Military Review

A bad omen for the Su-35C. What is the danger of re-equipping Typhoons with E-Scan Mk1 / 2 radars?


Despite the fact that the information published in the Spanish military-analytical publication on the upcoming large-scale update of the on-board radar systems of the Typhoon multi-functional fighters of the Tranche 1 / 2 / 3 Luftwaffe and the Spanish Air Force received close attention only from Western European experts the technological features of this modernization program should be thoroughly analyzed by specialists of both the Russian defense department and the leading aircraft manufacturer a holding company, Sukhoi Company PJSC. The need to make this event more widely publicized in Russian expert communities is not delayed and is dictated by a number of compelling justifications of a technological and operational-tactical nature.

Based on the data voiced by the head of the military-industrial unit of Airbus Defense & Space, Kurt Rossner during a recent conference in German Manching, as well as on earlier information about the optional update of the Typhoon avionics featured in the West European media space from 2014 of the year, you can come to the conclusion that 110 German and 19 Spanish EF-2000 will be re-equipped with promising jamming-proof airborne radars with active E-Scan Mk 1 headlamps, while the "Typhoons" of the British Royal Air Force will receive even more advanced odifikatsiyu E-Scan Mk 2, referred to in the British press as the «Radar 2 configuration».

Captor-E airborne radars open new horizons for the air forces of the operator countries of the Typhoon family of multi-functional fighters

Both modifications of the on-board radar E-Scan are the brainchild of the transnational military-industrial corporation Leonardo and are being developed as part of the ambitious project Captor-E, designed to bring the combat potential of the Typhoon fleet of all trenches to the 4 ++ generation level as in the tasks gaining dominance in the air in a difficult jamming environment and long-range interception, and in the tasks of striking at surface targets and suppressing enemy air defense.

It is well known that almost all EF-2000 Typhoon combat armaments, which are in service with the air forces of Great Britain, Germany, Italy and Austria, are still equipped with obsolete airborne radars with slot antenna arrays ECR-90 Captor-M. In terms of noise immunity, resolution, range, throughput (the number of targets simultaneously accompanied by “on the go”) and target channel, Captor-M radars are significantly inferior to not only the most advanced multi-element AFAR radars AN / APG-77 / 79 / 81, installed on the F-22A Raptor, FF 35A Lightning II multi-functional fighters, but also the domestic airborne radar with passive PAR Bars-R fighter Su-30SM, Irbis-E fighter Su-fighters 35С and “Barrier-AM” MiG-31БМ interceptors. In particular, the target capture range with an effective reflective surface of 1 sq. m using the Captor-M radar is not more than 90 — 95 km (in a simple jamming environment), while Bars and Irbis-E radars are capable of “capturing” airborne objects with a similar radar signature at a distance of 110 and 270 km, respectively, and in a much more complex jamming environment.

As a result, even the integration into the Typhoon ammunition of promising direct-flow ultra-long-range air-launched missiles MBDA Meteor with active radar seeker does not guarantee the crews of these airborne assurance vehicles in hypothetical long-range aerial combat with our Su-30СМ and Su-35С . The most acute problem with the “ancient” Captor-M radars will be felt in case of an attempt to penetrate the EF-2000 Typhoon units into the powerful air defense zones of the Russian Air Force A2 / AD and the military air defense in the East European theater of operations (in the areas of the Republic of Crimea and Kaliningrad region).

Operation on the approaches to these areas of the aircraft of radar patrol and guidance of the E-3C / D / F NATO Allied Air Force will be minimized in connection with the ultra-long-range S-400 Triumph and C-300BXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXx 4 and 48 km respectively), as well as long-range interceptors MiG-6БМ, capable of dealing with AWACS even at distant approaches by means of R-9М missiles. It is logical to assume that the issuance of early target designation to the Typhoons, and then to the MBA Meteor missiles on the trajectory under the above conditions, will be excluded, and therefore EF-82 pilots will have to rely only on the antediluvian airborne radars of their own vehicles that cannot select Dryers against the background of frequency-sensing and obstructive in the direction of noise interference generated by the Khibiny complexes.

The mechanical drive of the antenna sheet dovor and the EW operation once again confirm the superiority of AFAR technology. Another "stone in the garden" of domestic radars with passive headlights

Re-equipment of Typhoons fleets with the latest Leonard E-Scan Mk 1 / 2 (Captor-E) radar systems not only literally eliminates the entire spectrum of the above problems overnight, but also allows Typhoons weapons control systems to implement a number of additional unique modes work. In addition to the highest noise immunity due to the presence of an individual low-noise microwave transistor / amplifier and attenuator / attenuator in the architecture of each AFAR transceiver module (provide the formation of a flexible radiation pattern with “dips” in the direction of the enemy’s EW stations), both versions of the Captor-E radar will be equipped with a mechanical drive for the antenna headlamp of the active headlamp.

