Military Review

Oryol-Kromsk battle

33
Oryol-Kromsk battle

The entry of the Reds into the Eagle. 1919. Oryol Museum of Local Lore


Smoot. 1919 year. During the counterattack of the Southern Front, the Red Army troops inflicted a heavy defeat on the main forces of the Volunteer Army, finally buried the plans of the Allied forces march to Moscow. The White Guards were driven back at 165 km, the Reds liberated Orel, Voronezh, Chernigov and Kursk. The Red Army seized a strategic initiative.

Oryol-Kromsk battle


By mid-October 1919, the position of Denikin’s army worsened markedly. The situation in the rear was unsatisfactory. The war was on in the North Caucasus, the Kuban was worried, where the secessionists took up. In New Russia and Little Russia, rebellions broke out one after another. A powerful rebellion of Makhno distracted reserves, replenishment and even troops from the front. To achieve the support of the people in Little Russia failed. Peasants massively supported the Makhnovists and other chieftains. The hope of supporting cities also did not materialize. Even Kiev, a huge city full of refugees, almost did not give white volunteers. The most irreconcilable went to white back in 1918, the rest adhered to neutrality. Red Moscow entered into a truce with Poland and the Petliurists, who were increasingly guided by Warsaw. This made it possible to transfer reinforcements to the Southern Front from the Western. And the 12-I red army launched an attack on the White Guards from the western direction.

The main blow of the Red Army was aimed at the most efficient core of the Denikin army. The Red Command made the right conclusion from previous defeats - the defeat of the core of the Volunteer Army will lead to a decisive turning point in the war. On the morning of October 11 1919 Martusevich’s strike group, units of the 13 and 14 armies struck in the Oryol-Kursk direction. The Estonian and 9th Infantry Division advanced on the forehead, and the Latvian Division struck from the flank, from Bryansk. The 1th Army Corps of Kutepov met with the counter-offensive of the Red Southern Front in a weakened state. Eight regiments of the past were transferred to Kiev and against Makhno. In the Dmitrovsk region, Drozdov’s division defended, Kornilov’s division advanced under Orel, and Markovskaya under Livny. In the Orel region, a fierce battle ensued, where the red and white parts quickly mixed.

In the center, the White Guards still rushed forward. The Kornilovites defeated the right flank of the 13-th Red Army and on October 13 1919 took Oryol. Their advanced units went to Mtsensk. Parts of the 9 and 55 th rifle divisions of the 13 th army were crushed and defeated, the 3 th division retreated. The Red 13 Army suffered a heavy defeat, disorganized. There was a threat of loss of Tula. In this regard, the attack group was transferred from the 13 Army to the 14 Army and was tasked with eliminating the enemy’s breakthrough in the area of ​​Orel and Novosil. At a meeting of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the RCP (B) on October 15, a number of additional measures were taken to strengthen the Southern Front. In particular, it was decided to recognize the Southern Front as the main front of the Soviet Republic and to further strengthen it at the expense of parts of the Western, Turkestan and Southeastern fronts.

Meanwhile, the shock group crushed and pushed aside the Samur regiment. 15 October, the Reds took Kroma. Drozdovtsy were forced to retreat to Orel, to join the Kornilovites, who successfully resisted the onslaught of the Estonian division. The Latvian division, after the capture of Krom, also turned north, coming to Orel from the south. The command of the Volunteer Army, due to the weakening of the right wing, concentrated the main forces in the Bryansk direction (Drozdovtsy, Samurians, 5 Cavalry Corps) and dealt a strong blow to the shock group of the 14 Army in the area of ​​Sevsk and Dmitrievsk. At the same time, White successfully restrained the onslaught of the red 13 Army in the Orel region.

For two weeks, violent oncoming battles raged across the entire front line. On October 16, the Kornilovites defeated the Separate Rifle Brigade from the Shock Group, but the Latvians, with the strong support of artillery, counterattacked and drove the White Guards away. On the 17, the Kornilovites again went on the attack and almost went to the Kroms, but they were again thrown back. As a result, units of the Shock Group were unable to complete the task, but forced the 1th Infantry Division of the enemy to stop the attack on Tula, to concentrate all their forces on repelling the attacks of the Reds. This allowed the Red Command to restore and replenish the right flank of the 13 Army, and again to throw troops on the offensive on Orel. Meanwhile, the troops of the 14 Army on 18 in October took Sevsk and developed an offensive on Dmitrovsk. Having strengthened their left flank, the Denikinites launched a counterattack, repelled the enemy’s advance, and on October 29 again took Sevsk. On the right flank, the Alekseevsky regiment of 17 - 18 took Novosil on October, and the Markov troops went to Yeltsi, where they came across large enemy forces and were unable to take the city.

The Denikinites gradually lost initiative, and the command of the 1 Infantry Division, fearing the environment, decided to leave Oryol. On the night of October 19 on October 20, the Kornilovites broke through the blockade and began to retreat along the Orel-Kursk railway line. 20 October, the Reds occupied the Eagle. Denikinites went to the station Eropkino. This was a turning point in the battle. From this moment, despite a series of private successes and victories of the White Guards, they were only retreating. So 24 - 24 October, White again took Kromy, but on 27 they were left, as was Dmitrovsk. The 13-I Red Army launched an offensive on the right flank. The Markov division, under pressure from the enemy, left Livny.

