Projects of chemical armored cars on serial automobile chassis

Projects of chemical armored cars on serial automobile chassisThe experimental machine BHM-800 performs terrain processing. Photo Aviarmor.net

At the end of 1930, the Experimental Design and Testing Bureau of the Office of Mechanization and Motorization of the Red Army (OKIB UMM), headed by Nikolai Ivanovich Dyrenkov, began work on the topic of chemical armored vehicles. Subsequently, the Compressor plant was involved in this area. The result of these works was the emergence of several interesting prototypes - but not one of these projects went into series.


On an affordable chassis


In the early thirties, our country struggled with a shortage of vehicles and other equipment, which is why the UMM RKKA worked on the issue of using affordable vehicles as a basis for armored vehicles of different classes. So, the first Soviet chemical tank designed by OKIB was built on the basis of the Kommunar tractor. In a similar way, it was planned to make new armored cars.

For the new chemical armored vehicles, OKIB immediately chose two available automobile chassis with a 6x4 wheel arrangement. These were Ford-Timken and Moreland TX6 cars. Their characteristics corresponded to the design loads, and in addition, they were available in sufficient quantities and could be used in new projects. By that time, Ford-Timken and Moreland had mastered some military specialties, and now they were to become the basis for chemical armored cars.

OKIB Projects


In mid-1931, OKIB UMM began the development of two armored cars on different chassis. The TX6 was based on a model called the D-18. A similar development on Ford-Timken was called D-39. The projects provided for the removal of all "unnecessary" full-time parts, instead of which new devices of one kind or another were mounted.

Armored cars had to have bulletproof protection made of rolled sheets with a thickness of 6 to 8 mm. From the armored panels the engine cover and the cabin were assembled. On the cargo platform of the chassis was an armored casing for the target equipment. Thus, the D-18 and D-39 armored cars could work at the forefront, giving the crew and cargo protection from bullets.

During the construction of the D-18 and D-39, the power set, propulsion system, transmission and chassis of the base chassis did not change, due to which the basic characteristics remained at the same level. However, most of the carrying capacity was spent on the armored hull and chemical equipment, which affected the mass of the liquid load.

On the D-18 armored car, a cargo area with reservation was given for two tanks with a total capacity of 1100 liters. Only one 39-liter capacity was installed on the D-800. Pumping equipment of the type KS-18 manufactured by the Compressor plant was responsible for the spraying of chemicals. It consisted of a stern horseshoe-shaped spray for spraying BOW and a spray column for degassing or placing smoke screens. The operation of the spraying devices was provided by a centrifugal pump driven by an engine.

Trucks "Ford Timken" - one of the bases for chemical armored cars. Photo Kolesa.ru

Depending on the task, the D-18 and D-39 could take on board various liquids. The spray for BWA provided infection of the strip up to 25 m wide; the speed of movement should not exceed 3-5 km / h. During degassing, the spray column treated a strip 8 m wide.

The combat characteristics of armored cars directly depended on the tank capacity. So, D-18 with a large supply of chemicals could create an infection strip with a length of 450-500 m or conduct degassing of a site with a length of 350-400 m. The smoke-generating mixture S-IV was enough to set the curtains for half an hour. The D-39 armored car had a tank of lower capacity and corresponding characteristics.

Prototypes D-18 and D-39 did not have any weapons for self-defense. Perhaps in the future they could get a DT machine gun on one or another installation.

The crew consisted of only two people. The driver was responsible for controlling the machine, and the commander had to control the operation of chemical equipment. With a machine gun, the commander could also become a shooter.

The development of the D-18 and D-39 machines began in mid-1931, but soon encountered organizational problems. A prototype D-18 was able to build only in the autumn of the following 1932. A little later, completed the assembly of D-39. To save both armored cars were built without the use of armor. Their bodies were made of structural steel to obtain the calculated mass.

December 1, 1932 OKIB UMM was disbanded. Two projects of chemical armored vehicles were transferred to the design bureau of the Compressor plant. He participated in their development as a supplier of key components, and therefore had to cope with further work. Also in the future, this company could create new projects.

At the turn of 1932-33. Polygon tests of two armored cars took place. The machines showed satisfactory performance and coped with the tasks of spraying a conventional BOV or degassing the terrain. At the same time, Ford-Timken and Moreland TX6 car chassis did poorly on rough terrain. In addition, the characteristic architecture and insufficiently strong reservation limited combat survivability.

