Military Review

Combat aircraft. "Heinkel" He.111. Justified compulsion

46

So, "Heinkel" Ne.111.


The labels “symbol of the Blitzkrieg” and “beauty and pride of the Luftwaffe” will not be hooked, but the plane was very remarkable. At least only by plowing the whole war, from the first to the last day, and this already says a lot.

Not really. It happened, and it turned out very strange. But let's go in order.

Order begins when it was not really there. More precisely, when Germany after World War I was twisted by the Treaty of Versailles, and I really wanted both the Air Force and the Navy. But if it wasn’t quite convenient with ships, then with planes it turned out.

We even remember the author of this nice idea. Lieutenant Colonel Wimmer from the Reichswehr proposed the design and construction of “auxiliary bombers,” apparently, by analogy with the auxiliary cruisers, or rather, raiders at sea.

The idea came in: to design a bomber that could be given to observers for a passenger plane - why not? A technical assignment was issued for a twin-engine dual-use aircraft that could be used as a bomber and as a high-speed passenger or postal machine. Priority, of course, was given to military functions.

The Junkers and Heinkel began working on the project.

The first such dual-purpose machine, as they would say now, was the Junkers Ju.86. Its prototype took off from the airfield at Dessau on 4 on November 1934.

The military and civilian versions of the aircraft were distinguished by the bow of the fuselage (with and without the cockpit of the navigator-bombardier), the presence or absence of armaments, and cockpit equipment. The passenger car had ten seats in the fuselage, while the military had internal bomb cartridges in the same place.

For the passenger plane, Aunt U was frankly cramped, but as a bomber ... However, we already wrote about this.

Heinkel lagged behind the competition, but what the Gunther brothers did was better than the Junkers.

Combat aircraft. "Heinkel" He.111. Justified compulsion

In general, the twin brothers Siegfried and Walter Gunther (pictured with Ernst Heinkel) did a good job. The first of them was engaged in calculations, and the second - the general layout of the aircraft.

They created a completely modern all-metal freestanding monoplane with smooth skin, closed cabs and retractable landing gear. With a very voluminous fuselage, which is useful for both a bomb and a passenger plane.


The wing, so recognizable, the Gunters simply borrowed from the high-speed passenger aircraft of its own design He.70.


That's what was sad in Germany in those years, so it was with engines. Something like in the USSR of those times, and possibly worse. There were no own engines, more powerful than 750 hp. The gunters chose BMW VI.60Z engines with 690 horsepower. This was the minimum for the bomber to fly at least somehow.

In the military version of the aircraft, a narrow elongated nose ended with a glazed cockpit of the navigator-bombardier. There was a slot for the 7,9-mm machine gun in the cockpit glazing. The same machine gun was planned to be installed in an open top mount. The third machine gun was mounted in a cabin-tower that was pulled down.


Bombs were placed vertically in cassettes inside the fuselage. The maximum load consisted of eight bombs per 100 kg. According to the assignment, the military version of the aircraft was designed for a crew of four: pilot, navigator, scorer, radio operator and gunner.

In the civilian version, the aircraft could carry ten passengers in two cabins: four in the former bomb bay and six in the cockpit behind the wing. Baggage and mail were placed in the trunk, arranged in place of the navigator’s cabin. In the passenger modification, the nose of the fuselage was not glazed.

It was this aircraft that received the designation He.111.

Heinkel received orders for both military and civilian aircraft. The main option for the new aircraft was considered military.

A few words about the most important difference. About weapons.


Defensive armament, as mentioned above, consisted of three MG.7,9 15-mm machine guns, standing in a glazed nose, upper turret and a turret pushed down.

MG.15 fed on cartridges from the store, the fired cartridges were dropped into a bag attached to the machine gun. The navigator fired from a nasal machine gun. The barrel moved left and right in a narrow gap covered by a shield from blowing. The upper firing point was open, only in front of the arrow closed the wind visor from the oncoming flow. Down-back shelling was provided by a lower retractable tower, open at the rear. In a fighting position, she with the shooter seated inside went down.


Naturally, as soon as the plane went into series, modernizations and improvements began, to which the Germans were great masters.

Already with the second modification of the B-2, DB 600CG engines with increased supercharging (maximum power - 950 hp) appeared on the aircraft, which had improved altitude characteristics. The radiator was placed in the protrusion, ennobled aerodynamics and placed additional radiators under the wing leading edge.

All this allowed to bring the maximum speed to 370 km / h, which the military definitely liked and the first four copies of the B-2 were sent to Spain for testing in combat conditions.

Ne.111In the first received the bomber group II / KG 152. For comparison, nine He.111В and nine Do.17Е were handed over to her. Heinkel pilots liked it. He was unhurried and not very maneuverable, but was distinguished by good controllability, ease of takeoff and landing.


