Mysteries of the hararach sword

Mysteries of the hararach sword
Old Russian swords from Gnezdovo. Whether there were harazhuzhny among them is unknown. Photo Mihalchuk-1974.livejournal.com


One of the main weapons of the Old Russian warrior was a sword. History sword in Russia is quite well known, but white spots still remain in it. For example, the so-called cause for controversy is still the so-called haraluzhny sword. Which one arms this name belonged - it is unclear. It is also unknown why this sword was distinguished from other blades. All this contributes to the emergence of various versions, none of which have yet been fully confirmed.

Literary sources


The phrase "swords of haralyuzhny" first appears in the "Word of Igor's Regiment", written at the end of the XII century. Prior to this, similar expressions are not found in well-known sources. In the "Word" the adjective "haraluzhny" is used several times as a description of swords, a copy and flails. It is also necessary to pay attention to the turnover “Vayu is the brave of heart.”

The next time, haraluzhny spears are mentioned only in Zadonshchina, written approximately in the XIV-XV centuries. In other literary works of that era, haraluzhnye swords, spears, etc. or haralug itself are absent.

The next significant mention of haralug is found in V.I. Dahl. The term is associated with flowery steel, damask steel. However, the dictionary was compiled several centuries after the first mention of haralyzhennyh weapons, which imposed certain restrictions.

Origin of the name


Studying the "Word of Igor’s Regiment" and ancient Russian weapons, philologists and historians proposed several versions regarding the "haraluzhny swords." None of them has yet been fully confirmed, and the debate continues.

There is a version according to which the term "haralug" comes from the Old High German word "Karoling". Accordingly, it can indicate a weapon of a foreign standard - a Carolingian type sword. However, this option did not enjoy much support, and then received a logical refutation.


Old Russian army. Illustration I.G. Blinova to the "Word of Igor's Regiment", ed. 1912

There is an explanation linking the "haralug" with the Turkic peoples and their weapons. Moreover, as far as is known, in most Turkic languages ​​such a word was absent. One version of the “eastern wake” suggests linking the swords of warriors with the Central Asian tribal union of the Karluks, who have mastered the production of blades well.

However, searches in the East can be useless. Until a certain time, ancient Russian blacksmiths borrowed ideas and solutions from their Western colleagues, as a result of which their swords and spears were similar to European ones. The experience of the eastern neighbors began to be used later - after writing the "Words on Igor's Regiment". In the work of A.N. Kirpichnikov's "Old Russian weapons" offers a fairly balanced and logical version that explains this confusion. The definition of “haraluzhny” could indeed be taken in the East, but it was used only for local or western weapons.

The main points of view on the problem of “haraluzhny swords” suggest that in this case we are talking about material or weapons manufacturing technology. However, there are other versions. In particular, it is proposed to link the “haralug” and the process of tinning or performing another coating. This version allows us to explain the heart chained in the haralug from the Word and the birch of haraluzhny from Zadonshchina.

However, the version of the coating has no worthy evidence and is not very popular. The generally accepted explanations relate specifically to the material of swords and spears.

There are several versions of the translation of the Word and Zadonshchina into the modern Russian language, and they also cause confusion. In some of these translations, other definitions are used instead of the old Russian term “haraluzhny”. In particular, damask is often mentioned.

Damask haralug


It is the version of the Kharaulug as damask that was included in V.I. Dahl. According to domestic and foreign sources, in Ancient Russia they were well acquainted with this material. There was a fairly large number of damask blades of foreign production - although due to the high cost such weapons were not available to all warriors.


The results of experiments on the restoration of the Khorolug, 1998, Photo by Kalashnikov.ru

There is information about the purchase of imported materials for the further manufacture of swords by local blacksmiths. However, its own production of damask for many centuries could not be launched.

The version of the haralug-damask has the right to life, but still not without flaws. Her main problem is the lack of direct evidence. In accessible sources related to the required historical period, damask and haralug are not mentioned and identified together.

In the “Word of Igor’s Regiment” with swords, haraluzhny spears and flails are mentioned, which raises new questions in the context of the damask. Historically, a spear was a simple, cheap, and massive weapon for a foot warrior or horseman. Damask tip leveled all these advantages. The situation is similar with flail. Moreover, this should be taken into account that this subject of agricultural implements has traditionally been made of wood with a minimum number of metal parts.

Thus, the version of haralug-damask has several significant drawbacks and does not look very believable. This can be explained by the fact that many centuries have passed from the appearance of haraluzhny weapons to the formation of the “damask” version, and during this time no one has bothered to preserve knowledge about metals and weapons.

Reconstruction attempt


It is possible that the term “haralug” was used to refer to a certain alloy that has become obsolete and forgotten. In this case, one could conduct research and try to recover the lost technology. This is precisely what a group of Russian scientists and metallurgists took up in the mid-nineties.


A knife made of a modern horolug. Photo by Kalashnikov.ru

It all started with the recently discovered Scandinavian annals, which mentioned the Slavic axes of extreme strength. Such weapons literally chopped down the swords of the enemy. According to legend, such a weapon was granted to the god God Khors. In this regard, a version appeared about the origin of the name “haralug” from “Khorolud” - “Glitter of Horse”.

In further studies, the ancient Novgorod process of manufacturing steel for the blade was restored. When melting loose lake ore using birch coal, a small amount of iron meteorite material with a small nickel content was added. The latter provided alloying of steel, and due to meteorite iron a complex austenite-martensitic microfiber structure was formed. This structure gave a high dynamic viscosity and high hardness of the blade.

By the beginning of the 2000s, the study participants launched the production of new steel-holorug and began to produce knives of different types. A characteristic feature of these products was a small pattern on a blade resembling damask steel. In addition, the knives were distinguished by spectacular artistic decoration.

The mystery is not revealed.


Despite all the efforts of historians and metallurgists, accurate information about the haralug is still lacking. What it is, how it was made, and what the differences were, is unclear. Available information in literary sources is extremely scarce, and the necessary archaeological finds are still missing. As a result, haraluzhnye swords and spears are still one of the main mysteries of their era.

