Military Review

Combat aircraft. Junkers Ju-88: the universal killer

75

What can be said about the brainchild of "Junkers", more precisely, Heinrich Evers and Alfred Gassner? Only one thing: they did it. 15 000 issued aircraft. This is a recognition that the car came out very, very good.


It all began in the distant 1935 year, when the Luftwaffe thought about changing the attacking component. They thought so well, and instead of the Kampfzerstorer concept, which was a rather insane mixture of a multi-role fighter, bomber and attack aircraft, the idea of ​​a specialized high-speed Schnellbomber bomber was put forward.

Schnellbomber was also a very original Wishlist, because in theory it was a kind of compromise between speed and other qualities necessary for a multi-purpose machine. Armor and defensive weapons, for example.

The Luftwaffe believed that if such a bomber, having a speed comparable to modern fighters, is more likely to survive, and you do not have to spend money on booking.

The logic was that. If the fighter in front of the task is to catch up with a climb, a bomber flying at a speed of 20-30 km / h is lower than that of a fighter. That is a problem virtually unsolvable.

The requirements for Schnellbomber were forwarded to Focke-Wulf, Henschel, Junkers and Messerschmitt.

The Focke-Wolves declined to participate in the competition, the Messerschmitts tried to push their kind of “new” Bf.162 to the competition, which was quite modified under the terms of the Bf.110 competition, but the Junkers and Henschel began to develop completely new machines.

By the way, Henschel created a very interesting Hs.127 car, but did not manage to meet the deadlines.


Messerschmitt was denied participation, having recommended engaging in fighter jets. So as such, the competition did not work out at all.

It turned out that the Junkers project was the only one. Well, the tests began.


In general, the plane turned out to be quite interesting. In tests, he was finally dispersed right up to 520 km / h. Armament, however, was more than modest. One defensive machine gun and 8 bombs weighing 50 kg.

But you must admit, in the 1937 year, not every fighter could fly at such a speed. We can say that the Schnellbomber project received a material embodiment in metal.



However, there it was. Germany of the 1938 model of the year is not China, although it is somewhat similar. The Germans did not have a superfast bomber at all, so they decided ... to remake it into a dive bomber!

Yes, just like that, and why not?

It is clear that the success of Ju-87 in Spain is not weak so prompted.

But Ernst Udet, the chief of the planes, insisted, and in the Junkers they sat down for alterations. It is clear that the matter turned out to be complicated, since it is not so simple to teach to dive an airplane, which was not originally intended for this.

I had to develop air brakes, devices that facilitate the piloting of the machine during entry and exit from the dive, and strengthen the wing structure. Well, at the same time decided to strengthen the defensive weapons.


In general, a car turned out to be very different from the original prototype. The most noticeable difference was the new nose of the fuselage with "facet" glazing. This became a useful option, since almost the entire nose of the aircraft became transparent, which greatly facilitated the pilot's search for a target when diving.

Under the cockpit equipped lower gondola with a machine gun MG.15, capable of firing back and down.


That is, the armament of the aircraft doubled. Subsequently, a third machine gun appeared, course. Machine gun food was in-store. The stock of cartridges was 1500 pieces.

There were two bombing compartments on the plane: in the front compartment it was possible to suspend 18, and in the rear compartment - 10 bombs 50-kg. And between the nacelles and the fuselage, four bomb racks were installed for bombs of greater weight than the standard 50 kg.


The armament of the 88 was constantly increasing as the armament of the fighters increased.

The outbreak of World War II showed the Ju-88's poor defense against side attacks. Since at that time the designers did not have a normal gun that could be mounted on a bomber, and heavy machine guns were also being finalized, the strengthening of the armament of the Ju-88-4, the main bomber modification, was limited to replacing MG.15 machine guns with MG .81, powered by bulk tape of metal links.

Plus, two more firing points were added to protect the side projection and one for firing forward and down.

The crew of Ju.88A consisted of four people: a pilot sitting on the left front seat, a navigator scorer, located to his right and slightly behind, a radio operator arrow, whose seat was located behind the pilot’s back and was deployed back, as well as flight technicians, working whose place was located behind the scorer.


The bombardier could also fire from a front machine gun mounted in the cab’s right windshield. If necessary from this weaponsfixed by the bracket, the pilot could shoot, however, he had to aim, maneuvering the whole plane.

The scorer, just in case (a serious injury or the death of a pilot) had a small removable aircraft control stick. The pedals were mounted only by the pilot. To compensate for the aircraft’s turn when flying on one engine, the scorer had a small helm controlling the position of the rudder trimmer.

The upper rear defensive installation was served by a radio operator gunner, and the lower one was serviced by a flight engineer. The latter was forbidden to be in the lower gondola at the stages of taxiing, take-off and landing, since in the event of a breakdown of the landing gear, the ventral “bath” was often destroyed.

Actually, in this form, 88 entered the war. He finished it in a completely different guise, but this is the topic of a separate article, since machine guns were replaced by heavy machine guns, and instead of some guns were installed.


