Military Review

A century and a half in the service: what were the Russian archers armed with

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In 1550, Tsar Ivan IV the Terrible, by his order, established a new structure - the Streltsy army. Instead of pishchik militias for the first time in the domestic stories a regular army was created to fight with the help of cold and firearms weapons. For the next one and a half centuries archers became the most important component of the army. To solve combat missions, the archers had to rely on a developed weapons complex, which improved as the service continued.


Fiery fight


The main objective of the archers, as well as their predecessors, was the firing on the enemy troops. To solve this problem at different times, the archery army was armed with squeakers and muskets of different classes and types. According to available historical sources and archaeological finds, one can observe the development processes of small arms of the troops.

A century and a half in the service: what were the Russian archers armed with

Sagittarius of the Moscow regiments, the end of the XVII century. Illustration from the "Historical Description of the Clothing and Arms of the Russian Forces" A.V. Viskovatova

Sagittarius received hand squeaks from predecessors. It was a smooth-bore muzzle-loading weapon with a wick lock or with a gag. The early squeaks of Russian archers were similar in design to the European arquebuses of their time. It was the food that was the archer’s main weapon. During the battle, the warriors were supposed to hit the enemy with massive fire. Other weapons were considered as auxiliary.


Archers' firearms. Illustration from the "Historical Description of the Clothing and Arms of the Russian Forces" A.V. Viskovatova

The squeak included equipment elements necessary for transporting the ammunition. Sagittarius wore a berendeyk band over his left shoulder, on which hung nests for gunpowder and bullets, as well as a powder flask. All these devices made it possible to obtain an acceptable rate of fire from not the most perfect muzzle-loading squeakers.

According to the charters, archers received gunpowder and bullets immediately before the campaign. The remaining ammunition after returning should be surrendered, which allowed the state to save on the maintenance of troops.

Wick squeaks for a long time remained the main weapon of archers. However, at the beginning of the XVII century. they have their first flintlock guns. The mass introduction of such weapons has noticeably dragged on. It is believed that this was due to the complexity and high cost of guns, as well as difficulties at the stage of launching its own production. As a result, both foreign and domestic guns of various craftsmen with different designs and characteristics were in service.

Nevertheless, the rearmament was able to launch and implement. By the middle of the XVII century. the documents record not only the need for the purchase of gunpowder and lead, but also the requirements for the supply of flints for rifles. However, the decommissioning of obsolete wickers was noticeably delayed. The archers remained with such weapons almost until the end of the XNUMXth century.


Berendeyka with nests and a powder flask. Illustration from the "Antiquities of the Russian State", F.G. Of the suns

In the second half of the century, a new modernization of firearms began. Abroad and in our country, “screw squeaks” - rifled weapons began to spread. Roughly in the seventies, such systems begin to enter the streltsy army and gradually its share is growing. However, rifled systems were notable for their high complexity and cost, due to which the pace of rearmament was again low. Smoothbore guns remained the basis of the archery weapons complex for a long time.

It is curious that the replacement and modernization of the main weapon had almost no effect on the composition of the equipment. Berendeyka with nests and a powder flask remained and continued to fulfill their functions. This was facilitated by the preservation of some basic principles of the work of regular weapons.

The introduction of rifled weapons was the last step in the modernization of the "fire battle" of archers. Such systems, together with auxiliary weapons, have been used for several decades - until the disbandment of the Streltsy regiments. Then they moved on to the new armed formations of the Russian army.

Cold and Pole


The main objective of the archers was the fire defeat of the enemy. However, they retained cold steel and pole arms, mainly for self-defense in situations where the use of a squeak is impossible or difficult. In general, the cold weapons of the Streltsy army repeated the complex of infantry armaments of that time.


Sagittarius fires from a squeak, leaning on a berdysh. Illustration from the "Small Arms" A.B. Beetle

On the left side, on the belt, the Sagittarius wore a scabbard with a saber or sword. Sagittarius received the same blade weapons as other Russian warriors. During the existence of the Streltsy’s armed forces, they managed to visit various designs of sabers and swords with one or another feature. In all cases, such a weapon was intended to fight with an approaching enemy. In view of the specifics of the archers' combat work, it was often a question of self-defense.

Archers received a berdysh from the infantry - a special kind of battle ax with an elongated blade and a long pole. Berdysh performed two main functions. In close combat, it should have been used in a regular way as a chopping weapon. When firing, it became a bipod for weapons: a squeak box was put on the butt, which simplified aiming and shooting.

