Active rockets V. Trommsdorff (Germany)

12


E1 projectile cutaway. Drawing Secretprojects.co.uk

In the mid-thirties in Germany, the development of active rocket artillery shells (ARS) began. Already in 1936, Dr. Wolf Trommsdorff came up with the original project of such ammunition. He proposed to build a shell based on a ramjet engine. According to the scientist’s calculations, such an ammunition was supposed to show outstanding combat characteristics.



Theoretical basis


The project of V. Trommsdorff was based on the achievements of a group of gas dynamics scientists led by Klaus Osvatich. In the early thirties, they proposed and calculated new versions of ramjet with a tubular body and a central body passing through the entire internal cavity.

V. Trommsdorff became interested in such designs of ramjet and found them practical application. After a certain refinement, the engine with new units could become a full-fledged APC for use in the barrel artillery.

In October 1936, the first documentation on this proposal went to the Arms Department. The command showed interest, and the scientist received his own laboratory for conducting experiments.

The beginning of the E-series


The first years were spent on additional research and design. Only in the 1939 did Mr. V. Trommsdorff carry out the first firing using an experienced 88-mm E1 projectile. It is interesting that the first ARS sample with ramjet in its design seriously differed from the later ones.

Active rockets V. Trommsdorff (Germany)

Scheme of the final version of the E4 shell. Drawing Secretprojects.co.uk

E1 received a hollow cylindrical body with a head fairing in the form of a truncated cone. The fairing hole served as an air intake; in the central part of the housing was placed a holding device with a checker of powdered fuel. A nozzle was provided in the bottom. The warhead was absent due to the lack of sufficient volumes. The product weighed 4,7 kg, of which 0,3 kg accounted for fuel.

The initial velocity of the projectile did not exceed 800 m / s. On the trajectory due to ramjet operation, the product gained speed and accelerated to 910-920 m / s. Tests have confirmed the fundamental possibility of creating ARS with ramjet engine.

In 1942, as part of the development of new designs, the E1 projectile was again used for testing. Instead of a solid fuel charge, a liquid tank with a nozzle was placed in it. The mixture of diesel and carbon disulfide again confirmed the possibility of acceleration due to its own engine.

Caliber growth


The first versions of the Trommsdorf ARS used compressed fuel and were similar in design to the original E1. The development of the line was initially carried out only by scaling the original design and its corresponding modifications. At the same time, there was an increase in the main characteristics.



Product drawing. Secretprojects.co.uk

So, in 1940, they tested the APN E2 - an enlarged 105-mm version of the base product. APC weighed 9,6 kg and carried 900 g of solid fuel. On the trajectory, its speed reached 1050 m / s. Soon, an E3 122 mm projectile appeared with close flight data.

In 1942-44 We have tested several versions of the 150-mm projectile under the designation E4. Apparently, the E1 ARS circuit had some or other shortcomings, because of which it had to be abandoned in favor of a more efficient one. According to the results of the searches, the most successful was the scheme of K. Osvatich with an oblong central body passing through the entire structure of the projectile and its ramjet.

Product E4


The resulting E4 had a cylindrical body. A cone of the central body protruded through the frontal air intake. The latter was longer than the main body and had a variable section. The body and the central body were connected using a set of blades mounted at an angle and giving the projectile rotation. The body contained a tank for a mixture of diesel fuel and carbon disulfide (according to other sources, only for carbon disulfide), as well as a nozzle for removing fuel into the combustion chamber.


E4 shell found during excavation. The product lies with its head to the right. The central body, the base of the driving belts and the body of the combustion chamber are preserved. The remaining elements of thin steel are lost. Photo Strangernn.livejournal.com

A projectile with a diameter of 150 mm and a length of 635 mm weighed 28 kg. The warhead was absent, although in one version of the project provided a small amount for a limited power charge.

An experienced gun sent him flying at a speed of 930 m / s. Then the ramjet accelerated to 1350-1400 m / s. According to various sources, tests of the E4 projectile with such characteristics were completed only at the end of 1944 or at the beginning of 1945.

New series


In 1943, Mr. Trommsdorff completed work on the first large-caliber APC designed for high-power artillery. It was a shell C1 caliber 210 mm. In its design, it was much like an E4 product, but there were significant differences.

For C1, they created a cylindrical body (possibly narrowing the bottom) with leading belts, inside which a large central body with front and rear cones was placed. There was a tank for diesel fuel in the body - this time they refused carbon disulfide. With a mass of 90 kg, the projectile carried 6 kg of fuel. The warhead was again absent due to overly dense layout.