In the meantime, in the units they mastered and got used to He.111В, the next version was prepared at the company, D.

In the middle of the 1937, Walter Gunther, having lost his brother, single-handedly continued to work on the aircraft. He suggested changing the shape of the bow, abandoning the traditional ledge between the visor of the pilot's cabin and the cockpit located below.




Now the places of the pilot and navigator-scorer were nearby. The navigator had a folding seat to the right of the pilot; when firing, he moved to a box in the very nose of the car. The abundantly glazed nose of the fuselage had smooth contours and ended in front of the Ikaria ball machine gun. To prevent the navigator lying on the machine gun from obscuring the pilot, the installation was shifted to the right.


[Center]

So Heinkel acquired its original, but somewhat asymmetrical (I would say - crooked) silhouette.

Here there was an incident, from which the German engineers came out, from my point of view, just great.

With this new layout, the glass was very far from the pilot's eyes, and since it had such a slight bend, tilt and curvature, this instantly created problems with the visibility of the pilot, especially in bad weather. Having thrust a couple of planes into the ground during the tests, the Germans realized that something had gone wrong ...

They found a way out, but to say that it was extremely original is to say nothing at all!

If necessary, the pilot’s seat together (!!!) with the controls, the hydraulic actuator rose up, and the pilot’s head protruded outward through the sliding sunroof in the glazing. And the pilot could turn his tower in all directions.

A small hinged visor covered his head from the oncoming stream. The most interesting thing is that in this position the pilot could be infinitely long or until everything freezes itself. Even the main dashboard was located on the ceiling of the cockpit and was clearly visible to the pilot from both positions.

By the way, through the same hatch, the pilot could leave the plane if something happened.

The claims of the representatives of the Luftwaffe were not only to the pilot's place. More precisely, there were no complaints about the place of the navigator-shooter. Unlike other jobs.

The upper shooter was covered from the incoming stream with only a small visor. At speeds above 250 km / h, two problems arose immediately: the air flow blew into the fuselage, and the machine gun barrel could only be turned sideways from the axis of the aircraft with great difficulty.

With a retractable bottom mount, everything was even finer. In the advanced combat position, she created a huge aerodynamic drag, "eating" up to 40 km / h. But this is only half the battle, in general the installation, or as it was also called “Tower C”, simply jammed in the lower position, and here the problems started in full.

The shooter couldn’t always leave her, especially if it stuck in its lowest position, and when landing the uncleaned unit touched the ground, which guaranteed an accident.

It was not very convenient to be in the installation of the shooter, the shooter, open to all the winds, was not only uncomfortable in the cold, but the complete lack of reservation made him a very easy victim of enemy fighters. The statistics on the use of He.111 in Spain testified to almost 60% of the losses of the lower shooters.

Therefore, Walter Gunter developed and installed a fixed ventral gondola, which replaced the retractable installation. She had much less resistance, and the machine gun installation in it was always ready for battle. The shooter was placed in a lying position on the mattress. On board the gondola provided a hatch through which the crew got into the plane.

We also changed the top shooting point. Instead of a small wind visor, a movable half-closed flashlight was introduced. When firing, he manually moved forward, providing a significant field of fire.

On the next series of He.111E aircraft, Jumo 211A-1 engines were installed, which allowed to increase the bomb load to 1700 kg, which in itself was a very good figure. The maximum speed even with overload (2000 kg of bombs) was 390 km / h, which was pretty decent for that time.


In March 1938, the first of the 45 H. 111-1 also went to Spain. It is logical that the aircraft repeated the success of the previous model.

Here, however, a certain role was played by the lack of a worthy fighter resistance among the Republicans. Therefore, a bomber with three machine guns seemed something like that, well armed.

The Luftwaffe command generally decided that the weakly armed, without fighter cover, but relatively fast bombers would be able to continue to carry out their tasks.

After some two years, during the Battle of Britain, the Luftwaffe will pay for these errors with the blood of its pilots in full.


Then a very interesting moment occurred. Based on modification F, the first German wheeled torpedo bomber He.111J was created. The engines were again supplied by Daimler, DB 600CG.

The torpedo bomber turned out to be interesting. Under the center wing, he could hang bombs up to 500 kg, torpedoes LT F5b (765 kg each) or aviation magnetic bottom mines (two each). The internal placement of bombs was not provided.


Several aircraft modified J-1 later equipped as carriers of the planning torpedo L10 Fridenzengel. The planning torpedo was suspended under the fuselage along the axis of the aircraft. In this case, it was possible to take off only from a flat concrete strip, since the clearance from the rudders and propeller torpedoes to the ground was very small.


The discharge was carried out from a height of 2500 m, directing the aircraft towards the target. 3 seconds after the discharge, a wire 25 m long was released from the container under the wing. It was part of the height sensor. When the gliding torpedo was at an altitude of 10 m above the water, the pyromechanism fired the torpedo wing and plumage. The torpedo went under water, launched the propellers and, over time, hit the target (or did not hit). After testing in the fall of 1942, Friedenzengel was launched into the series; several hundred were made.

