Military Review

How General Ermolov created the Georgian press

How General Ermolov created the Georgian press

Alexey Petrovich Ermolov

Russophobic actions continue in Georgia. Given the significant losses from the outflow of Russian tourists, this is reminiscent of rake jumps that can stop only with the breakage of the handle, although these comrades are such inventors ... The Russian-Georgian “elite”, which prefers to admire Georgia from afar, often from Moscow, does not lag behind. So, in an interview, young lady Tina Kandelaki said: “Georgians have always been a very enlightened nation. We watched MTV in the beginning of the 90's - years before Vasily Strelnikov began to introduce Russians to American culture. ”

I don’t know what relation MTV commercial entertainment channel has to culture and education, all the more I don’t have a clue why you need to introduce someone to such a “culture”, but with historical Tina Givievna did not get to know the aspect of this question, apparently for ideological reasons. Otherwise, she would have known that the education of the Georgians was not related to MTV, which, personally, I would have considered the Georgians to be an insult. In part, this enlightenment was associated with someone who is now considered almost a punisher of the Caucasus. Namely, with General Ermolov.

Ermolov is not just a general

The famous Griboedov, who served under him as adjutant of Aleksei Ermolov, called him “the sphinx of modern times”, emphasizing the mystery, incomprehensibility and scale of this person, as if the general was looking into eternity. All those around, regardless of their own personal feelings for the person of Ermolov, emphasized his independence, ardent patriotism and undoubted talent. In addition, the famous general, as they say, was foremost for his time.

In 1816, the legendary hero of World War II 1812 of the year again amazed everyone with a request to appoint him to the Caucasus. The imperial court of that time examined the Caucasus, so to speak, on a residual principle. The Caucasus was reserved for seekers of glory, freethinkers, guilty ardent officers, Cossacks, and so on. An outstanding general with more than ten orders, not counting foreign ones, and the Golden Sword "For Courage" could not get to the Caucasus. Later this decision of Ermolov will be explained by a number of reasons - from contempt for palace intrigues to the foresight of an experienced statesman who understands the prospects and importance of the region.

One way or another, but only in the first few years it became a thunderstorm for hostile mountaineers and a benefactor both for ordinary soldiers and for the local civilian population. Skillfully alternating diplomacy with harsh military methods, he established Russia in the Caucasus stronger than before. A series of reforms (from permission to wear hats instead of shakos to tax benefits for the relocated estate) and the construction of fortified cities (Groznaya, Nalchik, etc.) by Alexei Petrovich became the first strokes of the picture of the future. But much of this is now forgotten.

Forgotten “small” big deeds

The personality of Ermolov goes far beyond the boundaries of the great military leader. Ermolov for the Caucasus was one of the prominent builders. It was he who was the first to equip the now famous mineral springs; he is the one who owns the initiative to promote viticulture in the Caucasus. The general was the first to begin construction of factories in Georgia (copper foundry and powder). Alexei Petrovich tried to protect the roads from local gangs of abreks not for the sake of himself, but in encouraging trade in the region.

Ermolov opened an officer club in Tiflis with a huge library, at that time, and also built a hospital for military personnel. It was he who initiated the opening of a network of Georgian schools. Moreover, in 1824, he was the author of a decree signed by the emperor on the right to redeem Georgian serfs at will during the sale of them from public auction with the help of subsidies for these same peasants from the state treasury! At the same time, together with the peasant, all his property was set free ...

However, Ermolov did not forget about the intellectual life of the Georgian population. He established the first newspaper in Georgia under the Separate Caucasus Corps, that is, he became the founder of the Georgian media, which are now pouring mud on Russia. The first issue of “Georgian Newspaper” refers to March of the 1819 year.

The origins of the Georgian press

The newspaper was published at the headquarters of the corps. A subscription could be issued either directly at the headquarters or by contacting the local district chief, who, in turn, was obliged to transfer the corresponding request to Tiflis. The subscription price was significant at that time - 3 ruble silver per year. But the whole amount hardly compensated for the costs of paper, the publication itself, postage and translation into Georgian ... Yes, the newspaper was in Georgian.

