Military Review

Crimean storm of 1854. Element drowned fleet

27

Storm. Ship wreck. Ivan Aivazovsky.1855 year


On November 14 of the 1854 year, the Crimean storm finally turned into a monstrous force of a hurricane. The ships and vessels of the occupying forces, loaded with ammunition, provisions, winter uniforms and other things, did not manage to go into the open sea and took the blow of the elements off the coast of Tauris. In order to systematize the enemy’s casualties at sea, it is necessary to geographically divide the areas in which foreign ships took the “last battle” with a raging storm. They found their sea graves at the bottom near Balaklava Bay, Kachi and Yevpatoriya.

Left to die at Balaclava


Even before the storm finally got stronger, ships and ships were no longer allowed into the bay of Balaklava, which was already dangerously overcrowded. In fact, they were left to their own devices. Soon, the waves and wind began to break the ships, like nuts on a jamb.

The first victim to go to the bottom was the American Progress transport, from which only two sailors managed to escape. The next to the bottom went “Resolute”, taking with them all but 9 people. The third dragged the entire American crew “Wanderer” to the bottom without exception. The fourth victim was the Kenilworth transport. Before his death, he flew into the Avon steamboat, losing all his masts. Only three sailors escaped with the Kenilworth.

Soon, along with the entire crew, the high-speed American clipper Rip Van Winkle was killed. The Peltoma and Maltese ships were also wrecked on the rocks and sank with all the people on board.

The fate of the Wild Wave transport is very significant. He tore off the anchors and carried straight to the rocks. Not having a steam engine and having lost the mast, Wild Wave was doomed. The corps of vehicles ran into stones, and the waves, like a steel hammer, split the sides. The crew escaped as best they could. Some were lucky to take shelter on stones, in small grottoes and clefts, but the almighty sea sought out its survivors with its waves and dragged to the bottom. As a result, by the morning of the 15 number, the rescue team from the British battleship of the 2 rank "Sans Pareil" was able to extract only two sailors from the "Wild Wave" from the narrow cleft - the young and the sailor.


Fate did not have mercy on Her Majesty's exclusively warships. The frigate "Retribution" lost the helm and broke from the anchors. The captain of the ship James Drumond ordered to cut down all the masts and throw overboard all the guns to one and all the equipment. Having lost part of the crew, the Retribution was still able to successfully land on the shore, although his condition was insignificant. The Vesuvius also cut down the masts, having lost part of the crew. As a result, only a dilapidated hull remained on the shore from the ship. The ships “Mercia”, “Caducens”, “Pride of the Ocean”, “Medora” and “Sir Robert Sale”, despite the large number of rescued, were completely destroyed. The ships “Niger” and “Melbourn”, which managed to survive almost a bit, were a little more fortunate, but they lost all the masts and received heavy damage to the steam pipes.

The lucky one was the already mentioned Avon. This steamboat, having forgotten about some orders of the managing director of the Balaklava port there, managed to deftly bypass the rocks and literally scurry to the saving bay. True, already inside the bay, he nobly “nadoeboshiril”, having passed an involuntary ram in the hull of many ships.

The death of the newest sailing-and-screw ship “Prince” became completely legendary, this legend even renamed “Prince” to “Black Prince”. The ship never received permission to take refuge in Balaclava, so the captain, hoping for a steam engine, remained close to the shore. However, an overwhelming storm proved the fallacy of this hope.

Crimean storm of 1854. Element drowned fleet

The death of the "Black Prince"

Captain Goodel gave the order to cut down all the masts, but the ship was disastrously unlucky. The rigging of the mizzen-mast fell into the propeller area, which was soon blocked. Having lost the last mover, “Prince” after this lost its anchors. His fate at that moment was decided. A powerful element caught and crushed the ship on the rocks. According to eyewitnesses, after ten minutes of marine millstone from the once British pride fleet there were only miserable pieces of the case.

The six surviving crew members of the “Prince” crew testified that at the last moment before the ship was carried onto the cliffs, Captain Goodel and Captain Bynton (an admiralty agent), having removed their outer clothing, announced to the crew that there was nothing on their part lost to save the ship and that now everyone should take care of themselves. In fact, no one canceled the “save whoever can” command.