The first combat sorties in World War II Ju.88 (these were modifications of the A-1) were fired against British ships near Norway. The debut was successful, but we can immediately say that, despite the assault arranged by Goering, Ju.88 was late for the war.

In general, Goering set production volumes. The main assembly line at the Junkers factory in Dessau was to produce 65 Ju.88A. But Goering’s task provided for 300 cars a month, so a number of factories of other companies were involved:
- factories Arado (Brandenburg), Henschel (Schönefeld) and AEG - 80 units per month;
- Heinkel (Oranienbaum) and Dornier (Wismar) factories - 70 units per month;
- Dornier plant (Friedrichshafen) - 35 pieces per month;
- ATG and Siebel plants - 50 units per month.

However, despite the fact that almost everyone began to produce Junkers, by the beginning of the blitzkrieg, 133 ready-made aircraft were issued, which took part in the hostilities.

The battle for Britain showed that the 88 is actually more well-behaved in battle. High speed did not prevent losses, but compared to the losses of Dornier Do.17 and Heinkel He.111, Ju.88 losses were less.

By the end of the Battle of Britain, the recommended Ju.88A-4 began to arrive in combat units.


The car turned out to be somewhat slower than the A-1, but all the “childhood illnesses” were resolved and the Ju.88A-4 turned into a very effective fighting machine.

But at the very beginning of the article, a phrase about universality was heard. So, let's start now about this.

Let's start with the performance characteristics, although I usually end with them. But not at this time.

Modification of Ju.88a-4

Wingspan, m: 20,00
Length, m: 14,40
Height, m: 4,85
Wing area, м2: 54,50

Weight, kg
- empty aircraft: 9 870
- normal takeoff: 12 115
- Maximum takeoff: 14 000

Engine: 2 x Junkers Jumo-211J-1 x 1340
Maximum speed km / h: 467
Cruising speed, km / h: 400
Practical range, km: 2 710
Maximum rate of climb, m / min: 235
Practical ceiling, m: 8 200

Crew, prs: 4

Armament:
- one 7.9-mm machine gun MG-81 forward;
- one movable 13-mm MG-131 or two MG-81 on a moving installation forward;
- two MG-81 back-up;
- one MG-131 or two MG-81 back and down;
- 10 x 50-kg bombs in the bomb bay and 4 x 250-kg or 2 x 500-kg bombs under the center section, or 4 x 500-kg bombs under the center section.

So what did I mean by that? Just that the 88 was a very outstanding aircraft for its time. And if you compare it with a competitor, Ne.111, who is better - that will be the question. But we will have comparisons ahead, long winter evenings comparable. In the pattern and likeness, as compared "Corsair" and "Hellcat."

The Germans, being pragmatic and meticulous people, also realized that 88 was a complete success. And they started to create ...

During the Battle of England, Germans drank a lot of blood from barrage balloons, which were widely used by the British to cover industrial centers. Indeed, worthless bubbles raised to a decent height were a threat to aircraft, especially at night.

And the first non-bomber modification of the 88 was a minesweeper, which, like a ship of a similar purpose, had to "clear the fairway" for the bulk of the bombers.

So there was a variant of Ju.88-6, equipped with a metal paravan farm with cable cutters at the ends.


The total weight of the truss was 320 kg, another 60 kg added a counterweight located in the rear of the fuselage. Of course, such a plane also took less bombs to compensate for the mass of the paravan and the increased aerodynamic load.

The idea was not bad, but failed to implement it. Firstly, an airplane is not a strong enough thing, therefore contact with a cable at a speed of 350 km / h was often fatal. Secondly, unlike sea minesweepers, aircraft rarely fly in a wake formation. Therefore, the wiped strip, especially at night, usually remained unclaimed. Therefore, basically after the end of the “Battle” all minesweepers were converted into ordinary bombers.

Some of the aircraft of this modification were converted into distant naval scouts. There weren’t enough “Condor”, so the car, which was named Ju.88A-6 / U, was very useful.

The crew of such machines was reduced to three people, the lower gondola was dismantled, and the FuG 200 Hoentville radar was installed in the nose of the fuselage. Instead of bombs on external holders, fuel tanks were suspended. In addition to the Hoentville radar, some vehicles received a Rostock or FuG 217 radar kit, the antennas of which were located on the wing. The detection range of a cruising class ship or large transport in favorable conditions reached 50 nautical miles.

Another family, rather malicious, were torpedo bombers.

At the beginning of 1942, the Ju.88А-4 / Torr variant was created on the basis of the Ju.88А-4 bomber.


Re-equipment was carried out at repair plants using a special completion kit that provided for the replacement of four external ETS bomb racks with two PVC torpedo racks, each of which could be suspended aviation torpedo LTF 5b weighing 765 kg.

The brake grilles and the automatic dive exit were removed as completely unnecessary, but the Ju.88A-4 / Torr often carried the MG / FF gun in the nose of the fuselage or the ventral gondola.