Considering all the factors, the headquarters of the Caucasian Corps, in fact, the editors, immediately warned subscribers that if there are less than 500, then the newspaper will not be released, because the amount of their payments will not cover the costs. Fortunately, the subscribers were decent. The newspaper was published both in 1820 and in 1821 ...

The newspaper itself was quite presentable for its time. Four pages of a small format with a vignette with the image of St. George the Victorious. The content of the newspaper was personally supervised by Yermolov. The general considered it necessary not only to inform Georgian readers about the views of the Russian Empire, but also about foreign political trends. Alexey Petrovich expanded the worldview of Georgia, developing awareness of his place in the world and in world politics. During the subscription to the Georgian newspaper for the 1820 year, the editorial announcement did not conceal this vision of the general of the goals of the first press:
“The publishers of this caress themselves with the hope that they will not meet a shortage of those who want to get this edition, which serves to the pleasure of the inhabitants of the local land, and, moreover, that it is necessary for their civil affairs.”

The content itself consisted of metropolitan Newsborrowed from St. Petersburg newspapers, orders, appointments and awards for the Caucasus Corps and the entire Caucasus, as well as from the most important government orders concerning Georgia. Foreign news was borrowed directly from the foreign press. So, for example, Georgians learned about the unusually stormy for their time scandal between the royal spouses - the British king George IV and his queen Carolina of Braunschweig. Travel reports on China, America, and Japan were also regularly published.

Tiflis in the 19 century

Of course, entertaining news and even jokes were also printed. Now one of the, so to speak, home-made Caucasian jokes published by the Georgian newspaper is known:
“A certain commission agent, procuring provisions in Imereti, bought bread from one peasant and, not having time to return the sacks, number ten, died. The Provincial Commission sent its officials there to describe, as usual, the estate left after it. The peasant, having learned about this, appeared to the mentioned officials with a request to return his bags to him; but having received a report that, as a commission agent, to whom they had been given the bags, he died, he can now ask them from God, returned home and, a few days later, appeared again and announced that he, according to the received order, asked God, but God He showed him the commission, so as to get bags from her, if they didn’t believe him, then they would ask God. The officials, convinced by such a witty man’s response, returned the requested bags to him. ”

In addition, it is worth noting that the press has become one of the tools for linking Georgian lands together. In fact, the extremely fragmented Georgian principalities, until the Yermolov newspaper, often had no idea for months what was happening in other cities and villages. Residents of a village in Svaneti were rather indifferent, for example, to the fate of Kartli, which was cemented by the lack of the very possibility of learning about the life of neighbors. To link together, statistical information was published throughout Georgia - the number of centenarians, population decline and growth, etc.