During the XVII century. there was some change in the complex of weapons associated with the features of the work of archers of various specialties. So, the commanders eventually lost their firearms, the use of which could be difficult. Their weapons consisted only of a saber and protazan - a long spear with a special tip. Bearers and musicians for self-defense had only sabers.


Sabers of the Russian army, including archers. Illustration from the "Historical Description of the Clothing and Arms of the Russian Forces" A.V. Viskovatova

At the beginning of the XVII century. the first units of pikemen appear in the streltsy army. These fighters armed themselves with long peaks and swords. Their weapons were intended to strengthen the defense of the streltsy formation and effectively protect against the characteristic threats of that time.

Explosive innovation


At the beginning of the XVII century. in the records for the first time there is a fundamentally new weapon for archers - hand grenade nuclei. They were compact and relatively light cast ammunition with powder filling and the simplest wick fuse. They should be thrown in the direction of the enemy manually, which limited the range of application. However, the damaging effect compensated for all the shortcomings.

Hand grenade nuclei received limited distribution, but nevertheless they were issued and distributed between streletsky orders. At different times and in different regiments, hundreds of units of such weapons were kept in storage, and, if necessary, they were used.

Weapon evolution


The Streltsy army was formed in the middle of the XNUMXth century. and existed until the beginning of the XVIII century. For more than a century and a half this component of the army has come a long way and has noticeably changed. First of all, weapons were developed that were directly used to solve combat missions.


Archery uniforms, armament and equipment at the State Historical Museum. Photo: Wikimedia

It is easy to see that the evolution of archers' armaments was based on the most modern ideas and solutions. It was far from always possible to introduce modern models on time and in the desired quantity, but the tendency toward the development of the troops can be traced quite clearly. In updating the material part, the Streltsy army actively used both domestic and foreign ideas and models.

Such an approach made it possible to maintain high combat efficiency of the troops, but had characteristic flaws. First of all, there was no unification of weapons and ammunition, which led to certain problems. The first measures aimed at establishing uniformity apply only to the second half of the XNUMXth century, however, a real effect in this direction was obtained even later.

At the beginning of the XVIII century. the Streltsy army was liquidated and new types of regiments replaced it. However, the armament complex of archers and part of their equipment remained in service. With these or those changes, guns and muskets, berdysh and sabers became part of the armament of the modernized troops, where they were soon supplemented with completely new models.
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  1. Same lech
    Same lech 29 December 2019 05: 08
    +1
    I wonder how much this Streletskaya samopal weighs the handbrake drank ... probably 10 kilograms ... a baton is good ... smile gunpowder was smoky then, and while the enemy rubs his eyes, he could be brushed a couple more times with the butt of a handbrake.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 29 December 2019 06: 34
      +2
      From 7,5 to 9 kilograms. Although there is a dull squeak in poods and a half weight!
      I was noticed by another question raised by the Author!
      . However, rifled systems were notable for their high complexity and cost, due to which the pace of rearmament was again low. Smoothbore guns remained the basis of the archery weapons complex for a long time.

      In his work, Cyril forgot to mention another, no less important factor in the failure of the archers, however, like their foreign colleagues-contemporaries from rifled weapons - the rate of fire! Before the appearance of the paper cartridge, it did not exceed 2-3 rounds per minute. In a fight of "large and dense masses" a lead piece weighing 18 grams could do a lot of bad things!
      Mentioning pikemen, the author lost sight of yet another archer’s weapon - slingshots! According to descriptions of contemporaries, archery orders always carried “slingshots” with them, which made it possible to fight off horse-drawn swoops. The Great Suvorov fought this habit a century after the abolition of the archers.
      Well, the last. In the Azov campaign of Peter archers began to use baganets, having appeared from berdysh !!!
      Regards, Vladislav!
      1. Vladimir_2U
        Vladimir_2U 29 December 2019 06: 56
        +5
        Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
        rifled weapons - rate of fire! Before the appearance of the paper cartridge, it did not exceed 2-3 rounds per minute.
        Almost nothing was solved by a paper cartridge in a rifled weapon, until self-expanding bullets appeared, loading the "fittings" was much inferior to the smoothbore in speed.
        Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
        The author lost sight of yet another archer’s weapon - slingshots.
        It is not a weapon or a weapon; it is a portable element of field fortification.
        1. Gray brother
          Gray brother 29 December 2019 09: 01
          +5
          Quote: Vladimir_2U
          field fortification.