Death at Evpatoria


Evpatoria at that time was occupied by the enemy and turned into a fortress, bristled with artillery and supplied by sea. The enemy garrison consisted mainly of Turks, Tatars, immigrants and the French. So that such a powerful enclave of the enemy would not stop the supply of our troops through Perekop, the Russians themselves took the blockade of Yevpatoria.

Many ships off the Evpatoria coast became a victim of the elements. The French sailing frigate Fultan, which did not have a steam engine, was doomed. He was washed ashore and shattered into chips, only a small part of the crew managed to escape. The 100-gun battleship "Henri IV", a symbol of the power of the French fleet, which provided artillery support to the garrison of Yevpatoria, broke on the rocks. The entire crew, except 17 lucky, died. The Turkish 90-gun battleship “Peiri Messeret” went down with everyone who was on board. The only miracle that survived was the English Cyclops.


The death of the battleship Henri IV

I would especially like to note the fate of the English frigate "Culloden". The ship, armed with four guns and used as a transport, transported troops and at that moment had on board a load of ammunition in the form of 30 thousand cores, 700 pounds of gunpowder, not counting 32 horses. "Culloden" caught the elements and carried them to the area of ​​the location of the Novoarkhangelsky Uhlansky Regiment, where the ship wrecked. Part of the British escaped, leaving the skeleton of the wrecked vessel not far from the shore in the hands of storms and waves, but on the shore they were captured.

It soon became clear that 25 Turks, allies of the British, remained on the broken ship. Officers of the regiment offered the British to help the Turks and even offered money for it, but they flatly refused, saying that "they would not be allowed to endanger their lives to save some Turks." As a result, a detachment of Russian volunteers set off to rescue the Turks, who were left to certain death by their "allies". The rescue operation lasted more than two hours.

At the mouth of Kachi and north of Sevastopol


In the region of Kachi, the storm gathered no less yield than that of Balaklava and Yevpatoriya. Only directly at the mouth of the Kachi River sank 12 merchant ships. Warships almost completely lost their weapons. So, the British ship "Queen" lost in the abyss before 116 guns and part of the rigging. The battleship "Trafalgar" lost 120 guns, not including damage to the masts. “London”, in addition to sending guns to the bottom of the 90, also lost steering wheels. Aedent, Terrible, Spitfire, and Sanson sailing-and-screw ships all got holes in the hull.

The French fleet battered no less. The Ville de Paris delivered overboard 120 guns, Firland 100 guns, Bayard 90 guns, and Suffren 90 guns. In addition, almost all of them lost steering wheels, lost their masts (when involuntarily, when cutting them down on the orders of the captain), etc. The Turkish frigate Arri Marseile, in fact, shared the fate of his compatriot Peiri Messeret. First, the ship lost its artillery and most of the crew, and later was broken by the waves on the shore.

French transport ships were completely destroyed. “Turone” washed ashore and thrashed in waves, “Pyrenees” burned out while on shore, “Ganges” shared the fate of “Pyrenees”, “Danube” also stranded, and “Arri Marseile” drowned anchored with everything available board property.


The consequences of the storm. Ivan Aivazovsky

It is worth noting here that, given the fighting, our fighters did not doze off. As soon as a foreign ship appeared near the shore, Russian troops of horsemen, despite the terrible wind, rushed to this place. Firstly, to capture the enemy, and sometimes, as indicated above, and save this very enemy. Secondly, to grab a load.

Deplorable outcome


On November 21, after waiting for a storm far from dangerous rocks, the flagship “Agamemnon” returned to Balaklava Bay, anchoring in front of it. On board the ship was the English traveler George Taylor (already mentioned in the first part), who described the landscape as follows:
"The line of rocks was lined with the remains of ships washed ashore on a hurricane day; and in places where the remains lay in large heaps - from fragments of masts to pieces of wood no more than a matchbox - at a short distance it turned out that it was nothing but piles of chips "In the bay itself, all the ships were damaged to varying degrees ... For several days after the hurricane, numerous bodies swam in the bay, almost all were naked. Some had life jackets, many were badly torn, and often parts of the bodies swam around the ships."



Thus, on November 14 of the 1854 year, over 30 ships and ships were killed off the Crimean coast, and more than 40 were seriously damaged. It’s difficult to calculate the death toll for objective reasons - the motley crew of the dead (the British, French, Turks, Americans, etc.), the deaths of many survivors from the cold and wounds the next few days, the hired nature of some sailors and the presence of ordinary businessmen in the occupying forces . It is believed that about 1000 people died.