Alas, by the beginning of the 20 century, there were practically no original samples of the Georgian Newspaper. Already a lot of historical whirlwinds swept over the Caucasus. According to some reports, one of the sheets from the 25 of August of the 1819 of the year was stored in the church museum at the Zion Cathedral in Tiflis. Another copy was in a private collection, and in the archive of the headquarters of the Caucasian military district there was a special case called “Journal of incoming Georgian newspapers published in 1820,” which contained a handwritten version of the Yermolov newspaper, but in Russian.
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  1. Rostislav
    Rostislav 21 November 2019 05: 48 New
    Thank you for the article that helps to get to know your great ancestors. Personality. Such an assessment from Griboedov says a lot.
  2. Same lech
    Same lech 21 November 2019 05: 54 New
    Ungrateful Georgia now completely forgot what Russia has done for it for many centuries ... if there had been no protection from Russia, Georgia would never have existed now.
    1. Basil50
      Basil50 21 November 2019 06: 59 New
      Georgia is just a RUSSIAN name for that territory.
      You just need to remember that there are peoples who do not remember the good and why they are sure of the right to betray, and then they also credit this very betrayal. They are so educated since childhood. It’s normal for them.
      Moreover, the sins of betrayal * to Georgians * were officially officially dismissed by theirSHI supreme in communion with Christ. And a moleben arranged by vocation of all kinds of cars on the heads of RUSSIAN people.
  3. Phil77
    Phil77 21 November 2019 06: 43 New
    Thank you to the author! Tina Kondelaki? But was it worth mentioning at all who she was and what she can see by turning on * Match TV *. Everything that was created before her was safely destroyed by this * mouthpiece of the Georgian intelligentsia *. Nevertheless, she’s on Sorry, I got carried away. And on the topic: General Ermolov was able not only to fight successfully, but the creator was not one of the last.
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 21 November 2019 17: 57 New
      Sergey, hello. hi
      General Ermolov not only knew how to successfully fight, but also had a great sense of humor. I don’t remember who I read about one funny story: after the liberation of Erivani and Ihdir by our troops, the local nobility arranged a banquet in honor of the Russian soldiers-liberators. When it was Yermolov’s turn to say a toast, he uttered a very ambiguous toast "" For the health of beautiful Erivanians and their holes. "Here's a story. smile
      1. Phil77
        Phil77 21 November 2019 18: 39 New
        Greetings Konstantin! First of all: Ha! Ha! Ha! laughingThe toast can be ambiguous, though? Although? But it sounds !!!
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 21 November 2019 18: 41 New
          Yes there was such a city of Ihdir, but as of now, I do not know. yes request
          1. Phil77
            Phil77 21 November 2019 18: 43 New
            A native, respectively, and their idyll? Now this is really somehow somehow wrong! stop
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 21 November 2019 19: 06 New
              And the native, respectively, is

              Idyrchik, Ihdyrnik, Ihdyrych, IhdyrkOvets - there is enough space for imagination! laughing
              1. Phil77
                Phil77 21 November 2019 19: 10 New
                Oh, yes !!! Now we are going to fantasize, and then, a little later, a tank will appear from around the corner. bully Somewhere already nearby, I hear, I hear the clang of caterpillars.
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 21 November 2019 19: 31 New
                  We have nowhere without tanks, especially since the one you are hinting at will go through any defense like a knife through oil. Here he has already passed ...

                  1. Phil77
                    Phil77 21 November 2019 19: 34 New
                    In a word, we are waiting, we are waiting and trembling.
      2. Karen
        Karen 21 November 2019 18: 45 New
        Quote: Sea Cat
        I don’t remember who I read about one funny story

        Pushkin’s jokes ...
        He had a lot of obscenities in his works ... Shadow of Barkov ...
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 21 November 2019 19: 09 New
          Karen, you still sometimes think that you write. I don’t even want to comment. negative
          And I’ll ask you not to come to me with your answers anymore.
          1. Karen
            Karen 21 November 2019 19: 13 New
            I thought, and I’m answering ... In the Soviet Union, a limited edition book was published titled "Shadow of Barkov", which shows the Pushkin counterparts ...
        2. Phil77
          Phil77 21 November 2019 19: 19 New
          Well, after all, people too! Why not play pranks on words? But notice how talented they were! fellow
  4. Olgovich
    Olgovich 21 November 2019 07: 42 New
    In addition, it is worth noting that the press has become one of the tools for linking Georgian lands together.

    But did Russia need this? no

    The author can find interesting, little-known topics and facts.

