Military Review

A real combat bus. BTR-152

69

"Combat buses." Armored personnel carriers are rightly called "combat buses." But most of all, this definition fits one of the first Soviet production cars of this class. We are talking about a heavy armored personnel carrier BTR-152, which was able to start mass production in 1950 with the armored personnel carrier BTR-40. The BTR-152, created using elements of the chassis of the ZIS-151 truck, could transport 17 infantry with relative convenience and comfort, and 19 people were transported along with the BTR crew.


BTR-152. From idea to implementation


Until the end of World War II, the Red Army did not have its own armored personnel carrier, and attempts to create it were not given due attention. The focus was on production tanks and self-propelled artillery mounts, which the front also needed. Despite this, the Soviet commanders perfectly understood the capabilities of the armored personnel carriers. The only mass vehicle that was used in the Red Army during the war was the light wheeled American armored personnel carrier M3A1 Scout Car, this armored personnel carrier was also used as a light reconnaissance armored car.

The USSR made its first armored personnel carriers with an eye on competitors ’vehicles, so the BTR-40 was created as the domestic analogue of the Scout, and the heavy BTR-152 armored personnel carrier was created taking into account the experience of using and combat use of two half-tracked armored personnel carriers: the American M3 and German Sd Kfz 251. True, the Soviet designers even then abandoned the concept of a half-tracked or fully tracked armored personnel carrier, preferring wheeled combat equipment. Such a choice was rational. Wheeled armored personnel carriers were cheaper and easier to manufacture and operate, and their mass production could be deployed at the facilities of existing automobile enterprises. In addition, it was easier to train drivers of wheeled vehicles, yesterday’s driver could always be seated behind their wheels, and wheeled armored personnel carriers were characterized by a higher speed and longer resource.

A real combat bus. BTR-152

For the assembly of the BTR-152 in the Soviet Union, the Stalin Plant (ZIS) in Moscow was responsible (after the debunking of the personality cult, it was renamed ZIL). But new armored personnel carriers were assembled not only in the capital, the Bryansk Automobile Plant also participated in the production. In total, two companies collected a total of 12 421 armored personnel carriers. Serial production of the BTR-152 continued from 1950 to 1955, and other modifications of military vehicles on the same chassis until 1962.

The fate of the BTR-152 armored personnel carrier is inextricably linked with the fate of the ZIS-151 five-ton cross-country truck with the 6x6 wheel formula. Designers of the ZIS plant began testing this machine back in May 1946. It was on the basis of the components and assemblies of this chassis that it was decided to build the first Soviet heavy armored personnel carrier. By November 1946, a group of designers led by B. M. Fitterman had begun developing a new combat vehicle that received the “Object 140” index. According to the terms of reference, the designers had to create an armored personnel carrier with a combat weight of about 8,5 tons with bulletproof and anti-shatter armor and a capacity of 15-20 people. As weapons, one easel machine gun was considered.


By May 1947 of the year, two prototypes of the future machine were ready. Factory tests of armored personnel carriers near the city of Chekhov continued until the 1949 year. At the same time, in May-December of the 1949 of the 8 of the 12 built armored personnel carriers were used to conduct full-fledged military tests, which went in parallel with the state tests of the new machine. After eliminating all the identified shortcomings 24 March 1950 year heavy wheeled armored personnel carrier, which received the designation BTR-152, was officially adopted by the Soviet Army. And on March 28 the chief designer of the Fitterman machine was arrested, shortly before his arrest, he was removed from the post of chief designer of the enterprise. His arrest took place as part of the investigation of the case on the wrecking group at the ZIS plant. In December of that year, he received 25 years of camps and began to serve his sentence in Rechlag, was completely rehabilitated and reinstated in the party in 1955. Such were the times. It is amazing that the creator of the heavy wheeled armored personnel carrier BTR-152 presented the country with the smallest minicar - Boris Mikhailovich was also the chief designer of the Zaporozhets ZAZ-965, but this is completely different история.

Technical features of the BTR-152


One of the main merits of the ZIS designers, experts call the appeal to the bearing armored hull (ZIS-100). The new heavy armored personnel carrier did not have a frame, only side amplifiers that were used to secure a number of units and units of the combat vehicle. At the same time, the designers did a good job on the configuration of the hull and the rational arrangement of the armor plates, at the same time the hull was convenient for placing and dismounting the landing party, it was quite spacious. The decision to abandon the frame allowed developers to make the body of the armored personnel carrier 200 mm lower without losing the spatial rigidity of the structure. Unlike the American M3 armored personnel carrier, the winch mounted on the BTR-152 was located under the bow armored hood and was protected from bullets and shell fragments.