Thus, the Red Army was unable to break through the enemy’s front and destroy the combat-ready core of the Volunteer Army (Kutepov’s corps). However, the Reds seized the strategic initiative, Denikin’s army’s march to Moscow was over. The Reds liberated the Eagle, the White retreated, although they snapped heavily. Both sides suffered huge losses. For example, the losses of the Latvian division reached 40-50%, a separate cavalry brigade of the Red Cossacks lost a third of the composition. Kutepov reported to May-Mayevsky: “Under the onslaught of superior enemy forces, our units are withdrawing in all directions. In some regiments of Kornilov’s and Drozdov’s there are 200 bayonets. Losses on our part reach 80 percent ... ". In bloody battles, the 1-th Army Corps (the most combat-ready core of the All-Union Socialist-Ukrainian League) was bloodless. At the same time, the reds could quickly replenish their losses, while the white ones could not.


The development of the offensive of the South and Southeast Fronts


27 October 1919 The Volunteer Army went on the defensive, planning to stop the enemy offensive at the line Sevsk - Dmitrovsk - Eropkino - Yelets. Then go on the offensive again. The 13-I and 14-I red armies developed the offensive. White slowly retreated, delivering powerful counterattacks. So, Kutepov’s corps received reinforcements and at the beginning of November delivered a strong blow to the Latvian division. But at the same time, on another site, southeast of Dmitrovsk, two divisions of the 13-th army of Uborevich broke into the enemy’s defenses and the 8-I cavalry division of the Red Army began raids on the rear of the whites. Red cavalry 4 November captured the Divers, created a threat to Fatezh. As a result of the raid, the White Guard’s defense system was broken.

A serious threat appeared on the right flank of the Volunteer Army. Budennyi's horse corps reached the large Kastornaya railway junction. To support the Shkuro corps, one regiment of the Markov division was pulled here. A stubborn battle broke out over Kastornaya. The 13-I Red Army, breaking through and bypassing the thin line of defense of the Markov Division, occupied Maloarkhangelsk.

Kutepov again had to withdraw his troops back. The volunteer army retreated to the line of Glukhov-Dmitriev-Fatezh-Kastornoye. However, here the White Guards could not resist. In mid-November 1919, after regrouping forces and receiving new reinforcements, the Red Army resumed the onslaught on the entire Denikin front. On the western flank, the troops of the Kiev region, General Dragomirov, barely restrained the onslaught of the Reds. White retained Kiev, although their positions were only 40 - 60 km from the city, near Fastov and on the river. Irpin. But north of the troops of the 12-th Soviet army occupied Chernigov, broke into the Left Bank, breaking the connection of parts of Dragomir and May-Mayevsky. By November 18, the Reds occupied Bakhmach and began to threaten the left flank of the Volunteer Army. The front was also broken through on the right flank of the Volunteer Army. After a stubborn struggle on November 15, the Reds took Kastornaya. Thus, the shock group of Budyonny, having thrown off Shkuro's cavalry, took Kastornaya, leaving the rear of the Volunteer Army.

The defense line was also broken in the central section. On November 14, units of the 14 th Army of Uborevich struck Fatezh. Again the cavalry was introduced into the breakthrough. The 8 cavalry division, using a strong snowstorm, leaked to the rear of Denikin’s troops, on November 14 took Fatezh, on the 16 — Lgov, where the May-Mayevsky field headquarters and Alekseev’s division headquarters were located. The white command was able to escape from the blow. However, the connection between the forces of the Volunteer Army was broken. The Drozdov’s division, which was under Dmitriev, was cut off from its own and began to retreat, breaking through the busy red Ligov. Drozdovtsy broke through to their own. At the same time, units of the 13 Army took Shchigry. Kursk was lined on three sides. Fights for the city began. The white armored trains sent from Kursk stumbled upon the blown up tracks, then the red ones destroyed the canvas and in their rear. The Red Army surrounded the enemy. After a stubborn battle, the crews blew up armored trains and broke through the encirclement ring and went south. 18 November 1919 year Estonian and 9-I rifle divisions occupied Kursk. Volunteers moved to the Sumy - Belgorod - Novy Oskol line. Thus, the Volunteer Army practically aligned the front with the Don Army in the Liski area.

At the same time, the 9-I Red Army of the Southeast Front resumed the offensive on the Don Front. Almost everywhere, the Cossacks repelled the onslaught of the enemy. However, the 2-th cavalry corps of Dumenko broke through the enemy’s defenses and on November 11 took Uryupinskaya. Then the red cavalry wedged deeply between the 1 and 2 m Don corps. The defense of the White Cossacks by Khopr was broken.

At the same time, the 10-I Red Army again tried to take Tsaritsyn, but without success. However, the situation on the right flank of the VSYUR was difficult. The Caucasian army, which seized most of the cavalry and reinforcements that went to other directions, was greatly weakened. Due to their small numbers, all the remaining units were pulled into the Tsaritsyn fortified area. The insignificant forces that were beyond the Volga were also transferred to the right bank, to the city, so that they would not be cut off and destroyed. Their place was immediately taken by the 50-I Taman Rifle Division Kovtyukh, which was part of the 11-th Army. Since that time, Tsaritsyn was subjected to constant shelling from the other side of the Volga. From the south and north, the Reds were preparing for a decisive assault.


Cavalry officers of the Red Army in Novosil after taking the city. Source: https://ru.wikipedia.org/

Battle results


During the counterattack of the Southern Front, the Red Army troops inflicted a heavy defeat on the main forces of the Volunteer Army, finally buried the plans of the Allied forces march to Moscow. The White Guards were driven back at 165 km, the Reds liberated Orel, Voronezh, Chernigov and Kursk. The Red Army seized the strategic initiative and created the conditions for the development of the offensive for the liberation of Belgorod, Kharkov, Poltava, Kiev and the Don region.