But these were far from all the consequences of the storm. The Secretary of the Crimean Army Fund, George Brackenbury, in his large report on the outcome of the disaster, cites, among other things, the following facts:
“His (hurricane) irresistible impulse instantly swept away from the bare and elevated plateau on which the armies camped, all the tents, and the heavy rain accompanying him drenched unhappy troops to the bones, having lost their only shelter. The camps were turned into one huge swamp of mud ... that it was especially disheartening for those who had just returned wet and hungry from the trenches and discovered the absence of tents, the inability to cook and the prospect of spending the night in the open. nglichane, exhausted by fatigue and vulnerability did not survive this new test and were found dead in the camps. "



Frostbite, sick and wounded after a storm in Balaclava

Together with the ships and their crews, a huge load of winter uniforms, provisions, medicines, went to the bottom weapons, ammunition and other things. The Resolute alone carried about 500 tons of cargo on board, and the contents of the Prіnce holds were estimated at half a million pounds. And winter has already entered Crimea. As a result, the Coalition troops began to lose people not during the battle, but from starvation and cold weather.


Caricature of the state of the English army without winter uniforms in Crimea

Oddly enough, but almost no investigation was followed. The head of the Balaklava port motivated the ban on entering the bay with the fear of a breakthrough of Russian forces and the capture of valuable cargo. Admiral Lyons, who had gone to sea on his flagship Agamemnon, did not dare to blame or question at all. However, many were indignant, especially witnesses. But the arrogant Coalition needed to continue the war at all costs. The very idea that one power can defeat the combined forces of almost the entire West and the Ottoman Empire scared them to horror. But with all the fierce vanity of the Coalition, she had to go into a state of siege for some time, and the anger of the guardians to gain justice in enlightened Europe was quickly forgotten.
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  1. Comrade
    Comrade 24 November 2019 06: 51
    +3
    this legend even renamed "Prince" to "Black Prince".

    This steamer, officially called "The Prince", was named after Edward, Duke of Cornwall, 2nd Prince of Wales, a distinguished military leader who fought in black armor. Hence his nickname - Black Prince.
    the contents of Prince's holds were estimated at half a million pounds.

    It was winter clothing for the English warriors.
    In 2010, the fragments of the "Prince" were discovered by an archaeological expedition of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.
    1. Hunter 2
      Hunter 2 24 November 2019 07: 27
      +4
      According to the Prince - more rumors and legends than real facts! 150 years searching for his treasures, according to various sources from 200.000 to 1 million pounds of gold! It is curious that in 1922 the amateur diver found several gold coins; the naval engineer Vladimir Yazykov interested in these finds the head of the GPU, Heinrich Yagoda. Under the security authorities, the Special Purpose Underwater Expedition (EPRON) was established and !!! In 1923, Yazykov, using a specially designed underwater vehicle, began work in Balaklava Bay. An annual search yielded no result other than finding a steam boiler from the Prince. Then the work was curtailed (their cost has already exceeded 100 thousand rubles, a huge amount for the young Republic). In 1927, the Japanese joined the search, from June to November - Japanese divers found FIVE gold coins! In 1928, the search for the Prince's gold was stopped by EPRON! Yazykov was shot in 1937! hi
    2. phair
      phair 25 November 2019 02: 13
      +1
      I have not heard about the NATIONAL RAS. Just an academy. He worked there for 12 years.
      1. Comrade
        Comrade 25 November 2019 04: 27
        +4
        Quote: phair
        I have not heard about the NATIONAL RAS. Just an academy.

        The remains of the steamship "Prince" were discovered by an archaeological expedition of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Expedition leader S. Voronov.

        РRussian Аcademia Нauk

        has no relation to this organization.
        Than troll, it is better read expedition report, interesting. By the way, there are illustrations with the wreckage of the ship.
        1. Alex_59
          Alex_59 25 November 2019 10: 18
          0
          Quote: Comrade
          read the expedition report, interesting. By the way, there are illustrations with the wreckage of the ship.