Also, unlike the Americans who chose simple shapes for their M3 armored personnel carrier to better use the internal space, the ZIS factory worked on a rational arrangement of armor plates, creating a well-thought-out “broken” character of the hull, some armor plates were located at angles of 30-45 degrees to the vertical , which increased the bullet resistance of the entire structure. In shape of the hull, the new Soviet armored personnel carrier was closer to the German Hanomag semi-tracked armored personnel carriers. The greatest thickness of the armor was in the frontal part of the hull - up to 13-14 mm, the sides and sterns differed in the thickness of the armor 8-10 mm. Such a reservation was enough to protect against rifle caliber bullets and fragments of shells and mines weighing up to 12 grams; in the frontal part of the armored personnel carrier I also kept 12,7-mm bullets hit. Passive factors had to protect against armor-piercing large-caliber bullets, small-caliber guns and large fragments of the BTR-152: high speed, maneuverability, low silhouette. The length of the body of the armored personnel carrier was 6830 mm, width - 2320 mm, height - 2050 mm (machine gun - 2410 mm).


On the BTR-152, the designers installed an open-type armored hull, on ordinary models it was possible to shut off the weather only with a tarp. This decision reduced the security of the landing, but was typical for armored vehicles of those years. The body of the bonnet assembly was made by welding from armored plates and consisted of three compartments; it was characteristic of armored personnel carriers of that time period. Ahead there was a power compartment with an engine, followed by a control compartment, where the seats of the commander of the combat vehicle and the driver were located, the entire aft part was occupied by a spacious landing compartment, designed immediately for 17 fighters. To accommodate the landing along the sides of the hull were quite long longitudinal benches, behind their backs there were clips for attaching AK assault rifles. The mechanic commander and commander left the APC through the side doors, the landing party left the car through a double-leaf door located in the rear of the hull, but it was possible to land directly through the sides. A spare tire was often placed on the door.

Forced engine became the heart of the armored personnel carrier, which was especially important for the machine, which was to operate in off-road conditions. The basic 6-cylinder engine ZIS-120 (maximum power 90 hp) was able to force almost to the limit. The increase in power was achieved by increasing the compression ratio to 6,5, which automatically increased the fuel requirements, the BTR-152 ate the best gasoline in the army at that time - B-70. In addition, the designers “untwisted” ZIS-120, increasing the speed at the expense of the durability of the piston group. But the military was ready to put up with a combat vehicle with a reduced engine life. As a result of all the changes, the new ZIS-123B engine was screwed up to 110 hp. (guaranteed by GOST), in fact, engine power reached 118-120 hp Such power was enough to disperse an armored personnel carrier with a combat weight of 8,7 tons to 80-87 km / h when driving on the highway. A fuel reserve of 300 liters was enough for 550 km of travel when driving on the highway. A well-designed running gear, an accelerated engine and new all-terrain tires with a Christmas tree tread made it possible to increase the ground speed to 60 km / h, for comparison, the ZIS-151 truck did not exceed 33 km / h.


BTR-152 during events in Hungary, 1956 year

The main armament of an armored personnel carrier designed to defeat infantry, unarmored targets and enemy fire weapons at distances of up to 1000 meters was the 7,62-mm SGMB machine gun (a special version of the SG-43 machine gun) with tape power, which was located on an armored personnel carrier without an armored plate. The standard ammunition of the machine gun was 1250 rounds. In addition to armament, armored personnel carriers installed the 10РТ-12 radio station, which during the daytime provided stable communications at a distance of up to 35-38 km from the parking lot and to 25-30 km during movement.

Evaluation of the armored personnel carrier BTR-152


For the beginning of the 1950's, the heavy Soviet armored personnel carrier was a very successful combat vehicle. This is evidenced by the large series - 12,5 thousands of armored personnel carriers in various versions, as well as the geography of export deliveries. The Soviet BTR-152 managed to serve in the armies of more than 40 states of the world. At the same time, China launched mass production of a licensed copy of an armored personnel carrier under its own designation Type-56.

The BTR-152 advantages included good cross-country ability, a sufficiently high speed for such equipment, especially on the ground, and excellent capacity. Not all armored personnel carriers of those years could transport 19 soldiers, including the crew. The scheme and thickness of the reservation, which was superior to that of the American M3 wheeled and tracked armored personnel carriers, not to mention the wheeled Scout, were also recognized as successful. The obvious shortcomings of the machine included weak weapons, represented only by the machine gun 7,62-mm machine gun and personal weapons paratroopers. Many foreign models of armored personnel carriers of those years were armed with more powerful large-caliber machine guns.


Israeli armored personnel carrier "Shoet"

The fact that the armored personnel carrier turned out to be really good is also evidenced by the fact that the Israelis appreciated the armored personnel carriers BTR-152 captured from Egypt. The Israeli army noted the good protective properties of the corps of the Soviet armored personnel carrier and the rational arrangement of the armored plates, which did not interfere with the landing. Impressed by the Arabian trophies, Israel launched the production of its own wheeled APC Shoet, which looked like a Soviet military vehicle.
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  1. prapor55
    prapor55 18 November 2019 18: 11
    14
    We are waiting for the next series about the BTR-60. hi
    1. Blacksmith 55
      Blacksmith 55 18 November 2019 18: 51
      +8
      I had a lot of trips to BTR 60, but in the variant pu, they called it a seagull, with 4 radio stations.
      1. prapor55
        prapor55 18 November 2019 20: 54
        +4
        Pu is generally a curse; getting to something is practically impossible. request request
      2. militarist63
        militarist63 19 November 2019 03: 22
        +1
        Well, let's just say, not "PU", but a KShM called R-145BM "Chaika". wink
    2. Vanek
      Vanek 26 November 2019 03: 36
      0
      Quote: prapor55
      We are waiting for the next series about the BTR-60.


