Military Review

Transsib: a strategic breakthrough in the transcontinental future

30
One of the basic organizing elements of the Russian geopolitical space should rightly be considered the Trans-Siberian Railway. The Trans-Siberian Railway is the greatest transport project that connected the two oceans, which enabled Russia to connect the world production and economic centers with each other and obtain enormous opportunities for future development.



History Transsib began in 1892, when the Minister of Railways of the Russian Empire, Count Witte - truly the greatest Russian statesman - proposed a grandiose idea of ​​building a railway that would connect St. Petersburg with Vladivostok. Witte, who later became finance minister, literally fell ill with the ideas of the project for the construction of the Great Siberian Road - this was the name that the new highway initially received. Special merit in the implementation of the highway construction project belongs to Emperor Nicholas II, who personally by all means contributed to its completion. The Siberian Railway Committee, established by the Emperor, decreed: “The Siberian railway is a great national affair, which should be carried out by Russian people and from Russian materials.” Construction of the highway began simultaneously from two directions - from Chelyabinsk to the east and from Vladivostok to the north and further to the west. The construction of the road is a great feat of the Russian people, accomplished by the honest ascetic work of thousands of workers, engineers, builders, ordinary people. By the pace of construction of the highway (10 years), given its immense length and extreme difficulty of construction, the Great Siberian way did not know and does not know itself unparalleled in the world. Thanks largely to Transsib, the USSR conducted a powerful industrialization of 30's, largely due to Transsib, our country won the Great Patriotic War, and to a large extent thanks to Transsib, the new Russia did not collapse after the 1991 catastrophe of the year.

The Trans-Siberian Railway still occupies a central place in Russia's state policy of building and maintaining the functioning of the continental transport corridor, thereby defining its role in the world as the main logistics link connecting Europe and Asia. With the elimination of existing shortcomings and the further innovative development of the trunk line, Russia plans its qualitative modernization and expansion with a radical increase in the volume of transit traffic.

It is clear that the desire of our country to preserve and deepen the international monopoly on transcontinental transit is far from being satisfactory for everyone, and new players have already entered the battle for control over Eurasian transit. So, in the spring of this year it became known that The Kyrgyz government has included in the list of priority state projects the construction of the railwayconnecting China with Uzbekistan. The Chinese will build the road, but the project itself is supervised by the West. And although the fate of the project is still rather vague, its route and goals are quite clear. The main goal of the project is to reduce the transit dependence of the European Union on Russia and to create an alternative to the Trans-Siberian Railway.

It is assumed that the new railway connecting China with Uzbekistan will pass through the territory of Kyrgyzstan, then through Turkmenistan to the ports of the Caspian Sea, where the cars will be loaded onto ferries and delivered to Baku. In turn, Baku, Tbilisi and Turkish Kars will connect the already completed mountain railway connecting the western shore of the Caspian Sea with mainland Turkey. And to get to the Bosphorus from here is no longer a problem - the road in Turkey is already there. A railway tunnel under the Bosphorus leading to Europe is also built. Thus, carriers will be able to ship cargo from the Dutch port of Rotterdam to Shanghai via Turkey, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan.

What are the actions of Russia to preserve its role as a leading railway transit power? The Trans-Siberian Railway is the greatest road of all times, but it must be developed by attaching to it all new auxiliary highways, whose existence will make Russia even more attractive in the eyes of world carriers. Potentially, Russia is able to offer unprecedented speeds of cargo transportation across the continent. How can this be done?

Among the strategic transport projects currently being implemented in Russia, stands out the construction of a new railway called BELKOMUR (Arkhangelsk - Karpogory - Syktyvkar - Perm - Solikamsk) with a length of about 1160 km. The road project was developed before the 1917 coup d'état of the year, but its implementation dragged on for a century, and modern designers had to start it almost from scratch - a significant part of the Soviet project documentation on BELKOMUR mysteriously disappeared after the collapse of the USSR. Commissioning of the highway is scheduled for 2017-2018 years.

Transsib: a strategic breakthrough in the transcontinental future


The new highway will reduce the distance of traffic between the Scandinavian-Baltic and East Asian regions by more than 25%! In addition, the construction of the road will give a powerful impetus to the development of the relevant regions of Russia, primarily the Komi Republic.

BELKOMUR can have its grandiose continuation, which is able to solve the problem of intercontinental transit once and for all (transit from Eurasia to North America) - this is the construction of the Transarctic highway running through the Russian Far North (for now it is a project from the field of futurology). But the continuation of the Transsib on the American coast of the Bering Strait across a bridge or tunnel is an idea about the implementation of which they are talking seriously and more often. The construction of such an object actually implements the idea of ​​creating a single global logistics space, in which the Heart of the World (Heartland) - Russia will take center stage.