          Link to the studio! I want to read too! crying
  2. Blacksmith 55
    Blacksmith 55 24 November 2019 10: 12
    +1
    Even nature was on the side of Russia.
    Russian troops have always been distinguished by stubborn resistance in defending their homeland, under any authority.
    But nature also helped. The Russians were accustomed to such weather, but the enemies did not always imagine what the Russian winter could be.
    1. igordok
      igordok 24 November 2019 11: 54
      +3
      Quote: Blacksmith 55
      But nature also helped. The Russians were accustomed to such weather, but the enemies did not always imagine what the Russian winter could be.

      T.N. General Moroz, Colonel Rasputitsa and Major Zaraza have no allies. They are fighting against everyone. But since they are familiar to us in civilian life, enemies believe that they are fighting only against them.
    2. The comment was deleted.
      1. sibiryouk
        sibiryouk 24 November 2019 19: 40
        +4
        Not so many Russians lost, the allies could not completely capture Sevastopol (the North side), they could not occupy any territories on the Black Sea coast, they could not occupy cities other than Yevpatoria, they could not defeat the Russian army, they could move deeper into Russian land also could not!
        1. The comment was deleted.
          1. wlkw
            wlkw 25 November 2019 00: 02
            +2
            This is in what place did you find such information that there was surrender ??? Yes, retreated, but retreat is not synonymous with defeat.
            1. The comment was deleted.
              1. wlkw
                wlkw 25 November 2019 08: 59
                +6
                Do not confuse the Peace Treaty, albeit bonded, with surrender.
                SURRENDER:
                - Meaning of the word Surrender by Ephraim:
                Cessation of hostilities and surrender to the winner on the conditions dictated by him.

                - Meaning of the word Surrender according to Ozhegov:
                Refusal to continue the struggle, from the fundamental defense of one’s views
                (no one refused the fight ..)

                - in the Encyclopedic Dictionary:
                Surrender - in international law - ending armed struggle and surrender of the armed forces of one of the warring states.

                - Definition of the word “Surrender” by TSB:
                Surrender - 1) the cessation of resistance of the ground, air and naval forces, or parts thereof, in theaters and in areas of military operations, in fortresses. fortified areas or settlements, at sea, in naval bases, etc. on conditions presented by the winner or agreed as a result of negotiations between the commanders. When K., as a rule, all armaments, warships and aircraft, fortresses, fortified points and military equipment are transferred to the enemy, and the personnel are transferred to the winner as prisoners. 2) In international law, the cessation of armed struggle and the surrender of the armed forces of a warring state. As a rule, it is accompanied by the assignment of obligations (political, economic, military, etc.) to the surrendered state.

                As you can see, before the definition of the word CAPITULATION was very far away. Yes, the war at that stage was "blown through", an urgent military treaty had to be concluded. To the delight of the winners, because they also had everything "no ice".
                1. Okolotochny
                  Okolotochny 25 November 2019 13: 43
                  0
                  Bravo, clearly!
          2. Ryazan87
            Ryazan87 25 November 2019 17: 34
            0
            In no European army was the situation so bad.

            a very bold statement, especially when you become familiar with the extent of theft and corruption, say, in the British army. Let me quote you:
            "In November 1854, a steamer with 150 tons of vegetables arrived at Balaklava. Port Admiral Boxer demanded documents for them, and since they were incorrectly drawn up, prohibited unloading. As a result all vegetables rotted after a month and were thrown overboard. Lime juice donated by the army fleet didn’t get into the unit - Commissioner General Filder slowed down the juice on the quay, saying that it was the grub of the fleet, even if the naval ones transported lime juice among the troops. While the naval butted with the army, two months passed, and scurvy gathered a plentiful harvest of victims. Once again - while the soldiers died in their thousands, 278 tanks with lemon juice stood on the marinas of Balaklava.
            The situation was no better with shoes. .. the supply commissariat brought down the price of shoes so much that manufacturers supplied the Crimea with simply poor-quality shoes ... British army boots fell apart in a week from cold and damp. So the soldiers of the 55th regiment during the parade in front of Raglan and the top leadership were left without soles, which stuck and came off in the Crimean mud. In addition, the dispensers did not take into account that with constant walking, the leg swells and shoes are needed a size larger. Then the size line was approximately the same - the 41st, 43rd, 45th. So the boot of the 45th size was not sent. In this way пapproximately 20 percent of the army was either in small size, or no shoes at all"
            https://george-rooke.livejournal.com/903150.html
            "In 1865, the chief physician of the French army, Jean-Charles Chenu, published the" Report of the Army Council on Medicine on the results of the work of doctors and hospitals in the Eastern War of 1854-1856 "(Rapport au Conseil de santé des armées sur les résultats du service medical-chirurgical aux ambulances de Crimée et aux hôpitaux militaires français de Turquie pendant la campagne d'Orient en 1854-1855-1856).
            It was declared there that out of 95 thousand dead soldiers near Sevastopol, 75 thousand died from illness and inadequate medical care, and only 20 thousand in battle. "
  3. Olgovich
    Olgovich 24 November 2019 10: 33
    -1
    As a result, the coalition troops began to lose people not during the battle, but from hunger and cold.