At the same time, there were permutations in the white command. After the failures of the second half of October and November, as a result of the revealed personal shortcomings (drunkenness), General May-Mayevsky was fired. In his place was appointed Baron Wrangel. The Caucasian Army was received by General Pokrovsky.

At the same time, it was obvious that Mai-Mayevsky’s mistakes were not the main reason for the defeat of the Volunteer Army. The defeat was logical. Denikin also acknowledged this, in his memoirs he noted: “... the mere fact of the retreat of the Volunteer Army from Orel to Kharkov with the then balance of forces and the general situation cannot be blamed on either the army or the commander. God be his judge! ”In 1920, Wrangel returned May-Mayevsky to the army. During the defense of the Crimea, he led the rear units and garrisons of the Russian army. May-Mayevsky, according to one version, committed suicide during the evacuation of the White Guards from Sevastopol in November 1920, according to another, he died of a heart failure in one of the hospitals in Sevastopol or during a movement for evacuation.
Author:
Articles from this series:
Smoot. 1919 year

How the British created the Armed Forces of the South of Russia
How to restore Soviet power in Ukraine
How Petliurists led Little Russia to a complete catastrophe
How defeated Petliurism
Give the boundaries of 1772 of the year!
Battle for the North Caucasus. How to suppress the Terek Uprising
Battle for the North Caucasus. CH 2. December battle
Battle for the North Caucasus. CH 3. The January accident of the 11 Army
Battle for the North Caucasus. CH 4. How the 11 army died
Battle for the North Caucasus. CH 5. Capture of Kizlyar and the Terrible
Battle for the North Caucasus. CH 6. Furious assault of Vladikavkaz
How Georgia tried to seize Sochi
How the Whites crushed the Georgian invaders
The war of February and October as a confrontation between two civilization projects
How did the "Flight to the Volga"
How Kolchak's army broke through to the Volga
Catastrophe of the Don Cossacks
Verkhniyon uprising
How "Great Finland" planned to seize Petrograd
"All to fight with Kolchak!"
Frunze. Red Napoleon
The missed opportunities of the army of Kolchak
May offensive of the Northern Corps
How white broke through to Petrograd
Battle for the South of Russia
Strategic change on the southern front. Manych operation
Crimea on fire Russian distemper
Crimea in 1918-1919. Intervents, local authorities and whites
How did the uprising of ataman Grigoriev
Nikifor Grigoriev, "ataman of the rebel forces of Kherson region, Zaporizhia and Tavria"
Odessa operation ataman Grigoriev
Uprising in the Ukraine. How failed the “Blitzkrieg” of Grigorievka
Ufa operation. How were defeated the best parts of the army of Kolchak
Moscow campaign army Denikin
"All to fight with Denikin!"
Battle of the Urals
The defeat of the Siberian army. How the Red Army liberated Perm and Yekaterinburg
The defeat of Kolchak in the Chelyabinsk battle
August Counterattack of the Southern Front
The battle for Siberia. Recent operations Kolchak
Pyrrhic victory of the Kolchak armies on Tobol
Operation "White Sword". Beat at the heart of the revolution
"Do not give up Petrograd!"
General battle for Russia
Avalov Army Campaign in Riga
The defeat of the Kolchak armies in the second battle on Tobol
Victories of Denikin’s army in New Russia and Little Russia
White Movement Top
Recent major victories of Denikin
Why did the White Army lose?
Makhno's blow to Denikin
The fall of white Omsk. Great Siberian Ice Camp
Siberian exodus
Battle of Voronezh
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  1. bistrov.
    bistrov. 21 November 2019 06: 58
    +3
    The entrance arch in Orel, shown in the picture, was destroyed during the Second World War, and was not restored.
  2. Olgovich
    Olgovich 21 November 2019 07: 38
    -14
    red released Oryol, Voronezh, Chernihiv and Kursk.

    Captured, not "released".

    .
    Red Moscow concluded a truce with Poland and Petliurists, . It allowed transfer reinforcements to the Southern Front from the Western. .

    That, in fact, is all you need to know about the causes of Russia's defeat: all anti-Russian, anti-Russian
    the independents of Rus united for war with her.

    Poland, the eternal enemy of Russia, saved anti-Russian power from imminent defeat.

    Nothing, she still hiccups ...
    1. Karen
      Karen 21 November 2019 08: 01
      +4
      Quote: Olgovich
      Poland, the eternal enemy of Russia

      Actually, there was an agreement on eternal friendship once ...
      I have long wanted to know: which of the parties violated the obligations of that contract? Enlighten, please.

      Quote: Olgovich
      saved the anti-Russian power from imminent defeat.

      Nothing, she still hiccups ...

      And what does it hiccup? Poland received a maximum of buns from the Bolshevik authorities ... Territories in the east, territory and in the west - the last with God's help from Stalin after WWII ... And today, due to his standing in the forefront of the (territorially) anti-Russian confrontation, he receives buns as from cornucopia ... There will be another 1991 year - it will get its own again ... And the fact that the new 1991 year is just around the corner ... suffice it to note how the government spoils its population in the moral / ideological direction ... New Bogomolov’s production is an example for you ... The Sobchak case lives on and is melting ... It’s not for nothing that the Supreme cried over his coffin ...
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 21 November 2019 11: 03
        -4
        Quote: Karen
        Actually, there was an agreement on eternal friendship once ...
        I have long wanted to know: which of the parties violated the obligations of that contract? Enlighten, please.
        belay
        What ... contract, with whom?
        Poland has long been gone, and, as a matter of fact, there are no agreements with it.
        Quote: Karen
        And what does it hiccup?

        belay Their hiccups are every day of God: read their groans on 20,39 years, on the territories and on the murdered, lost decades, etc.
        Quote: Karen
        Poland received a maximum of goodies from the Bolshevik authorities ... Territories in the east, territory and in the west - the last with God's help from Stalin after WWII ...

