 20: 00
      +2
      He also drew attention to this phrase, but did not bother with wheels or rings, but another thing: in addition to 2000 normal rings, it produced 2800 defective rings, increasing the processing speed and disrupted the manufacturing process. As a result, most likely the rings were burned and the tractor drivers then suffered with their replacement and wondered why the engine resource is so small - German or American has been working for years, and ours is out of order in a month. The Stakhanovites drove so much marriage that it would be better if they weren’t. My opinion as a specialist in metal cutting.
      1. Alf
        Alf 14 December 2019 20: 45
        +2
        Quote: Cetron
        In addition to 2000 normal rings, it produced 2800 defective rings, increasing the processing speed and disrupted the manufacturing process.

        Colleague Peter is absolutely right! If, instead of 100 parts, 200 goes into shift, then this is either a violation of the manufacturing process and, accordingly, the marriage or the norms are overstated or there are obvious postscripts. What is worse, personally, I find it difficult to say.
        1. Alf
          Alf 14 December 2019 21: 23
          +1
          Is there anything to the minus objection? Or did my secret admirer come running?
          1. Mordvin 3
            Mordvin 3 15 December 2019 06: 59
            +1
            Quote: Alf
            Is there anything to the minus objection? Or did my secret admirer come running?

            I did not minus, but I can object. Somehow the part was stamped, and the normalizer observed. So we chatted, the working time was doubled. Then the times, stamped, and sat, smoked ... yes
            1. Alf
              Alf 15 December 2019 21: 08
              +1
              Quote: Mordvin 3
              the operating time was doubled.

              So I’m talking about that.
              Quote: Alf
              norms are overstated
              1. Mordvin 3
                Mordvin 3 15 December 2019 21: 24
                +1
                Quote: Alf
                norms are overstated

                On the contrary, we underestimated them specifically, so that later we could kick the bastard. In reality, if you tried, you could release twice as much, but did not bathe, straining. But in another organization, the rationing officers took the fastest De Bill, tracked the time by twenty minutes, then multiplied by the amount of time per shift. Naturally, according to their calculations, a person had to spin like a robot machine, without being distracted by going to toilets and other smoke breaks. As a result, no one could complete the plan in a working day. So the double-edged sword ... The question is how to find a middle ground. I would force the rationing officers to work out for a month, and then let their prices be written.
                1. Alf
                  Alf 15 December 2019 21: 28
                  +1
                  Quote: Mordvin 3
                  On the contrary, we underestimated them specifically, so that later we could kick the bastard.

                  If by my standards a part costs 90 minutes, and the actual production time is 45, then the norms are just too high.
                  But, in any case, we understood each other .. hi
                  At one factory, where I began my career as a young man, they talked about such a case.
                  It was necessary to normalize a new detail. The chiefs found a sensible turner, he made the part, but the modes were set such that the part was made twice as fast. True, after that, he threw out all the cutters due to wear, but ... the job was done. True, after that, he "for some reason" immediately quit, apparently decided not to wait for "gratitude" from his neighbors.
                  1. Mordvin 3
                    Mordvin 3 15 December 2019 21: 40
                    0
                    Quote: Alf
                    But, in any case, we understood each other ..

                    Well yes. From the position of a locksmith, I’m considering, not a grinder. And we have much more ways to speed up the work than the machinist. Any more tricks. Somewhere strictly technology must be done, but somewhere you can change the process. The life span of technology in war is much shorter than in peacetime, which means they could have retreated from technology in some places. Perhaps this is taken into account. hi
        2. Alexander Greene
          Alexander Greene 14 December 2019 22: 14
          +1
          Quote: Cetron
          In addition to 2000 normal rings, it produced 2800 defective rings, increasing the processing speed and disrupted the manufacturing process.

          Quote: Alf
          If, instead of 100 parts, 200 goes into shift, then this is either a violation of the manufacturing process and, accordingly, the marriage or the norms are overstated or there are obvious postscripts

          And where did you get the idea that she violated the process and drove the marriage? Saving time could be on preparatory and other support operations. But she could not burn the rings on the grinding. in the intervals between roughing, semi-roughing and finishing grinding, the rings undergo repeated hardening and tempering.
          1. Alf
            Alf 14 December 2019 22: 20
            +1
            Quote: Alexander Green
            Saving time could be on preparatory and other support operations.

            What exactly at these stages can speed up time?
            Quote: Alexander Green
            And where did you get the idea that she violated the process and drove the marriage?

            With reverse feed, it is enough for me to increase the speed, the feed will increase accordingly, the manufacturing time will decrease and, please, 200 instead of 100. And the fact that with an increase in cutting speed there is a burn on the surface to be treated, and hell with it, but I did more.
            By the way, is it not because of such "improvements" that there are problems with the poor quality of our armor-piercing shells?
            1. Alexander Greene
              Alexander Greene 14 December 2019 22: 30
              +1
              Quote: Alf
              And the fact that with an increase in cutting speed there is a burn on the surface to be treated, and hell with it, but I did more.

              Between the grinding stages, in order to obtain the desired metal structure, hardening and tempering of the rings is necessary in order to relieve all stresses that have occurred during grinding .. ..
              And you can save time at the stages of installation and removal of rings from the machine.
            2. Mordvin 3
              Mordvin 3 15 December 2019 07: 09
              +1
              Quote: Alf
              By the way, is it not because of such "improvements" that there are problems with the poor quality of our armor-piercing shells?