In the spring of this year Head of Railways Vladimir Yakunin saidthat Russia and the United States may be connected by rail, and "not in the very distant future." Plans for the construction of a tunnel under the Bering Strait have existed for many decades. Experts from all over the world speak about the colossal economic effect that a project can have if it is successfully implemented.
President of the Russian Railways Vladimir Yakunin: “I am confident that the prospects for continuing the railway to Kamchatka and further through the tunnel for connecting with the North American roads are a project with feasibility in the not too distant future” (quoted by ITAR-TASS). However, there is nothing sensational in Yakunin’s spring statement, since the idea of ​​implementing the project to connect two continents by train through the Bering Strait was announced as early as 2007 in the “Strategy for the development of railway transport in the Russian Federation for the period up to 2030”.



The construction of the Amur-Yakutsk railway - the northern branch of the Trans-Siberian Railway, capable of continuing up to the American coast, is being completed. It is planned to complete the last piece of the railway Berkakit - Tommot - Yakutsk by the year 2013. Until 2030, Russian Railways plans to continue the line from Nizhny Bestyakh to Magadan, and then to the Chukotka Autonomous Region and the Kamchatka Territory. And it will be possible to talk about the possible construction of a tunnel under the Bering Strait only after 2030.

The construction of railways in the Far North and the construction of a tunnel to America through the Bering Strait will undoubtedly be a tremendous breakthrough for our country and will remove most of the questions regarding the search for Transsib’s geopolitical competitors outside of Russia. The Arctic highway with a tunnel to America, duplicating the Trans-Siberian Railway or being its continuation, but somehow communicating with it, can become the main artery of the entire planet, connecting its richest regions with modern high-speed roads, which account for the lion's share of world production and economic power , - EU, APR, USA and Canada with the Eurasian Economic Space. Russia, with its unique geographical location and century-old traditions of the great railway construction, has every chance of success in this grand event.



Information used:
http://dergachev.ru/Russian-encyclopaedia/18/66.html
http://www.rosbalt.ru/exussr/2012/03/29/963292.html
http://www.rg.ru/2011/08/23/transsib.html
http://vz.ru/economy/2012/3/15/568654.html
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  1. itr
    itr 18 July 2012 09: 14
    +5
    the author himself contradicts the analogue of transib will not be when
    Think for yourself with whom it is easier to arrange a transit with One country or with 30. Moreover, half of these countries are, to put it mildly, not decent and at any moment they can grab a weapon. The circuit is not stable
  2. Sibiryak
    Sibiryak 18 July 2012 09: 34
    +1
    Quote: itr
    Think for yourself with whom it is easier to arrange a transit with One country or with 30. Moreover, half of these countries are, to put it mildly, not decent and at any moment they can grab a weapon. The circuit is not stable

    I agree with you, but a statement like - "The construction of such an object actually implements the idea of ​​creating a single global logistics space, the central place in which will take the Heart of the World (Heartland) - Russia"And"The construction of railways in the Far North and the construction of a tunnel to America through the Bering Strait will undoubtedly be a tremendous breakthrough for our country and will remove most of the questions regarding the search by geopolitical competitors of Russia for possible understudies of the Trans-Siberian"suggest thoughts expressed by Bzezhinsky at the economic forum in Yaroslavl about the need for Russia to enter a single transnational space! Secondly, the author in the article focus on the economic side of the issue! Therefore, the article raises more questions than I have answers, so to speak.
  3. borisst64
    borisst64 18 July 2012 09: 40
    +4
    Judging by the fact that they built a new car-building plant in Tikhvin, our railway works to its fullest!
  4. saturn.mmm
    saturn.mmm 18 July 2012 10: 26
    +2
    The idea is in my opinion a good one. For the tunnel, the site is seismic hazardous, but I think that with modern technologies the issue is resolved. The road will give an impetus to the development of the region.
    1. Nickname
      Nickname 19 July 2012 18: 04
      0
      Come on! This is when this Magadan region was cowardly? Nothing dangerous there.
      But to build on permafrost it will be oh-oh how hard. He lived in Chukotka. all the houses there are on stilts.
  5. Magadan
    Magadan 18 July 2012 10: 26
    +5
    Thank you for the article. I hope our people will begin to appreciate everything that our Tsar, Nicholas II and his ministers did. And then there is too much husk about "bloody" and "weak-willed".
    1. Evgan
      Evgan 18 July 2012 11: 11
      +7
      Well, the Trans-Siberian Railway is not the merit of Nicholas II (although he, of course, also did a lot). No wonder that in Irkutsk there is a monument not to him, but to Alexander III, as the initiator of the construction of the highway.
  6. posad636
    posad636 18 July 2012 10: 27
    +2
    The topic is very interesting and important. At the same time, Something Railways is in no hurry to modernize the Trans-Siberian Railway. He is now overloaded and brings Russia 5 billion rubles in loss annually!
    It is urgent to increase its throughput.
    In addition, it is necessary to begin the construction of a bridge to Sakhalin, to pave the way there. With the Japanese, come to a final decision on the construction of a tunnel through the Laperouse Strait. This alone will allow Trassib to become the golden item of our budget.
    How to do it? But it’s very simple: put Yakunin on the track and let him organize the process. There is nothing for him to sparkle at all church vthjghbznbz [/
    "Chauffeur Brotherhood" http://shoferbratstvo.ru/
    1. skiff-xnumx
      skiff-xnumx 19 July 2012 05: 57
      +3
      Quote: posad636
      The topic is very interesting and important. At the same time, Something Railways is in no hurry to modernize the Trans-Siberian Railway. He is now overloaded and brings Russia 5 billion rubles in loss annually!