      Feel free to ask. Ahh, the next series is not about the BTR-40?

      hi
  2. san4es
    san4es 18 November 2019 18: 22
    12
    hi ... Factory tests of armored personnel carriers near the city of Chekhov continued until 1949
  3. Andrey VOV
    Andrey VOV 18 November 2019 18: 27
    11
    I sat as a kid in the cockpit in the back of my body .. impressions then were just space)))
    1. Doliva63
      Doliva63 18 November 2019 19: 26
      +8
      Quote: Andrey VOV
      I sat as a kid in the cockpit in the back .. impressions where they were just space)))

      Aha laughing There is alarm in the town, until you reach the division headquarters (10 GVTD, Krampnitz), there are already columns being built. Hit the door with your fist, they let you inside. In your hands - the steering wheel of this beast, you, like, twist it, then move to the "salon", you immediately to the machine gun, lift it up - a waste of money on the enemy! laughing But as an adult, I didn’t ride it anymore, in my time I finished the BTR-60 service and new ones started. Armored personnel carriers - my love drinks
      By the way, the red-white circle is ours, GSVGshny!
      1. Private-K
        Private-K 20 November 2019 14: 14
        0
        I would be grateful if you would name the years when it was the 152nd and 60th (without a roof and turret).
        By the way, did they replace the BTR-60P with the BTR-60PA (with a roof, without a turret) or already with the BTR-60PB?
  4. svp67
    svp67 18 November 2019 18: 27
    +7
    A real combat bus. BTR-152
    Better about the "crocodile" and you can not say ...
    Impressed by the Arabian trophies in Israel, they launched the production of their own wheeled APC Shoet, which looked like a Soviet military vehicle.
    Alas, but the statement is "far-fetched", the body of the Israeli armored personnel carrier is completely different.
    1. militarist63
      militarist63 19 November 2019 23: 13
      +1
      Nobody attracted anything by the ears! The concept "resembled outwardly" (if you are not aware) does not mean any complete similarity or copy ...!
    2. militarist63
      militarist63 19 November 2019 23: 44
      +1
      And the concept was borrowed from the BTR-152, which, by the way, (captured) were in service with the IDF. Because the "source code" was at hand .... They even created "Shoet", as well as the BTR-152, based on a truck! Only, unlike the BTR-152, the Shoet was never adopted by the IDF! By the time of its creation, this concept of the armored personnel carrier was already outdated!
  5. Old26
    Old26 18 November 2019 19: 19
    +5
    Quote: Andrey VOV
    I sat as a kid in the cockpit in the back of my body .. impressions then were just space)))

    Right What's in BTR-40, what is BTR-152 - we guys were on top of bliss.
    And when the father’s division returned from the exercises, the KP was based on the BTR-152. With a superstructure tower
  6. Sasha_rulevoy
    Sasha_rulevoy 18 November 2019 19: 30
    +3
    BTR-152 during the time in Hungary, 1956 year


    Czechoslovakia is probably the year 1968. White stripes on armored vehicles were applied only in Czechoslovakia.
    1. AlexVas44
      AlexVas44 19 November 2019 07: 24
      +6
      Definitely, 1968, Czechoslovakia. This is also seen on wheels with centralized tire inflation through the hub. In 1956 they were not yet. BTR-152V1 series since 1957
  7. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 18 November 2019 19: 37
    +6
    Personally, I beat this armored personnel carrier after the movie "In the zone of special attention", when the paratroopers famously stole the 152nd from the VVshniks and rammed the gate grill into the territory of the false ZKP!))))
  8. Professor
    Professor 18 November 2019 19: 43
    +4
    The fact that the armored personnel carrier turned out to be really good is also evidenced by the fact that the Israelis appreciated the armored personnel carriers BTR-152 captured from Egypt. The Israeli army noted the good protective properties of the corps of the Soviet armored personnel carrier and the rational arrangement of the armored plates, which did not interfere with the landing. Impressed by the Arabian trophies, Israel launched the production of its own wheeled APC Shoet, which looked like a Soviet military vehicle.

    The armored personnel carrier was developed at the base of the REO M-35 truck, the most common truck in Tsahal, which the Americans gave after Vietnam. Essentially, it is a MRAP with a V-shaped bottom.
    1. thinker
      thinker 18 November 2019 21: 08
      +5
      The only surviving specimen of "Shoeta" is in the Israeli museum Yad la-Shiryon.
      Flat tire yes
      1. Professor
        Professor 18 November 2019 21: 18
        -4
        Quote: thinker
        The only surviving specimen of "Shoeta" is in the Israeli museum Yad la-Shiryon.
        Flat tire yes