This design solution is a rare and partly unique “trick” in relation to the basic technology of active phased antenna arrays, which provides for mounting the web on a fixed hardware module with an inclined support side. Thanks to this solution, the Captor-E azimuth sector of the survey is not standard 120 ° (raptor radar AN / AG-77), but more than 200 ° with a partial coverage of the rear hemisphere, which will allow Typhoon pilots to maintain a rocket- and aircraft-hazardous direction in the radar scanning zone without the need for rapprochement with the most dangerous section of airspace (the lines of action of air combat missiles or missiles of a potential enemy). Moreover, the extension of the antenna sheet allows the E-Scan Mk 1 / 2 radars (unlike the fixed AN / APG-77 and AN / APG-81) to maintain the proper energy potential of the scanning beam when tracking targets located at angles greater than 30 — 45 ° from the longitudinal axis of the fighter (in the side hemispheres).

As for the Captor-E airborne radar of the E-Scan Mk 2 / Radar 2 configuration modification (for the British Typhoons), then certain arrays of its transmitting and transmitting modules (several hundred) are likely to be synchronized with specialized radio frequency tunable RFTF filters (Radio Frequency Tunable Filters), providing a wide frequency range of work on radiation. This solution will allow the E-Scan Mk 2 AFAR radar to implement the EW mode, which emits a narrow “interfering beam” of high spectral density in the direction of radar reconnaissance and active / semi-active radar seeker of the enemy. The American AN / APG-79 / 81 airborne radars of the Super Hornet and Lightning families have a similar operating mode.
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  1. Gromozeka
    Gromozeka 15 November 2019 15: 14 New
    Everything was gone, but not now ... Damantsev in his own style!
    1. Something
      Something 15 November 2019 15: 20 New
      Where is our "Squirrel"? Escaped to the forest?
      1. Tony
        Tony 15 November 2019 15: 28 New
        Quote: Yevgeny Damantsev
        Thanks to this decision, the azimuthal sector of the Captor-E survey is not standard 120 ° (raptor radar AN / AG-77), but more than 200 ° with partial coverage of the rear hemisphere

        Poor pilots, stay childless!
      2. Lexus
        Lexus 15 November 2019 15: 38 New
        Where is our "Squirrel"? Escaped to the forest?

        In the same "hollow", where everything else. The Urikals are waiting for a "breakthrough."
        1. knn54
          knn54 15 November 2019 15: 47 New
          Squirrel makes a return visit to Rogozin.
      3. Sergei 777
        Sergei 777 15 November 2019 16: 52 New
        Where is our "Squirrel"? Escaped to the forest?

        In the same place as Armata, at a military reception.
    2. dirk182
      dirk182 15 November 2019 15: 31 New
      Well, maybe without emotion and explain what the author is wrong? Only not in "general", but point by point.
      1. Andrey VOV
        Andrey VOV 15 November 2019 15: 41 New
        Damantsev wrote that it was as if he managed to get this information and only him !! otherwise someone should not know about it, and the lack of information does not mean that something is not being done or is being done with us .... everything is around blind, dumb, deaf, but he’s a finger indicating what and how and when to.
        1. dirk182
          dirk182 15 November 2019 16: 17 New
          Perhaps so, but he brought technical specifications, giving food for thought. I read a lot of foreign materials, but I have not seen this material. Well, he praised himself) what's wrong.
      2. Hexenmeister
        Hexenmeister 15 November 2019 17: 08 New
        A mechanical dovor of the canvas has long been available on the serial Irbis, and a range of ± 120 degrees is indicated by open sources. So, in terms of the turnaround, this miracle, which has yet to appear, repeats the concept of a serial Russian radar. Therefore, the use of a mechanical dovor of the web cannot be considered a confirmation of the superiority of the AFAR there, it only says that such viewing areas are a necessary requirement for modern fighter radars, therefore you need to moderate the ardor in praising systems with fixed blades.
    3. Mikhail Drabkin
      Mikhail Drabkin 16 November 2019 05: 38 New
      You Gromoseka write
      Damantsev in his own style!

      —Eugene is not an “all-crawler,” he simply “saddled a horse” with inexhaustible energy.
      —- Eugene’s articles are stylistically dedicated to the martial arts of very specific systems / subsystems (rivals) and consist of a provocateur poster and three or four parts.
      It all starts with an irrationally provocatively provocative slogan ..