              Alf, the boss told us the following story. One man worked, and gave out on the mountain three times more than the others. He received for a thousand. The director looked, was surprised that this pepper was getting twice as much, called the technologist to the carpet: "What kind of muiña is this? I'll fire it!" And this guy's emulsion was so tricky. The technologist ran, whistled the emulsion, gave it to chemists for analysis, so they could not determine what kind of garbage this was ... winked
        3. karabass
          karabass 14 December 2019 23: 06
          +2
          I personally know a man who came to GPZ 15 instead of the norm of 29 products per shift in the first month, made 72, the next he wanted to do under 90 but the master could not break through his salary increase, and he refused to do more than 35 a month, although all the authorities were already in the know . The result was a terrible scandal, but the man insisted on not wanting to pay a decent salary - to hell with you!
          So - an excavator driver worked for me - Semyon, a former bandit, fought for the DPR, became disillusioned with the war in Donbas, left, trained as an excavator, he only mowed down the first shift in Kogalym - he was fired. After half a year, working on a career in the Murmansk region, out of inexperience in a month I made almost three norms! pulled the master and mechanic. Other excavators did not explain to him that there was no need to rush, just as they did not like and were afraid of him
      2. pilot69
        pilot69 15 December 2019 06: 00
        +1
        So there, next to her, a fellow of the social competition of caterpillar links stamped three times more! Question - does the tractor consist of tracks and piston rings? If so, then everything is fine! But we know that this is not so. At the exit, we have a large number of components of dubious quality or increased wear of equipment. It is not known which is better.
  6. bubalik
    bubalik 14 December 2019 11: 42
    +6
    ,, I will add some photos of that time smile







    Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works named after Stalin
  7. Fevralsk. Morev
    Fevralsk. Morev 14 December 2019 15: 35
    +3
    During the years of Industrialization, 19 million jobs were created. We remember that by 2020, 25 million jobs will be created. Putin does not give rest, the feat of Stalin.
    1. Alf
      Alf 14 December 2019 20: 47
      0
      Quote: Fevralsk. Morev
      Putin does not give rest, the feat of Stalin.

    2. Mordvin 3
      Mordvin 3 15 December 2019 08: 56
      0
      Quote: Fevralsk. Morev
      By 2020, 25 million jobs will be created.

      Yeah, I would tell you how they sent me paper clips from the labor exchange. laughing
    3. Olgovich
      Olgovich 15 December 2019 09: 08
      -1
      Quote: Fevralsk. Morev
      During the years of Industrialization, 19 million jobs were created.

      And before that, people were unemployed! lol
      1. Mordvin 3
        Mordvin 3 15 December 2019 12: 13
        -2
        Quote: Olgovich
        And before that, people were unemployed!

        They were a village. yes
        1. Olgovich
          Olgovich 15 December 2019 12: 36
          -1
          Quote: Mordvin 3
          They were a village.

          somehow pejoratively sounds ..... recourse
          1. Mordvin 3
            Mordvin 3 15 December 2019 12: 39
            0
            Quote: Olgovich
            somehow pejoratively sounds .....

            Let them be peasants. By the way, my grandfathers and grandmothers are also from there. Grandfather twisted the tails of cows in childhood, and in the army of the Red Army rose to the rank of instructor-mechvod.
  8. Kirill Dou
    Kirill Dou 14 December 2019 16: 20
    +3
    "Stalinets" is a very beautiful tractor !!
  9. Adjutant
    Adjutant 14 December 2019 16: 24
    +2
    I read somewhere that one of our plants (either Kharkov, or Chelyabinsk, I don’t remember) produced more tanks during the Second World War per month than the entire German industry. This is of course just awesome.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 14 December 2019 21: 05
      +1
      Lower Tigilsky!
  10. Doliva63
    Doliva63 14 December 2019 21: 06
    +1
    "..tractors S-60, the production intensity of which reached the planned 1936 units per day by 100."
    100 tractors per day! Hrenase. good
  11. Doliva63
    Doliva63 14 December 2019 21: 22
    +2
    Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Then I repent, I was imprinted - I meant the Kalinin plant (ZiK) recourse

    ZiK evacuated to Sverdlovsk only in the 41st. Another thing is that there was also a UETM, which was being built almost at the same time as UZTM. For its construction, including the Bashkir and Tatar people from the environs of Sverdlovsk were involved, for them and for the workers of the Turbinka evacuated from Leningrad, the Kuibyshevsky district was built - it does not exist now, it is part of the Ordzhonikidze district (Uralmash), but has its own unspoken name - Elmash.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 15 December 2019 21: 25
      +2
      Thanks for clarifying! hi
  12. Mavrikiy
    Mavrikiy 16 December 2019 21: 10
    0
    Lennart Samuelson in the work “Tankograd: Secrets of the Russian rear
    And there are no other books about ChTZ? What kind of crap, how to write over the hill, so the truth.
    At the beginning of 1935, an order came to launch the production of a pilot batch of three T-28 tanks.
    “As you know, we are completely unprepared for the production of 3 units. T-29 tanks,

    The author, what kind of crap we write:
    many builders pledged to work at the plant after its construction, that is, practically for life.
    Gave a subscription for life Or did it sometimes work? "Don't read American books before meals!" request The brains are reformatted and the pens themselves .....
  13. kalibr
    kalibr 16 December 2019 21: 15
    0
    Quote: Den717
    The normal average peasant saw neither meat nor bread without bran.

    I saw it and how! There is a dissertation on the situation of the peasants of the Middle Volga at the beginning of the twentieth century. Search the web, see ... find out.