        And who will pump it there every day?
    2. Firelake
      Firelake 19 November 2019 00: 35
      +2
      How are you with the shelling? Is it calm now?
  9. Professor
    Professor 18 November 2019 20: 12
    -5
    In the summer of 1946, the ZIS received a tactical and technical task for a three-axle wheeled armored personnel carrier “140 object”. In accordance with it, the machine was supposed to have a full weight of up to 8,5 tons, carry troops from 15 – 20 people, defend itself with bulletproof armor and arm with one machine gun. Work on the 140 machine began in November of that year in a relatively small special department of KEO ZIS under the leadership of the chief designer of the plant, candidate of technical sciences B.M. Fitterman.
    http://flibusta.site/b/558727/read

    In March, 1943 became the chief designer of the plant, having worked in this position for 1950 for a year.
    On 28 on March 1950, he was arrested in the case of a “wrecking group at a ZIS plant", In December of the same year on charges of sabotage, anti-Soviet and nationalist activities, as well as sabotage and subversive work by the resolution of the Military College of the Supreme Court of the USSR was sentenced to 25 years in ITL, served his sentence in Rechlag. 15 October 1955 year was rehabilitated and reinstated in the Communist Party, defended his doctoral dissertation.
    1. Alekseev
      Alekseev 18 November 2019 20: 54
      10
      Quote: Professor
      He was rehabilitated and restored to the Communist Party, defended his doctoral dissertation.

      Many smart people suffered in those difficult years in vain ...
      The case of the BTR -152, if they were still in storage somewhere else, could be strengthened in the sense of security and fully used now. To make of it by replacing the power unit (a simple version of YaMZ-536) and bridges (from ZiL-131) an inexpensive APC for the police, military reserve units, etc.
      It would be cheaper than Typhoons, and they could perform similar tasks. Anything is better than patrolling in the ordinary Urals or ZiLe, albeit with light protection installed.
      1. Private-K
        Private-K 20 November 2019 14: 18
        +1
        Actually, they did. "Shot" K (amaz) -43269 (BPM-97). They were adopted by the border troops and guard battalions of the Topol PGRK. In the variant of special vehicles, of course, not a "pure" armored personnel carrier.
    2. aws4
      aws4 18 November 2019 23: 21
      +6
      AND? what was this writing to? and if he were Kazakh or Avarets and not a Jew, would you also write this?
      1. Professor
        Professor 19 November 2019 09: 30
        -3
        Quote: aws4
        AND? what was this writing to?

        To write about the car and to baw the chief designer?
        1. aws4
          aws4 19 November 2019 23: 40
          +2
          should I repeat the question? if he were Kazakh or Avarets and not a Jew, would you also not forget about him?
          1. Professor
            Professor 20 November 2019 07: 39
            -5
            Quote: aws4
            should I repeat the question? if he were Kazakh or Avarets and not a Jew, would you also not forget about him?

            No not forбyelled. Are you satisfied?
            1. aws4
              aws4 20 November 2019 22: 37
              0
              yes quite .. thanks)))))))))))
            2. demokrat86
              demokrat86 23 November 2019 13: 50
              0
              Again this God's chosen face inserts its 5 cents
  10. da Vinci
    da Vinci 18 November 2019 20: 50
    +5
    The body shape made it invisible to radars !!! wink
  11. da Vinci
    da Vinci 18 November 2019 20: 51
    14
    The most popular German armored personnel carrier in films about the Second World War !!!
  12. Amurets
    Amurets 18 November 2019 23: 54
    +5
    For the assembly of the BTR-152 in the Soviet Union, the Stalin Plant (ZIS) in Moscow was responsible (after debunking the personality cult, it was renamed ZIL).
    The cult of personality of whom? Factory? How they love to kick Stalin, who has done a lot for the country. Regarding the article, the offset is interesting. And almost all the armored vehicles of the post-war period could be seen in the 60s, during the departure of the L / C TWO to the exercises. An impressive 1,5 km convoy stretched from the school to leave the city. There were BTR-40 and BTR-50 and BTR-152 in it. Tanks PT-76, floating vehicles MAV, BAV. The spectacle was at 1,5-2.0. hours.
    1. Corn
      Corn 19 November 2019 20: 44
      -14 qualifying.
      March 28, 1950 was arrested the chief designer of the machine Fitterman. His arrest took place as part of the investigation of the case on the wrecking group at the ZIS plant. In December of that year, he received 25 years in the camps and began to serve his sentence in Rechlag, was completely rehabilitated and reinstated in the party in 1955. Such were the times.
      Indeed, for this they like to kick a bloody ghoul who, according to his fan, arranged repressions and genocide on a scale comparable to Nazi ... Apparently the leaders and sovereigns were not lucky with the people, well, they don’t like normal Russian whip and terror.
  13. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 19 November 2019 01: 41
    +5
    On the BTR-152, the designers installed an open-type armored hull, on ordinary models it was possible to shut off the weather only with a tarp. This decision reduced the security of the landing, but was typical for armored vehicles of those years. In fact, the BTR-152 was also manufactured with armor "roof" ... (however, like the BTR-40 ...) Although, most often, these were "special vehicles" based on the BTR-152 ..., but there were also KShM. Speaking of "similarity" ... For example, BPM-97 ...
    What doesn’t look like the BTR-152? (Only the rear wheels were stolen ...)
    1. militarist63
      militarist63 19 November 2019 23: 49
      +3
      Then BTR-40, not 152! smile And the wheels are all in place!
      1. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I 20 November 2019 00: 43
        +1
        Quote: militarist63
        Then BTR-40, not 152!