    And these losses were (from diseases) terrifying: for 10 dead in the battle with the Allies, it was necessary 37 dead from diseases (primarily from cholera, which they themselves brought).

    In total, the French lost about 100 thousand people, the English - 22 thousand.

    in terms of losses, the Crimean War turned out to be the most bloody between the Napoleonic Wars and the WWII.
    1. YOUR
      YOUR 24 November 2019 11: 25
      +8
      The loss is very, very interesting.
      Official losses of England - -2755 killed, wounded - 18253, died from wounds - 1847, died from diseases - 17225, other reasons - 755.
      And the postscript in parentheses in small print - excluding colonies. Those. they did not consider the soldiers recruited to the colonies for losses.
      The same is the French. Losses excluding colonies.
      Total losses of more than 160 killed and deceased for various reasons.
      But when they begin to count all the dead and deceased, they are prone to numbers of more than 250.
      Russia's losses in this war are estimated at about half that.
      1. The comment was deleted.
        1. wlkw
          wlkw 25 November 2019 00: 05
          +3
          The Allies undoubtedly won, they just did not think that this would happen at such a price. Somehow it turns out that everyone who goes to Russia, for some reason, think that it will be an easy walk ... The Allies got into a siege of Sevastopol in full. I dare to suggest that they wanted peace no less than ours.
        2. YOUR
          YOUR 25 November 2019 03: 28
          +2
          I advise you to re-read the rules of the site, ernichestvo is not welcome.
          And if you get involved in a dispute, by reading documents, at least superficially.
          In my opus, I made an extract from the losses of the parties to the war, and not about who won the victory.
          ------------
          During the war, the coalition did not achieve its objectives, nevertheless inflicted damage on Russia
          The results of the war (especially for you):
          On February 13 (25), 1856, the Paris Congress began, and on March 18 (30), a peace treaty was signed.

          Russia returned the city of Kars with a fortress to the Ottomans, receiving in exchange Sevastopol, Balaklava and other Crimean cities seized from it.
          The Black Sea was declared neutral (that is, open to commercial and closed to military courts in peacetime), with the prohibition of Russia and the Ottoman Empire to have military fleets and arsenals there.
          Navigation along the Danube was declared free, for which the Russian borders were moved away from the river, and part of Russian Bessarabia with the mouth of the Danube was annexed to Moldova.
          Russia was deprived of the protectorate over Moldavia and Wallachia and the exclusive patronage of Russia over the Christian subjects of the Ottoman Empire, granted to it by the Kuchuk-Kainardzhiyskoy world 1774 year.
          Russia pledged not to erect fortifications on the Åland Islands.
          During the war, the participants in the anti-Russian coalition failed to achieve all their goals, but managed to prevent the strengthening of Russia in the Balkans and deprive it of the Black Sea Fleet for 15 years.

          The representative of England, Earl Clarendon demanded the disarmament of the city of Nikolaev and the destruction of its shipyards in accordance with the peace treaty. However, Orlov said that Nikolaev was not on the Black Sea, but on the Bug River, and the terms of the contract did not apply to him. During the negotiations, a question arose regarding Russian forts on the east coast of the Black Sea. Some of them were blown up during the war, and Clarendon stated that forts are, in fact, the same arsenals, only called differently. Consequently, Russia has no right to restore them. Orlov did not agree with him: in his opinion, the fort and the arsenal are two different things. Forts have been restored.
          And after 24 years, Russia returned all the lost territories and restored the fleet in the Black Sea.
          1. The comment was deleted.
            1. The comment was deleted.
            2. Okolotochny
              Okolotochny 25 November 2019 13: 45
              0
              Another troll Russophobe. Topic of the article for the Russo-Japanese War? You DOCUMENTS on your .. your face clicked. Calm down.
              1. The comment was deleted.
                1. Okolotochny
                  Okolotochny 25 November 2019 23: 06
                  0
                  You can politely send ..... well, you understand.
                  1. The comment was deleted.
        3. phair
          phair 26 November 2019 04: 02
          +1
          I didn’t lose. And in general, they piled so much on Kamchatka that the French admiral shot himself.
    2. also clean
      also clean 24 November 2019 20: 00
      +7
      (primarily from cholera, which they themselves brought)