      —- Then follows the rational parts ...
      First: a description of existing competing systems and a likely winner in battle.
      —- Second: a description of the planned changes in the systems (at least one of the competing systems).
      —- Third: the likely balance of power as a result of these planned changes, and the likely outcome of a future battle.
      —Fourth, this is the truth of Eugene, “ringing the bells”: a generalization, from the particular and general, the planned advantages of the side and the crisis, in which the doomed, losing side falls.
      —Since all the advantages and disadvantages are temporary, this plot is inexhaustible.
      —Eugene is not an “all-crawler,” he simply “saddled a horse” with inexhaustible energy.
      —- As a radio technician, I do not agree with the advantage of this moving plane of the antenna sheet in azimuth ... this mechanical “augmented yaw angle” - because during the rotation of the antenna, she does not see in that sector from which she “turned away”, and any movement in the side of the axis of movement causes mechanical counter-stresses.
      —- In general, in order to know “something” about an object with second accuracy, you need to obtain data about this “something” - at least every 500 mlsk. In short, given the speeds of the most deadly systems ... missiles .. the antenna sheet must scour 4 times per second in order to know the “something” every 1000 meters, at an object speed of 2km / second (~ 6M). Moreover, this is a uniform, constant speed of the object ....
      —- And the antenna cover is a set of modules, each includes not only a passive emitter, but power amplifiers in the transmitting mode, low-noise amplifiers in the receiving mode, filters, matching circuits ... switches - switches, high-frequency ... power limiters .... and RADIATORS - and this is the mass of metal ... the weight of an advanced American radar is about 300 kg .... Now imagine this mass oscillating with a frequency of 4 Hz! And the far masses are 30-50cm away from the center of rotation.
      —- And at what angle of rotation this miracle is rolled back with a frequency of 4 Hz, or with a period of 250 milliseconds ... When turning 0 degrees, an electronic scan of 120 degrees ... with an additional “yaw” of +/- 40 degrees is possible 200 degree electronic scanning
      —- Here and calculate the angular velocity ... the load on the airplane frame ... in 250 ms ... with a radius of up to 50 cm ..
      —- I believe that the time of mechanical reversal from -40 to + 40 degrees is not less than 1 second. Those. the period is 2 seconds, and the fast “something” is known every 4 seconds ... at a speed of 2 km / s the position of the object is known after 8 km .... this is not a tracking radar, but detecting ... just in case .... it's interesting in conversation .. and over long distances ..
      —- The chip will be not a flat, but a convex antenna sheet. It does not have to be finished. But these are more elements, and more mass.
      About this, I think, Eugene will write on the topic next time.
      1. meandr51
        meandr51 16 November 2019 13: 51 New
        Or several headlights located at an angle.
        1. dali
          dali 16 November 2019 15: 20 New
          Quote: meandr51
          Or several headlights located at an angle.

          The convex antenna canvas will still be better, although the math is more complicated.
      2. Gromozeka
        Gromozeka 17 November 2019 00: 21 New
        Dear Mikhail Drabkin! I myself love to read articles by Evgeny Damantsev! He progresses and writes in an interesting style and about very interesting topics. True, he has small flaws in radar. It doesn’t matter of counting radar distances. For example, in this article:
        In particular, the target capture range with an effective reflective surface of 1 square. m using the Captor-M radar is not more than 90-95 km (in a simple jamming environment), while Bars and Irbis-E radars are capable of “capturing” airborne objects with a similar radar signature at a distance of 110 and 270 km respectively, and in a much more complex interference environment.