    Thanks to him, I always read his articles with satisfaction! yes
    1. rich
      rich 21 November 2019 23: 47 New
      It was he who first equipped the now famous mineral springs,

      It is not true
      As far back as 1793, the Russian Academy of Sciences sent to the Caucasus P. S. Pallas, who described in detail the sources and made the first qualitative chemical analysis of mineral waters .. Pallas's report at the Academy of Sciences made a great impression, After visiting and studying hot water \ about healing waters spreading wider, attracting patients from the most remote cities of the Russian Empire to the hot sulfuric waters.
      On April 24, 1803, the famous Rescript of Alexander I “On Recognizing the State Importance of the Caucasian Mineral Waters and the Need for Their Organization” was signed.
      During this period (1800-1810), the first West European colonists settled in the vicinity of the resorts. The purpose of their invitation was the best beautification and food provision of new Russian health resorts.
      And the first to begin the construction and improvement of the now famous mineral springs was none other than the governor of the Caucasus, Prince M. S. Vorontsov, who performed the imperial rescript
  5. Albatroz
    Albatroz 21 November 2019 08: 13 New
    Father native Ermolov.
    And for the Caucasus, and for the Caucasian army.
  6. Undecim
    Undecim 21 November 2019 10: 19 New
    Alas, by the beginning of the 20th century, there were practically no original samples of the “Georgian Newspaper”

    A copy from the National Library of Georgia.
    The first copy was printed on March 21, 1819. In today's Georgia it is celebrated as the day of Georgian journalism.
    The newspaper closed in 1821 due to the lack of subscribers.
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 21 November 2019 18: 00 New
      Vic Nikolayevich, the last line in your post completely kills all the efforts of the genealogy to “historical” intelligence. request
      1. Karen
        Karen 21 November 2019 18: 08 New
        Yes no ... As we were told
        while visiting the complex in Gelati, two out of five academies a thousand years ago were in Georgia ...
        It’s just that in Tiflis of Ermolov’s times the urban population was mostly Armenian, I think that’s why the newspaper didn’t go in Georgian ...
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 21 November 2019 18: 24 New
          Well ... I don’t know, you can say anything. I just remember the joke about how Misrop created the Georgians writing: "Write A, write Be ..." smile
          1. Karen
            Karen 21 November 2019 18: 37 New
            Mesrop, Mashtots .. He created an alphabet for Caucasian Albanians ...
            But he didn’t create the Armenian ... It was before him ... When they introduced Christianity, these monsters destroyed all the books ... So the priests came to their senses a century later, that the alphabet should be returned ... They sent him to Edessa, where it is rumored the book alone was preserved ... Mesrop worked there, returned and announced that he had a vision: he saw the alphabet (he will not be indignant that the clergy burned all the books) ... In general, they formalized this case in order, which made Mesrop , and they never said who created in reality ... And there are nuances: the order in our alphabet indicates Mendeleev’s table ... atomic numbers of seven metals are given ... As Academician Geruni later taught us, the Armenian alphabet was transferred from Sirius :)
      2. Undecim
        Undecim 21 November 2019 18: 48 New
        The situation was such that at that time in Georgia it was tense with printing houses. This was the only one in all of Georgia - at the headquarters of the Separate Georgian Corps. It was a newspaper and printed.
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 21 November 2019 19: 03 New
          In the USSR, there was also tension with printing some of the authors in the printing house, however, whoever wanted to, he always found what he was looking for. smile
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 21 November 2019 20: 09 New
            In the USSR, there was also tension with printing in a printing house
            But in the USSR there were no problems with the availability of printing houses.
  7. Karen
    Karen 21 November 2019 15: 15 New
    To the author - as always - Thank you very much!
    Well, on the subject of newspaper people in Tiflis, I’ll add one small story ... He served in Tiflis 19th century. in RIA as a general, one Armenian ... Raised his son in the traditions of the Russian army, so earnestly that his son did not even know his native language by the age of 15 ... Sent, therefore, this general of his son to live in Moscow, communicate with smart people of the capital ... My son was very lucky: Nalbandyan acted as a mentor for him, who immediately instructed not to contact the "revolutionary elite" - since it was just scum ... Communication with Nalbandyan helped the guy so much that he was filled with true love for to his Armenian root ... Returning to Tiflis, he began to produce newspaper in Armenian "Megu" (bee) ...