Ne.111J-1 was allegedly even turned into a missile carrier, and he carried an A-4 (V-2) ballistic missile. No visual confirmation found. V-2 weighed almost 13 tons in the starting state, so I doubt that Ne.111 could have pulled it off. Plus the length is more than 10 meters.

But the V-1 "Heinkel" dragged easily. And they launched, however, without much success. The British quickly realized that it was easier to intercept the slow Ne.111 along with the missile on the way and redeem than to chase after the launched “fau”. But more about that below.

They also made a number of minesweepers, equipping the aircraft with a device for cutting aerostat cables. The frame formed a triangle with slightly convex sides. The cable slid along the frame to the end of the wing and fell on the electric knives that cut it.

The frame and its fasteners, together with the knives, created an additional weight of approximately 250 kg, which greatly shifted the alignment forward. To compensate, a ballast was placed in the rear of the bomber. A total of about 30 machines were made, but the weight of the frame and ballast forced to reduce the bomb load and worsened flight data. Therefore, after several operations on England, the surviving planes were converted into glider tugs.

In general, Ne.111 has become a kind of laboratory for testing new species weapons. In 1942, it was at He.111 that the FX 1400 ("Fritz X") radio-controlled bomb was tested.


Several Ne.111H-6 equipped with transmitters from the FuG 203 Kael control system were used to test the FX 1400 in Foggia (Northern Italy).


Despite some successes, the Heinkel proved to be completely unsuitable as a carrier of such weapons and therefore could not be used in combat situations.

Other Ne.111 equipped with FuG 103 radio altimeters were used for test discharges of the BV 246 Hagelkorn gliding bombs. The tests of the previously mentioned L10 Fridenzengel torpedoes were also tested.

But all these exotic types of weapons on He.111 were only tested, before the use in battle in one case it did not come to pass. Except, as already mentioned, "Fau-Xnumx."


In 1943-44, it was experimentally found that He.111 is quite capable of carrying and launching in flight a projectile (or cruise missile with a pulsating jet engine) Fi.103 (aka FZG 76 and VI, V-1 / "Fow-Xnumx"). The total weight of the device in the refueled state was 1 kg, so even with the overload, the 2180 could take the Fau.

Initially, they wanted to fix the Fau on racks above the fuselage. After starting the rocket engine (it was made by an electric fuse from the side of the carrier), it had to unhook, and the bomber went down with a gentle dive so that there would be no collision.

However, the option did not work, “Fau” after uncoupling, without gaining speed, fell down, and Ne.111 was absolutely not the plane that could easily dodge.

Then another scheme was used. The bomber carried a rocket under the root of the wing, asymmetrically - to the right or left, so that the engine mounted above the keel “Fau”, was parallel to the fuselage of the carrier.


In general, such a shell mount significantly impaired weight distribution and complicated piloting. Naturally, the speed also fell, which was already quite unpleasant.

But the launch from the side of the aircraft had its advantages. Yes, ground-based launchers were fired much more accurately, the then reference and orientation systems in space were very simple and unpretentious. But ground installations unmasked themselves, they were constantly hunted by enemy reconnaissance, they were constantly bombed and fired at allied aircraft.

A launch from the air allowed to attack where the air defense system was not perfect.

The first combat flight of Ne.111 with Fau was made on 8 on July, firing several missiles at Southampton. Until the end of 1944, approximately 300 Fi.103 in London, 90 in Southampton, and 20 in Gloucester were released from the carrier aircraft.

Efficiency was pretty low. For example, 15 September 1944 g. Against London flew 15 Ne.111Н. Only nine Fau were successfully dropped, two of them reached the target, the rest fell into the sea due to failures or were shot down by British fighters.

However, these operations were very dangerous, and KG 53, engaged in launches, suffered heavy losses. For example, the 11 / KG 53 group lost two 12 airplanes in two flights as a result of shell explosions at the time of carrier take-off. Combat missions with missiles ceased on 14 on January 1945. For the entire period of launches, the Germans lost 77 aircraft, of which approximately 30 were lost when separating missiles from carriers. A total of 1200 shells went to the British Isles.

Here's a история application. This is in addition to the usual bombing and torpedo launches, what the 111 did throughout the war, from the first to its last day.


Despite the large number of minuses, the plane was loved by pilots. Excellent visibility from the cockpit, reliability, good stability and controllability in all flight modes. I would like to say a few words about the reservation.