        Would you still know that the territory of Poland before 39 was much more of today
        Quote: Karen
        And today, due to her standing at the forefront of the (territorially) anti-Russian confrontation, she gets buns as if from a cornucopia ... There will be another 1991 year — she will get her again ... And the fact that the new 1991 year is just around the corner. .. it’s enough to note how the government spoils its population in the moral / ideological direction ... The new production of Bogomolov is an example for you ... The Sobchak case lives and flourishes ... It’s not just that the Supreme Person cried over his coffin ...

        request
        1. Karen
          Karen 21 November 2019 12: 08
          +1
          Quote: Olgovich

          What ... contract, with whom?

          The agreement on eternal friendship 17в ... Wrong remember?

          Quote: Olgovich
          You would also know that the territory of Poland before 39 was much more than today

          Well ... The winner (USSR), chopped off, naturally, had to return his own ...
    2. Alexander Suvorov
      Alexander Suvorov 21 November 2019 08: 48
      +7
      Olgovich (Andrey)
      That, in fact, is all you need to know about the causes of Russia's defeat: all anti-Russian, anti-Russian
      the independents of Rus united for war with her.
      Good morning ward No.6. laughing
      All anti-Russian forces were just on the side of the whites.
  3. BAI
    BAI 21 November 2019 09: 26
    +6
    Even Kiev, a huge city,

    There were no large cities in tsarist Russia. In all of Russia - only 2 (TWO) cities of a millionaire.
  4. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 21 November 2019 13: 15
    -3
    The White Army had a small number of elite selective troops, but no reserves. Denikin did not carry out forced mobilization of the population in the territories he controlled.
    But Trotsky did it all the time. And the Red Army was continuously pulled along the railway. reserves. Not very high quality, but numerous.
    Therefore, the White Army inevitably ran out of steam during the offensive, encountering fresh forces of the Reds.
    1. Nagaibak
      Nagaibak 21 November 2019 13: 52
      +6
      voyaka "Denikin did not conduct forced mobilizations of the population in the territories he controlled."
      In his book, the historian R. Abinyakin writes about it this way: “The second legend relates to a campaign against Moscow, during which name regiments were deployed in divisions due to the influx of supposedly volunteers, which was reduced only in September 1919.
      Meanwhile, an analysis of archival documents about officer replenishment of the 1 Markov Regiment already in July-August shows the overwhelming numerical superiority of the mobilized (224 people, 85,2%) over those who entered voluntarily (39 people, 14,8%).
      Undoubtedly, the obtained ratio should be extrapolated to the Volunteer Army as a whole, since the Markovites used the constant location of the command and therefore received not worse contingents.
      Thus, the proportion of volunteers in the mass mobilized clearly shows the percentage of officers for which the White movement was attractive; we can talk about him as a minimum, since many sympathetic officers have already been mobilized into the Red Army. ”
      And further, as a result of the forced mobilization of the Volunteer Army, the author of the analytical scientific work notes: “It must be remembered that most of the mobilized officers, especially in large cities, tried not to go to the front at all costs, which resulted in an exorbitant increase in the staff of the rear institutions.
      This was most acute on the eve of the second evacuation of Odessa, when there were no more than a thousand combatant officers out of 37 of thousands of combat officers, and in order to force them to go into battle, they had to threaten execution.
      Trying to change the situation, in April-July 1920 disbanded 330 institutions (183 only in Sevastopol) and then even before 150.
      But even then, according to generalized data, there were seven rear officers per one front-line soldier, so it was not possible to completely overcome the rear troop hypertrophy. ” From myself I will add Denikin in the 19 year spent 4 mobilization. The result was a weak people ticking in different directions.))) My grandfather was mobilized into the Kolchak army. They also deserted there, at the slightest opportunity they switched to red ones. Of course, there were ideological ones who fought for the whites to the end. But there were few of them. I’m talking about ordinary peasants.
      1. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 21 November 2019 14: 02
        -1
        The bureaucracy at Denikin’s headquarters was terrifying. The mass of equipment that the Entente supplied them did not know how to dispose of. She was stuck in ports, did not reach the fronts. Or it came without technicians, fuel. And they tried to do mobilization from the townspeople, but out of the blue. Denikin was an honest man, but a weak organizer. But, thank God, not a gunner-punisher, like Kolchak.
        ---
        By comparison, Trotsky was very cruel. They mobilized both sympathizers and anyone under threat of execution on the spot. But with Trotsky, everything "flew". The formation of new regiments, the transfer of equipment, supply, technical support was fast and efficient.
        1. bober1982
          bober1982 21 November 2019 14: 48
          -1
          Quote: voyaka uh
          Denikin was an honest man

          He has a chapter in his memoirs The moral character of the army. Black pages., where he honestly talks about the most unsightly sides (to put it mildly) of his army.
          Kolchak, by the way, was genuinely surprised at the interrogation (!) When he was told about the atrocities of his army. He did not know anything.
          Quote: voyaka uh
          Trotsky was very cruel

          Yes, both to their own and to strangers, the same atrocities.
          1. Alexander Suvorov
            Alexander Suvorov 21 November 2019 15: 24
            +3
            bober1982 (vladimir)
            Kolchak, by the way, was genuinely surprised at the interrogation (!) When he was told about the atrocities of his army. He did not know anything.
            Well, yes, of course, here I was "sincerely" surprised at what was being done on his direct instructions.
            The surviving documents and orders make it possible to establish precisely that Admiral Kolchak decided to use a punitive system of Japanese invaders against his people, who “loved” to shoot Siberian villages together with their inhabitants with artillery fire.