Whether there will ever be clear and unambiguous answers to existing questions is unknown. Historians and archaeologists have to rely only on available sources and artifacts, the amount of which is not always sufficient to identify all the required information. Perhaps the mysteries of the haralug will remain unsolved, and white spots will still be present in the history of the ancient Russian sword.
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  1. Pessimist22 17 November 2019 06: 27 New
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    Damask steel, pulat, Persian steel, was made by casting followed by long-term cooling, while the ingot was pierced by a uniformly distributed dendritic structure, then the product was forged from the ingot. Information about the "magic" steel produced in the east was also mentioned by Aristotle, the so-called Indian Wutz, A bar of steel weighing about a kilogram was produced in India. The secret of production of cast damask steel was lost, and in the 19th century, the Russian general and scientist Anosov after long experiments reproduced cast damask steel and made weapons from it.
    1. Bar2 17 November 2019 10: 52 New
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      the original of this Word does not exist - burned in the fire of 1812. And all the translations may simply not be conscientious, since all sorts of non-Russian philologists were engaged in these translations and publications. Therefore, there they thought up the “haraluzhny” not haraluzhny; to deal with the analysis of these translations is obviously a pointless conversation.
    2. Saxahorse 17 November 2019 20: 19 New
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      Quote: Pessimist22
      Damask steel, pulat, Persian steel, made by casting followed by long cooling

      People first saw liquid steel only after the invention of the converter in the 19th century. And yes, cast steel is significantly superior in quality to any forged one. But this is not about the 12-14 century. Do not confuse readers ..
      1. kig
        kig 18 November 2019 03: 57 New
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        People first saw liquid steel in Terminator 2 ... lol
  2. Raphael Wahitov 17 November 2019 06: 55 New
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    "Haraluzhny sword" - "kharugny sword" - a great (powerful) hand sword.

    "surgeon" - "harug" - a great hand.

    "Vayu the brave of heart

    "tough kharaluzѣ is fettered" - with a cruel great (powerful) hand is fettered.

    Don, Don, fast Don, walked through the Polovtsian land, struck through the birch of Kharaluzhny - "pierced through the birch of Kharaluzhny" - pierced these shores with a mighty hand. Or struck the banks of the Great River.

    Cooley is Indian. Koli is the name of the lower caste in Western India. Porter, loader, carter, laborer in India, China, Japan, Indonesia, hired for a low fee. By the name of Cooley, of course, the numerous Chinese and Malay proletariat, seeking the use of their labor forces outside their homeland, mostly in the North. America and Australia.

    Cooley - goal - hand.

    Roguli (villagers) - hand, slaves.

    What mitigation - the first or second - is reflected in the ancient Russian words: hand - rutsi; hell - voros; duh - dushi?
    1. Raphael Wahitov 17 November 2019 20: 14 New
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      https://zen.yandex.ru/media/nplus1/kak-otkrytie-berestianyh-gramot-izmenilo-vzgliad-na-iazyk-rusi-5ca70bd37fced200b34f1493

      In all likelihood, this spelling also follows pronunciation. And if so, replacing K with C is a very important symptom.

      According to other letters that were not known to Artsikhovsky, Zaliznyak established that in ancient Novgorod the star was called “star”, the church - “church” (more precisely, “kyrks”), the gray-haired - “heda” (more precisely, “hede”). There was also the wonderful word "her" (in our opinion it would be "serious") - gray, i.e. unpainted cloth. Thus, the pronunciation of “kele” instead of “whole” is a systematic feature, which in the scientific language is called “the absence of the effect of the second palatalization”. The second palatalization is the transition of the back-lingual consonants (K, D, X) before the front vowels (E, I) to the front-lingual (C, Z, C). That is, the archaic forms were “cell”, “star”, “church”, “head”, and after the second palatalization it became more or less the way we are now used to. The same effect turned the Latin generic name Caesar into Cesar / Caesar of later languages.