      Who told you that. According to the results of the audit, the net profit of the Ukrainian Railways for 2010-2011 amounted to 1,24 billion rubles.
      Quote: posad636
      It is urgent to increase its throughput

      Now 120-160 pairs of trains per day go along the trans-railway. The interval on the stage is 12-18 minutes. The minimum interval is 6 minutes and 240 pairs of trains per day. So not so transib and loaded.

      Quote: posad636
      At the same time, Something Railways is in no hurry to modernize the Trans-Siberian Railway.

      Again not true. In VSZhD, more than 60% of the rail track was exchanged for a jointless track (length of the rail was 800 m), which made it possible to increase the local speed for freight trains up to 62 km per hour, and earlier it was 32. The key stations were modernized in length between the station's entry arrows to 2500 meters, which allowed receive and drive trains weighing 12000 tons. The Zima-Slyudyanka section was transferred from direct to alternating current, which allowed us to get rid of two docking stations, reduce the number of substations and increase the mass of trains being driven. For example, let’s say the LEP-500 is now being built on the BAM, which will allow electrifying the BAM, by the way there a 2x25 kV traction system is applied, which is an achievement not only in Russia but in the world. And you say do not upgrade. It’s just that the process is neither fast nor cheap.
  7. Strashila
    Strashila 18 July 2012 10: 57
    +2
    Yes, if in the rush of the Khrushchev era the tunnel projects on Sakhalin had not been destroyed, the Salekhard-Igarka-Krasnoyarsk road would have been much more fun to live.
  8. Brother Sarych
    Brother Sarych 18 July 2012 10: 58
    -1
    The idea of ​​a tunnel under the Bering Strait is just a giant scam! Remember how many BAM were built by the whole Union, and its value as a highway was initially much more valuable! Next to such a dough thrown out on another whim, the money spent on all sorts of "bridges" to the Russky Island will seem like a modest trifle ...
    1. skullcap
      skullcap 18 July 2012 11: 20
      0
      I also met a lot of doubts about the tunnel to America, since its operation is capable of exerting very strong centrifugal forces of the Far East from Russia towards the United States.
      Apparently this is the case when you should not scream with joy in the foam at the mouth, but you need to measure seven times before doing the go-ahead.
    2. loc.bejenari
      loc.bejenari 18 July 2012 14: 58
      +2
      you're right
      another project of cutting and stealing grandmas
      in the end, all the money will go to a project that will be ordered to a Cypriot company for a couple of billion
      a couple of billion more will be paid for the so-called consulting services
      this will end
      in Kiev we have a masterpiece in collecting folk money and cynical plunder
      under Yushche raised 140 million to the children's hospital of the future
      as a result, 60 lyamas went to an incomprehensible building project although there were free standard
      and the rest of the money is for the maintenance of the management fund
      as a result, there is no money, but in the middle of the forest there is a fence and a foundation pit
      you and the pit will not
      before sawed all
      1. ALEGRO
        ALEGRO 18 July 2012 21: 52
        0
        as an option is quite real
    3. Brother Sarych
      Brother Sarych 18 July 2012 19: 36
      +2
      No one objected, but put the minuses ...
      1. cth; fyn
        cth; fyn 18 July 2012 19: 52
        0
        Don’t cry, dude, we’ll treat him right now, keep a black cross.
      2. Cap.Morgan
        Cap.Morgan 20 March 2016 09: 44
        0
        Quote: Brother Sarych
        No one objected, but put the minuses ...

        I did not minus you, but what is technically impossible here.
        After all, there is a similar project - the English Channel.
        After all, we need to develop these territories, there are the richest deposits ....
        The percentage of theft is always everywhere and under any authority. Nevertheless, cities and factories are growing.
  9. The centurion
    The centurion 18 July 2012 12: 15
    0
    Quote: kosopuz
    Apparently this is the case when you should not scream with joy in the foam at the mouth, but you need to measure seven times before doing the go-ahead.