            The "Japanese" way of fighting their own rebellious people was reflected in the March order of the Supreme Ruler A. V. Kolchak on the suppression of the Yenisei uprising:

            “Perhaps sooner, more decisively, to end the Yenisei uprising, not stopping at the most severe, even cruel measures against not only the rebels, but also the population supporting them. In this regard, the example of Japan in the Amur Region, which announced the destruction of villages hiding the Bolsheviks, was apparently caused by the need to achieve success in a difficult partisan struggle. In any case, a strict measure should be applied to the villages of Kiyayskoye, Nayskoye. I believe that the method of action should be something like this:

            1. In settlements it is necessary to organize self-protection from reliable residents.

            2. Demand that local authorities themselves arrest and destroy all agitators or troublemakers in localities.

            3. For harboring the Bolsheviks, propagandists and gangs, there must be merciless reprisal, which should not be done only if the nearest military unit was informed about the appearance of these persons (gangs) in the settlements in time, as well as the time of the departure of this gang and the direction of its movement reported to the troops. Otherwise, a monetary fine should be imposed on the whole village, and the village leaders should be brought to a military court for concealment.

            4. Make unexpected raids on troubled points and areas. The appearance of an impressive detachment causes a change in the mood of the population.

            7. For intelligence, communications use the locals, taking hostages. In case of false and untimely information or betrayal of the hostages, execute, and burn down the houses belonging to them ... All able-bodied men to be collected in some large building, kept under surveillance and guard for the night, in case of treason, betrayal - merciless reprisal.

            In view of this order of Kolchak on 20 on March 1919, Minister of War N. A. Stepanov sent the following telegram to the commander of the Irkutsk Military District, Lieutenant General V. V. Artemyev:

            “The supreme ruler ordered you to convey: 1) his urgent desire to resolve the Yenisei revolt as soon as possible without stopping at the most severe, even cruel measures against not only the rebels, but also the people supporting them. In this regard, the example of the Japanese in the Amur Region, who announced the destruction of villages hiding the Bolsheviks, was apparently caused by the very need to succeed in a difficult partisan struggle in a wooded area. ”

            In turn, the commander of the troops of the Irkutsk Military District, Lieutenant General V.V. Artemyev sent General S. N. Rozanov a telegram from 23 on March 1919, No. 0175-632, with the following contents:

            “The supreme ruler ordered that the Yenisei revolt be ended as soon as possible and resolutely, without stopping at the most severe, even harsh measures against not only the rebels, but also the people supporting them. In this regard, the example of the Japanese in the Amur Region, who announced the destruction of the villages hiding the Bolsheviks, was caused, apparently, by the very need to succeed in a difficult partisan struggle in a wooded area. In any case, strict punishment should be applied to Kiyayskoye and Koiskoye.

            I order:

            1. In settlements, organize self-protection from reliable residents.

            2. Demand that local authorities themselves arrest and destroy all agitators or troublemakers in localities.

            3. For harboring the Bolsheviks, propagandists and troublemakers there should be a merciless reprisal, which should not be done only if the appearance of these persons (gangs) in the settlements was promptly reported to the nearest military unit, as well as if the time and direction of movement of this unit was timely reported. Otherwise, a monetary fine should be imposed on the whole village, and the village leaders should be brought to a field court for concealment.

            4. Make unexpected raids on troubled points and areas. The appearance of an impressive detachment will cause a change in the mood of the population.

            5. In the units subordinate to you to arrange severe discipline and order. No illegal actions - robberies, violence - not to be allowed. With those caught cracking down on the spot. Drinking - to eradicate. Drunken bosses - to reject, judge, punish.

            6. Chiefs who do not know how to keep the units entrusted to them at the proper height, to dismiss, to bring to the field court for the inaction of the authorities.