      The second palatalization occurred in all Slavic languages. It means that it took place in that era when all of them were still a single language - Proto-Slavic. That is, no later than the VI century. And since the Old Novgorod dialect is an exception to this rule, it remains to be assumed that it separated from the Pre-Slavic unity even earlier and therefore was not affected by the general Slavic process. And from this no longer follows a linguistic, but a historical conclusion: the Novgorod Slavs were not part of the Eastern Slavs, but a separate branch of the Slavs, which arrived in the lake region in the north-west of present-day Russia independently.
  3. Raphael Wahitov 17 November 2019 06: 57 New
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    I explain the WORD “Rus” as follows: At the beginning of our time, the Germanic tribes of the Goths moved south from the Baltic to the Black Sea. The first tribe that they enslaved were Rugians, the Goths made them slave porters and subsequently all the slave porters began to call Rugs. When the Huns came and defeated the Goths, these carrier slaves went to the Huns. Rugs were freed from the Huns and they performed the role of auxiliary units and the service of the rear. This word is from the Huns, the banner is a kharug-gonfalon, ho is great, a rug is to bear the meaning of the word "Greatness sign to wear." The Slavs came from mixed peoples of the Sarmatians, Goths and mainly the Balts, etc. European peoples captured by the Huns. The Huns settled them in Pannonia to grow bread and work as blacksmiths a kind of "service of the rear", others settled in the Carpathian mountains to graze flocks of sheep. The third were porters in the army; here they were called "rugs", hence the word "hand". The meaning of the word passes from people to people with another word “Hand” - “goal”, “river” in Mongolian “goal”, and in Turkic “goal” -hand. The river is like a hand, or vice versa, the mouth of the river is fingers. For Russians, the branch of the river is called the "sleeve", and the course of the river is the "channel". These "rugs" became "Rus-ros" or "Rus." And when Avars appeared after the Huns - the Hun tribe they mistook them for their masters and already under the Avars the Slavs formed as a single people, and the Avars assimilated among them. And when the southern Slavs settled on the Balkan Peninsula. and the Bulgarians (Hun tribe) Khan Asparuh who fled from the Khazars came to them, they accepted them because they had not forgotten their masters of the Huns, the Avars. The Slavs and the Rus had the same language as the chroniclers note, they differed from each other in their way of life. When the Bulgarians were defeated by the Khazars, the elite with the army fled to the Danube and the Volga-Kama, leaving the servants in military camps. Rugi-Rus were bearers in the army and adopted the military lifestyle at the camps, having received freedom they became a military estate and they took the Huns-Avars, they all shaved off everything that was left by the sedentary man and mustache, the Huns grew old without a beard, and the Slavs led a peaceful lifestyle and a haircut under the pot. Therefore, in the way of life, the Rus and the Slavs were different. Arab sources of the first Rus are classified as Türks, and the Türks had a system to buy part of the army from slaves. Such a system of hired army was called in Turkic "ghoulam" from the word "goal" -kuli-slave. And since these mercenaries were from the Slavs, they called themselves Rus-rugi-ruka. It was from these rugi-Rus that the military class Ros-Rus was formed. The Slavs and the Rus had the same language as the chroniclers note, they differed from each other in their way of life. Rus is a military estate that collected tribute from the peaceful Slavs to feed them. Western Slavs formed in the Avar Kaganate. But they could not create an independent state; their military estate was destroyed as the Horutans became Slovenes. Eastern Slavs formed Great Bulgaria Khan Kubrat. Southern Slavs in the Bulgarian kingdom of Khan Asparuh. The Khazar-Turks of these Rus left alone and only took tribute, but when the Jews captured the authorities in the Khazar Khaganate, they hired the Rus for robbery in the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea, as well as the Russians supplied slaves from the Slavs for slave traders. Having gained freedom, the Rus chose the three leaders the triumvirate Kiya, Schek, Horeb, as they divided into groups and so lasted more than 200 years. The last leaders of the Rus are the two-man-cross of Askold and Dir. The groups were constantly at odds with each other and no one wanted to obey yesterday's drinking companion. The Russians laid the foundation for the Zaporozhye Cossacks who lived in military camps, in contrast to the Don Cossacks who lived at the villages. And when the Varangians-Normans of Rurik appeared in Novgorod, the boyars-merchants who were tired of this mess for a long time quickly realized and invited Prince Oleg and helped to seize power in Kiev. Prince Oleg established autocracy and the Norman Varangians became commanders in the Russian squad. And when the Normans began to decline, they began to accept in the squads of the Slavs the “Gridni” - the younger squad, “Gridni” from the Turkic word “Girde” - “joined” the squad. And in order to distinguish their Slavs from pagan Slavs, Prince Vladimir and his squad converted to Christianity. PS. The modern RUSSIAN PEOPLE received the name from the princes of Rurikovich from the clan-Rus who ruled in Ancient Russia and have very little relation to those "Rus" from whom the word "RUS" came from.
    1. mark1 17 November 2019 07: 31 New
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      From wherever the modern RUSSIAN PEOPLE comes from, it is the winner-owner of 1/7 of the land, known to everyone in the world, in contrast to the sunken or Russified former owners
      1. mark1 17 November 2019 07: 45 New
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        The word "swear" meant a dialogue expressed in the verbal censure of negligent scolding for their poor work and their reciprocal arguments.
      2. 1970mk 17 November 2019 18: 44 New
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        Excuse me ... the host nation of the 1st seventh land? What are you talking about? It is when? The people were the master in the times of the Novgorod Republic .... Under the Soviets .... never again. And now anyone is the boss, but not the Russian people.
        1. mark1 17 November 2019 18: 56 New
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          No need to juggle. We live in Russia and not in the Hun, Khazar, or what else Avar-Gothic former state on this territory. And how we live is already about something completely different; I can reprove you with nails and stigmatize no worse than you.
          1. 1970mk 17 November 2019 18: 59 New
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            What does it have to do with nailing and branding? You say that the RUSSIAN PEOPLE is the master of all this CENTURY! Not the people ... anyone and it is in fact .... So leave your pathos.
            1. mark1 17 November 2019 19: 10 New
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              Quote: 1970mk
              You say that the RUSSIAN PEOPLE is the master of all this CENTURY!

              Am I saying that? Although if the Russians are the titular nation and all the rest are Russified, then I agree.
      3. Zementbomber 8 May 2020 04: 48 New
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        I correctly understood - that the scope of the "economy of the owner" is steadily declining? laughing In 1991 - there was still "1/6 sushi" ... laughing
    2. Kote Pan Kokhanka 17 November 2019 09: 13 New
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      Perhaps everything is easier!
      Rugi - red, Russ - light brown !!! laughing
      If at all to climb into pieces. That honey is a word from the language of the Huns. Considering that we borrowed it from the first, it means - from them that they stole honey?
      drinks and - riding bears !!! wassat
    3. Archon 17 November 2019 09: 49 New
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      Before writing such a thing, it is always important to indicate that these are guesses, thoughts and assumptions. Nobody knows the truth for sure; history has been rewritten and rethought many times. Therefore, we can only speculate how and what happened in those days.
    4. Krasnoyarsk 17 November 2019 11: 15 New
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      = I explain the word Rus as follows: =
      The free flight of the thoughts of a man who remembers his master.
    5. abc_alex 18 November 2019 14: 02 New
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      Quote: Raphael Wahita
      At the beginning of our time, the Germanic tribes of the Goths moved south from the Baltic to the Black Sea. The first tribe that they enslaved were Rugians, the Goths made them slave porters and subsequently all the slave porters began to call Rugs.


      Yeah. And since they enslaved the vandals as the next, they called the porters "Rugs and Van." This is where the “Russian Ivanes” came from. Well, everything is logical ...

      Quote: Raphael Wahita
      When the Huns came and defeated the Goths, these carrier slaves went to the Huns. Rugs were freed from the Huns and they performed the role of auxiliary units and the service of the rear.


      The Huns were generally famous for their reverent attitude to the traditions of the conquered peoples and, of course, did not have a rear service, and even had no idea about porters in the army. And here o-pa! Rugi-i-Wan porters! Well, of course, you need to borrow such a high-tech solution completely, right with the name!
      True, from the time of the Goths' arrival in the southern Baltic states to the Hun invasion, 200 years passed, which at that time amounted to 10 generations, but the Goths are generally well-known conservatives. If they decided - porters from rug-i-vans, then it will be so. Even if you have to run after rugov through half of Europe.
      Logical.

      Quote: Raphael Wahita
      This word is from the Huns, the banner is a kharug-gonfalon, ho is great, a rug is worn in the meaning of the word "The Sign of Greatness is worn"


      Of course! It is so natural to entrust the “Sign of Greatness” to foreigners. Especially in the tribal structure of the troops. More logical and more logical.

      Quote: Raphael Wahita
      The Slavs appeared from the mixed peoples of the Sarmatians, Goths and mainly the Balts and other European peoples captured by the Huns.

      Is logical. The Huns generally went down in history precisely with their popular actions. Usually they did just that. They seized vast territories and united different ethnic groups into new tribal unions and peoples. By the way, they were not at all embarrassed that the Balts and Sarmatians live hundreds of kilometers from each other. Hun said - Hun did.

      Quote: Raphael Wahita
      The third were porters in the army; here they were called "rugs", hence the word "hand". The meaning of the word passes from people to people with another word “Hand” - “goal”, “river” in Mongolian “goal”, and in Turkic “goal” -hand. The river is like a hand, or vice versa, the mouth of the river is fingers. For Russians, the branch of the river is called the "sleeve", and the course of the river is the "channel". These "rugs" became "Rus-ros" or "Rus."