The armor protection of the 111 looked very serious. The pilot made armored steel cup (thickness 5 mm) and back (10 mm) seats. Under the position of the navigator (both in a sitting and lying position) was an armor strip with a thickness of 5 mm. In front of the upper shooter in the visor of the lamp was placed bulletproof glass 60 mm thick. Behind the cabin of the shooters were covered three plates of 8 mm, forming a fuselage partition. In a gondola, armor plates with a thickness of 6 mm covered the sides and bottom, including the entrance hatch. From bullets flying from the area above and behind the aircraft, a sheet in 8 mm protected the gondola. The oil cooler tunnel covered the steel sheet in 6 mm from above, and the 8-mm damper was located at the outlet.

Add to that the survivability measures that German designers introduced earlier. The walls of the fiber tanks were easily pierced by a bullet, but the fiber was not bent by the petals, like a duralumin, preventing the tread from tightening the hole. The Germans' tread was of excellent quality, all gasoline and oil tanks were protected, including additional ones mounted in the bomb bay instead of cartridges.

Excellent (as the Luftwaffe pilots wrote in their memoirs), the fire system worked.

Management was implemented using hard rods. Yes, it gave extra weight, and considerable, but to break the draft was much more difficult than the cable.

In principle, the only useful thing that the Germans did not have was a system for filling gas tanks with exhaust exhaust gases. But this was generally our invention.

The release of Non-111 in Germany was completed in the fall of 1944. The data on the total result for various sources do not coincide. They diverge from 6500 to 7300 and even 7700 aircraft. Since the aircraft were made not only in Germany, it is very difficult to say how many Ne.111 were actually released.


Heinkel Ne.111 was produced in more than 70 variants and modifications, but alas, the efficiency of the aircraft gradually began to decline.

But why then the command of the Luftwaffe did not remove the aircraft from production for the sake of new models?

I think that the point is precisely in the reluctance to lose the established production of well-established aircraft. The fact that an increase in engine power took away an increase in armor and armament did not improve performance. But no one wanted to allow a drop in the production of combat aircraft.

In addition, in addition to bombing and torpedo bombing, He.111 performed a very wide range of combat missions. Landing, transport operations, towing gliders, launching planning bombs and aircraft-shells.

And here, high speed, as it were, was not required, because Ne.111 so calmly fought until the very end of the war. Although, of course, the closer to the end of the war, the harder it was to use it, despite the constantly increasing armor and defensive weapons.


Ne.111 became, albeit not an easy one, but a victim for allied fighters.

LTX He.111H-16


Wingspan, m: 22,60
Length, m: 16,60
Height, m: 4,00
Wing area, м2: 87,70

Weight, kg
- empty aircraft: 8 690
- normal takeoff: 14 000

Engines: 2 x Junkers Jumo-211f-2 x 1350 hp

Maximum speed km / h
- by the ground: 360
- at height: 430
Cruising speed, km / h
- by the ground: 310
- at height: 370

Combat range, km: 2 000
Maximum rate of climb, m / min: 240
Practical ceiling, m: 8 500

Crew, prs: 5

Armament:
- one 20-mm MG-FF gun in the nose (sometimes another 7.9-mm MG-15 machine gun);
- one 13-mm machine gun MG-131 in the upper installation;
- Two 7,92-mm machine gun MG-81 in the rear of the lower gondola;
- one MG-15 or MG-81 or a pair of MG-81 in the side windows;
- 32 x 50-kg, or 8 x 250-kg, or 16 x 50-kg + 1 x 1 000-kg bombs on the external holder, or 1 x 2 000-kg + 1 x 1000-kg on external holders.
Author:
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  1. polpot
    polpot 26 November 2019 18: 17
    +6
    Thanks, very interesting
  2. bubalik
    bubalik 26 November 2019 18: 22
    +17

    He 111Z-1
    ,, how flew on such request
    1. fighter angel
      fighter angel 27 November 2019 09: 34
      +7
      Sergei, this is Zvilling.
      Not really a bomber.
      He was conceived as a towing glider Me-321.
      Until now, the "Teutonic technical genius" is not clear - why not make the entire system closed for greater strength of the entire structure ??? Just take and connect the stabilizers !!!
      The car will be much stronger, and in piloting it will be more convenient!
      I can imagine how the tails and stabilizers of this "miracle" "walked" during maneuvering or during bumpiness ...
      1. bubalik
        bubalik 27 November 2019 10: 32
        +3
        Alexey hi thank you !, so I asked, because I don’t have any sides to planes request but even I had doubts what how to fly on such a bandura? belay
      2. TANKISTONE
        TANKISTONE 3 December 2019 17: 49
        +1

        [i] angel fighter (Aleksey) November 27, 2019 09:34
        Sergei, this is Zvilling.