The dumping of torpedoes was carried out using an electric drive, in the photo you can see special fairings, which closed the wires and rods going to the locks.

Some aircraft were equipped with FuG 200 locators, it was a small factory series Ju.88A-17. These cars had no ventral gondola initially, and the crew was reduced to three people. The weight of torpedoes that could be taken on board grew to 1100 kg.


Torpedo bombers based on Ju.88A-4 performed well in the Mediterranean, in the Atlantic, in the North.

There was an assault option. Ju.88A-13. The aircraft was additionally booked from frontal fire and placed in a container integrated into the first 16 bomb bay (sixteen!) 7,92-mm machine guns firing forward and down. The second bomb bay contained 500 kg SD-2 fragmentation bombs. The plane was used only in the initial period of the war, since further 7,92-mm machine guns became irrelevant.

When the British began to bother Germany with raids, they had to make a heavy fighter. One that can barrage for a long time, covering the area, and then attack the targets as they appear.

Ju.88C. There were 7 modifications that differed in engines, weapons and equipment. The most common was Ju.88С-2, on the basis of which modifications of C-3, 4, 5 were created.

The main armament of the Ju.88С consisted of an 20-mm gun or an 13-mm machine gun and three 7,92-mm machine guns in the bow. The crew was reduced to three people (minus the navigator).

The aircraft did not carry bomb loads, aerodynamic brakes were not installed. Night versions were equipped with a radar (depending on version) FuG-202, FuG-212, FuG-220 and FuG-227.


Not without scouts. Ju.88 The same A-4 base, but they removed bomb weapons, aerodynamic brakes, and installed additional fuel tanks. Flight range increased to 5000 km.

Naturally, scouts carried aerial cameras.

We should also mention such an interesting design as the Ju.88G. This is another nightly interceptor fighter, released by a series of almost 4000 vehicles.


The aircraft was made using the fuselage and tail from Ju.188 and the wing Ju.88A-4.

They equipped the interceptor with the FuG-220 Lichtenstein locator and six MGN-20 151-mm cannons.

There was a reverse scheme when the fuselage was taken from Ju.88A-4, and the wing from Ju.188. It was called Ju.88G-10.

You can not ignore another attack aircraft, but released in the middle of the war specifically for the destruction of armored vehicles.

Ju.88P. They were made on the basis of the same Ju.88-4, aerodynamic brakes and bombs were removed, and artillery weapons were put.

Ju.88Р-1 carried in a special container with a fairing 75-mm gun Ra-40. There were few such monsters built, because it quickly became clear that planes were quickly destroyed by firing.


Ju.88P-3 was more down to earth. Two 37-mm Flak-38 guns, which, in principle, were enough to inflict damage on the Soviet tanks above.

Ju.88P-4. Two options: 50-mm gun Kwk-39 with manual reloading or 50-mm gun VK-5 with automatic.


There were, of course, bombers. High-speed family S. In principle, the same Ju.88А-4, but with different engines and the afterburner system GM-1.


Ju.88S-2 with BMW-801G engines developed at 615 km / h. But the fastest was the scout Ju.88T-3, which at an altitude of 10 000 m gave out 640 km / h.


In general, 88 was a real blitzkrieg tool. Not the "Piece", which was something in the first two years of the war, but Ju.88, which, modernizing, plowed the whole war. And - I must admit - I plowed not so bad.

It is probably a miracle that the Junkers company was able to maintain the aircraft at a very decent level in terms of performance and armament, keeping up with the enemy throughout the war.

And after all, 88 was not easy and desirable prey. Mainly due to its flying qualities. Although, of course, he could have snapped himself.

But the main advantage was still the ability to play any role. Dive bomber, bomber, torpedo bomber, reconnaissance aircraft, attack aircraft, night fighter, heavy day fighter ...


Perhaps Ju.88 can be safely called the most versatile aircraft of World War II. Good solid car with a huge upgrade potential. No wonder the trophy Ju.88 were operated in different countries (including ours) until the middle of the 50's.
Author:
75 comments
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  1. 7,62x54
    7,62x54 19 November 2019 18: 17
    +7
    Thanks, interesting.
    1. NF68
      NF68 20 November 2019 16: 59
      +3
      Quote: 7,62x54
      Thanks, interesting.


      It was interestingly written 20-30 years before Roman. He, as always, copied "creatively" from somewhere, but due to innate modesty he was ashamed to indicate exactly where he copied.
      1. 7,62x54
        7,62x54 20 November 2019 17: 29
        +2
        Road spoon for dinner. Thank you to Roman for this and said. 20 - 30 years ago, aviation did not interest me.
        1. NF68
          NF68 21 November 2019 16: 50
          +1
          Quote: 7,62x54
          Road spoon for dinner. Thank you to Roman for this and said. 20 - 30 years ago, aviation did not interest me.