          Could and "walk-town" gash.
      2. Catfish
        Catfish 29 December 2019 07: 41
        +3
        And exactly 2 - 3 rounds per minute, something is very doubtful. Open the powder door, measure the charge, pour it into the barrel, get the ramrod, hammer the wad, push the bullet, cock the trigger, and even spray the powder on the shelf, and all this in a minute? Here, in my opinion, making one shot is problematic, and even two or three is simply impossible. request
        1. Vladimir_2U
          Vladimir_2U 29 December 2019 09: 06
          +5
          Quote: Sea Cat
          Open the powder flask, measure the charge

          That's the berendaika, the charge is already measured there.
          Quote: Sea Cat
          hammer a wad, shove a bullet
          A wad after a bullet is definitely required, before a bullet it is desirable.
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 29 December 2019 09: 11
            +3
            One hell, two or three shots per minute in reality does not work out.
            1. Vladimir_2U
              Vladimir_2U 29 December 2019 09: 34
              +5
              A seasoned recon demonstrates the rate of flintlock.
              https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nU17zAkb7lI
              and when you want to live and not so much. )) Of course, the berendeyka is not as convenient as "bite the cartridge" but still.
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 29 December 2019 09: 55
                +1
                Volodya, it’s one thing to reconstruct, another thing to fight, and there’s no need to explain anything.
                1. Vladimir_2U
                  Vladimir_2U 29 December 2019 11: 10
                  +6
                  The drill is such a thing, horses were taught to breaks and not to be afraid of blood, and even more so people were trained for rate of fire.
            2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka 29 December 2019 09: 58
              0
              Konstantin the fire rate of firearms is calculated from the moment the weapon is removed from the fuse, the cartridge is sent to the chamber and the shot is fired! In our procedure, it began with updating the powder on the seed shelf and firing. The rest of the time it’s completely possible to shoot twice aimlessly.
              Although basically, combatant shot half-tones (lines)! Which shot in turn.
              The Irregulars (our Cossacks) preferred to shoot with quick fire when there were two or three comrades - loaders on one shooter!
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 29 December 2019 10: 26
                +3
                No, well, it's clear here, the gun is already loaded and, after the first shot, under certain conditions and skill, it is quite possible to have time to reload and shoot even aiming, so we get two shots per minute. But the third shot will probably take a minute, and I meant a "clean" reload twice a minute, and not a pre-loaded weapon. Well. and firing three times in a minute will not work, even if there is an assistant, this is from the realm of fantasy.
              2. vladcub
                vladcub 29 December 2019 19: 24
                +2
                "it is not quite possible to shoot twice with precision, perhaps" what kind of targeted shooting at that time can be said. While loaded, while the wick arson the target will have time here.
                At that time, the only calculation was that out of one and a half two-two dozen bullets, 1 would hit the target.
                I'm not sure buzzers had flies
          2. Monar
            Monar 29 December 2019 09: 26
            +1
            Interesting opinion. Even in modern smoothbore guns, a wad is standing between the bullet and the charge of gunpowder.
            1. Vladimir_2U
              Vladimir_2U 29 December 2019 11: 18
              +2
              Smoothbore with cartridges and smoothbore muzzle-loading still very different. In addition, the bullet is often wrapped in paper or something like that. By the way, recently the author V. Shpakovsky posted an article on the VO where he described the find of a bullet wrapped in paper, in the butt of a gun it seems.
        2. Monar
          Monar 29 December 2019 09: 22
          +1
          And exactly 2 - 3 rounds per minute, something is very doubtful.
          Well, as the wiki claims 40 shots in 7 minutes a record. So it is very doubtful.
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 29 December 2019 09: 25
            +4
            Vicki says a lot of things, believing everything is not enough. I didn’t look at it from birth, there are other sources.
        3. Engineer
          Engineer 29 December 2019 09: 49
          +2
          For wick guns 1-2 rounds per minute.
          https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2KTS8PQ06Qo
          This is evidenced by the demonstrator at 0:33
        4. combat192
          combat192 29 December 2019 19: 00
          0
          Achieved by exercise.
        5. abc_alex
          abc_alex 30 December 2019 00: 01
          0
          Reconstructors today do 6. And some even up to 9. The trick is that with high-speed shooting, gunpowder does not puff. The bullet itself covers the barrel quite reliably, and charging and aiming is carried out so that the barrel is always directed upwards. That is, the line of sight falls to the target.
          1. Saxahorse
            Saxahorse 30 December 2019 21: 03
            0
            Quote: abc_alex
            The trick is that with high-speed shooting gunpowder does not puff. The bullet itself covers the barrel quite reliably, and charging and aiming is carried out so that the barrel is always directed upwards.