C3 projectile device. The earlier C1 had a similar layout. Drawing Secretprojects.co.uk

When firing from existing 210-mm guns, the C1 shell could accelerate in flight to 1475 m / s. On tests, it was possible to execute a shot at a distance of 200 km. However, the accuracy left much to be desired.

Superguns for superguns


At the final stage of the war in Germany, the GR.4351 solid propellant active rocket was developed for the Krupp K280 5-mm railway gun. Dr. Trommsdorff set about developing an alternative to this munition. His ARS with ramjet should have surpassed all other shells in firing range.

280-mm ammunition developed on the basis of C1 and named C3. It had a similar design, but was larger and heavier. With a length of 1,35 m, he weighed 170 kg and carried 16,3 kg of diesel fuel. For the first time in Trommsdorff’s projects, the shell received a warhead. However, the charge weighed only 9 kg - a little more than 5% of the total mass of APC.

The estimated maximum speed of C3 exceeded 1850 m / s. Firing range - about 350 km. With the help of such a projectile, Germany could attack different targets at a great depth of enemy defense. However, the promising ARS did not reach the test. The project appeared too late and did not manage to reach the landfill within a reasonable time.


280-mm K5 railway gun - the C3 shell was intended for him. Wikimedia Commons Photos

Based on the design of the C3 shell, it was proposed to create several new ammunition with higher characteristics. It was also planned to include in the C-series APC calibers 305, 380 and 405 mm. They were supposed to deliver a charge from 15 to 53 kg over a distance of hundreds of kilometers.

In my dreams there was an 508-mm projectile with a nuclear warhead. Also, based on existing ramjet designs, it was proposed to create several missiles with different flight ranges and combat load. However, the outcome of the war was a foregone conclusion, and all these projects had no chance of reaching even full-fledged design.

The post-war period


In 1945, the laboratory of V. Trommsdorff ended up in the Soviet zone of occupation. German experts, led by a doctor, ended up at KB-4 at the Berlin Research Institute. Together with Soviet scientists, they had to complete the development of existing projects and bring them, at least, to trials.

KB-4 under the direction of N.A. Sudakova successfully completed the 280-mm ARS project and manufactured models for blowing in a supersonic wind tunnel. Information on further work is not available. Perhaps, at this stage, Soviet scientists and the military considered the idea of ​​ARS with ramjet ramp to be futile and refused further work.



The proposed line of APC for guns of special power. Figure Strangernn.livejournal.com

According to some sources, in 1946, Wolf Trommsdorff died in a plane crash, but this is not true. In the mid-fifties, the scientist and his colleagues went home. In 1956 in Munich, a symposium was held on German developments of the war in the field of jet propulsion. One of the speakers was Dr. Trommsdorff, who spoke about all his projects, starting with E1.

However, the scientist was unable to continue work on his ARS projects. Shortly after the symposium, V. Trommsdorff died of a long illness. His developments on the theme of ramjet engines interested scientists and designers, and some of them were even used in real projects.

Nevertheless, the idea of ​​ARS with ramjet ramps did not receive support and for several decades actually turned out to be forgotten. Later, from time to time, various projects of shells with an unusual propulsion system were proposed, but not one of these projects reached full implementation. More successful were a number of missiles for various purposes with ramjet.

Thus, for Hitler Germany, the projects of V. Trommsdorff - like many other developments - turned out to be a waste without real results. All useful developments and technologies, even those requiring long-term and complex development and improvement, went to the winners. Although they did not copy and use German projects in their original form.
12 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. +8
    14 December 2019 05: 21
    On December 2, 2017, an article about active rockets in Germany was posted on the VO page, incl. and about ARS Trommsdorff, under the "signature" of A. Shirokorad ... I would like to know: what new Ryabov was able to add to the "today's" article, in comparison with the article of 2017? At first glance, both Ryabov and Shirokorad used the same source! Earlier, on VO there was such a "manner" when on pages VO, from time to time, "reincarnated" "old" articles, once posted on VO ... I am not against this "manner"! But to pass off practically the same material as "different creations" of two authors !? belay Well, let Ryabov declare that Shirokorad stibr .... copied and pasted (!) His article! Maybe I will believe! ("Ah, it's not difficult to deceive me ... I'm glad to be deceived myself!" ...)
    1. +5
      14 December 2019 07: 50
      In vain you are so at it!
      In my dreams there was a 508-mm shell with a nuclear warhead.

      No one ever came up with this.
      1. +1
        14 December 2019 09: 12
        The dimensions of the "Fat Man" were slightly larger at that time.
      2. +3
        14 December 2019 09: 34
        Quote: Amateur
        In my dreams there was a 508-mm shell with a nuclear warhead.