      Including commanders: the British Raglan and the French de Saint-Arno. The irony of fate - Russian commanders: Kornilov, Nakhimov, Istomin died in battle from a bullet or a core. Allies - from diarrhea .... fate however ....
      1. The comment was deleted.
  4. knn54
    knn54 24 November 2019 12: 45
    +3
    Thank you very much for the article. This event was practically not covered either in the Republic of Ingushetia or in the USSR. I did not know that the Yankees decided to participate in the Crimean company.
    This catastrophe led to the fact that mankind has a weather service - for the first time, not only scientists, but also government officials, primarily military figures, drew attention to meteorology. Still, such damage.
  5. colotun
    colotun 24 November 2019 15: 30
    +1
    1) Kamikadze (Japanese 神 風 kamikaze, simpu :, kami - “deity”, kaze - “wind”) - “divine wind”, the name of a typhoon, which twice, in 1274 and 1281, destroyed the ships of the Mongolian armada of Khan Khubilai on the outskirts to the shores of Japan.
    2) Is it true that the collective prayer of the Japanese sank the American fleet in 1944?
    Historical facts:
    December 18, 1944. The US 3rd Fleet was moving towards the Philippine Islands - a massive landing was being prepared, which was to hammer the last nail into the coffin of the Japanese armed forces. The Japanese did not have the military forces to withstand the armada, so unconventional means were used. On the advice of the sorcerers, the cabinet of ministers urged all Japanese people to pray to the sun goddess Amaterasu, urging her to bring down the holy wind - Kamikaze, on the ships of the enemy. The ministers said that only the simultaneous prayer of millions of Japanese people can create a clot of "spiritual energy" that will ward off the threat of invasion. The Americans did not attach any attention to the intelligence message about the prayer to Amaterasu, and, as it turned out, in vain. On December 18, 1944, 300 miles east of Luzon Island, US 3rd Fleet ships hit the center of a typhoon. Visibility dropped to 900 meters. A strong rolling began, in addition, the ships came with a constant wind roll. As a result, through the ventilation shafts and other openings in the surface of the ships, water began to flow into the ship's premises, reaching a level of 60-90 centimeters. Switchboards and various electromechanisms often shorted out, as a result a fire started, the work of the mechanisms was interrupted. Out of order electric lighting, radar stations. Aircraft on aircraft carriers tore off, they hit each other. The staff left the engine rooms in a panic. Three destroyers rolled over and sank: Hull, Monaghan and Spence. The destroyers, before capsizing, lay on the leeward with a constant roll of 50-80 degrees. “Spence” was the first to fall victim to the elements (or the wrath of the gods?) - his steering device was damaged, and the ship became uncontrollable. Three hours later, he sank with almost the entire crew. Then a sad fate befell the Hull. He also lost control, capsized aboard and stayed on the water for no more than an hour. Out of 201 crew members, only 62 managed to escape. The destroyer "Monaghan" died another half an hour later with the majority of the crew. Nine more ships were seriously damaged: the light cruiser Miami, three light aircraft carriers - Monterey, Coupens and San Jacinto, two escort aircraft carriers - Cape Esperance and Eltamaha, and three destroyers - “ Eiulin, Dewey, and Hickox. Nineteen ships, from patrol ships to heavy cruisers and battleships, suffered less serious damage. Total, 31 ships sank and were damaged. 146 aircraft on different ships were destroyed or damaged, 790 people died during the incident, another 80 were injured. As a result, the 3rd Fleet was unable to strike at Luzon Island at the scheduled time. The ships were forced to go to the Uliti Atoll for repairs and rest of the personnel. The US Naval Court, which examined the circumstances of the disaster, ruled that "big mistakes were made regarding the forecasts of the place and route of movement of the typhoon."
    -------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------- ----------------