          For dinner, for that matter, there are a lot of much more interesting spoons than performed by Roman.
          1. 7,62x54
            7,62x54 21 November 2019 17: 35
            0
            Eat, eat, bon appetit.
            1. NF68
              NF68 24 November 2019 16: 41
              0
              Quote: 7,62x54
              Eat, eat, bon appetit.


              If there is anything to sip, it is not from this "miracle" source.
    2. Evil Booth
      Evil Booth 2 January 2020 13: 25
      -1
      am that is, that the post instead of Pe-2 chose the fascist does not bother you. Clearly ... Che fighter in the trenches?
  2. knn54
    knn54 19 November 2019 18: 26
    -10
    Soviet Ar-2s were better. But for unknown reasons, this project was closed, and the Pe-2, which was more complex and less reliable, went into the series.
    1. Borik
      Borik 19 November 2019 19: 46
      +11
      Ar-2 It was, as it were, said now, a deep modernization of the Security Council, and he was not so much superior to his ancestor. But the fact that in 41 stopped production of the Tu-2 was a mistake, even Stalin himself admitted it. So the Tu-2 was no worse than the Yu-88.
      1. knn54
        knn54 19 November 2019 20: 47
        +6
        Boris, the Tu-2 was a "different class" aircraft.
        The Ar-2 had a high strike accuracy. With its smaller size, the Ar-2 could drop twice the combat load in a dive than the Ju.88. The PB-3 bomb rack was unique, which brought bombs out of the bomb bay when diving at the target. The "German" used bombs in a dive only from an external suspension. They simply did not allow the specialists of the Arkhangelsk Design Bureau to further improve the aircraft.
        Regarding TU-2. A unique case - it flew on one engine from Omsk to Moscow. Only an ace could "hold out" Junkers in a similar situation ..
        1. Astra wild
          Astra wild 19 November 2019 21: 19
          +1
          Somewhere on the site I saw about a special attack aircraft Polikarpov. It seems that Roman said that the plane did not have enough engine
          1. fighter angel
            fighter angel 20 November 2019 09: 33
            +1
            Aster
            Yes, he was like that of Polikarpov. More precisely, they were, because not one.
            Family - VIT-1, VIT-2, SPB. "VIT" is an air tank destroyer ", and" SPB "is a high-speed dive bomber.
            1. kimlykvp
              kimlykvp 20 November 2019 12: 31
              +1
              How many test pilots died in these under-planes? Everything was done in a hurry, without deep elaboration. And the planes were so-so, difficult to pilot and operate.
              1. fighter angel
                fighter angel 20 November 2019 12: 48
                0
                Nobody argues here.
              2. simara
                simara 23 December 2019 05: 59
                0
                Everywhere, test pilots died in the USSR and in Germany, in the USA and Europe. There was such a time, and now they are dying. This work.
        2. Saxahorse
          Saxahorse 19 November 2019 23: 41
          +7
          Quote: knn54
          The Ar-2 had a high accuracy in striking. With a smaller size, the Ar-2 could drop in dive twice the combat load than Ju.88.

          The Ar-2 did not have any particular accuracy. And he could bomb with a dive with great difficulty, due to lack of strength. In fact, and did not bomb ..

          Continue the release of the Ar-2 further, and it befell the fate of the SB and TB-3. He could not do anything under the rule of the enemy in the air. Pe-2 at least had a chance.
          1. ma-monthly
            ma-monthly 10 January 2020 23: 47
            0
            Yes, what more "domination of the enemy in the air", fear God.
            Each particular moment of the war, the Luftwaffe had fewer planes (fighters) than the Red Army. By 1943, 400 pieces on the entire front from sea to sea! Yes, we have one strike army, sometimes with such a quantity in the attached IAPs.
        3. Pavel57
          Pavel57 21 November 2019 09: 09
          0
          Ar-2 was better than Pe-2 in terms of aggregate characteristics, but most likely it was also inferior to Yu-88 in aggregate.
      2. Alf
        Alf 19 November 2019 21: 27
        +5
        Quote: Borik
        But the fact that in 41 stopped the production of Tu-2

        Not in the 41st, but at the end of the 42nd.
        Unexpectedly, at the beginning of the fourth quarter of 1942, when the plant reached a steady rhythm of Tu-2 production, the order of the NKAP No.763 of October 10, 1942 came:

        "In pursuance of the GKO decree in order to increase the production of fighter aircraft, I ORDER:

        1. Director / Factory No.166 Comrade Sokolov: a) stop production of Tu-166 aircraft at plant No.2. The equipment, fixtures and technical documentation for the Tu-2 aircraft available at the plant should be retained in full; b) to supply the production of Yak-166 aircraft at plant No.9 ... 6. To the director of plant No.381 t. Zhuravlev: a) to stop production of Il-381 aircraft at plant No.2, b) to supply production of La-381 aircraft at plant No.5 ... / Shakhurin / "

        And the M-82 engines then worked unreliably.
      3. svp67
        svp67 20 November 2019 05: 54
        +5
        Quote: Borik
        Ar-2 It was as if they had said it now, a profound modernization of the Security Council, and he was not so much superior to his ancestor.