            7. For intelligence, communications use the locals, taking hostages. In case of incorrect and untimely information or betrayal of the hostages, execute, and burn down the houses belonging to them. When stopping for the night and located in villages, keep the units concentrated, adapt occupied buildings to the defense, put up guard from all sides, adhering to the principle of quality, not number. Take hostages from neighboring, unoccupied villages. All men capable of battle can be gathered in some large building, kept under reliable guard, and in case of treason or betrayal, they will mercilessly shoot.
            The last 7 paragraph is especially indicative of olgovich and the like, who like to whine about the Red Terror and the hostages!
            1. Sugar Honeyovich
              Sugar Honeyovich 21 November 2019 18: 19
              +5
              To complete the picture:
              "The head of the 2nd Czechoslovak rifle division and the head of the guard of the Novonikolaevsk-Achinsk railway section, Colonel L. Kreichi, dated May 11, 1919:" Impose the protection of the Novonikolaevsk-Achinsk highway section on the residents themselves ... Residents of these sections must themselves ... organize the actual protection of the railway track and buildings and remember that this is not a proposal, but an order that must be carried out exactly ... Officials of the volost and village administration should immediately upon receiving this order ... send me lists of hostages, the number of which is determined by the number of villages and villages of the given volost in strip 20 versts to the south and north of the track ... If in any section there is a crash due to the dismantling of the track or a malicious attack on the employees of the railway and the guards, then the entire responsibility falls on the residents of this section ... guilty, then for the first time half of the hostages through one boo children were shot, and the houses of residents who went to the criminals, regardless of the remaining families, will be burned ... In the event of a repeated attack in the same area, the number of shot hostages will increase several times, and suspicious villages will be burned entirely ”.
        2. Alexander Suvorov
          Alexander Suvorov 21 November 2019 15: 03
          +3
          voyaka uh (Alexey)
          The bureaucracy at Denikin’s headquarters was terrifying.
          Ha, interesting and who is to blame? Holy spirit or all the same Denikin himself?
          The mass of equipment that the Entente supplied them did not know how to dispose of.
          Again, who is to blame?
          Denikin was an honest man
          Well, yes, he is so "honest and noble" that in 1946 he wrote a whole petition for the US President on how to fight against Russia. At the same time, Shkuro and Krasnov are considered traitors, but Denikin is not, as it were. No shit, he is the same corrupt skin as those two, they just sold out to the Germans, and this Judas to the Americans, that's the whole difference. All white creatures are corrupt.
          but a weak organizer.
          That's right here. The organizer is from it as from a well-known substance candy.
          By comparison, Trotsky was very cruel.
          Cruel time required brutal measures. Otherwise, the end of Russia would be complete.
      2. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 21 November 2019 15: 30
        +6
        Quote: Nagaibak
        And further, as a result of forced mobilization into the Volunteer Army, the author of an analytical scientific work notes: “It must be remembered that most of the mobilized officers, especially in large cities, tried to avoid getting to the front at any cost, which resulted in an exorbitant increase in the staff of the rear agencies.
        This was most acutely manifested on the eve of the second evacuation of Odessa, when out of 37 thousand available combatant officers turned out to be no more than a thousand, and in order to force them to go into battle, they had to threaten with execution. "

        From a letter from Slashchev to Wrangel:
        Arriving in the troops, I found 256 bayonets, 28 guns and with them the 2 division headquarters and the 1 corps headquarters, fully equipped!
        1. Alexander Suvorov
          Alexander Suvorov 21 November 2019 15: 47
          +1
          Alexey RA (Alexey)
          From a letter from Slashchev to Wrangel:
          Arriving in the troops, I found 256 bayonets, 28 guns and with them the 2 division headquarters and the 1 corps headquarters, fully equipped!
          This is what most vividly characterizes all their activities!
    2. Alexander Suvorov
      Alexander Suvorov 21 November 2019 14: 54
      +3
      voyaka uh (Alexey)
      Denikin did not carry out forced mobilization of the population in the territories he controlled.
      Come on...
      On this day, 100 years ago - 20 December 1918 years - the commander of the Volunteer Army General Denikin issued an order to abolish the voluntary principle of formation and the cancellation of the 4-month term of service in the White Army. Strictly speaking, it was on this day that the armed forces, which became a symbol of the struggle against Soviet power - the Denikins - ceased to be a volunteer army. From now on, the White Army switched to the principles of manning similar to the Bolsheviks - through universal military service. This has already been practiced since the spring of 18 in the Red Army. Of course, the principle acted in territories that controlled, respectively, red or white.
      However, in fact, the transition to mobilization in the Volunteer Army significantly reduced its qualitative indicators. At a voluntary stage, the army gathered from all over the country, and people who were ideologically charged, who made their choice, were ready to fight, regardless of ranks and salaries. Incidentally, in February of the 18, the monthly maintenance of an officer of the Volunteer Army was 270 rubles, and that of a soldier was 150 rubles. At the same time, many officers, even senior officers, served in ordinary and non-commissioned officer posts. The task of mobilization was a quantitative growth, catching up with the regime, since the Red Army by the fall amounted to more than 700 thousand people. And the White Guard units under Kornilov totaled only 3-4 thousand officers.

      However, despite the principle of the superior class of the award proclaimed by General Denikin, the service to its national idea - the revival of Russia with the unsettledness of what it would represent in terms of government and state structure, all these grounds objectively weakened the fighting and morale of the White Guard. It is curious that Lenin wrote: "An all-out mobilization will destroy Denikin. As long as his army is a class, voluntary, hates socialism, it is strong, and the slogans of the nation-wide will weaken it."
      Not bothered yet to write a lie? My great-grandfather was forcibly mobilized by just whites. But for some reason he didn’t want to serve with the whites and VOLUNTARY switched to the Reds, he fought at Budyonny in the First Horse until the end of the Civil War. And there were a lot of people like my great-grandfather.
      So stop talking nonsense about the whites and the "noble", there were no noble on either side, but there were class enemies. And the whites fought not "for a single and indivisible", but for the opportunity to continue to parasitize on the body of the people!
  5. motorized rifle
    motorized rifle 21 November 2019 15: 53
    +1
    I don’t remember who I read it: "In a civil war, the one who fights according to the rules always loses."
    If this idea is correct, and it seems that it is, then the Reds were the first to move away from the rules of warfare, i.e. from its classical representation, from which the White generals (with rare exceptions, for example, General Slashchev), could not get rid of. Two finds, so to speak, allowed the Reds to gain an advantage in operational and strategic plans: the creation of large mobile formations (First, Second Cavalry Armies), Makhno's idea, but placed on a higher level, and the permanent formation of new units, i.e. in addition to maintaining the "old" divisions, new ones were constantly being formed. Which by the way continued during the Second World War, the Germans noted that: "Stalin, as a magician, pulled more and more divisions out of his sleeve to replace the broken old ones." Of course, moral and political factors can not be discounted from the account "An idea that seized the masses becomes a material force." All these White and Red Terrors, etc., but still the main instrument is the armed forces, their quantity and quality, as well as military-political control. The Reds did better.
    1. Alexander Suvorov
      Alexander Suvorov 21 November 2019 16: 15
      +3
      motorized infantry (motorized infantry)
      I don’t remember who I read it: "In a civil war, the one who fights according to the rules always loses."
      This applies to absolutely any war, and not specifically civil. Remember Suvorov and Ushakov, their tactics and a complete departure from the established rules of warfare. They were the geniuses of the war precisely because they fought not like everyone else.
      You can still recall the words of Loriston addressed to Kutuzov that the Russians are fighting against the rules. You see the French foragers, the peasants are greeted with axes and pitchforks, and in the understanding of the French they should have apparently been bread and salt.
      The Reds were the first to depart from the rules of warfare, i.e. from her classical presentation
      Civil war a priori cannot have a "classical representation". How do you imagine a "classic" war, where it is not clear where your front is, where are the flanks, and where is the rear?
      Two findings, so to speak, allowed the Reds to gain an advantage in the operational and strategic plans: the creation of large mobile associations (First, Second Horse Armies)
      These are not red finds, but rather a response to the actions of the whites, the Mamontov and Shkuro corps to help you. It was just that whites from military raids turned these raids into raids of robbery and violence. As a result, they turned from combat-ready units into a mob of looters and murderers, and this always, at all times and in all armies led to undermining of fighting spirit and decay. So the defeat of the past is quite natural.