    It is very suspicious that the project of this tunnel is lobbying Z. Brzezinski, and we all know what kind of fruit it is.
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. Vitwin
      Vitwin 20 March 2016 10: 22
      +2
      He intends to live a life of three months - what kind of lobbying is there, the pans have already overheated in hell
  10. ups
    ups 18 July 2012 13: 29
    +3
    Many people simply don’t know that there are a lot of minerals. The development of which is simply not profitable due to the lack of transport, and if you extend the railway there, I mean Yakutia and Kamchatka, then this will be a real breakthrough.
    1. Brother Sarych
      Brother Sarych 18 July 2012 15: 16
      0
      BAM was built to develop fields already discovered by then - a lot of what is being developed there?
      It is only on the map that it seems that on your route to lay a new highway how to do nefig! It is a difficult task to drag the highway through those areas, which are also practically not populated - now even more settled areas are being depopulated ...
      1. Cap.Morgan
        Cap.Morgan 20 March 2016 09: 45
        0
        There will be work, people will appear.
  11. ShturmKGB
    ShturmKGB 18 July 2012 14: 57
    0
    It is necessary to unite Asia and America, no matter how fantastic it sounds.
    1. Brother Sarych
      Brother Sarych 18 July 2012 15: 17
      +2
      Who needs it? - let me ask...
      1. Evgan
        Evgan 18 July 2012 16: 16
        0
        Nevertheless, the branch was almost stretched to Yakutsk - it seems a bit left. So, Russian Railways need, apparently :)
  12. Professor
    Professor 18 July 2012 17: 21
    +3
    A special merit in the implementation of the highway construction project belongs to Emperor Nicholas II, who personally contributed to its completion by all means. The Committee of the Siberian Railway, established by the Emperor, decreed: "The Siberian Railway is a great national affair, which should be carried out by Russian people and from Russian materials."

    In a strange way, they forgot the creator of the Panama Canal, John Frank Stevens, who played a key role in the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway.
    In general, before the revolution, so many railways were built that the Bolsheviks could only dream of. At least take the railway connecting St. Petersburg and Kars as an example.
  13. cth; fyn
    cth; fyn 18 July 2012 19: 54
    0
    A striking example is the Eurosian tunnel, Britain won only by expanding its territory, dumping the dug land.
    1. Cap.Morgan
      Cap.Morgan 20 March 2016 09: 49
      -1
      Quote: cth; fyn
      A striking example is the Eurosian tunnel, Britain won only by expanding its territory, dumping the dug land.

      If you do not take into account the overload through the ferry, then yes. Wait there, wait here. Either fog, then storm.
      From these positions, roads are not needed. You can walk in the fields perfectly.
  14. 77bor1973
    77bor1973 18 July 2012 20: 20
    +1
    I think we are simply obligated to connect all the cut off regions of Russia with a network of railways, this is not even discussed, but building a tunnel is already the fifth, if not the tenth!
  15. Captain Vrungel
    Captain Vrungel 18 July 2012 20: 49
    +3
    Currently Utopia. How many thousands of kilometers from Skovorodino to Uelen and what a relief. From Kolyma to Chukotka is deserted. The United States, from Fort Nelson to the Strait, is no less deserted terrain and a thousand kilometers, given the modern linear container ship takes 3 thousand 40 foot containers - 3 thousand rail cars. 30 trains of one hundred wagons. And the speed is more than 20 knots, the transition from the ports of the east coast of the USA to Europe is ten days, From the west coast through Panama is roughly, twice as long. By promising railway from the USA, Canada, not to mention Latin America, not faster, but much more expensive, So far, that sea transport is the cheapest.
  16. ESCANDER
    ESCANDER 18 July 2012 21: 51
    +1
    Damn, the roads need to be built, but everyone in the Russian Railways rested ...
    If you say that it’s expensive, hire foreigners (not at Moscow prices).
    If you say that the climatic conditions - visit Canada.
    1. mind1954
      mind1954 19 July 2012 01: 31
      +1
      I must say that the border between the USA and Canada is
      on the WIDTH of Kiev! And there, in the USA, so much salt pours out onto the roads in the winter,
      that there was a big scandal over the destruction of relict pines
      along the road in the reserve at the Canadian border!

      And what is the tunnel for? To whistle from the colony to export raw materials?
      When we solve the problem with the power of the COLONIZERS, then we can
      think about something!
      And in the completely unhealthy environment that exists in our
      country, it is at best, as it was correctly noted,
      another long-playing object for sawing !!!
  17. Vitwin
    Vitwin 20 March 2016 10: 02
    +2
    It is strange to become like dreams, not bearing any semantic load. Where is the money zing? Why should the letters be wasted?