        Here again! Again mention the BTR-40! recourse But the comparison with the BTR-152 (well ... a little "stripped down" ...) request (As they say, who loves chop, and someone is a pig-cartilage ... wink )
    2. Bad_gr
      Bad_gr 20 November 2019 00: 11
      +2
      Quote: Nikolaevich I
      In fact, the BTR-152 was also manufactured with "roof" armor.



      I read somewhere that the armored roof appeared after the events in Hungary or Czechoslovakia, when Molotov cocktails were thrown through an open top in an APC.
      I do not know how reliable this is.
      1. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I 20 November 2019 00: 36
        +3
        Quote: Bad_gr
        I read somewhere that the armored roof appeared after the events in Hungary or Czechoslovakia, when Molotov cocktails were thrown through an open top in an APC.

        And I read about it ... (Hungary!) ... And the "closed" BTR-152 (as in your picture ...) was in the PTUS (industrial and technical communications department ...) of our city almost until the end of the last century ... I do not know the further fate of this armored personnel carrier; since further in the city communications did not work. hi
  14. Fitter65
    Fitter65 19 November 2019 03: 33
    +4
    10RT-12 radio station, which daytime provided stable communication at a distance of 35-38 km in the parking lot and up to 25-30 km during movement.
    The first time I hear that the communication range depends on the time of day. Of course, various weather factors can affect the passage of radio waves, but here is the time of day ... Yes, I agree that different radio networks have day and night frequencies, respectively, and call signs day-night. But in no technical description for the radio station that I studied, and which I had to work on, the frequency range, power, range, type of antenna, communication range for each type of antenna are usually indicated, but I have never seen a communication range in the daytime for radio ...
    1. svp67
      svp67 19 November 2019 04: 18
      +9
      Quote: Fitter65
      The first time I hear that the communication range depends on the time of day.

      And yet it is so. At night, audibility is "further". Many "radio waves sleep and do not interfere with the passage of your radio waves"))) But seriously, the "structure of layers" of the atmosphere changes with sunset.
      1. Fitter65
        Fitter65 19 November 2019 09: 32
        +3
        Quote: svp67
        And yet it is so. At night, audibility is "further". Many "radio waves sleep and do not interfere with the passage of your radio waves"))) But seriously, the "structure of layers" of the atmosphere changes with sunset.

        Therefore, the transition to night frequencies was carried out. But this is not to increase the range, but for the quality of communication, the absence of various background noise, and other things, precisely because of the physical properties of the passage of the wave. And if, for example, for a better daytime pass, the frequencies of the upper range were taken, then for the night they went to the lower part of the range, this improved the quality of communication, but did NOT INCREASE the range. The construction of atmospheric layers is changing, but not so much so that the station in the daytime with a direct communication range of 35-38, at night increases it by a dozen km. Rave. Yes, short-wave athletes prefer to work at night, but there are already other stations, both antennas, and range. It’s like a marathon runner compared to a foot soldier making a march. The parking distance is greater due to the fact that due to the presence of spare parts in the truck it was possible to increase the height of the whip antenna to 4 meters. When moving, these knees were removed, the height decreased, of course, the range was reduced. Also, the communication range increased or decreased depending on the type of work. In telephone she was always less than in telegraphic. By the way, in the technical descriptions about this PCT nothing is said about the communication range in the daytime and at night, I think if the difference were significant, this would have been indicated. https://military.trcvr.ru/2015/08/12/radiostancii-10-r/
        1. Glory1974
          Glory1974 19 November 2019 11: 32
          +2
          By the way, in the technical descriptions about this PCT nothing is said about the communication range in the daytime and at night, I think if the difference were significant, this would have been indicated.

          the radio station is short-wave, and this range is characterized by differences in the communication range at night and in the afternoon.
          And if, for example, for better daytime passing, we took the frequencies of the upper range, then for the night we went to the lower part of the range, this improved the quality of communication, but did NOT INCREASE the range.

          If you had a connection during the day, then at night it may not be at the same range.
          1. Fitter65
            Fitter65 19 November 2019 14: 27
            +3
            Quote: glory1974

            If you had a connection during the day, then at night it may not be at the same range.