            The bullet will reliably block the barrel if machined with micron tolerances. And in those days the shape was round only approximately. Well, a lot of fuss with a wick, and inflate and fasten and check that it gets into the shelf. In general, the circus trick is all this high-speed shooting.
            1. abc_alex
              abc_alex 31 December 2019 12: 39
              -1
              Yes, amendment, I talked about silicon guns.
              As for micron accuracy, we are talking about high-speed shooting at short range. There, the density of the overlapping bullet is enough. The trick, not the trick, but in practice is verified. 6 rounds per minute is quite realistic to do.
              1. Saxahorse
                Saxahorse 31 December 2019 18: 06
                0
                Quote: abc_alex
                The trick, not the trick, but in practice is verified. 6 rounds per minute is quite realistic to do.

                Exactly what the trick is. I’ve seen more than 6 shots in the reenactors’s commercials, I remember some kind of supposedly Prussian fusiler, a short gun .. One, two, three, bang! And in a circle. But in practice, climb troubles in full growth. An insufficiently round bullet is not a fact that it will reach a charge in the barrel. It is necessary to nail definitely. But archers often shot with chopped lead.

                And the next sudden problem of the reenactors, it turns out when the bullet is clogged, the soot in the barrel is compressed. And often, with a good fit of bullets, already the third or fourth are clogged with difficulty. If the bullet is irregular, it will come out even earlier. In general, muzzle charging, in principle, is not suitable for fast shooting!

                PS It is interesting to note that the first machine gun Maxim was also on black powder. And besides smoke, there were no problems with soot in the barrel, it was blown clean with every next shot. Treasury charges rule! good
                1. Molot1979
                  Molot1979 15 March 2020 08: 02
                  0
                  Well, then in the battles of the 16-17th centuries, the arrows often made 2-3 volleys for the entire battle, and there was no need for more. And there is either victory or defeat. So these 6 shots were not required. They agreed, they fired, who turned out to be more successful, he is right.
    2. Bar2
      Bar2 29 December 2019 11: 23
      +1
      probably for some who don’t know, you can add a moment on which the author does not focus .. Who was the discoverer of this new way of waging a fire-battle. Here is a quote from the encyclopedia of D'Alembert and Didro of the 18th century. They write that the Muscovites were the first to invent the musket, this is understandable the very word -mushka is from the Russian word fly.



      In accordance with this, the question immediately arises, could an army armed with a new type of weapons be "backward and outdated" inferior to the European one, as historians tell us about the times of Peter 1? Well, accordingly, how to justify all these Peter's reforms? Probably, not.
      1. Fishery
        Fishery 18 March 2020 15: 30
        -1
        Well, archers are a regular army with a big stretch, all the same.
    3. John22
      John22 29 December 2019 18: 45
      +2
      According to the book of Karl Russell Firearms of the XVII-XIX centuries, the mass of muskets was 15-20 pounds. So consider - 6-9 kg. Pounds were different too.
  2. Monar
    Monar 29 December 2019 05: 56
    +1
    However, they retained cold steel and pole arms, mainly for self-defense in situations where the use of a squeak is impossible or difficult.
    This is in doubt. Well, one or two volleys. Let three. 200 meters (sighting range) can be overcome in a minute or two without hurrying legs. And even more so on a horse. But what if the weather is still? So because of the smoke nothing is visible at all. One thing remains. Chopped with sabers and berdysh. And here cold steel already becomes the main one.
    Of course, you can take a foe and a berdysh across the cumpole to sip. But it’s not aesthetically pleasing. Yes, and the saber will be more convenient. laughing
    Humble amateur opinion.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 29 December 2019 06: 16
      +8
      In close combat, a medium-length polearm will always beat a saber or a sword, a corny berdysh is longer! Especially in the line where your neighbors are armed similarly! A saber is a weapon for combat “in hand-to-hand dump”, like a boot knife, a weapon of last chance.
      1. Gray brother
        Gray brother 29 December 2019 06: 32
        +1
        Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
        corny berdysh longer!