        Well, yes, yes ... but that didn’t include the ability to dive a lot. And this is not enough.
        Quote: Borik
        But the fact that the 41 stopped production of the Tu-2 was a mistake, even Stalin himself acknowledged it.

        In 41 th ??????? And what was this Tu-2? First version? With AM-37 water-cooled engines, separate crew placement and a very low-tech glider?
  3. Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 19 November 2019 18: 40
    +4
    In my opinion, the author obtained, in general, a good review.

    But Ernst Udet, the chief of the planes, insisted, and in the Junkers they sat down for alterations. It is clear that the matter turned out to be complicated, since it is not so simple to teach to dive an airplane, which was not originally intended for this.
    Not quite so - Udet simply added a dive requirement to the planned TZ, so the Ju-88 was originally created as a bomber with dive functions (albeit not with extreme angles like "Stuka").

    Ju.88A-13. The aircraft was additionally booked from frontal fire and placed in a container integrated into the first 16 bomb bay (sixteen!) 7,92-mm machine guns firing forward and down.
    If this information is correct, then it is clear where the Soviet designers took the concept of "Stalin's fiery hedgehog" from dozens of PPShs (which they tried to install on Pe-2 and Tu-2).

    There were, of course, bombers. Speed ​​Family S.
    It was generally a separate class of cars and not at all modest, but a record!

    And so, to characterize this aircraft - a simple fact - without bombing, the Ju-88 BOMBERS left the afterburner from most Soviet KILLERS, right up to the 1943 of the year.
    1. Astra wild
      Astra wild 20 November 2019 08: 37
      0
      I am certainly not a specialist in small arms, but why did they try to make a "fiery hedgehog" out of PPSh. I heard a lot of positive reviews about the Degtyarev machine gun, there was even an aviation version of this machine gun. True, I have not seen his image anywhere and what is its difference from the infantry, I do not know
    2. fighter angel
      fighter angel 29 November 2019 14: 44
      -1
      Warrior 2015

      "... And so, to characterize this aircraft - a simple fact - without a bomb load, the Ju-88 BOMBER went on afterburner from the majority of Soviet FIGHTERS until 1943 ..."