            for this on night frequencies. For a radio station whose range changes by several tens of kilometers, this is not critical, and if it had a range of 38-40 km during the day, then at night it will not change to 138-140. I don't need to rub in the distance and the passage of waves about communication. I thank God from 1983 to 2010 on the PCT of the R-140 / R-161 type, as well as the R-409M type relays, well, there was also a plus for the R-151, it was really not long, I worked. He also worked as a tip with R-412 and R-410. So, what and how it goes day and night I know firsthand. By the way, in the performance characteristics, the range of the type 38-40, or 40-45 is always given for radio equipment, this is the difference in the day-night range, but not at times, the "power" is not the same, although with other antennas, for example narrowly focused, the range increases, and not by units, but sometimes at times. For example, at our time at the PDRTs there was a P-140 which worked only for Moscow. Moreover, the time was chosen morning-evening, taking into account the time difference of 7 o'clock. Anteny-dipoles were set strictly in azimuth, and there was almost always a connection, but with Moscow. Antennas of a different direction were taken to work with Pereyaslovka or Vozzhaevka. Although sometimes they worked on AZI or Shtyrevaya with the same Pereyaslovka, or Khabarovsk, but again it all depended on the passage of the radio wave. Moreover, it happened that there was no connection on day or night frequencies, for example, I hear the correspondent perfectly, but he did not have me, or vice versa. Moreover, the conditions for the passage of the wave are the same for all.
            1. Glory1974
              Glory1974 20 November 2019 09: 31
              0
              You write
              The first time I hear that the communication range depends on the time of day.

              and right there
              I do not need to rub the range and the passage of waves about the connection. Thank God with 1983 and 2010 on PCTs of type P-140 / P-161, as well as relays of type P-409M, well, the plus of P-151 was really not for long, it worked.

              and after
              For a radio station in which the range varies by several tens of kilometers, this is not critical.

              That is, you agree that there is influence, albeit not critical. About which the dispute ensued.
              The radio station in question operates in the HF band, so the influence is unequivocal. Yes, even if it’s not critical, but nevertheless, it must be taken into account when operating at maximum ranges. As far as I know, the transition to day and night frequencies is not carried out on military vehicles, but this is now when they mainly work in the VHF range. I don’t know how it was before.
              1. Fitter65
                Fitter65 20 November 2019 16: 26
                +1
                Quote: glory1974
                That is, you agree that there is influence, albeit not critical. About which the dispute ensued.
                Of course. I do not agree, the author still forgot to indicate that the transmitter on new lamps gives a range of several% more than the PCT for which the lamps have already worked. This is also one of the important points as the daily conditions for the passage of radio waves. Therefore, in addition to the range during the day, the author had to indicate that the range changes not only during the day, but also on new (old) lamps, as well as on the calendar season.
                Quote: glory1974
                As far as I know, on military vehicles, the transition to day and night frequencies is not carried out,

                You know poorly, not only on combat vehicles, but even on vehicles sweeping the airfield, there is such a thing as day-night transition, and for all other PCTs there is a mandatory way (such as an order for parts of communications) there is a prescribed time for switching to night- daily frequencies, and on the basis of the order scheme, what type, station, operating mode, list of applied frequencies is indicated. But this does not affect the RANGE of communication, but its QUALITY. You confuse soft with white. If you think that with a day-to-night transition, the RANGE increases, then explain this phenomenon when I work out the task with Pereyaslovka, KV PCT type P-140M, I don’t hear it, it hears me perfectly. Why? If you believe your reasoning about the RANGE of communication, then it should be the same for us, we work in the periodical direction, the time of day and the type of PCT are the same. And yes, I’m higher in relation to the pole, and therefore my wave goes calmly down, and with the correspondent, she can’t climb the latitude of Komsomlsk. The following condition for this problem. Vozhaevka (this is the Amur region, not far from Belogorsk) at that moment he hears both of us perfectly, and contacts each of us without any problems. Moreover, with Pereyaslovka, we have just a song in the World Cup.
                Quote: glory1974
                The radio station in question operates in the HF band, so the influence is unequivocal

                R-140, R-161 are also HF stations that I studied and on which I worked, and I will say right away that there are no clarifications in the performance characteristics of these stations for the communication range in night and day conditions. There is a range for operation in different modes, for different antennas, but there is no range for DAY-NIGHT. So this is a PCT with a capacity of more than 1 kilowatt, and a range of up to 2500 km. For this type, weather, geomagnetic and other factors are essential for the QUALITY of communication, but not as for the RANGE. All these frequency changes and day-night transitions are needed for QUALITY transmission and reception of the signal. And for a station with a range "the better the shoulder straps are visible, the better the connection" such troubles are not important, and not essential. THIS ONCE. In my first commentary, I noted that in the performance characteristics of all means of communication there is no such thing as the range of communication during the day at night. This is TWO. But here, instead of admitting point two (well, you're too clever with anyone), you got into the jungle of the theory of radio waves. But moreover, they did not tell how it is with a radio wave with a length of 100 to 10 meters, people communicate over thousands of kilometers. This is a joke, if anything. But if you find in the performance characteristics, or the technical description, that the range during the day is -X, and the range at night is Y. I would be very grateful. And then tired of reading and commenting on your nonsense. LET'S SPECIFICALLY. HERE TTX PCT R -____. THIS IS THE DISTANCE DAY. THIS IS THE DISTANCE AT NIGHT. NO, all go to graze hedgehogs.
                1. militarist63
                  militarist63 21 November 2019 01: 33
                  0
                  Hi colleague! Everything is absolutely true, only here is a small clarification regarding:
                  I in my first comment noted that in the TTX of all communications there is no such thing as a communication range during the day

                  In fairness, there is such a concept, and in the books with the performance characteristics of low-power radio stations, to which the discussed object belongs. Only in the parameter "Communication range" in the columns "day" and "night" the numbers are exactly the same! Those. there is no difference, which I also initially state here!
                  By the way, in the infantry (and the object under discussion is from there), in the tactical control link, transitions to night-day frequencies were not practiced for a period! This was not a priori in the radio data! This is me as the chief of communications of the MSB (once), and subsequently I confirm the communications companies of the tank regiment ....
                  1. Fitter65
                    Fitter65 21 November 2019 02: 51
                    +1
                    Quote: militarist63
                    By the way, in the infantry (and the object under discussion is from there), in the tactical control link, transitions to night-day frequencies were not practiced for a period!