Tank truck based on the Moreland truck. Photo Kolesa.ru

In its current form, D-18 and D-39 were not of interest to the army, but could become the basis for new developments. The Design Bureau of the Compressor plant took into account the experience of testing two samples from OKIB UMM and made conclusions, after which it created its own machines of the same class.

Armored cars "Compressor"


In the first months of 1933, the Compressor began developing its own chemical armored car. This sample remained in stories under the names BHM-1000 and BHM-1. The letters in the index meant “armored chemical vehicle”, and the numbers indicated the capacity of the tanks with the BOW or the project number. From the point of view of general ideas, the BHM-1000 project repeated the development of OKIB. The differences were in the list of used units.

The Design Bureau "Compressor" considered it inappropriate to use a foreign chassis. The basis for the BHM-1000 was the domestic truck AMO-3. Such a chassis was not inferior to import in carrying capacity, but they decided to leave it without armor. Perhaps it could be added after testing and determining the approximate characteristics.

In place of the standard body AMO-3 placed a metal tank with a capacity of 1000 liters. The KS-18 complex with a pump and spraying devices was also installed there. The use of such a system made it possible to maintain performance at the level of previous machines. Also, the possibilities and functions on the battlefield have not changed.

Armament on the prototype was not installed. For its installation, it was necessary to finalize the standard cab of the base truck, and such a step could be considered unnecessary at the current stage of work.

In the same 1933, the chemical machine BHM-1000 without armor and weapons passed the test. The characteristics of the chemical equipment were confirmed and generally complied with the requirements. However, problems arose with the chassis again. The AMO-3 truck even without armor did not always cope with the load. The machine could hardly move off-road, and the installation of protection would completely ruin its mobility.

Product BHM-1000 with such qualities was not of interest to the Red Army. However, it was ordered the production of a small batch of such machines for use as training. This order was completed in the shortest possible time, and soon the chemical units got the opportunity to practice combat work on completely new specialized equipment.

Auto-filling station ARS-3 based on AMO-3 is a later example of chemical engineering. Photo by Alternathistory.com

Shortly after the BHM-1000, a prototype called the BHM-800 appeared. It was built on a Ford-Timken chassis using the same solutions as in the previous project. A 800 l tank and a KS-18 system were installed on a serial truck. It was assumed that the BHM-800 in characteristics will be similar to the BHM-1000 - with the exception of the parameters associated with the payload.

The unarmored vehicle BHM-800 passed the tests and showed approximately the same results as the BHM-1000 and D-39. The target equipment again confirmed its characteristics, and the chassis again showed the impossibility of normal operation on the roads. The future of another project was in doubt.

After completion of the field tests, the BHM-1000 and BHM-800 in their original form were slightly modified. As an experiment, they were equipped with protection in the form of bodies of structural steel. As in the OKIB projects, armored plates with a thickness of 6-8 mm were used. The installation of the casings led to an increase in mass and a decrease in mobility. As such, the two “armored chemical vehicles” had no future.

New solutions


The projects of OKIB UMM and the Compressor plant made it possible to test a number of not very successful ideas, as well as to find solutions suitable for further development. As for the experimental equipment, all four prototypes were apparently rebuilt into trucks for their intended use.

Designers from the bureau of the Compressor plant confirmed in practice that the KS-18 system is capable of solving the assigned tasks, however, for its successful application, a new base car is needed. The search for new chassis began, and in addition, the development of a special armored hull corresponding to the assigned tasks began.

The result of all these works was the appearance of a chemical armored vehicle KS-18. It was not without flaws, but it nevertheless corresponded to the requirements of the customer and was even built in a limited series. In addition, the so-called filling stations - machines for degassing the terrain on an unprotected chassis. Thus, the D-18, D-39, BHM-1000 and BHM-800 projects nevertheless led to the desired results, although indirectly.
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  1. Vladimir_2U 8 January 2020 06: 09 New
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    At present, all this looks strange, but then there was a tactic of chemical contamination of the terrain in front of the advancing enemy, and these “watering machines" fit into it.
    1. Saxahorse 8 January 2020 23: 09 New
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      The tactics are more than strange, since there were no persistent toxic substances dangerous to the enemy at that time. Mustard, phosgene, chlorine, "tear" .. the whole list.
      1. Vladimir_2U 9 January 2020 03: 20 New
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        I don’t know, but for example now there are remotely launched mines with a limited duration of operation, the essence was about the same, I think. To slow down the enemy, to force him to put on PX protection, and in the case of infantry and even more so cavalry on the march hemorrhage another inconvenience.
    2. maidan.izrailovich 9 January 2020 12: 41 New
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      Vladimir_2U (Vladimir)
      At present, all this looks strange, but then there was a tactic of chemical contamination of the area in front of the advancing enemy ...