      Well, what can I say?
      This alleged fact, cited by you, characterizes you as a very big "aviation specialist"!
      And in order to characterize you as an aviation specialist, I will give you real facts taken from the site "corner of heaven".
      So, Yu-88A-2, Vmax.u land - 363 km / h, Vmax.height - 450 km / h.
      Yu-88D-1, Vmax.-altitude - 475 km / h.
      to hell with him, take even a fighter version, in any way more high-speed than a pure "bomber" - the Ju-88S-6 - a night, heavy fighter - Vmax. altitude - 490 km / h.
      And now, consider our fighters.
      More precisely, their speed characteristics.
      Yak-1, Vmax.land - 472 km / h., Vmax.height - 560 km / h.
      Yak-1B, Vmax.land - 531 km / h., Vmax.height - 592 km / h.
      MiG-3, Vmax.Earth - 505 km / h., Vmax.height-640 km / h.
      LaGG-3, Vmax.land - 499 km / h., V max.s altitude - 560 km / h.
      Even if you drop 5-10-15% of the speed, it was still not the "standards" that fought, and it still turns out that the Ju-88 did not leave the NEW SOVIET FIGHTERS !!!
      AND Couldn’t leave !!!
      Why are you writing lies?
      Even "Ishachok", I-16, very average in terms of flight characteristics, say, type 18 - had Vmax. Ground - 412 km / h, and Vmax. Height - 460 km / h. caught up with the Ju-88, the first modifications.
      So, to hell with two, Yu-88 left the Soviet fighters.
      Are you again trying to humiliate Soviet equipment here, passing off wishful thinking?
      Tell me, is this your life principle? In October, you tried to assert that the IL-2 was ineffective, allegedly! moreover, compared to the Ju-87, now our fighters do not "catch up". And no facts, no references to sources! Just unfounded farting
      into the pond, on your part, and nothing more!
      There I "treated" you, but apparently it did not suit you for the future, so now we will "be treated" here!
      Where do you fucking come from, "warriors"?
      Don't feed you honey, just let me eat everything Soviet. And, okay, if the high would be fair! But no. You yourself suck out of what incomprehensible finger, it is not clear what, and present it as a "fact".
      1. simara
        simara 23 December 2019 06: 03
        -1
        Ok, take a fighter and a bomber at 500 km per hour, with a distance of 470 km per hour, say 20 km, radio guidance from the ground, calculate if there is enough fuel for the fighter to catch the bombed and returning junkers. How long will it take to catch, fight and return, if he survives. We also recall TB3 with its 150km cruising and compare it with the B series messenger and do a similar calculation)
        1. fighter angel
          fighter angel 23 December 2019 10: 03
          0
          simara
          Well, firstly, why is it you, taking the maximum speed of the Yu-88, at the same time consider the speed of the fighter below cruising? Take then the maximum speed for the fighter - not 500 km / h, but 570-580 km / h, in the case of the MiG-3 there will generally be 620-640 km / h.
          Second: what you listed is all particular, and far-fetched.
          You are trying to "transfer" to the VNOS service, communications, notification, and headquarters.
          If we are to take by and large, the most important objects were guarded by our fighters from the position of watch in the air. That is, they didn't have to, as you write: "take off, climb, catch up, etc." You just had to find the enemy and attack him.
          Here we are talking about LTH. And according to the data, Yu-88 could not get away from the new Soviet fighters.
          What are you pulling here TB-3, it is absolutely not clear ...
  4. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 19 November 2019 19: 05
    +4
    A good, detailed article, devoid of excessive emotionality inherent in the author. It was nice to read.
  5. Evil echo
    Evil echo 19 November 2019 19: 06
    +1
    The novel does not cease to amaze, thanks, great!
  6. igordok
    igordok 19 November 2019 19: 13
    +4
    I suppose that sheer dive, as in Yu-87, is contraindicated for him. But the gently sloping like Pe-2 increased accuracy compared to horizontal bombing.
    1. Dooplet11
      Dooplet11 20 November 2019 06: 03
      +1
      Pe -2 could not dive "not gently"? Interestingly, where for you ends "hollow" and begins "cool"?
    2. Dooplet11
      Dooplet11 20 November 2019 06: 21
      +1
      70 degrees, is a shallow dive ?:
      https://topwar.ru/160894-o-vodoizmeschenii-istrebitelja-me-262.html#
  7. Nycomed
    Nycomed 19 November 2019 19: 16
    +3
    Thanks for the article, really interesting. Well, what is there to argue ... Ju-88 was, perhaps, one of the first (if not the first) multipurpose aircraft, only Mosquito could compete for these "laurels", but as a dive bomber, for sure - NO. A very good and necessary plane.
  8. Doctor
    Doctor 19 November 2019 19: 35
    0
    Buzzing.
    Who knows will understand.
    1. Igoresha
      Igoresha 20 November 2019 00: 07
      0
      Buzzing.
      still, so many hours have flown on the "Front Sky"
      1. fighter angel
        fighter angel 20 November 2019 09: 43
        +4
        So the virpils pulled themselves up ...
        "Nagibators" everyone and everything!
        Well, at least so far without "authoritative statements", based on thousands of hours of computer time.
  9. Undecim
    Undecim 19 November 2019 20: 51
    +8
    What can be said about the brainchild of "Junkers", more precisely, Heinrich Evers and Alfred Gassner?
    First of all, this is the brainchild of the chief designer - Ernst Zindel.
    Well, the tests began. In tests, it was finally dispersed right up to 520 km / h. Armament, however, was more than modest. One defensive machine gun and 8 bombs weighing 50 kg.
    The first prototype, Ju 88 V1, the tests of which began in December 1936, in full accordance with the instructions of the Ministry of Aviation, had no weapons and in its first flight, piloted by Goering personally, reached a speed of 580 km / h.
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 19 November 2019 21: 08
      +6

      Ju 88 V3, V4 and V5 already had three defensive points and could carry 2000 kg of bombs. Ju 88 V5 in March 1939 with this load set a speed record for a closed route of 1000 km - 517 km / h.
      Well, then the leaders of the Luftwaffe arrived with a variety of Wishlist.
    2. Astra wild
      Astra wild 19 November 2019 21: 28
      +1
      It's news to me that Goering was testing the plane. I used to imagine Goering as your slow-moving one, as in the movie "Seventeen Moments of Spring", but he turns out to be and was also testing the plane.
      Actually, I don't know much about Reich dogs.
      1. Astra wild
        Astra wild 19 November 2019 21: 50
        +2
        Admins, what have I done wrong that you are forbidden to leave comments for no reason? Probably electronics is self-willed. Please correct it, otherwise it’s not beautiful
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 19 November 2019 22: 18
          +4
          Beautiful Stranger, you haven’t done anything, you can simply edit your own comment within 5 minutes after publication.
      2. Amurets
        Amurets 20 November 2019 01: 31
        +8
        Quote: Astra wild
        For me, the news is that Goering was testing the plane.

        Goering was a famous WWII ace and a decent pilot. “Demobilized at the end of 1918 with the rank of captain, Heinrich Goering was forced to look for a job. army, but Goering ended up serving in the raiser because of hatred of the republican regime, which, in his opinion, had betrayed the national interests of the country.Since the allies insisted on his extradition as a war criminal, he left Germany and began to take part in demonstration flights in Denmark and Sweden. Using his fame as commander of the Richthofen regiment, he made good money performing aerobatics in front of an astonished audience. " https://pulman.livejournal.com/1919.html
    3. Astra wild
      Astra wild 19 November 2019 21: 57
      +1
      V.N., I am news to me that Goering was testing an aircraft. I represent him based on Lioznova's film "Seventeen Moments of Spring", and there he is shown to be slow. Actually, I know little about the bosses of the Reich. Mostly based on films
      1. Mordvin 3
        Mordvin 3 19 November 2019 22: 48
        +3
        Quote: Astra wild
        I represent him based on Lioznova's film "Seventeen Moments of Spring", and there he is shown to be slow.