                    On account of the infantry I will not argue, I served all my life in the "courtiers" of the OBS at the air divisions. True, since 2002, when 83 dietary supplements were dispersed, in the OBS at 277 Mlavsky BAP, he served in various positions from the head of the PCT, to the head of the PDRTs-PRTs and the head of the US. The last couple of years, before retirement, however, he left for the car fleet as a freelance technician of the company. For us, the transition to day-night was mandatory. Even for "Palms" and "Daisies" there was a list of frequencies and a transition schedule. True, at the airfield, they sometimes did not bother with this matter, it was just that the DS and RTO did not give the command to move, it happened that after switching to nighttime, communication with some mobile objects was lost. When I worked on the 409th, after I dialed all the connections, the transition to other frequencies was carried out only when there was interference ...
                2. Glory1974
                  Glory1974 21 November 2019 17: 34
                  0
                  There is a range for working in different modes, for different antennas, but there is no range for DAY-NIGHT.

                  But if you find in the TTX, or the technical description, that the range during the day is -X, and the range at night-Y. I would really appreciate it.

                  Yes please. We do not climb into the wilds, but take the P-130 radio station. Do you know this? And we read NN {/ Black in Russian says about the range of communication day and night:
                  Antenna type
                  Communication range, km, no more Note
                  daytime night
                  parked in motion parked in motion
                  "Pin -4 m" 50 50 20 20 At frequencies selected in accordance with the radio forecast.
                  "Oblique beam" 75 - 30 -
                  "Symmetrical vibrator" 350 - 350 -
                  AZI 350 350 350 350
                  tongue

                  You know poorly, not only on combat vehicles, but even on vehicles sweeping the airfield, there is such a thing as day-night transition

                  at your aerodrome it may be. And the combat units, on the BBM and tanks from the 60's have VHF radio stations installed. Therefore, there is no day-night transition.
                  Earlier, when there were HF radio stations I don’t know. and you probably too.

                  You confuse soft with white.

                  I'm tired of reading and commenting on your nonsense

                  NO, all you go hedgehogs to graze.

                  Well, why so much pathos and offensive words? Colleague? hi
                  1. militarist63
                    militarist63 22 November 2019 01: 01
                    +1
                    And combat units, on BBMs and tanks from the 60s have installed VHF radio stations. Therefore, there is no day-night transition.
                    Earlier, when there were HF radio stations I don’t know. and you probably too.
                    But I know. wink HF radio stations are still on the tanks (in addition to the VHF radio station typical for a linear tank). This is on the command tanks, on those that have a "K" at the end of the name (T-62K, T-72K, T-72BK, T-90SK, etc ....). Initially, R-130T, R-130MT were installed, later (before the collapse of the USSR) R-134MT ... At the same time, no day-night transitions were provided for in the radio data. I was once the chief of communications-commander of the communications platoon of a tank battalion, where I had such a tank in my platoon (T-62MK, then T-72BK), intended for the battalion commander ... And we take it higher - later was the commander of a communications company of a tank regiment , where the company had the regiment commander's tank (the same as that of the battalion commander) and, among other things, 5 KShM (three BMP-1KSh, R-145BM and R-142n), in which one R-130M ... And there were no day-night transitions. And for normal HF communication (mobile and without deployment troubles), they used AZI ... And for her, the night is not a problem and the range is solid ...
                    The remaining r / funds are all VHF .....
          2. militarist63
            militarist63 20 November 2019 00: 02
            0
            DO NOT MIX MY HAIR, DISCUSSING THE Nonsense WRITTEN IN THE ARTICLE !!! laughing laughing FOR LOW-POWER RADIO STATIONS, ALL THESE DAY-METEO-GEOGRAPHIC NUANCES OF RRV (radio wave propagation) GLOBAL INFLUENCE ON THX RADIO STATION PARAMETERS DO NOT IMPLEMENT !!!
            1. Glory1974
              Glory1974 20 November 2019 09: 33
              0
              FOR LOW-POWER RADIO STATIONS, ALL THESE DAY-METEO-GEOGRAPHIC NUANCES OF RRV (radio wave propagation) GLOBAL INFLUENCE ON THX RADIO STATION PARAMETERS DO NOT IMPLEMENT !!!