      The only thing that can be attributed to the Reds is the enlargement of horse corps to armies and the widespread use of mobile carts to enhance the firepower of the cavalry. Why didn’t white carts use, here’s the question, they probably shunned it? Well, yes, this is actually their problem.
      1. motorized rifle
        motorized rifle 21 November 2019 18: 49
        0
        Alexander Suvorov
        This applies to absolutely any war, not specifically civil

        Let me disagree. The Germans fought both Wars not according to the "rules" and both lost. The Americans in Vietnam are the same. "Rules", apart from all sorts of legal aspects, are also some templates, which are quite difficult to reject, especially for higher-ranking officials.
        And the foragers, according to the "rules", had to buy, as in Austria, Germany, and not take away by shooting and hanging, as in Russia, so that all the same about civil wars.

        where it’s not clear where is your front, where are the flanks, and where is the rear?

        Look at the given map of hostilities, everything is clear about the flanks and the rear.
        It's just that all of this is often in the plural. And if one side has everything under a single denominator, then the other has Krylov's fable: "Once the Swan, Cancer and Pike ..."

        These are not red finds, but rather a response to the actions of the whites, the Mamontov and Shkuro corps to help you.


        Budyonny and Makhno were the first to understand that a horse is just a way to quickly transfer massive fire from the battlefield where the enemy’s positions were strong to the battlefield where these positions were weak. In other words, the horse was used to beat the enemy in pieces. This idea of ​​Budenny and Makhno was subsequently used by Guderian, who replaced the horse with a tank engine.


        And the Belykh have two machine guns per squadron, and even those in packs, but according to the "rules". So, not the answer, but their own method, and the Horse Armies acted better against the enemy on foot, as well as the tanks in WWII.

        The only thing that can be attributed to the Reds is the enlargement of horse corps to armies and the widespread use of mobile carts to enhance the firepower of the cavalry.


        I agree, the Germans drank blood on this "The Only One" ..
        1. Alexander Suvorov
          Alexander Suvorov 21 November 2019 20: 37
          -1
          Sorry, but you yourself and contradict. Here is your first statement:
          I don’t remember who I read it: "In a civil war, the one who fights according to the rules always loses."
          And here is the second:
          The Germans fought both Wars not according to the "rules" and both lost.
          You already somehow decide who loses in the end. In addition, the Germans are pedants and fight exclusively according to the rules, though in their own way, which are beneficial to them.
          As for the Civil War, then talking about any rules is a bad manners. There are no rules there, brother to brother, and son to father. And in general, what exactly do you mean by the concept of a rule?
          Look at the given map of hostilities, everything is clear about the flanks and the rear.
          Again you are wrong. You are looking at a specific map of the front section. Now think bigger and imagine the whole map of Russia. Where on the map the Bolsheviks have front, flanks and rear, God alone knows. Yes, and in the white rear, too, the front passed. So here I am right.
          1. motorized rifle
            motorized rifle 21 November 2019 23: 36
            +1
            You already somehow decide who loses in the end.

            I write:
            so that all the same about civil wars.


            And in general, what exactly do you mean by the concept of a rule?

            The author of the quote did not explain about the rules, so I personally consider it as such, a certain stereotype of warfare is available to the parties to the conflict, which is almost always based on previous experience. And as a rule, this experience, especially in the operational-tactical link, has more on the side that is counter-revolutionary. Obviously, it is harder for her to get out of this state and to rebuild than the revolutionary one, which has less experience in this matter and is less constrained in the development of new forms of warfare.

            Now think bigger and imagine the whole map of Russia. Where on the map the Bolsheviks have front, flanks and rear, God alone knows. Yes, and in the white rear, too, the front passed. So here I am right.