      And could you clarify how the Old Russian names of the parts of the hand were formed?
      DESA - right hand
      HAND - palm
      FIRST - finger
      RAMO - shoulder from neck to elbow
      RUCE - hands
      Maybe these are also different auxiliary units of the Hun army?
      And it’s completely logical to talk about the transition to Russian and other languages ​​of the root “Rus” through the “goal”. In the end, BE and Russia are full of rivers named using the “goal” combination. And the river, of course, looks like a hand. It is enough to look, for example, at the Oka from a height of a couple of kilometers to see this.

      Quote: Raphael Wahita
      And when Avars appeared after the Huns - the Hun tribe they mistook them for their masters and already under the Avars the Slavs formed as a single people, and the Avars assimilated among them.


      It’s completely logical.
      Just from the 4th to the 6th century BC formed by the Huns, the Slavs could not understand who would be mistaken for the masters. But then the Avars appeared and everything logically grew together. And whether these, these, what is the porter Ivan the difference? Just to beat. After all, if he hits, then he loves.

      Quote: Raphael Wahita
      Rugi-Rus were bearers in the army and adopted the military lifestyle at the camps, having received freedom they became a military estate and they took the Huns-Avars, they all shaved off everything that was left by the sedentary man and mustache, the Huns grew old without a beard, and the Slavs led a peaceful lifestyle and a haircut under the pot.


      And again, everything is logical! It is obvious that the porter in the Hun army is a ready-made representative of the military class. You only need to shave your head and he is ready for battle. In general, the military estate is created in this way, by the method of long-term transfer of heavy loads in the rear of the army, assembled on the basis of a clan and tribal basis. True, the Goths still went bald with settlers as a sign of dedication to Odin, but this is also logical.
      And it is quite logical that the haircut around, "under the pot" has always been a visiting card of the Slavs. No one in the world has ever had such a haircut, only the Slavs.

      Quote: Raphael Wahita
      Arab sources of the first Rus belong to the Türks

      It is completely logical to peremptorily believe Arab sources. And also antique. Kinookefaly - the indigenous population of Crimea.

      Quote: Raphael Wahita
      And since these mercenaries were from the Slavs, they called themselves Rus-rugi-ruka. It was from these rugi-Rus that the military class Ros-Rus was formed.

      Here I did not catch the logic, but it certainly is. Explain that the military estate of rug-hands was formed in the Avar army or the Arab mercenary troops?

      Quote: Raphael Wahita
      Rus is a military estate that collected tribute from the peaceful Slavs to feed them.

      Estate ... to feed ... the peace ...

      Raphael. I could troll your opus for a long time, but I won’t be tired. To be honest, I can’t even imagine what you’ve read to compose. You seem to have absolutely no idea how the Goths, Huns, Avars and other tribes looked from the point of view of the administrative structure, and therefore you are operating with such realities that at the beginning of the new era were not possible in principle.
      1. Raphael Wahitov 18 November 2019 22: 24 New
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        1. All subsequent captured slaves from different tribes and peoples were called rugi-rus-ruze, who were with the army, and peaceful-grain-growers were called Slavs.
        2. The Huns still had to equip military camps and carry, carry their belongings.
        3. All who wore something called "rugi-wear" the meaning of the word.
        4. The Huns passed through the lands of the Sarmatians and they had prisoners of war Sarmatians and they, according to the laws of that time, they became slaves and also with prisoners of war Goths, Balts, everyone who was captured. All these representatives of tribes and peoples brought together and gave rise to a new people Slavs.
        5. The principle to call one word in meaning was retained among the Turkic peoples. Slaves in the Hun, Avar, and Bulgarian hordes were called "rugs," "Rus," and also war slaves were called the Turkic word "goal" which has the same meaning as "hand." The rest of the words you listed do not apply to the topic.
        6.And when the Avars came, the Slavs did not yet form as a single people. The Western Slavs under the Avars formed as a people. And the eastern Slavs under the Bulgars of Khan Kubrat.
        7. There is nothing to talk about hairstyles.
        8. And why not believe the Arab sources, the Rus under the Bulgars and Khazars were still Türks in the language of the hosts.
        9. The Bulgars, after the defeat by the Khazars, fled to the Danube River and the Kama River, and porters-rugov were asked in military camps. They Bulgars had no time to leave in an organized manner. The Khazars did not need this slave zbrod and they did not pose any threat. Rugi, remaining independent, imposed tribute to the peaceful Slavs, they had to eat something. And then merchant-slave-merchants appeared and hired Rugs-Rus for catching slaves in the forests, and also equipped for robbery on the Black measure and on the Caspian. It lasted 200 years.
        10. They themselves didn’t plow the land and did not grow bread, they took it from the Slavs.
        1. abc_alex 19 November 2019 02: 15 New
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          Quote: Raphael Wahita
          All subsequent captured slaves from different tribes and peoples were called rugi-rus-ruze, who were with the army, and peaceful-grain-growers were called Slavs.


          Rafail, yes, finally understand, all these Goths and Huns only after thousands of years began to be called as a single people. In fact, it was a huge gathering of different tribes. They weren’t just calling someone the same, they were moving in the same direction, and it was hard to get them to. The invasions lasted for years, decades. During this time, conquered peoples roamed away, scattered somewhere. Rugi including.
          Moreover, the Huns are nomads. They traveled hundreds of kilometers without any porters. All their life was adapted for movement without any outside assistance. And even more so, there was hardly any army rear service there at all.

          Quote: Raphael Wahita
          2. The Huns still had to equip military camps and carry, carry their belongings.

          What for? From childhood, any steppe nomad is adapted to independent life along the way, and his life flows within the tribe. The camp of the steppes is both a military camp and a village at the same time. It does not need to equip. It unfolds and collapses in families of warriors.
          Moreover, the Huns, they are the Huns, have besieged the Chinese empire for generations, and if they could, then do without help in the year of the raid.

          Quote: Raphael Wahita
          Everyone who wore something was called "rugi-wear" the meaning of the word.

          Where did you get this from?

          Quote: Raphael Wahita
          The Huns passed through the lands of the Sarmatians and they had prisoners of war of the Sarmatians, and they, according to the laws of that time, they became slaves and also with prisoners of war Goths, Balts, everyone they caught. All these representatives of tribes and peoples brought together and gave rise to a new people Slavs.