        Hello Alexey!
        Minor correction: Zwilling (qwilling - so pronounced in German) means "Gemini".
      3. Grossvater
        Grossvater 30 December 2019 13: 56
        0
        Zwilling! The Germans pronounced the letter Z as a very hard "C".
  3. Doctor
    Doctor 26 November 2019 18: 33
    0
    Henk.
    Who knows will understand.
  4. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 26 November 2019 18: 38
    +9
    Interesting. In detail. If I'm not mistaken, Henkel111 in the Spanish Air Force lasted until the 60s and even starred in films about the Second World War.
    1. mr.ZinGer
      mr.ZinGer 26 November 2019 19: 02
      +6
      In Munich, in the aviation branch of the German Museum stands Henkel 111 with Spanish identification marks
    2. Undecim
      Undecim 26 November 2019 20: 02
      +15

      He not only served in Spain, he was produced there under the name CASA 2.111. After the end of World War II, Rolls-Royce Merlin 211s were installed instead of Jumo 2F-500 engines.
      Just these planes also acted in films "Battle for Britain" and "Patton".
  5. bubalik
    bubalik 26 November 2019 19: 03
    +8
    ,,, but I wonder how Devyatayev from Peenemuende He111 stole? Was he really so easy to manage? Or the skill of a pilot?
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 27 November 2019 00: 54
      +12
      Quote: bubalik
      ,, but I wonder how Devyatayev from Peenemuende He111 stole? Was he really so easy to manage? Or the skill of a pilot?
      Despite the fact that the plan was being prepared long before the desperate enterprise, the group did not know what kind of aircraft would be captured. By chance, the legendary top ten managed to get on board the Gustav Anton, which was a Graudentz personal car. The group cruelly dealt with the escort and, hiding behind his greatcoat, got to the plane. This is not to say that the takeoff went smoothly. At first, the car turned out to be without a battery, which had to be searched for, being afraid of being detected, then the aircraft could not take off for a very long time due to the fact that the steering wheel was set in the landing position. However, the nature of Devyatayev did not allow the fugitives to surrender and the plane took off. In an interview, Mikhail Petrovich told how once in a camp he had a chance to watch the launch of the Heinkel 111. The pilot, in mockery of the interested prisoner, without realizing it, revealed to Devyatayev all phases of the engine start, which later played a decisive role in the success of the enterprise.

      The take-off of the car from the airfield was not immediately noticed, which gave the team precious minutes and a chance to avoid being hit from the ground. The message that "Gustav Anton" took off was transmitted by telephone to the Chief of Air Defense Graudenets. The lieutenant did not believe what had happened until he was personally convinced of the absence of a car. The command “Catch up and destroy” was given immediately, but time was lost and “Gustav Anton” was out of reach. Information about the desperate act of the Soviet pilot and other prisoners of war spread throughout Germany. Himler and Bormann were furious. Graudenz’s head was saved by a forced lie that the plane was shot down over the sea. https://topwar.ru/11233-mihail-devyataev-iz-konclagerya-v-nebo.html

      Better read the memoirs of Devyatayev himself, "Flight to the Sun" or Ivan Kivonogov, "Escape from Hell." one of the participants in the legendary escape.
      1. Petrograd
        Petrograd 27 November 2019 01: 28
        +8
        Dear Amurets (Nikolay). Sorry to add my "five kopecks" (of course, your comment was read with pleasure and carefully, unambiguously - thanks hi ) He himself learned about the exploit of Devyatayev, while still a teenager, from the book
        A very interesting story (by V. Moiseev). With difficulty, but I found it, and in 2001 I bought this book from the "closing" library of our city, like many other excellent publications.
        1. Amurets
          Amurets 27 November 2019 04: 05
          +7
          Quote: Petrograd
          With difficulty, but I found it, and in 2001 I bought this book from the "closing" library of our city, like many other excellent publications.

          I first learned about the feat also in a teenager, in the memoirs of A.S. Pokryshkin, they briefly mentioned the name and feat of M. Devyatayev. And about the "closing" library I can only express regret. There was a case in my life when I was walking to work and came across the remains of a private library thrown into a landfill. Moreover, in Soviet times, these were the most scarce publications that were sold only by subscription and for muculature.
      2. fighter angel
        fighter angel 27 November 2019 09: 48
        +9
        Amur.
        Write everything correctly and fair. But here's one moment "jarred".

        "... The group brutally dealt with the guard .."

        Do you really feel sorry for him?
        How is it different? That they should have asked him to go "smoke" before hijacking the plane?
        He is an enemy, all the more so as a security guard, who probably repeatedly mocked the prisoners, and did not consider them to be people at all. What should they do with him?
        This brutal reprisal .... fully deserved.
        Got right.
      3. Dooplet11
        Dooplet11 27 November 2019 11: 00
        +8
        then the plane could not take off for a very long time due to the fact that the helm was set in the landing position.
        - A bit inaccurate. They could not come off for a long time during the take-off run - because of the controlled trimmers, the efforts at the helm were very large.
      4. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 27 November 2019 16: 10
        +7
        Nikolay, I’ll supplement drinks
        Mocking the concerned prisoner, without realizing it, he disclosed to Devyatayev all the phases of the engine starting, which subsequently played a decisive role in the success of the enterprise.