        Typically, the radar parameter is the target detection range, and not the tracking range for tracking. For radar N035 "Irbis-E" detection range is D = 400 km for targets with an image intensifier = 3 m2but for with image intensifier = 1 m2, the detection range is D = 303,934 km. Therefore, the capture range cannot equal 270 km. If we consider the detection range for the Bars radar, then Eugene will have a detection range less than the target capture range, which cannot be. Eugene is a journalist, but you just need to learn how to count distances in view of the technical topics of his articles. His articles are sometimes very wonderful. I totally agree with you!
      3. EvilLion
        EvilLion 18 November 2019 08: 28 New
        Most likely, aircraft with headlamps and fur. drive use it only in the overview mode, if necessary being fixed on the identifier. viewing angle. For example, look at the earth, or stupidly at the sky.
    4. Evil Booth
      Evil Booth 16 November 2019 13: 39 New
      fool famous bell jingle. this 30-year-old, like his rastopshin, couldn’t recognize contact5 with his 500mm plates, all lamenting for the rather small 250mm k1 dementes here, or as our demshiz calls him, he doesn’t see what we have, but they don’t even have 1 caliber and an factory for the production of iPhones / iPhones will be gone forever.
    5. smershxnumx
      smershxnumx 16 November 2019 16: 25 New
      I understood from the very first sentence - it’s Damantsev again - “everything disappeared” fellow No, I’m not a supporter of the conviction “we will throw our hats on everyone” (you should never underestimate even a potential enemy) .... Criticism is needed, of course ... But ... But not in the context of “everything was gone! We were extinguishing the light, draining the water!” ... Articles of this kind have already begun to annoy ...
  2. Prisoner
    Prisoner 15 November 2019 15: 25 New
    Again the author guessed by the title. But it’s interesting to read.
    1. TermNachTer
      TermNachTer 15 November 2019 21: 07 New
      Interestingly, from a purely theoretical point of view? In reality, a significant part of the Bundesian "eurofighter" stands on the ground due to the lack of spare parts.
      1. Evil Booth
        Evil Booth 16 November 2019 13: 40 New
        by the way, MOST and decades. The head of the United States Air Force complained that more than 10-12 f22 the United States could not shiver in the air because if you take 15 then it will be 8. at or 120 sorties per day. VKS with hmeimima flew all 440 as if. There are not a hundred of cars there.
  3. Jerk
    Jerk 15 November 2019 15: 25 New
    It’s much more interesting that the US stuffed over Egypt’s purchases of the Su-35 wink
  4. Andrey VOV
    Andrey VOV 15 November 2019 15: 39 New
    Oh again Damntsev ... something else, everything was gone ...
  5. Amateur
    Amateur 15 November 2019 15: 46 New
    Well, when finally Mr. Damantsev reads how the radar works. Any radar radiation is detected at least twice the distance from the radar emitter. Because the radio wave must reach the point of reflection, and then return to the receiver.
    1. Grigory Gromov
      Grigory Gromov 15 November 2019 15: 51 New
      Any radar radiation is detected at least twice the distance from the radar emitter.

      It all depends on who is discovered and why.
    2. SovAr238A
      SovAr238A 15 November 2019 20: 29 New
      Quote: Amateur
      Well, when finally Mr. Damantsev reads how the radar works. Any radar radiation is detected at least twice the distance from the radar emitter. Because the radio wave must reach the point of reflection, and then return to the receiver.

      Read at last about LPI mode - and maybe then stop talking nonsense ...
      1. Amateur
        Amateur 16 November 2019 07: 09 New
        stop talking nonsense ...

        The first time I saw the phase shifter of the FAR was in 1973, when I wrote a diploma project on it. And you read advertisements less and study elementary physics more.
        1. Evil Booth
          Evil Booth 16 November 2019 13: 42 New
          and I was the first in cheburnet many years ago to pull that it’s time to put an optical RADIO location with a wavelength of 1 mm to 100 m. Now they are increasingly writing that this is real.
        2. The comment was deleted.
  6. Horon
    Horon 15 November 2019 15: 54 New
    The bird is visible by flight, and Damantseva by name.
  7. Thrifty
    Thrifty 15 November 2019 16: 57 New
    Well done Damantsev, he makes us with his articles to be in good shape, and not to get apart. ... it’s better to be a retreat than later to reap the fruits of cap-and-tack policy. ..
  8. Galleon
    Galleon 15 November 2019 17: 36 New
    Quote: Amateur
    Any radar radiation is detected at least twice the distance from the radar emitter. Because the radio wave must reach the point of reflection, and then return to the receiver.