        And harder, they can rider immediately with a horse to chop.
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 29 December 2019 06: 37
          +1
          For slingshots, why not!
      2. Monar
        Monar 29 December 2019 07: 23
        +2
        Controversial statement. Berdysh do not wave in tight formation. And he weighs more than a saber. Here, even one on one just poke quickly get tired.
        Cossack saber had to hold in hands. With a kilo of mass, but on an outstretched arm, but wave it ....
        Well, of course I have zero point training, FIG tenths. But impressed. A berdysh ...
        Humble amateur opinion.
        1. Fishery
          Fishery 18 March 2020 15: 32
          -1
          Berdysh seems to be a rather exotic weapon, a very strange weapon, similar to that of the Turks, and Europeans had similar axes, but the practical use in other armies was not massively noticed)
    2. andrewkor
      andrewkor 29 December 2019 07: 47
      +4
      I should add that the well-known musketeers of the King of France, for the purpose of self-preservation after a salvo from their main weapon, simply had to masterfully own the sword, which we repeatedly watched in the movies and admired their dashingness!
      1. irontom
        irontom 29 December 2019 08: 18
        +10
        The king’s musketeers are the noble guard, simple pikemen covered the battlefield, there is an excellent film Captain Alatriste (2006), the fighting in the 17th century is perfectly shown in the film.
        1. d ^ Amir
          d ^ Amir 30 December 2019 09: 00
          +1
          The Battle of Rocroix is ​​perfectly shown, or rather the ending ... an excellent film, based on an excellent book with excellent actors, starring Viggo "Aragornich" Mortensen
  3. Vladimir_2U
    Vladimir_2U 29 December 2019 07: 00
    +3
    Nice "general education" article, thanks to the author. An illustration to "Rifles and Machine Guns" by A.B. He saw the beetle, was moved as much, a wonderful book, with great love and knowledge was made!
  4. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 29 December 2019 07: 24
    +6
    To solve this problem at different times, the archery army was armed with squeakers and muskets of different classes and types. Mdaaa .... a very awkward phrase! Muskets ... of different "classes"? request By and large, "different" guns were called squeaks in Russia ... At first, arquebusses became widespread in Europe (we will not mean petrinals, handhelds, pictals, coolers now ...) ... and weapons like that were called squeaks " European "arquebusses. But does the Author really think that with the advent of "European" muskets in Russia, these weapons began to be called muskets, and not squeaks? What is your "evidence"? I don't think they are ... 2.Sagittarius wore a berendeyk band over his left shoulder, on which hung nests for gunpowder and bullets, as well as a powder flask. What kind of nests does Ator have on Berendeyka? Sparrow Ali USB ... HDMI? Wasn't it possible to call them "pencil cases, pencil cases"? How did many other authors of "weapons articles" do it ?! Moreover, in Russia such "pencil cases" were called "chargers", "natrusks"! On the berendeyka, they also wore a folded wick bag with bullets; because. "chargers" were not always equipped with both bullets and gunpowder ...
    3.Berdysh performed two main functions. In close combat, it should have been used in a regular way as chopping weapons. When shooting, he became a bipod Berdysh was used not only as a chopping weapon, but also as a chopping-cutting and pricking ...
    Thus, the design of the reed suggests two types of grip. In the first variant both hands are at the bottom of the town hall. It is used for applying powerful chopping and chopping-cutting blows mentioned in the cited sources. In the second, more rare — one arm is located in the upper, the other — in the middle or lower part of the town hall. This grip is applicable for application. stitching and chopping strokes.
    There are also some more "shortcomings", But we will not mention them, because of their "pettiness" ... and bored already ...
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 29 December 2019 12: 48
      +3
      Nikolaevich, be simpler and more tolerant!
      By the way, the archers squeaked (the common name for many types of hand-held Russian weapons) was exchanged not for muskets, but for a fusee! From here comes the name of the infantry in the time of Peter I - the Fusiliers. Musketeers in the Russian army appeared later, along with the team - a march, instead of the Russian - go !!! Then, under Catherine II, the musketeers were renamed into infantry, then back and only under Alexander finally into infantry!
      It is interesting that the rank of general from infantry was not affected by cataclysms!
      1. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I 29 December 2019 13: 48
        +4
        Perhaps you are right! I got excited "a little"! In principle, the "flaws" are "small"! .... But apparently, at that moment about a bad mood hesitated! request PS Regarding the "General of Infantry" ... Well, then how to say! After the death of Peter I, the generals "from infantry" and "from the cavalry" were replaced by "general-in-chief", and introduced "in reverse" only in 1796 ... I don't remember exactly about the "general from artillery"! Perhaps the same thing happened ... So, there were such "three heroes" in the Russian army!
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 29 December 2019 14: 21
          +3
          OPS! So all the same, the reform has touched! Indeed, Suvorov bore the rank of general-general !!!!
      2. Undecim
        Undecim 29 December 2019 15: 30
        +7
        Nikolaevich, be simpler and more tolerant!
        The issue here is not simplicity and tolerance. The question is understanding responsibility. If the author spent at least half of the effort that he spends on transfusion from empty to empty to search for information, the article could really become historical. In this form, this is a profanation of the history of weapons.
        It was no accident that Vladimir drew attention to the "supernova" description of the berendeyka: "The archer wore a berendeyk sling over his left shoulder, on which there were nests for gunpowder and bullets, as well as a powder flask. All these devices made it possible to obtain an acceptable rate of fire from not the most perfect muzzle-loading squeaks."
        According to the classics, it is very different: "A belt or berendeika was worn over the left shoulder with charges attached to it under the roofs (lids) hollowed out of wood and pasted over with leather. The berendeyka also had a wick bag, a bullet bag and a gunpowder horn or instead of it , natruska; sometimes the wick was wound around the berendeyka's belt. " Is it true that Winkler's description differs somewhat from Ryabov's?
        And given the fact that the article is historical, the reader would have instead of an empty author’s "The main task of the riflemen, like their predecessors, squeakers, was to fire at enemy troops. To solve this problem, muskets of different classes and types were also in service with the rifle troops at different times." find out that "For hand firearms there was a common name squeak. Hand squeaks or hand cranks were worn behind the back of a warrior and were called curtain, in contrast to the blind, which belonged to artillery. Hand cams were sometimes called samopals. There were still undershoots or short squeaks, screw - rifled, triple - about three barrels, inverted double - double-barreled ".
        Sometimes the author clearly misleads readers: "In the second half of the century, a new modernization of firearms began. Abroad and in our country," screw squeaks "- rifled weapons began to spread. Roughly in the seventies, such systems begin to enter the rifle army and gradually its share is growing."
        In the second half of the 2th century, "rifles" were used exclusively for the heads and half-heads of the rifle regiments, that is, three people per regiment. As for the "gradual growth of the share", then, for example, in the 2,4nd Moscow Ivan Poltev Streletsky Order in the seventies, the share of "rifles" was XNUMX%.
        And so on throughout the article.
  5. andrewkor
    andrewkor 29 December 2019 07: 40
    +1
    In the "Voenno-istoricheskiy zhurnal" there was a discussion on the Day of the Russian Army. There was an opinion to consider this date from the decree of Ivan Vasilich on the formation of the Streletsky Troops! Personally, I share this opinion. The Day of the Defender of the Fatherland is a special holiday for everyone who served or serves in the Army, defending their homeland.
    In modern Russia there is a sensible tendency to appoint departmental holidays or the names of elite units from the date of the corresponding decrees of the "anointed of God."
    You must admit that it is a great honor to have a holiday of the Russian Navy from the decree of Peter the Great. Also, things are separate for the submariners, the Far Aviation, customs officers and other specialties.
  6. gorenina91
    gorenina91 29 December 2019 08: 36
    +1
    -And why they never write about ...- how far the shot from these bells, muskets and so on was calculated ... -And what was their accuracy ...
    - Most likely they fired at 70-100 meters (the fired bullet was dangerous) .., no more ...- And, most likely they were not shot very specifically and aiming ...- most likely in the direction of the enemy ... - i.e. shot just towards the enemy ...; since it is aiming at someone who was further than 15-20 meters there was no sense anymore ...- you still won’t get there ...- That is. dangerous was an aimless salvo of hundreds of these
    squeaks towards the enemy ... -for this they were intended ...
    1. AK1972
      AK1972 29 December 2019 10: 59
      +5
      Quote: gorenina91
      those. shot just towards the enemy ...; since it is aiming at someone who was further than 15-20 meters there was no sense anymore ...- you still won’t get there ...