    3) The death of the "Great Armada": how the British destroyed the "invincible" Spanish fleet
    Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    The invincible armada (Spanish Armada Invencible), or the Great and most glorious armada (Spanish Grande y Felicísima Armada) - a large navy (about 130 ships), assembled by Spain in 1586-1588 to invade England during the Anglo-Spanish War ( 1585-1604). The campaign of Armada took place in May-September 1588 under the command of Alonso Perez de Guzmán, Duke of Medina Sidonia.
    When the Spanish fleet recovered from the first strike and in May 1588 reached the Dutch coast, a cruel storm hit the ships, and they were forced to enter La Coruna for repairs. The Duke of Medina Sidonia, worried about the lack of food and disease among sailors and soldiers, expressed doubts about the continuation of the campaign, but the king insisted on the further movement of the fleet.

    The invincible armada was battered by the Anglo-Dutch fleet of light and maneuverable ships commanded by Charles Howard, in a series of battles ending in the Battle of Graveline. They distinguished themselves "the pirates of Elizabeth", the most famous of which is Francis Drake. The battles lasted 2 weeks. The Armada did not manage to regroup and went north, abandoning the invasion, with the English fleet following it at some distance, walking along the east coast of England. Returning to Spain was difficult: the Armada went across the North Atlantic, along the west coast of Ireland. As a result of severe storms, many ships were thrown onto the north and west coast of this island. During the expedition more than 60 ships were lost (and only 7 of them were combat losses) [6].
  6. wlkw
    wlkw 25 November 2019 00: 14
    +3
    Actually, of course, I was lucky with the hurricane, to be sure. After the defeat that he arranged for the allies, I think that their military plans have been reduced to a minimum. Just take Sevastopol, "a matter of honor," as they say. So they would have taken it earlier, and even could have "walk" around the Crimea. And so they immediately moved on to the final part of any war - to a peace treaty. He also played into our hands in this situation.
  7. wlkw
    wlkw 25 November 2019 09: 15
    +3
    The history of the defense of Sevastopol is generally well known to everyone, described from literature, filmed in films, + propaganda of all stripes and times, and from both sides. But I would advise all those interested to familiarize themselves with the events and the military-political situation in front of the military campaign. I somehow set myself this goal and "looked through" the Internet on this issue.
    In general, everything was not just bad, but very bad for Russia. At that time, Russia had no allies, NOT ONE! Austria-Hungary and Germany were neutral, but they were ready to start hostilities against us. The situation could turn into a good defeat ...
    So the surrender of Sevastopol, this is one of the lesser troubles, everything is relative. In fact, not everything ended so badly for us, all the other military arrangements would only be worse and worse.
    In general, anyone interested, read. I will not give links, everything is looked for easily.
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 25 November 2019 18: 57
      +1
      Quote: wlkw
      At that time, Russia had no allies, NOT ONE! Austria-Hungary and Germany were neutral, but they were ready to start hostilities against us.

      Which of the Polish kings, in your opinion, was the most stupid? .. I will tell you that the most stupid Polish king was Jan Sobieski, because he freed Vienna from the Turks. And the most stupid of the Russian sovereigns is me, because I helped the Austrians suppress the Hungarian rebellion
      © Nicholas I
    2. Ryazan87
      Ryazan87 26 November 2019 14: 55
      +1
      I still ask one link: to a description of an alternative reality, where in 1853-56. on the political map of Europe there "Austria-Hungary and Germany".
      1. wlkw
        wlkw 26 November 2019 20: 06
        0
        Honestly, when I wrote, I saw that something was not right, but the meaning is clear. It was too lazy to poke around on the Internet and find out what they were called at that time. Sorry .....
        1. Aleks2000
          Aleks2000 5 February 2020 23: 18
          0
          Once on the website of the foreign ministry I read a selection of documents that preceded the war.

          ALL countries did not hide - that Turkey is important for them as a transport hub, and they wrote in advance that they would not help, rather the opposite ...

          France directly asked not to fight, and in this case promised to help strengthen in the Balkans, including Romania in the Republic of Ingushetia.
          And she warned in advance that during the war she would side with Turkey. Their connections, by the way, are interestingly described in "The Count of Monte Cristo"

          An independent transshipment point at the bow of the seas was important to everyone, and no one began to give anyone ....