        Devyatayev was not in the camp under his own name. EMNIP, he was sentenced to death for escaping, but "changed his name" - he got clothes with tags of the killed "penalty box" in the previous camp. It must be said that it was strictly forbidden to bring captured pilots to the island of Usedom. But, since no one knew his real name, he ended up there. hi otherwise the German would not have been so scrambled before him! laughing
        then the plane could not take off for a very long time due to the fact that the helm was set in the landing position.

        "Help me!" - he shouted to his friends, all together piled on the steering wheel (and people were weakened!), tore off the plane! soldier
        "Flight to the sun"

        Great book. Everything is described in detail by him. hi
        1. Serg koma
          Serg koma 8 December 2019 13: 19
          +1
          Quote: Pane Kohanku
          "Flight to the sun"

          Great book. Everything is described in detail by him.

          My mother read this book to me, when I still could not read it - I remembered it for my whole life.
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 9 December 2019 09: 39
            +2
            My mother read this book to me, when I still could not read it - I remembered it for my whole life.

            and I read it when I was eight when I was lying in the hospital with appendicitis ... then I was rereading it in adulthood. Yes, it's hard not to remember! soldier
  6. Undecim
    Undecim 26 November 2019 19: 35
    +12
    Ne.111J-1 was allegedly even turned into a missile carrier, and he carried an A-4 (V-2) ballistic missile. No visual confirmation found. V-2 weighed almost 13 tons in the starting state, so I doubt that Ne.111 could have pulled it off. Plus the length is more than 10 meters.
    Ne.111J-1 did indeed play the role of a missile carrier, but he did not carry the V-4 (A4) missile, but its smaller copy of A5, designed to test all V-4 missile systems.

    The length of A5 was 5,825 m, the diameter was 0,78 m, the starting weight was 900 kg; the fuel was alcohol with liquid oxygen as an oxidizing agent. The first launch of the A5 took place in the summer of 1938.
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 26 November 2019 19: 38
      +6

      Rocket A4 and its "test" variants.
  7. Dooplet11
    Dooplet11 26 November 2019 20: 00
    +15
    Again repost (with Ayvar?). And again, not particularly successful.
    Skomorokhov:
    In general, the twin brothers Siegfried and Walter Gunther (pictured with Ernst Heinkel) did a good job. The first of them was engaged in calculations, and the second - the general layout of the aircraft.

    They created a completely modern all-metal freestanding monoplane with smooth skin, closed cabs and retractable landing gear.
    With a very voluminous fuselage, which is useful for both a bomb and a passenger plane.

    Ayrvar:
    The twin brothers Siegfried and Walter Gunther laid the foundation for the multi-purpose machine project there. The first of them was engaged in calculations, and the second - the general layout of the aircraft. A detailed study was conducted by a team led by K. Schwarzler.

    They created a completely modern all-metal freestanding monoplane with smooth skin, closed cabs and retractable landing gear. The ability to carry passengers predetermined a rather voluminous fuselage.

    And then I did not understand, but said.
    Ayrvar:
    An elliptical wing became a design feature in terms of giving a number of aerodynamic advantages and successfully tried before on a high-speed passenger aircraft He 70, designed in 1932 by the same Gunther brothers.

    Skomorokhov:
    Gunther's so recognizable wing just borrowed in a high-speed passenger aircraft of its own design He.70.

    Novel! Apply Tested form wing does not mean "just borrow". The wing of the Non-70 was made of wood, while that of the Non-111 was all-metal. Therefore, you cannot simply borrow. Not to mention the layout and design solutions inside the wing.
    Perepost "from Skomorokhov" another minus.
  8. 32363
    32363 26 November 2019 20: 27
    +3
    Quote: bubalik
    ,,, but I wonder how Devyatayev from Peenemuende He111 stole? Was he really so easy to manage? Or the skill of a pilot?

    he told in one of the interviews that he pretended to be a fool, and the German from the service staff showed him how the engines started. Messers were sent in pursuit who lost track, later in the 60s, visiting Germany, Devyatayev met with a pilot that he tried to catch up and knock down and even grit drank vodka with him.
  9. NF68
    NF68 26 November 2019 20: 36
    +5
    Again, yes. Novel. When will something new or at least little-known appear? Still not tired of staring at other people's articles?
  10. mark1
    mark1 26 November 2019 21: 24
    +1
    A good review article perfectly complemented by comments. It is interesting to read both. Pluralism! I like.
  11. Ryaruav
    Ryaruav 26 November 2019 21: 29
    -1
    the machine in terms of piloting was very good; experienced non-111 pilots performed such tricks that it seemed unthinkable for such a heavy machine; well, two torpedoes (we and the Allies have only one) are just good, so most of the henkels went south and north by the middle of the war as an anti-ship aircraft
    1. fighter angel
      fighter angel 27 November 2019 10: 12
      +3
      Ryaruav
      "... the car in terms of piloting was very good, experienced pilots in non-111 performed such tricks that it seemed inconceivable for such a heavy machine ..."