      That's right. In addition, after pointing the weapon towards the enemy, before the shot the shooter had to close his eyes so as not to burn them with burning seed gunpowder, and the target was not static. There was no question of any targeted shooting.
  7. tank-master
    tank-master 29 December 2019 18: 05
    +2
    Good article. Respect to the author.
    A small addition - Berdysh, was a very effective infantry weapon. And in Little Russia and Slobazhanshchina, thanks to them, the archers were called KOSAP - from the Turkish and Tatar languages ​​it translates as "butcher", since the archers were mowing the ranks of the Tatars with berdyshs.
    Happy New Year 2020.
    And I say hello from Kharkov to Yuri Apukhtin.
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 29 December 2019 20: 08
      +1
      Sent faces of our comrades thank you for your congratulations and wish you good health and success. At all times, health is the main capital.
      Steve Jops, the founder of Epolus, said that wealth will not reimburse you for health. Such is the motive of his words for years.
  8. vladcub
    vladcub 29 December 2019 19: 57
    +2
    For its time, the Streltsy army was advanced and the equipment was also at the level of European armies.
    I came across the opinion that in the disbandment of the rifle regiments, Peter 1 tp was guided by political motives. I disagree with this: indeed, the archers were a tool in the hands of the opponents of Peter the Great, but the so-called "regiments of the new order" appeared even before Peter, and the "strelets revolt" only accelerated their disbandment
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 29 December 2019 21: 49
      +1
      Hello namesake!
      There are several controversial issues.
      1. For example, contrary to the opinion of venerable historians, I do not consider archers to be a regular army. In essence - they are city (serf) guards. A sort of philistinism that served for privileges! So the appearance of a regular army must be counted from the first recruitment or amusing regiments of Peter!
      2. The regiments of the new system had many different formations. The former were essentially mercenaries and served for money. The latter served for the land, as did the local army! Sometimes the incentives were combined, but the essence did not change!
  9. Saxahorse
    Saxahorse 29 December 2019 23: 28
    +1
    Sagittarius love to portray with a squeak, reed and saber at the same time. But something I can’t even imagine how he managed all of this at the same time ..