            You see, what is the matter, I looked at the map "Civil War 1919-1920", and there ... some fronts, I will not list, see for yourself. And the very concept of "FRONT", at least for me (again, look at the map) implies that the front has both flanks and a rear, as everyone can see, on the same map.
  6. SERGEY SERGEEVICS
    SERGEY SERGEEVICS 21 November 2019 17: 47
    -6
    Red Moscow concluded a truce with Poland
    And under this agreement, the Reds gave part of the land to the Poles. negative
    In the center, the White Guards still rushed forward.
    Affected experience and heroism.
    Latvians, with the strong support of artillery, counterattacked and threw the White Guards back.
    The whites themselves retreated.
    Almost everywhere, the Cossacks repelled the onslaught of the enemy.
    The Cossacks knew their job. And at the same time 80% of the personnel were always loyal to the Tsar.
    At the same time, the 9-I Red Army of the Southeast Front resumed the offensive on the Don Front
    ** Not renewed **, but continued to destroy and destroy.
    1. motorized rifle
      motorized rifle 21 November 2019 18: 56
      +5
      The Cossacks knew their job. And at the same time 80% of the personnel were always loyal to the Tsar.

      Which The king ????
      1. Moskovit
        Moskovit 21 November 2019 19: 36
        +5
        Here is what none other than Wrangel wrote about the devotees of the king:

        “The name of General Mamontov was on everyone's lips. The Don military circle solemnly honored him, the newspapers were filled with the details of the raid.

        I considered the actions of General Mamontov not only unsuccessful, but clearly criminal. Having penetrated the rear of the enemy, having in his hands a large mass of beautiful cavalry, he not only did not use the advantages of his position, but clearly avoided the battle, constantly avoiding collisions.
        General Mamontov's regiments returned encumbered with huge booty in the form of herds of pedigree cattle, carts of manufactures and groceries, table and church silver. Coming to the front of our units, General Mamontov sent greetings to the "native Don" by radio and said that he was carrying "Quiet Don" and "relatives and friends ... rich gifts." Then there was a list of "gifts", including church utensils and vestments. This radio telegram was received by all radio stations. She could not but be known to the headquarters of the Commander-in-Chief. However, General Mamontov was not only not dismissed from office and brought to trial, but his rate was clearly nominated ... "
      2. SERGEY SERGEEVICS
        SERGEY SERGEEVICS 22 November 2019 08: 28
        -2
        Quote: motorized infantryman
        The Cossacks knew their job. And at the same time 80% of the personnel were always loyal to the Tsar.

        Which The king ????

        The one who was in power, and after the abdication, was supported by the white movement.
    2. Alexander Suvorov
      Alexander Suvorov 21 November 2019 20: 45
      +2
      SERGEY SERGEEVICS (SERGEY SERGEEVICS)
      And under this agreement, the Reds gave part of the land to the Poles.
      As they gave it away, they took it later.
      Affected experience and heroism.
      Yeah, especially when retreating from Novorossiysk. This is where the "heroism" and the lane from all the cracks and experience came in handy.
      The whites themselves retreated.
      Aha wassat , walked forward, and then remembered how to breathe and decided that it was time to retreat ... laughing laughing laughing This already does not even look like nonsense, this is the last stage of crystalline schizophrenia. fool
      And at the same time 80% of the personnel were always devoted to the King.
      Which king ?! Oh, there was no king at that time.
      ** Not renewed **, but continued to destroy and destroy.
      It was during the retreat that White destroyed and burned as much as they could. Bulk-crusty abomination, such as you don’t get to anyone.
      1. SERGEY SERGEEVICS
        SERGEY SERGEEVICS 22 November 2019 08: 41
        -3
        As they gave it away, they took it later.
        Yeah. And why didn’t they take Finland away? And parts of Minsk lands?
        Yeah, especially when retreating from Novorossiysk. This is where the "heroism" and the lane from all the cracks and experience came in handy.
        And this is an excess of battle.
        Yeah wassat, they walked forward, and then they remembered how to breathe and decided that it was time to retreat ... laughing laughing laughing This doesn’t even seem like nonsense, this is the last stage of crisp-baked schizophrenia.
        No, it concerns you more when you destroyed your country yourself, and now you are trying to prove the opposite? angry fool I told you already, you are not a communist, but a liberalist who is hiding behind communism in order to once again swindle our country.
        It was during the retreat that White destroyed and burned as much as they could. Bulk-crusty abomination, such as you don’t get to anyone.
        And what do you want to say that this did not happen when the Bolsheviks destroyed and burned the church as an example to you.
        Abomination
        It was just red when people and the church began to be destroyed, and much more.
      2. SERGEY SERGEEVICS
        SERGEY SERGEEVICS 22 November 2019 10: 32
        -1
        And one more question for you: are we related to the North Caucasian regional command of the internal troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, namely to DON100 or so, attached their chevron.
        1. Alexander Suvorov
          Alexander Suvorov 22 November 2019 10: 48
          +2
          SERGEY SERGEEVICS (SERGEY SERGEEVICS)
          And one more question for you: are we related to the North Caucasian regional command of the internal troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, namely to DON100 or so, attached their chevron.
          I have. He served in military unit 3655 47 operational regiment from 91 to 93.
          1. SERGEY SERGEEVICS
            SERGEY SERGEEVICS 22 November 2019 11: 05
            +1
            A worthy regiment that deserves only respect! good
            1. Alexander Suvorov
              Alexander Suvorov 22 November 2019 11: 08
              +2
              SERGEY SERGEEVICS (SERGEY SERGEEVICS)
              A worthy regiment that deserves only respect! good
              Thank you! hi
              1. SERGEY SERGEEVICS
                SERGEY SERGEEVICS 22 November 2019 11: 12
                +1
                You are welcome! hi