        No one ever came up with this.

        Oh yes! Das ist fantastish! Dreaming is sometimes not harmful ... sometimes it is even useful! For example, authors of books in the genre "fantasy" make good money. "
    2. +3
      14 December 2019 15: 53
      Quote: Nikolaevich I
      On December 2, 2017, an article about active rockets in Germany was posted on the VO page, incl. and about ARS Trommsdorff, under the "signature" of A. Shirokorad ... I would like to know: what new Ryabov was able to add to the "today's" article, in comparison with the article of 2017? At first glance, both Ryabov and Shirokorad used the same source! Earlier, on VO there was such a "manner" when on pages VO, from time to time, "reincarnated" "old" articles, once posted on VO ... I am not against this "manner"! But to pass off practically the same material as "different creations" of two authors !? belay Well, let Ryabov declare that Shirokorad stibr .... copied and pasted (!) His article! Maybe I will believe! ("Ah, it's not difficult to deceive me ... I'm glad to be deceived myself!" ...)


      Skomorokhov is much more active in this matter. And nothing. Constantly rolls.
      1. +2
        15 December 2019 02: 04
        Quote: NF68
        Skomorokhov is much more active in this matter. And nothing. Constantly rolls.

        Duc ..... in our "society" all are equal (!) ... but some are more equal! Yes As a character in the famous film noticed: "He's a monument! Who will plant him?" bully Well, and Skomorokhov? And what, Skomorokhov! In some "genres", Skomorokhov makes quite "bright" (interesting) articles, where one feels his own author's style ...
    3. +3
      14 December 2019 16: 43
      Vladimir, what do you want from an author who "gives out to the mountain" two articles a day, moreover, in subjects from which he is far, like Alpha Centauri from the Sun? In order to find a non-hackneyed topic about weapons, to pick up material and all this is interesting to present, well, you need not less than a week or two (two is optimal). This is if you understand what you are writing about.
      And the site needs to be filled daily. The simultaneous resolution of the issue with both quality and quantity is now beyond the reach of the site. Chose the quantity.
      1. +4
        15 December 2019 01: 47
        Quote: Undecim
        The simultaneous resolution of the issue with both quality and quantity is now beyond the reach of the site. Chose the quantity.

        Rightly noted ... the "solution" has been chosen, which has been known since "ancient times"! Remember how A. Raikin used to say? "I get paid for the quantity! And who will pay me for the quantity?" wink
      2. +3
        15 December 2019 15: 24
        Quote: Undecim
        Vladimir, what do you want from an author who "gives out to the mountain" two articles a day, moreover, in subjects from which he is far, like Alpha Centauri from the Sun? In order to find a non-hackneyed topic about weapons, to pick up material and all this is interesting to present, well, you need not less than a week or two (two is optimal). This is if you understand what you are writing about.
        And the site needs to be filled daily. The simultaneous resolution of the issue with both quality and quantity is now beyond the reach of the site. Chose the quantity.


        Do you think that if Skomorokhov published a couple of articles a week on the mountain, the material presented in his articles would publish a couple of articles a week? I strongly doubt that. He would all the same quietly tyril previously published articles and would be their "author" and would still have a poor understanding of what he was writing about.

        My previously translated from German and posted on another website articles on the VO delete, and Skomorokhov for the fact that he pokes other people's articles is always a green light.
  2. 0
    14 December 2019 13: 13
    I heard a story from a German one that when they tested the first cumulative charges, in some they made gold instead of a copper funnel, which increased power by several times, supposedly with such a charge the bunker in Belgium was blown up, they only wanted to make the armored door that the Germans themselves were taken aback by the excessive power of such products and subsequently abandoned them.
  3. 0
    14 December 2019 16: 31
    Yes, the development of military equipment went on the 3rd Reich on a broad front - some ideas were dead ends ...
    By the way - why didn’t they try to create an armor-piercing shell on this principle? Those. use the increase in projectile speed not to increase range, but to increase penetration armor? After all, the speed in the barrel is essentially limited for rifled guns of 1100-1200 m / s, and the increase in speed not only compensates for its fall due to braking in the air, but it will even increase even by 200 m / s - not very bad ... hi
  4. 0
    14 December 2019 18: 02
    In my opinion, the very idea of ​​an active rocket is flawed. For sharply reduces the already small warhead of the projectile. Well, this almost blank disc will fly away far .. Well, it’s slightly puffing there .. Even after all, it won’t even get close without a seeker. Dead end direction ..

    The shell is cheap howitzer. With thin walls, with a large supply of explosives and ready-to-use striking elements. But at maximum distances, the rocket is clearly cheaper today.