    Why would he need a big saber if he already has a healthy berdysh? Where did he put the berdysh when he charged the food? Hold the neighbor? Where and how did you throw the food after the shot, again at the neighbor? After all, stand tight. And again, but how in a tight formation to wave a berdysh?

    Some sort of busting with all these weapons.
    1. Freeman
      Freeman 30 December 2019 06: 09
      0
      Quote: Saxahorse
      Sagittarius love to portray with a squeak, reed and saber at the same time. But something I can’t even imagine how he managed all of this at the same time ..

      Why would he need a big saber if he already has a healthy berdysh? Where did he put the berdysh when he charged the food? Hold the neighbor? Where and how did you throw the food after the shot, again at the neighbor? After all, stand tight. And again, but how in a tight formation to wave a berdysh?

      Some sort of busting with all these weapons.

      Here are the answers to most of your questions.
      Except for one thing - where did the "squeak" really go in hand-to-hand combat, when it was necessary to use a reed or a saber.
      I suppose they managed to transfer it to the rear ranks, and then they put it in the "box".
      If they didn’t have time, then they threw them nearby (then they picked them up).
      The tactics of the archers, in the main, did not imply wide maneuvering. Their main task is to stand still and hold a position, a kind of "wall" behind the "slingshots" and "walk-city".

      1. Saxahorse
        Saxahorse 30 December 2019 20: 56
        0
        The film is just tin! laughing

        Naturalness is less than in "Just Wait". The saber was gone, the dagger and even the knife. Berdysh suddenly got a rope carrying strap wassat And it’s very inconvenient, judging by the way he telepaths on the legs with a shaft. He was never used in shooting. Reloading is even more troublesome than I thought, one volley without options.

        In general, the reenactors faced all the questions that I wrote here and did not really figure out how to deal with them. laughing

        Now there is certainly no doubt that all this heap of iron in all hands is only for show-offs, in fact they definitely wore one thing. Berdysh is a particularly strange weapon; did they spear the pikemen with them? He is no longer comfortable for anything.
        1. Freeman
          Freeman 31 December 2019 01: 14
          0
          Quote: Saxahorse
          The film is just tin! laughing

          Naturalness is less than in "Just Wait". The saber was gone, the dagger and even the knife. Berdysh suddenly got a rope carrying strap wassat And it’s very inconvenient, judging by the way he telepaths on the legs with a shaft. He was never used in shooting. Reloading is even more troublesome than I thought, one volley without options.