              there are times when they render. And professionalism lies in the fact that in all conditions of the situation to fulfill the task. 10 years you can not get confused with this phenomenon, and then again ..... and there is no connection. and the casket just opened.
              1. militarist63
                militarist63 21 November 2019 00: 53
                0
                You know, as they say, and there’s a rip-off on an old woman! laughing Only such "holes" in the technical descriptions of radio stations are not signed (this is to the question of the radio station's capabilities declared by the author) ... There are given the optimal communication ranges on different antennas, declared as maximum ... Moreover, both day and night, the communication range there is given the same (one in one) ... Therefore, no need for fantasies! And in relation to different nuances (hole) ..., a vigorous explosion bangs and how are we going to open the chest ?! wassat
                To the question of professionalism. Actually, I’ve been in communications units for 22 years, starting, after a military university of communications, as the chief of communications, the commander of a platoon of communications of a motorized rifle battalion (then a tank battalion, adn ...) ... and ending with the head of the communications center of the CP Air Defense ... Because, about the opening of caskets to someone else .... wink
                By the way, there was in my practice the fact of ensuring stable radio communication (and for a long time) with a low-power tank radio station R-123MT with a CSA antenna on an 11-meter telescope, at a distance hundreds of times greater than the passport one! In this embodiment, communication both during the day and at night (according to the performance characteristics) is provided for a distance of 40 km. However, for many months I have been in stable contact with the dispatchers (girls) of the municipal service of the Sverdlovsk region .... to which there were more than 3 thousand km. !!! Here is such a "chest"!
                1. Glory1974
                  Glory1974 21 November 2019 20: 29
                  +1
                  Moreover, day and night, the communication range there is the same (one to one) ... Therefore, no fantasies are needed!

                  Read TTX P-130. Communication range at ASH-4 is 50 km during the day, 20 km at night.
                  An official document for a radio station. And no fantasies.
                  1. militarist63
                    militarist63 21 November 2019 23: 59
                    0
                    Well, there is such a problem with the pin! And how does the R-130M work with antennas AZI and Dipol? And it works equally well day and night for 350 km.
      2. militarist63
        militarist63 20 November 2019 00: 39
        0
        But the dogs, just what ... how to wake up, how to bark! laughing laughing laughing
  15. demo
    demo 19 November 2019 04: 38
    +1
    In addition to weapons, armored personnel carriers installed the radio station 10РТ-12, which in the daytime provided stable communication at a distance of 35-38 km parked and up to 25-30 km while driving.

    Do not understand. Was there no connection at night, or was it designed for a different distance?
    When they write such articles, you must at least re-read what you wrote.
    Otherwise, the meaning is lost and the picture is blurred.
    1. Glory1974
      Glory1974 19 November 2019 09: 28
      +2
      Was there no connection at night, or was it designed for a different distance?

      At night, the propagation of radio waves changes, and the communication range changes accordingly.
      1. demo
        demo 19 November 2019 10: 43
        +1
        Oh!
        And how much is it - this passage is changing !?
        And in what units is this measured?
        1. Glory1974
          Glory1974 19 November 2019 11: 27
          +2
          The passage of radio waves varies depending on the time of year, time of day, solar activity, frequency used, antennas, power, type of signal, etc. etc.
          It is usually measured in the communication range.
          1. demo
            demo 19 November 2019 12: 47
            +1
            Thank you.
            And then I'm already worried.
            I think that at night, probably, deer will be faster!
            Let it be as usual! soldier
        2. militarist63
          militarist63 20 November 2019 00: 24
          0
          You shouldn't soar your head in this "tank"! laughing
      2. militarist63
        militarist63 20 November 2019 00: 22
        0
        This (RRV at night) is relevant for radio stations of large and medium power, but not for a low-power tank radio station! The author would have dragged here weather conditions and other geographical nuances (for example, something about a different underlying surface ...) ... laughing laughing
    2. militarist63
      militarist63 19 November 2019 23: 52
      +1
      Do not wake the radiotelephone operator at night !!! stop laughing
  16. andrewkor
    andrewkor 19 November 2019 05: 31
    +1
    I remember the "ceremonial" version of 152 in some photo from Red Square: in front of the checkpoint, on the sides of the SG.
  17. Fedorov
    Fedorov 19 November 2019 23: 52
    +1
    Tried to ride it, you’ll really get the hell out of the steering wheel, although I'm not small and stunted.
  18. Romka47
    Romka47 20 November 2019 14: 24
    0
    10RT-12 radio station, which in the daytime provided stable communication at a distance
    I may not quite be in the subject, please explain how the time of day affects the distance of the radio exchange?
  19. panzerfaust
    panzerfaust 26 November 2019 20: 16
    0
    In general, the chassis and engine from the 157th ZIL. I still found one copy in Kovrov, in the 70s.
  20. cat Rusich
    cat Rusich 6 December 2019 23: 07
    0
    Btr-152 in service with the Russian army until 1993. My opinion is that with a modern engine it could be used today as an armored truck for hot spots. As + I think the rear swing doors.
  21. Xomaik
    Xomaik 15 February 2020 19: 38
    0
    Roughly speaking, they took a German armored car altered added a little bit of armor to create on wheels
    And all your weapons