      What are these "freaks"?
      If only a bend with a large bank, and even then if "empty".
      Will he make a barrel? Probably not.
      A combat U-turn, also unlikely ...
      Gorku is yes, he can, though not very high.
      Loop Nesterov- from the category of the impossible.
      Well, still swing the planes on the speed passage.
      And how be FSE!

      But Kokkinaki made two loops of Nesterov in a row when he demonstrated to Stalin a new plane - TsKB-26, the prototype DB-3. And on TsKB-30 he also twisted loops and barrels, and TsKB-30 is already the first production version of DB-3.
  12. svp67
    svp67 26 November 2019 23: 07
    +4
    A.I. Pokryshkin praised this bomber, especially in terms of the reasonableness of defensive weapons. And in the lists of his victories there is no He-111
    1. fighter angel
      fighter angel 27 November 2019 10: 45
      +4
      svp67
      You are right.
      Officially, Pokryshkin does not have downed Non-111, nevertheless, in his memoirs he describes air battles with the "one hundred and eleventh" ...
      And there are separate opinions on this subject, that the final figure of his air victories is close to 80-90, and He-111 is already on this list.
      The best Soviet ace fighter to destroy the largest number of multi-engine bombers is rightly considered Vladimir Lavrinenkov.
      With the official final score of 44 shot down (38 + 6), he shot down of them - 16 of which were twin-engine ones, of which 5 were He-111.
      1. svp67
        svp67 27 November 2019 11: 22
        +6
        Quote: fighter angel
        Officially, Pokryshkin does not have downed Non-111, nevertheless, in his memoirs he describes air battles with the "one hundred and eleventh" ...

        Yes, yes ... Even there is a separate chapter describing that after one such battle with the He-111, the aircraft technician discovered that only the sight that the bullet hit was saved from Pokryshkin’s death.
    2. Miner
      Miner 28 November 2019 14: 29
      0
      And Vorozheikin was in awe of these Heinkels.

      In his book, an episode is described when it was necessary to attack a group of He-111 marching without fighter cover. "The best strategic bombers in Germany", "six machine guns on each plane, if not seven", etc.

      Vorozheikin's group of fighters could not stop these Heinkels in any way. And then, they went head-on. In order to produce a group frontal ram. I already closed my eyes, ... and when I opened it, "heavy bombers fluttered like butterflies, hastily dropped bombs and turned back" ...

      Ivan Sea after this battle, according to the author, turned gray.

      After this book of Vorozheikin about the battles on the Kursk Bulge, I thought that Heinkel-111 was a kind of very tough nut, since such an ace as Arseniy Vorozheikin himself was so afraid of them.

      For a long time I thought so.
      Well, how else? Materials on enemy aircraft in Soviet times were few. More precisely, very, very few, if any.

      And then it turned out that the invulnerability of "the best strategic bombers of Germany" (c) was slightly exaggerated.

      Looks like the writer, co-author of Vorozheykin from that book, went too far, trying to convey to the reader the words of our pilot about that battle.
      1. svp67
        svp67 29 November 2019 06: 01
        0
        Quote: Miner
        Ivan Sea after this battle, according to the author, turned gray.

        Anything can be. But at least one "daredevil" who was not afraid of the HE-111 we definitely had, this is twice the GSS Nikolay Gulaev
  13. yar1
    yar1 26 November 2019 23: 30
    +6
    Hmm ... The author of the article seriously doesn't ju.86 differ from ju.52?
  14. Petrograd
    Petrograd 27 November 2019 01: 36
    0
    A novel, an interesting and pleasant article to read. Definitely "+". Write a lot about Aviation and aircraft, sometimes with humor and satire. It is a pity that we did not include the "10-best" I-16s in their review, in its own way it is an aircraft legend ... I know, you cannot force and insist, but I think that this aircraft will be good Regards, Petrograd.
    1. NF68
      NF68 27 November 2019 15: 12
      +6
      Quote: Petrograd
      A novel, an interesting and pleasant article to read. Definitely "+". Write a lot about Aviation and aircraft,


      The novel does not write. He copies other people's long-published materials or copies selectively individual sections of the text. And nothing more. At the same time, he also makes quite a few obvious mistakes, since he does not properly try to understand what exactly he "writes" about.
      1. Petrograd
        Petrograd 27 November 2019 19: 23
        0
        Well, I’ll look at your works with interest. And then your publication about German torpedo boats "https://topwar.ru/133303-malye-torpednye-katera-kriegsmarine.html" is just a reprint of some "interesting moments, for you, apparently" of the book by Harald Fock "Die deutschen Schnellboote 1914 -1945 “, didn't you copy? ... You didn't go far ...
        1. Dooplet11
          Dooplet11 28 November 2019 06: 32
          0
          Uh, buddy, there is a difference! At the end of the article (translation?) On boats, the author of Harald Fock and the source of the photo are indicated: "Harald Fock" Die deutschen Schnellboote 1914-1945 ", and not at all" the author Nikolai Frank. "
          1. NF68
            NF68 28 November 2019 17: 21
            0
            Quote: Dooplet11
            At the end of the article (translation?)