      More like a fantasy of the author. Then, too, there were shells stuffed with OM. Even in the Russian Empire, on the eve of World War I, 150 thousand chemical shells were produced. https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemical_weapon_ of Russia
      In the Russian (and earlier in the Soviet) army, automatic filling stations (ARS) are used as machines for processing equipment and military facilities. When I was serving urgent, we had ARS-14 based on ZIL-131.
      The ARS-14 auto-filling station is a special mobile engineering and technical facility that ensures the implementation of the chemical troops unit of the most important preventive measures. The machine is designed to transport specially prepared liquids that ensure the operation of army chemical, radiation and biological defense systems. Special equipment allows you to transport, pump and store various liquids, solutions and compositions used by chemical units in the processing of military equipment, road transport and construction equipment.
      https://militaryarms.ru/voennaya-texnika/boevye-mashiny/avtorazlivochnaya-stanciya-ars-14/
      1. Vladimir_2U 9 January 2020 17: 44 New
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        No, not fantasies, even if you do not recall chemical tanks, and armor for degassing is completely useless, then it was supposed to be used in this way:The tactics of chemical warfare. OB delivery vehicles.

        The tsarist army, in fact, had experience in using the simplest explosive agents and left the war earlier than they began to use modern warfare agents (at that time) by all the warring parties. The tactics of chemical attack and the chemical part of the spacecraft did not work out. But in 24, cooperation began with the Reichswehr. And the Germans, teaching us, passed on their wealth of experience. (In exchange for a training ground).

        What the Germans taught us:
        1) How to create obstacle-resistant fencing strips during the advance of the enemy and during the withdrawal of their troops, and how to protect them from enemy degassing.
        2) They taught us how to conduct a chemical attack.
        -How, with the help of persistent OM to isolate, with infected bands along the flanks and rear, the enemy defending with the aim of prohibiting him from pulling reserves to this area ...

        ... The use of chemical weapons in the troops in the Red Army was assigned to the corresponding types of troops:
        1) To chemical units for contamination of the area using machines BHM-1, BHM-4,9BHMO, etc. work on their territory to create a chemical. barriers to localize the breakthrough of the enemy. In addition, there were more than 20 thousand handheld backpack spray guns.

        http://otvaga2004.mybb.ru/viewtopic.php?id=2142
        All the same, we are talking about 20-30 years, and then there was a lot of strange things in military affairs by today's standards.
        1. Saxahorse 10 January 2020 01: 24 New
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          Quote: Vladimir_2U
          All the same, we are talking about 20-30 years, and then there was a lot of strange things in military affairs by today's standards.

          Everything of course can be. Lewisite in the 30s emerged from persistent agents, and all the same mustard. But for both, durability is still limited to a few hours, fighting vehicles, in fact, should work right at the front line. It is strange that they are not armored like chemical tanks, for example. It is more likely that these sprinklers are still the opposite, degassing machines.
  2. The leader of the Redskins 8 January 2020 08: 54 New
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    Thank God that almost no chemical weapons were used in 2mv! ...
    1. Alf
      Alf 8 January 2020 18: 12 New
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      Quote: Leader of the Redskins
      Thank God that almost no chemical weapons were used in 2mv! ...

      Under Gomel, the Germans tried to use OM, but Grandfather-Kovpak did not, destroying the train.
      1. The leader of the Redskins 8 January 2020 19: 49 New
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        It is reliably known about the use of Adzhimushkaya in the catacombs. But this became known after the war.
        1. Alf
          Alf 8 January 2020 20: 09 New
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          But did they use OV there, didn't smoke with burning gasoline?
          1. The leader of the Redskins 8 January 2020 21: 05 New
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            Throwed smoke bombs through drilled holes.
            1. Alf
              Alf 8 January 2020 21: 43 New
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              Quote: Leader of the Redskins
              Throwed smoke bombs through drilled holes.