    belay belay belay
  9. Zaurbek
    Zaurbek 15 November 2019 18: 12 New
    Theoretically, the VFAR is not so far behind the AFAR as the slot antenna. And we are waiting for the inheritance from Su57, in the form of AFAR and other systems and turbojet engines. I think this modernization is real for the 4th generation!
    1. Herman 4223
      Herman 4223 18 November 2019 20: 14 New
      It depends on what you need from the radar. I read one interesting article, its former Poshnik wrote. So, according to his article, the efficiency of AFAR is the lowest.
      1. Zaurbek
        Zaurbek 18 November 2019 20: 27 New
        Nevertheless, the main trend of radar with AFAR is on ships and in air defense and aviation and helicopters.
        1. Herman 4223
          Herman 4223 18 November 2019 23: 06 New
          In theory, it is more reliable and can perform several tasks at once, switching some of the modules to solve one problem, and part to another.
          1. Zaurbek
            Zaurbek 19 November 2019 07: 17 New
            She also gives a clearer picture ... better aware of the goals both on the ground and in the air.
            1. Herman 4223
              Herman 4223 19 November 2019 07: 52 New
              Well, this is a moot point, in my opinion it depends more on the frequency of the radar. A radar operating in the X-band will be better able to recognize targets than one that operates in the C-band and so on.
  10. rocket757
    rocket757 15 November 2019 18: 41 New
    Someone believes that one radar, even the best, can fundamentally change something ??? And where are the tunes about all kinds of network wars and about the fact that you don’t have to turn on the radar either, since the plane will collect Old from all around and only concentrate, process it. Type it is not visible, but he knows everything about everyone ...
    It’s necessary to determine Toli is a powerful radar that will illuminate the aircraft in any way, or network technologies!
    By the way, for a defender on his territory, near his intelligence and control centers, clearly network technologies are preferable.
    But to the attacker, a good radar will certainly be in place, because everything that provides it can be far behind, if the enemy does not yawn!
  11. bars1
    bars1 15 November 2019 23: 43 New
    Quote: rocket757
    And where are the tunes about all kinds of network wars and about the fact that you don’t have to turn on the radar either, since the plane will collect Old from all around and only concentrate, process it. Type it is not visible, but he knows everything about everyone ...

    All this network-centricity will malfunction when exposed to electronic warfare. So every military weapon should be something of itself, and not hope for help, uncles,
    1. Zaurbek
      Zaurbek 19 November 2019 07: 22 New
      For each pair of fighters there is no one electronic warfare system ....
  12. akarfoxhound
    akarfoxhound 16 November 2019 01: 14 New
    Another rush of a sofa lover of brochures. Zhenek, "go" to the army, go so that you don’t sculpt nonsense!
  13. The comment was deleted.
  14. Kolka Tesemin
    Kolka Tesemin 16 November 2019 09: 29 New
    Anxiety! Anxiety! Everything is lost! Bad sign! Radars, radars! In general, the impression was that the article appeared as a result of an explosion at a printing factory. The author himself was amazed when he read it. If you follow this reasoning, then the appearance of the United States is a bad sign for Russia. And the discovery of America itself is a bad omen for the whole world. The struggle of technology is ongoing. Today they have better tomorrow with us. Is the author overly shy?
  15. Pivot
    Pivot 16 November 2019 11: 46 New
    Damantseva began to recognize by the title. I did not read the article.
    Time is a pity.
  16. grumbler
    grumbler 16 November 2019 12: 12 New
    Of course, it will be possible to judge only by the results (practice of combat use, technically and financially).
    But the approach itself shows that skillful modernization can increase the potential of technology.

    Moreover, with the resumption of large-scale military rivalry (USA, NATO vs Russia, China), they again realize that in addition to “doomsday weapons”, other types of weapons are “consumables” of the war and it is important not only (and not so much) “gig -quality "of this unit, but the quantitative superiority and ability of the country's economy to compensate for losses on the battlefield. That much greater potential for increasing painfulness lies not in building up the combat capabilities of a unit (airplane, tank, ship), but in "synergy" and "multi-domain" (multi-domain. Not to be confused with multi-medium, as we often have incorrectly translate this is the most important term dating back to systems engineering, IT-engineering of large automation systems for complex business processes) used tools.

    The need for a mechanical turnaround looks like a reasonable engineering solution if it is impossible to realize the AFAR capabilities in purely electronic scanning and multi-beam scanning in old machines — for this, AFAR elements should be placed throughout the glider (in the form of a “side line”, on wings, tail unit, etc. ), which, of course, cannot be done in the framework of modernization.
  17. The comment was deleted.
  18. EvilLion
    EvilLion 18 November 2019 08: 22 New
    The author, I do not know if fur can. the drive fits in the tiny nose of the "typhoon", which initially might not have been designed at all (I don’t remember what it originally had there, a regular radar with a mechanical drive, or HEADLIGHT), for the presence of mechanics, but the huge dimensions of the Su-35 allowed place such a thing on it. Nothing depends on the activity / passivity of the PAR. Teach a materiel. Actually, earlier it was only in that way that it was possible to change the direction of radiation, therefore, PARs were invented. As for some directional emissions, well, any headlamp for this exists, while the radiation power indicators are still limited, and the small fighter light radar, and especially the operation of only part of its PP modules, does not somehow adjust to super- duper electronic warfare.
  19. G. Georgiev
    G. Georgiev 19 November 2019 18: 58 New
    Don’t worry, Russia. You have excellent systems for REB "Himalayas", "Vitebsk" ..