            Translation of the chapter on small torpedo boats.
        2. NF68
          NF68 28 November 2019 17: 16
          +2
          Quote: Petrograd
          Well, I’ll look at your works with interest. And then your publication about German torpedo boats "https://topwar.ru/133303-malye-torpednye-katera-kriegsmarine.html" is just a reprint of some "interesting moments, for you, apparently" of the book by Harald Fock "Die deutschen Schnellboote 1914 -1945 “, didn't you copy? ... You didn't go far ...


          At least I translated this text. The same goes for German piston aircraft engines. At this time, and not a short time, it is necessary. And also, for starters, it was necessary to find these books.
        3. NF68
          NF68 28 November 2019 17: 39
          +2
          Quote: Petrograd
          Well, with interest I will familiarize myself with your writings.


          http://alternathistory.com/razrabotki-aviadvigatelei-firmy-daimler-benz/

          http://alternathistory.com/razrabotki-aviadvigatelei-firmy-daimler-benz/alternathistory.com/aviatsionnye-dvigateli-firm-siemens-bramo-bmw-po-materialam-karla-prestelya/

          http://alternathistory.com/aviatsionnyi-dvigatel-bolshoi-moshchnosti-jumo-213-germaniya/

          http://alternathistory.com/aviatsionnyi-dvigatel-junkers-jumo-222/

          http://alternathistory.com/malenkij-chetyrehugolnyj-dizelnyj-aviatsionnyj-dvigatel-jumo-223-germaniya/

          http://alternathistory.com/maliy-aviatsionnyi-dvigatel-novogo-tipa-jumo-210-germaniya/

          http://alternathistory.com/bolshoi-aviatsionnyi-dvigatel-jumo-211-germaniya/

          http://alternathistory.com/aviatsionnyj-dvigatel-db-600-germaniya/

          http://alternathistory.com/aviatsionniy-dvigatel-s-sistemoi-vpryska-topliva-db-601-germaniya/

          http://alternathistory.com/malyi-aviatsionnyi-dvigatel-mercedes-benz-db-605-germaniya/

          http://alternathistory.com/dvigateli-nemetskikh-torpednykh-katerov-razrabatyvavshiesya-i-seriino-stroivshiesya-v-1920-1940-gody/

          http://alternathistory.com/razrabotka-tankovih-dvigatelei-firmy-maybach-v-1930-1940-e-gody/

          http://alternathistory.com/voprosy-kasayushhiesya-linejnyh-korablej-kriegsmarine/

          If this is not enough, I can give links to some more materials.
          1. Dooplet11
            Dooplet11 28 November 2019 20: 21
            0
            good Serious work!
            100500+
    2. Dooplet11
      Dooplet11 27 November 2019 16: 34
      0
      Yeah probably learn a lot good wassat From Roman Skomorokhov about I-16. Look forward to!
  15. The Siberian barber
    The Siberian barber 28 November 2019 00: 42
    +3
    Very interesting and lively series, from R. Skomorokhov good
    We look forward to continuing, and as a dessert, the comments of readers in
  16. Alsur
    Alsur 28 November 2019 14: 17
    0
    Quote: fighter angel
    Amur.
    Write everything correctly and fair. But here's one moment "jarred".

    "... The group brutally dealt with the guard .."

    Do you really feel sorry for him?
    How is it different? That they should have asked him to go "smoke" before hijacking the plane?
    He is an enemy, all the more so as a security guard, who probably repeatedly mocked the prisoners, and did not consider them to be people at all. What should they do with him?
    This brutal reprisal .... fully deserved.
    Got right.

    I agree with you, especially any murder is cruel, but they did not torture him or torture him, but killed him with a blow to the head.
  17. Kibl
    Kibl 28 November 2019 15: 50
    +1
    The car is not bad, but still we made them, did !!!!!! Buoy them in the mouth hole !!!!!!!
  18. certero
    certero 17 December 2019 11: 29
    0
    Interesting detailed article Thank you very much! One thing is not clear to me, I read many times in the memoirs of our pilots that after the Henkali 111 attack on the airfield they could not catch them. But judging by the characteristics of the i-16, it was still much faster than the henkel 111