        Fatty forester was an ace in World War I.
      2. Undecim
        Undecim 19 November 2019 23: 40
        +6

        In 1936, Goering could still sit at the helm.
        1. fighter angel
          fighter angel 20 November 2019 12: 52
          +1
          What are you saying?
          And the picture does not show that the fat man, to put it mildly, is good "under the substance" ???
          That's just the helm right now it is not enough ...
      3. fighter angel
        fighter angel 20 November 2019 09: 48
        0
        Well, I don’t know which of Goering is a test person, if at that time he had already started "addicted" to cocaine ...
        So for "PR" once flew and that's it.
        Found, damn it, "tester" !!!
      4. Ural-4320
        Ural-4320 20 November 2019 13: 13
        +3
        I read somewhere that Goering was injured in a battle in the groin area, so he was blown to such a size.
        In old PMV photos, he is quite normal in build.
        1. Narak-zempo
          Narak-zempo 20 November 2019 15: 14
          +3
          Not in battle, but during the Beer Putsch. Due to a wound complicated by an infection, he became addicted to morphine. Then he tied it up and got hooked on substances again during the war. The second time I had to tie it up already in prison in Nuremberg laughing
          1. Ural-4320
            Ural-4320 20 November 2019 15: 36
            +1
            So I misunderstood. I thought that testicles hurt him, and without them, a man falls overweight.
            1. Narak-zempo
              Narak-zempo 20 November 2019 16: 44
              +2
              Quote: Ural-4320
              I thought that testicles hurt him, and without them, a man falls overweight

              No. A wound to the hip. And excess weight on the basis of drug addiction and immoderate lifestyle.
              1. Ural-4320
                Ural-4320 20 November 2019 17: 13
                0
                Tin, so eat yourself. belay
                1. Pavel57
                  Pavel57 21 November 2019 09: 13
                  0
                  Hormonal shift. Goering was the idol of the Swedes, became the prototype of Carlson.
                  1. Ural-4320
                    Ural-4320 21 November 2019 10: 53
                    0
                    I only heard about the acquaintance of Astrid Lindgren with Goering, but that he was the idol of the Swedes.
                    1. Pavel57
                      Pavel57 21 November 2019 11: 38
                      0
                      Probably not all, but that party where they intersected with Lindgren.
                      1. Ural-4320
                        Ural-4320 21 November 2019 11: 39
                        0
                        Logically, I agree.
                      2. Pavel57
                        Pavel57 21 November 2019 11: 44
                        0
                        It seems that Carlson’s phrases are written off from Goering.
                      3. Ural-4320
                        Ural-4320 21 November 2019 11: 46
                        +1
                        Astrid herself spoke about this. In general, those who knew Goering called him "darling." Charming, cheerful person.
  10. Astra wild
    Astra wild 19 November 2019 21: 42
    +1
    Even I was curious. Frankly, I do not have enough vivid photos of the author from the museum in Verkhnyaya Pyshma.
    Colleagues, who knows what this photo is, where the crew is holding a poster with the number 300? I am not very interested in memoirs and literature. This is not my "profile". The site recalled some kind of "Pilot" thing - his crew?
    1. Elturisto
      Elturisto 19 November 2019 22: 23
      +4
      300 sorties. Short pilots.
    2. Undecim
      Undecim 19 November 2019 23: 33
      +12
      This is the crew of Kampfgeschwader 51 (squadron 51) "Edelweiss". The emblem is an edelweiss flower, clearly visible in the photo.
      Judging by the fact that in the background is the Ju-88A-14, which has a 20 mm MG FF gun instead of a machine gun at the front firing point, this is the second group of the squadron deployed to the Eastern Mediterranean in September 1943 to combat Allied shipping. Just for this purpose the modification Ju-88A-14 was created.
      If you look at the German forums, you may be able to find personally pilots in the photo. Plaque "300" - obviously the number of sorties.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 20 November 2019 00: 26
        +10
        Again, some kind of organism is minus, while only narrow-profile specialists can understand the logic of this "field marshal-minus".
        1. Amurets
          Amurets 20 November 2019 01: 39
          +7
          Quote: Undecim
          Again, some kind of organism is minus, while only narrow-profile specialists can understand the logic of this "field marshal-minus".