          There is only subtlety: ancient sources wrote about Slavic tribes in the first century. Moreover, they used the toponym Slovene. Although often wrote Wends. And the Huns did not have such a developed administrative apparatus that could unite disparate groups of different peoples. The states of that time were generally not capable of directed ethnogenesis. The Huns had prisoners, there were tribal allies, but these were precisely foreigners, whom no one united into single groups. Nobody just needed to do this. There was a strict feudal logic - a service for a fee. and no other sentiment.
          The fact that the population of Eastern Europe is a conglomeration of tribes and peoples is undoubted. And the fact that this conglomerate was going to result from wars and invasions, too. But it was not a controlled process, as it turns out.

          Quote: Raphael Wahita
          The principle to call with one meaning in a word was preserved among the Turkic peoples. Slaves in the Hun, Avar and Bulgarian hordes were called "rugs", "Rus" and also slave-war were called the Turkic word "goal" which has the same meaning as "hand". The rest of the words you listed do not apply to the topic.


          And then what? Even if you accept your version of “rughi-slaves”, with a touch of easy insanity, then how do you explain the self-name of a fragmented conglomerate of non-Turkic peoples with this word. Well, strange, don’t you? Not even a hint of a goal river, goal hand or goal slave has been preserved in any Slavic language. Why did you stick it at all?
          I admit that the slaves in the horde were called rugs, but then you have to somehow explain the MECHANISM of the transition of the Turkic designation of a slave to the self-name of a conglomerate of a couple of dozen tribes. Moreover, the ethnogenesis of the Slavs does not coincide in time with the Turkic hordes, and even the Russians are even more so!

          Quote: Raphael Wahita
          And when the Avars arrived, the Slavs did not yet form as a single people. The Western Slavs under the Avars formed as a people. And the eastern Slavs under the Bulgars of Khan Kubrat.


          That's what I'm talking about! You insist that for hundreds of years and dozens of generations in the territory of BE, a single cultural field has been preserved in which Turkic linguistic traditions dominated. But then the “legacy” was to remain. At least in place names. In Asia, then it remains. The same Khalkhin goal. Everything as you said. Goal. But in Slavic place names there are no "goals". Well, there are none! Look at the map yourself. And that means, and the Turkic linguistic tradition, apparently was not. And the Turkic word "slave" would not be called, most likely. Or already this self-name would reach us. How did the "Cossacks", "Gridni", "slaves". And so on. But no.

          Quote: Raphael Wahita
          And why not believe in Arab sources, the Rus under the Bulgars and Khazars were still Türks in the language of the hosts.


          Because there were no trains, planes did not fly, there was no regular communication between Asia and Europe, as well as mail, telegraph, telephone and newspapers. A significant part of the entire medieval written heritage is compilation and retelling. I gave you an example with film show. The ancient author was confident in their existence. That is why it is impossible to trust ONE array of sources. Need to seek confirmation in others. In this case - European. Though somehow, this phenomenon of the Rus was to be postponed as warrior slaves. There is?

          Quote: Raphael Wahita
          Rugi, remaining independent, imposed tribute to the peaceful Slavs, they had to eat something. And then merchant-slave-merchants appeared and hired Rugs-Rus for catching slaves in the forests, and also equipped for robbery on the Black measure and on the Caspian. It lasted 200 years.

          Listen, what peaceful Slavs are you talking about? Any power then rested on power. Tribal alliances generally gathered for the sake of war. War itself was a form of entrepreneurial activity. Do not imagine the Slavs as ruminant herbivores. Any tribal leader had a squad, and the militia gathered from all the men of the tribe. And he could pile up porters from the Bulgarian army quite rigidly. And kill too. And again, you write fiction. 200 years then not every state could live, especially a group of runaway slaves. These your friends should not just be mercenary robbers. They should be part of a solid state entity that has survived at least 10 generations. Otherwise, they would simply have gone "no." And again, why did the word "rug" become the name of the tribes then? If it's gangster strangers? The British do not call themselves Vikings ...

          Quote: Raphael Wahita
          They themselves didn’t plow the land and did not grow bread, they took it from the Slavs.

          So how many were there, rugs? No tribe will just give up their bread. Productivity was low, any raid threatened hunger. Therefore, the armed forces were everywhere. How much are you talking about?
          1. Raphael Wahitov 19 November 2019 12: 34 New
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            The Goths became a single people coming to the Black Sea, this is Chernyakhov culture 200 years of living together. The Huns were formed by mixing in the West. Siberian Sarmatians (Sargat culture) with newcomers to the Huns 200 years of marriage. So don’t need thousands of years, 200 years under a single authority is enough.
            This is the Huns, and after the Avars-Jujans they fled from Mongolia, but they also created the rear of the Huns in Western Siberia, the Black Sea region and in Pannonia, and the Avars who came after the Huns came to the ready rear. And from there they carried out predatory raids throughout the district. About the Hunnic camps, read from the Greek authors about their embassies to the Huns of Attila. At these camps the rear services were also needed, which they called "rugi-russians", therefore European chroniclers did not notice them. And they noticed after they determined independence and became a military force.
            The Huns-Huns were "not besieged by China", but raided, because they were not satisfied with the rules of trade. They unfastened by force what they needed.
            I took the “hand-ruggers-wear” porter from my head, by analogy with the “goal-coolie” porter in the countries of the East.
            Antique sources about the Slavs have nothing from ancient sources; these are modern historians urged to slavish the Slavs, like venets that were from the Baltic tribes.
            The times of the Huns and Avars in Europe are called the "Dark Ages", the time of the formation of modern peoples and states. Here are the Huns and gave rise to ethnogenesis for the European nations by blowing their passionary energy.
            I didn’t write that this is a “controlled process”, these foreigners themselves began to organize themselves according to complementarity and lasted until Charles the Great.
            The Slavs have the word "GOAL" in the words like "GALICIA", GOAL "-HOLODrans, that is, beggars, PURPOSE Or as a Taunt of Roguli, villagers, a Ukrainian, a great or mighty hand.
            Read Turkic words from the Huns among the Slavs at Anna Dybo.
            If you look at the history of the Slavs, you always rely on the Turkic peoples of the Huns, Avars, Bulgarians - these are Western and Southern Slavs, Eastern Slavs, Bulgarians, Khazars, Pechenegs, Torques, Kipchaks (Polovtsy). The Slavs spread mainly within the Baltic tribes, among the Poles it was the Avars - the Masurian culture, those who converted to Christianity became Poles, and the pagans who preserved faith to the old gods remained Prussians.
            The rogues were not runaway slaves. These rug-Russ left without masters became the military power of the Slavs. The Slavs lived in small villages and did not have military strength comparable to the Russian squads. Russ-rugs walked "POPULD" along the rivers and collected tribute and selected beautiful women and boys for sale to merchants-slave traders.
            Rugi-Russes lived independently for 200 years and their military camps turned into cities like Kiev, Chernikov, and then the Normans, led by Oleg, seized power in Kiev.
            There were THREE educational centers of the Slavs of Pannonia; this is Czech Shek; the Masurian culture is Lyakh-Khoriv and the eastern Slavs are Rus-Kiy.
            1. Raphael Wahitov 19 November 2019 15: 49 New
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              Why was the Ukrainian replaced by a Ukrainian?
          2. Raphael Wahitov 21 November 2019 20: 11 New
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            For a long time you spend your knowledge to troll me.
            My version answers the questions of historians, who are the Rus and where did they bring women for sale to Itil, see Ibn Fadlan. Russian historians do not answer this, if we take into account that the Russians and Slavs from the same people, the Russians brought their bored wives with whom they did not agree with the characters, as well as sisters and daughters. In my opinion, the Rus and Slavs had relations like the Russian gentleman and serfs. And also about the 200-year-old Russian Khaganate before the seizure of power by Prince Oleg in Kiev with the help of merchants of slave traders. In the principalities of Ancient Russia there was the power of the oligarch boyars who chose who would be the prince-military authority responsible for the dispute of tribute from the population, defense and capable of leading the squads on victorious campaigns for booty. Such power lasted until the reign of Vladimir Monomakh, who drove the Jews and established princely sovereignty. Only Veliky Novgorod was able to maintain the oligarchic power of the Judaic boyars.
            Boyars - a rich husband (Turk.), A merchant-slave trader (slaves are the most popular goods of the time).
    6. OLGRIN 2 December 2019 07: 06 New
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      What kind of porridge is this?
  4. geologist 17 November 2019 09: 16 New
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    Haraluzhny - two-handed.
    1. Mordvin 3 17 November 2019 09: 32 New
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      Quote: geologist
      Haraluzhny - two-handed.