              But checkers is, thank God, not a BOV.
              1. The leader of the Redskins 8 January 2020 22: 50 New
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                It is BOV. According to the description - metal containers of cylindrical shape. They emitted poisonous smoke.
      2. Aviator_ 8 January 2020 21: 02 New
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        I hear it for the first time. When the Germans captured Gomel, there was still no Kovpak compound. But in Adzhimushka in the summer of 42, they used OM.
    2. Aviator_ 8 January 2020 21: 05 New
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      At the front, the OM was not used because the Germans reasonably believed that if it was used, the British and Americans would bomb them at night with not only high-explosives, that is, they would flood the entire Reich of the OM.
      1. Alf
        Alf 8 January 2020 21: 45 New
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        Quote: Aviator_
        At the front, the OM was not used because the Germans reasonably believed that if it was used, the British and Americans would bomb them at night with not only high-explosives, that is, they would flood the entire Reich of the OM.

        I read somewhere that there was an official radio broadcast of Churchill and Roosevelt themselves, and that after the first use of the OB, the answer would be quick and merciless.
        1. Aviator_ 8 January 2020 21: 51 New
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          Yes, it seems. Moreover, when our troops captured instructions on the use of explosives at the headquarters of the German division in the summer of 41, there was such a message. America by this time has not yet fought, which means Churchill. I read about it with Yu. I. Mukhin, of course, he is a famous science fiction writer, but here he is right.
          1. Alf
            Alf 8 January 2020 22: 00 New
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            Quote: Aviator_
            Yes, it seems. Moreover, when our troops captured instructions on the use of explosives at the headquarters of the German division in the summer of 41, there was such a message. America by this time has not yet fought, which means Churchill. I read about it with Yu. I. Mukhin, of course, he is a famous science fiction writer, but here he is right.

            I heard that both performed and somewhere in April 42nd. And if you consider that the British bombed the Reich at night, and the 8th Army walked during the day, and the fact that it was not necessary to use very high precision OM, the Hans would not have thought much.
            1. Aviator_ 8 January 2020 22: 06 New
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              In the spring of 42, there was probably a second warning; in the summer of 41, there was a TASS statement about the seizure of German instructions and a warning about the use of OS. It seems that the Germans were not too afraid of our OM, but the English, with their bombing of the German territory, were afraid. And they were rightly scared - the result of the war would be the same, only the corpses are much larger.
              1. Alf
                Alf 8 January 2020 22: 18 New
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                Quote: Aviator_
                In spring 42 there was probably a second warning,

                Likely.
                Quote: Aviator_
                And they were rightly scared - the result of the war would be the same, only the corpses are much larger.

                Then they would not take the chances of captivity, but at the state level.
                There was infa that, after it became known that Zoe Kosmodemyanskaya was hanging, the IVS gave the order, the personnel of the 44th Infantry Division not to be taken prisoner, to shoot on the spot.
                1. Freeman 8 January 2020 22: 47 New
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                  Alf (Vasily. USSR) Today, 22: 18
                  after it became known that Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya’s hanging, the IVS gave the order-personnel of the 44th Infantry Division not to be taken prisoner, to shoot on the spot.


                  As if the order (if it was, it was unofficial), concerned personnel of the 332th regiment of the Wehrmacht infantry division that was part of the 197th.
                  1. Alf
                    Alf 10 January 2020 18: 46 New
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                    Quote: Freeman
                    Alf (Vasily. USSR) Today, 22: 18
                    after it became known that Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya’s hanging, the IVS gave the order-personnel of the 44th Infantry Division not to be taken prisoner, to shoot on the spot.


                    As if the order (if it was, it was unofficial), concerned personnel of the 332th regiment of the Wehrmacht infantry division that was part of the 197th.

                    Thank you, I made a mistake in the part number.
                2. Aviator_ 8 January 2020 22: 51 New
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                  This fact was voiced in the film of Ozerov "Liberation"
              2. 16329 8 January 2020 22: 53 New
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                When I worked at a research institute, a veteran, a former director of a research institute, and a participant in the program for creating Soviet rocket fuel, worked as a department head.
                So he, in his undergraduate practice in 1941, came to Chapaevsk at one plant and then remained there until the end of the war in the production of mustard gas.
                Given the fact that Katyusha was developed as a chemical mortar, and IL 2 had VAPs and O-V, a huge amount of preparation for a chemical war from the USSR was made very serious
                1. Aviator_ 9 January 2020 08: 34 New
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                  Naturally, in the 30s, regular GO exercises were conducted with imitation of the use of chemical weapons. Such an episode was even described by Ilf and Petrov in The Golden Calf.
        2. Catfish 9 January 2020 16: 22 New
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          On this occasion, was our thin. the film "Five from the Sky", a very good picture.
  3. Freeman 8 January 2020 11: 48 New
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    The result of all these works was the appearance of a chemical armored vehicle KS-18

    It is strange that the author did not develop the topic further.
    Or will it be material for the next article?