          Useless! There is no logic, stamps minus everyone in a row, as if a robot.
          1. Astra wild
            Astra wild 20 November 2019 13: 05
            0
            Who knows, maybe some kind of biorobot
            1. Undecim
              Undecim 20 November 2019 14: 03
              0
              Exactly, a biorobot. The body is human, but these body control functions are carried out from the side.
              1. Narak-zempo
                Narak-zempo 20 November 2019 15: 15
                0
                Quote: Undecim
                management functions of these bodies are carried out by

                Reptiloid
  11. A_2010
    A_2010 19 November 2019 22: 54
    -1
    The article is interesting! Thank!
    Explain, please, how do balloons protect an object from bombing? from above the bomb will sew it without any problems, get tangled in the cable? Well, you have to be "lucky", or some other way?
    Thank you!
    1. Saxahorse
      Saxahorse 19 November 2019 23: 49
      +6
      Quote: A_2010
      Explain, please, how do balloons protect an object from bombing? from above the bomb will sew it without any problems, get tangled in the cable? well, you have to be "lucky"

      There is more than one aerostat, about a hundred are raised, and by 3-4 km. And each has a cable, and more than one. In such a forest, and even in the dark, it is not difficult to become "lucky." :)
    2. Amurets
      Amurets 20 November 2019 01: 48
      +5
      Quote: A_2010
      please explain how balloons protect an object from bombardment?

      The best and most accessible explanation here is this article: "Air obstacle." https://scharapow-w.livejournal.com/30648.html
  12. verp19
    verp19 20 November 2019 10: 08
    -3
    But the main advantage was still the ability to play any role. Dive bomber, bomber, torpedo bomber, reconnaissance aircraft, attack aircraft, night fighter, heavy day fighter ...


    The main advantage ...
    Could Ju.88 A-4 fulfill any role? The author represents the wishful thinking. The fact that the basic machine through rework, the factory basically turned into
    bomber, torpedo bomber, reconnaissance aircraft, attack aircraft, night fighter, heavy day fighter ...
    not to mean that the Ju.88 is a versatile aircraft. Each transformation cost a design resource, time, costs, changes in the technological process, etc. Of course, the design allowed this, but it is more fair to say that the aircraft was the basis for the development of machines that were different in their combat use, and not a station wagon. FW-190 there is real versatility.
  13. iouris
    iouris 20 November 2019 12: 43
    -5
    Here are just two examples:
    1) "It is clear that the successes of the Ju-87 in Spain are not weak so pushed to that."
    2) "... and Ju.88, which, being modernized, plowed the whole war. And - it is worth admitting - plowed well this way."
    I, of course, am not a philologist, but I have great suspicions that spelling and stylistically it is "fenya". To publish, created on the "hair dryer", texts devoted to the history of the Second World War, on the eve of the 70th anniversary of the Victory of the Soviet people in the Great Patriotic War against Nazi Germany, is at least unprincipled, and, at most, ideological sabotage. Otherwise, it is difficult to understand why the author is making heroes of the enemy's combat vehicle, created for aggressive conquest goals, i.e. again actively presses on the topic of the technological superiority of the defeated enemy over the winner, thereby the editorial board is spreading the idea of ​​the "superiority of the German race" to the masses. And what does this give us?
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 20 November 2019 13: 41
      +3
      Quote: iouris
      Otherwise, it is difficult to understand why the author is making heroes of the enemy's combat vehicle, created for aggressive conquest goals, i.e. again actively presses on the topic of the technological superiority of the defeated enemy over the winner, thereby the editorial board is spreading the idea of ​​the "superiority of the German race" to the masses. And what does this give us?
      And from this position have you tried to take a look?
      “The harder the battle, the sweeter the victory”
      1. iouris
        iouris 20 November 2019 16: 21
        0
        No (read the headline). The publication under discussion does not say this.
    2. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 20 November 2019 18: 54
      +1
      Quote: iouris
      Otherwise, it is difficult to understand why the author is making heroes of the enemy's combat vehicle, created for aggressive conquest goals, i.e. again actively presses on the topic of the technological superiority of the defeated enemy over the winner, thereby the editorial board is spreading the idea of ​​the "superiority of the German race" to the masses.

      And so that individual comrades did not ask questions - how did it happen that the glorious sons of the Soviet Union, armed with the best Soviet weapons, undoubtedly superior to their foreign counterparts due to the undeniable superiority of communist ideology, managed to lose to the Nazis in 1941 and 1942, yes and in 1943 too.
  14. BAI
    BAI 20 November 2019 13: 31
    +2
    Overall, 88th was a real blitzkrieg tool. Not the "Stuck", which was something in the first two years of the war, but Ju.88, which, modernizing, plowed the whole war.

    Nevertheless, the blitzkrieg symbol is Yu-87.
  15. Castro Ruiz
    Castro Ruiz 21 November 2019 15: 14
    0
    Sistema forsazha GM-1 eto Goering Mischung v chest letayushchego borova. :)
  16. Gregory Charnota
    Gregory Charnota 26 June 2021 05: 21
    0
    it was with such an aircraft that Armenia was sunk in November 1941