      Don, Don, fast Don, went through the land of Polovtsy, struck the banks of Kharaluzhny
      "A word about donning." request In my opinion, Rafail Vakhitov is right.
      Quote: Raphael Wahita
      "Haraluzhny sword" - "kharugny sword" - a great (powerful) hand sword.

      On it, sheaves are laid with their heads, thrashing with haraluzhnye chains
    2. Graz 17 November 2019 10: 40 New
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      doubtfully, the base of the squad is cavalry, the elite cavalry could not have a two-handed sword
      1. knn54 17 November 2019 19: 57 New
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        Hara-Kara-BLACK.
        Puddle-COVER, TIND (?)
        Together-BLOODED.
    3. voyaka uh 17 November 2019 19: 28 New
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      Swords found by archaeologists in Russia are not long. Everything is a meter or shorter.
      It makes no sense to hold a short sword with both hands.
      1. abc_alex 18 November 2019 14: 16 New
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        Quote: voyaka uh
        It makes no sense to hold a short sword with both hands.


        There is. The sword of the early Middle Ages is a stabbing weapon, not a chopping one. It’s more convenient to chop with an ax, klevets or a club. When injecting with your second hand, holding the sword with your second hand just makes sense.
        1. voyaka uh 18 November 2019 15: 01 New
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          "When injected, hold the sword with your second hand" ////
          ----
          belay
          I can’t imagine such a feint.
          There was almost no armor. Not a chivalrous era yet.
          Do not stick your sword in your stomach with one hand?
          The second hand usually covered with a shield from the enemy.
          1. abc_alex 18 November 2019 15: 31 New
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            Quote: voyaka uh
            I can’t imagine such a feint.

            Leading hand on the handle, the second on top of it or guard. An injection by turning the body. Later, the lower part of the blade had to be deprived of sharpening altogether, so that the second hand could grab the blade.

            Quote: voyaka uh
            There was almost no armor. Not a chivalrous era yet.
            Do not stick your sword in your stomach with one hand?


            It was not metal or all-metal. They were leather. Thick, tanned leather and thick anti-injection fabric worked well. Again, metal rings sewn onto the skin also protected from an injection. It was necessary to lean against the handle for puncture with the whole mass. There, the Japanese, in armor, generally did so to the end with fabric, leather, wood and bone.
      2. beeper 18 November 2019 14: 54 New
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        hi So, judging by the photo, the ancient Russian swords have a short hilt under one arm, and there’s nothing to hold the second for ?! winked
        Vayu is a bravehearted, inwardly haraluzѣ fettered.

        Warriors are brave hearts in a sturdy hard stronghold (irresistibly strong, in the context of this phrase about monolith warriors, in the context of phrases about swords and flails, haralyuzhnye-superbly strong, and with the banks of the Don-irresistible, harauzhny birch-slender and strong like swords) shackled (combined).
  5. Narak-zempo 17 November 2019 10: 29 New
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    And what does not suit the author about the haralug as a local version of Damascus steel? Moreover, it does not suit so much that it is not even mentioned in the article.
    http://www.dhblacksmith.narod.ru/haralug.htm
    1. Anatoly Anatoly 17 November 2019 10: 38 New
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      By the way, yes. Moreover, the products in the photo are very similar to products from damask steel.
  6. The comment was deleted.
  7. Operator 17 November 2019 12: 09 New
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    Haraluzhny translated from Old Slavonic - patterned.

    Therefore - patterned steel swords (damask), patterned shafts of spears (which crack), patterned wooden flails (which are used to grind grain), patterned birch trees (in Zadonshchina).
    1. Narak-zempo 17 November 2019 12: 48 New
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      I will refer to K.A. Zhukov, a specialist in armament of medieval Russia - there was no damask steel in Russia, haralug - welded blades of the Damask type.
      1. Operator 17 November 2019 13: 25 New
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        The definition of "haralug" is again from the patterned look of blades by the type of Damascus.
  8. Mountain shooter 17 November 2019 12: 23 New
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    The cast damask steel of the Amosovsky type - revived by enthusiasts from Russia, is absolutely a wonderful thing. And, most importantly, it is shown how it could be produced in a makeshift way. I have a knife of black damask steel Viktor Kuznetsov. Good knife. Acute. Nice.
    1. The comment was deleted.
  9. paul3390 17 November 2019 14: 27 New
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    Quote: Narak-zempo
    I will refer to K.A. Zhukov, a specialist in armament of medieval Russia - there was no damask steel in Russia, haralug - welded blades of the Damask type.