          In general, the reenactors faced all the questions that I wrote here and did not really figure out how to deal with them. laughing

          Now there is certainly no doubt that all this heap of iron in all hands is only for show-offs, in fact they definitely wore one thing. Berdysh is a particularly strange weapon; did they spear the pikemen with them? He is no longer comfortable for anything.

          There really are more questions than answers. The researchers have no unequivocal opinion.
          In short:
          1. "Berdysh suddenly got a rope belt for carrying"
          - The original poles are practically not preserved. But in Vladimir, a berdysh with a genuine pole was preserved.


          2. "He was never used in shooting."
          - There is no definite answer, but there is a possibility.
          3. "Berdysh is a particularly strange weapon, the spears of the pikemen were chopped off for them or what? It is not convenient for anything else."
          - Berdysh combines the properties of chopping and cutting and stabbing weapons.
          At that time, the main enemy of the archers on the battlefield was not infantry, but cavalry.
          Horses were chopped / cut / pricked.
          1. Saxahorse
            Saxahorse 31 December 2019 18: 15
            0
            Quote: Freeman
            At that time, the main enemy of the archers on the battlefield was not infantry, but cavalry.
            Horses were chopped / cut / pricked.

            Here is another misunderstanding. It is inconvenient to chop horses with an ax edge! For this, pikemen came up with. When the arrows fit into the third - everything is logical and understandable. But the Streltsy army has no clear descriptions.

            And again, the berdysh is the most mysterious weapon of that time. Too short for a halberd, too bulky for a backup ..
  10. cat Rusich
    cat Rusich 30 December 2019 00: 30
    0
    Let's remember the Mounted archers, a kind of dragoons. Let us recall the PATRIARISH Riflemen - the guard of the Moscow Patriarch. Also, the patriarchal archers performed the duties of the internal church "morality police" and a kind of inquisition - the search for warlocks, the suppression of the Old Believers.
  11. AllBiBek
    AllBiBek 30 December 2019 15: 12
    0
    The last mentions of archers as an estate came across to me in documents from the beginning of the 19th century. For hundreds, garrisons of minor fortresses, such as Zaraysk, constituted.
  12. Blackgrifon
    Blackgrifon 1 January 2020 23: 17
    0
    At the beginning of the XVIII century. the Streltsy army was liquidated and new types of regiments replaced it

    The regiments of the new order appeared and began to be massively created back in the 17th century, when they proved their great efficiency. At the same time, the archers existed in the form of "garrisons" for a very long period of time after the suppression of the last rifle revolt.
  13. Fishery
    Fishery 18 March 2020 15: 38
    -1


    I will insert a couple of pictures for forum users) the first local warrior, the second Sagittarius.
  14. Fishery
    Fishery 18 March 2020 15: 42
    -1

    and this is France.
  15. Fishery
    Fishery 18 March 2020 15: 49
    -1
    The first written source that describes the combat use of the berdysh is “The Legend” by Abraham Palitsyn (1620), which tells about the siege of the Trinity-Sergius Monastery by Polish-Lithuanian invaders in 1608-1610:
    “The hetman, Sapega, came to the Red Mountain on the Trinity people and became all over the Klementyevsky field with all his regiments, Lisovsky from the arrival of Sapega became cheerful and wanted to defeat the Lord Almighty with him. And he commanded in his regiment to blow pipes and zurns and beat drums and timpani ... Even non-idle people became brave, who did not know and never knew the customs of the military — and they girded around with gigantic force. One of them, a certain tax-paying person from the village of Molokov, a peasant called Suetu, great in height and very strong, who was always laughed at because of his inability to fight, said: “Let me die today, but I will be glorified by all!” In his hands he held a weapon, a berdysh. And the Lord God strengthened that Vanity, and gave him fearlessness and courage; and he urged Orthodox Christians to stop fleeing, saying: “We will not be afraid, brothers, of the enemies of God, but we will stand firmly against them with arms!” And sir with his berdysh enemies on both sides, holding the regiment of Alexander Lisovsky; and no one could resist him. He quickly rode like a lynx, and then struck many armed and in armor. Many strong warriors stood against him in order to avenge the shame, and cruelly attacked him. Vanity is sec on both sides; without betraying him, on foot, stopping the flight, fortified behind the gouges ”