    Beetles carries a lot of nonsense, for emphasis on the Scandinavian origin of Russia. To listen to him - so we didn’t forge our swords! Although all Arabs - as one say the opposite ..

    KITAB HUDOOD AL-'ALAM MIN AL-MASHRIK ILA-L-MAHRIB

    1. KUYABA (? Kubaba, etc.) is a city [land?] Of Rus, located closest to the lands of Islam. This is a pleasant place and place of residence (their) ruler. It produces furs (muy) and valuable swords.

    2. S.LABA (?) - a pleasant city from which whenever peace reigns, they go out for trade (? Ba bazurgani ayand) in the region of Bulgaria.

    3. URTAB (?) - a city in which foreigners are always killed when they visit it. He produces very valuable blades and swords that can be doubled (u ra du tah tavan kardan), but as soon as the hand is removed, they return to their original position. "



    Please note - the author says that it is they who produce valuable swords .. And what steel could be valuable for an Arab familiar with both Damascus and Damascus steel?
    1. Operator 17 November 2019 15: 02 New
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      The correct translation is not "pleasant", but "hospitable".
      1. Operator 17 November 2019 15: 17 New
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        As for damask steel (a fused compound of iron and carbon, as opposed to a welded combination of carbon steels and iron), getting it in Russia was the simplest thing - in the presence of bog / lake ore from hydroprecipitated iron trioxide (with no impurities of sulfur, phosphorus and other substances present in indigenous ores) plus pure carbon from charcoal.

        Of course, knowledge of the final result and melting technology are also needed.

        In principle, damask steel was easily achievable for the blacksmiths of Russia, but difficult for the metallurgists of the Russian Empire (using primary ore and coal).
        1. Saxahorse 17 November 2019 20: 27 New
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          Quote: Operator
          In principle, damask steel was easily achievable for the blacksmiths of Russia, but difficult for the metallurgists of the Russian Empire (using primary ore and coal)

          Oh my god ... This is nonsense .. wassat
    2. 1970mk 17 November 2019 18: 42 New
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      And the Arabs of the Vikings, do not tell me, they didn’t call Ala Rus (Ros) .. By the way - the land of the Rus))) I would very much like to see the original text of this. There can be no "land of Rus" there. We translate funny. One name is written, translate "Rus" ... With the Byzantine chronicles, a typical example is Oleg ... Svyatoslav .... Everywhere in our translations (our translations "almost Russians write .... But in fact it appears the word TAVRA.Here is the way in which the translator got such a funny interpretation?
    3. abc_alex 18 November 2019 12: 18 New
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      Quote: paul3390
      To listen to him - so we didn’t forge our swords! Although all Arabs - as one say the opposite

      Not certainly in that way. He says that military weapons, especially expensive ones, usually have foreign roots. The reason is the lack of iron ore deposits in Russia. And so it is. A screaming iron from swamp ore is very laborious.
      By the way, note that Zhukov believes that swords were not the main weapon at all. He promotes the idea that in the main armament there was a pole-gun: axes, clubs, morgensterns, spears at the infantry.
      1. Operator 18 November 2019 12: 45 New
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        In Russia, until the 17 century, steel was smelted exclusively from lake / bog ore (limonite) in marketable quantities, and the Olonets plants continued to use it later, despite the emergence of ferrous metallurgy in the Urals with primary ore.

        So Klim Zhukov with his spheroconic ideas about the resource base of the iron and steel industry of the East Slavs can go forest for 1000 years earlier laughing
        1. abc_alex 18 November 2019 14: 10 New
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          Quote: Operator
          In Russia, until the 17 century, steel was smelted exclusively from lake / bog ore (limonite) in marketable quantities, and the Olonets plants continued to use it later, despite the emergence of ferrous metallurgy in the Urals with primary ore.


          And the history of Russia is not limited to the 17th century. Moreover, Russian weapons of the 17th century are sabers, not swords. And we are talking about swords.
          For the early Middle Ages with manual production, processing of marsh iron is labor-intensive.

          Quote: Operator
          So Klim Zhukov with his spheroconic ideas about the resource base of the iron and steel industry of the East Slavs can go forest for 1000 years earlier


          Are you not spheroconic? You are talking about the Olonets factories, the first of which was opened in 1760. And iron in Russia was forged before.
          1. Operator 18 November 2019 22: 23 New
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            Limonite (which is chemically pure iron oxide without impurities of sulfur and phosphorus) in combination with chemically pure carbon (obtained by pyrolysis of charcoal) forms damask steel, the blades of which cut blades made of any other steel. The complexity of smelting damask was justified by its high quality.

            By the beginning of our era, commercial deposits of limonite (in the form of multi-meter bottom sediments of upper lakes and swamps fed from underground sources) were preserved only in Eastern Europe, where they were exploited until the middle of the 18 century. Therefore, the blacksmiths of Ancient Russia did not need to import ferrous metal, with the exception of those going for household needs.

            The Olonets ironworks included Zaonezhsky factories (laid down in the 1680 year) and Konchezersky plant (laid down in the 1707 year). Ferrous metallurgy at the plants was closed in 1732, part of the factories was redesigned for weapons production on the Ural metal.
            1. abc_alex 19 November 2019 01: 08 New
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              Congratulations to all of us with new knowledge. Why did you write all this to me? Am I an opponent of metallurgical chemistry? winked
              Not at all. request
              I told you that in those conditions the processing of swamp ore was very labor intensive. And by the way, you didn’t forget that damask steel is made of liquid iron, but didn’t melt the iron in a simple house?

              Quote: Operator
              Therefore, the blacksmiths of Ancient Russia did not need to import ferrous metal, with the exception of those going for household needs.


              I believe that it is just the opposite. :) Screaming iron for cleaning from toxins requires a long blacksmithing. And accordingly, it could well be that just for domestic needs, where special strength was not required, a lot of iron was made, since it reduced the processing time.
              But for a weapon where strength is critical, something else was required. And then they did a “haraluga” - weaved strips of high-quality “weapon” steel with “household”. After all, it’s possible for the prince to forge a sword for a couple of months - he will pay. And here are two dozen swords for warriors, or fifty spearheads for gridneys, chains and klevets, and even more so arrowheads - you’ll evaporate with a hammer to wave. Yes, and it will cost dearly. And so is the strength of the high and relatively low labor costs.

              And just the “weapons” iron could have been imported. A lot of it is not needed and the use will pay off.
              I think so.
  10. romb 17 November 2019 16: 45 New
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    I do not think that the word "Karulug" originated from a relationship with the Frankish sword, and has etymological roots dating back to the Karoling dynasty.
    It’s actually easier here. Karulug from Turkic translates as military (combat), i.e. this sword is just a battle sword.
    1. abc_alex 18 November 2019 12: 03 New
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      Quote: romb
      It’s actually easier here. Karulug from Turkic translates as military (combat), i.e. this sword is just a battle sword.

      And then somewhere were civil swords or ceremonial swords? The early Middle Ages are utilitarian times. Then they didn’t do nonsense. The sword was forged for battle.
  11. 1970mk 17 November 2019 18: 37 New
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    Excuse me of course ... but .... "A word about Igor’s regiment" ... Musin Pushkin must be asked what he meant. A huge number of real historians are holding a very big question about the authenticity of this work. To refer to it - to some name from it, if something like this had never been used before, at least funny .... So throw stones)))
  12. paul3390 17 November 2019 18: 50 New
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    Quote: 1970mk
    I would very much like to see the original text.

    Do you read pahlavi ?? I bow .. Also - I would like a reference to what the Vikings Arabs called Russia .. And in any case - the names of the cities speak for themselves. This is definitely not Scandinavia.
    1. 1970mk 17 November 2019 19: 02 New
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      Someone called something in Russia? It's funny ... Give the source ... well, at least some. Byzantine ... Arabic ... whatever, wherever "RUS" was ... By the way about the Byzantine scripture, will you also argue? There Oleg, Svyatoslav and their people are not "brands"?
      By the way, in the story of the Provisional Years it is written that such Rus ... grew .... and where did the name come from ..... There are NO other sources!
  13. voyaka uh 17 November 2019 19: 17 New
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    Manufacturers stamped their swords.
    They determine where the sword was made
  14. Bogatyrev 17 November 2019 19: 47 New
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    Why doesn’t anyone suppose that “haraluzhny” - a sword, a spear, a shell - means a particularly lucky sword or other weapon that is conspired with a protective plot?
  15. Raphael Wahitov 17 November 2019 20: 12 New
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    “Judging by the signs inscribed on the stone, these are runes of the so-called medieval type, from which it follows that this stone can be dated to the second half of the 11th century. The runic text that has reached us consists of only two words. And the runic inscriptions themselves can be translated as Halvard’s "dominion" or "splendor. The inscription is not fully understood, since the stone slab was broken at the end of the text written on it, and the inscription" Mæktir haluar "preserved on them is only a small part of the original text."
    You can also translate as "great".
  16. Saxahorse 17 November 2019 20: 30 New
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    Interesting, and even a little provocative article :) Thanks to the author!

    It is interesting that the author, without much explanation, rejects the very simple version, of some kind of metal coating at that time, for some reason called haralug. Something like bluing to improve the safety of the metal. Nothing else comes to mind when they mention "harazhulny flail". Making a club on a damask rope is at least stupid.
  17. paul3390 17 November 2019 22: 15 New
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    Quote: 1970mk
    Give the source ... well, at least some. Byzantine ... Arabic ... whatever, anywhere "RUS" was ..

    1. Ibn al-Nadim.
    2.Fahr ad-din Mubarak-Shah Marvarrudi.
    3.Ibn Dasta.
    4. Ibn Fadlan.
    5. Ibn-Rust.
    6.Al-Masudi.
    7. Ibn Haukal.
    8.Al-Jarmi.
    9.Al-Akhtal.
    10.At-Tabari.
    11. Ibn Khordadbeh.
    12. Ibn al-Fakih.
    13. Ibn Yakub.
    14. Khudud al-Alam.
    15. Mutahhara al-Makdisi.
    16.Muhammad ibn Isfendiar.
    17. Ibn Miskaveih.
    18.From the “Book of Countries” by the nameless author of the XNUMXth century.
    19.Al-Balazuri.
    20. Ibn Wahshiya.
    21.Al-Balkhi.
    22.Abu-Mansour.
    23.Al Mukaddesi.


    Excuse me - the Byzantine ones simply lead. For them to hell.
  18. Nikolai Korovin 17 November 2019 22: 28 New
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    And in the "Word" there is, in addition to silver chips, also a "scarlet of cholka" (to the brave Svyatoslavich). I did not get from the doctor of philological sciences, but what is it. Although he looked at all special cash dictionaries.
    1. beeper 18 November 2019 15: 11 New
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      hi Well, the "academic title" is still not a 100% guarantee of academic knowledge and a truly research mindset, coupled with the flexibility of thinking ?! smile
      "The scarlet wolf" is, most likely, some kind of status "lotion", like an Afghan-painted henna beard ?! winked
  19. IGOR GORDEEV 18 November 2019 08: 04 New
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    It all started with the recently discovered Scandinavian annals, which mentioned the Slavic axes of extreme strength. Such weapons literally chopped down the swords of the enemy. According to legend, such a weapon was granted to the god God Khors.

    Sometimes interesting information comes up from the darkness of centuries. So think now to historians who claimed that at that time the Slavs had everything bad with "high-tech production."
  20. Operator 19 November 2019 02: 10 New
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    Quote: abc_alex
    Screaming iron for slag removal requires long blacksmithing

    Slag is practically absent during melting of limonite, since the bottom sediments of H2O · Fe2O3 iron oxide hydrate are a complex compound of water (14%) and iron oxide (86%).

    The process of separation of water and iron oxide can be observed visually when water is sedimented from an underground well (passing through an aquifer with dissolved iron oxide) in a transparent vessel.

    In a syrup oven, carbon monoxide (a product of charcoal pyrolysis) reduces iron oxide to metal and then forms iron carbide with it. During cooling, iron carbide decomposes into metal and carbon, forming the target alloy (not a chemical compound) of iron with carbon - i.e. damask steel.
  21. Raphael Wahitov 19 November 2019 15: 44 New
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    Quote: Raphael Wahita
    The Goths became a single people coming to the Black Sea, this is Chernyakhov culture 200 years of living together. The Huns were formed by mixing in the West. Siberian Sarmatians (Sargat culture) with newcomers to the Huns 200 years of marriage. So don’t need thousands of years, 200 years under a single authority is enough.
    This is the Huns, and after the Avars-Jujans they fled from Mongolia, but they also created the rear of the Huns in Western Siberia, the Black Sea region and in Pannonia, and the Avars who came after the Huns came to the ready rear. And from there they carried out predatory raids throughout the district. About the Hunnic camps, read from the Greek authors about their embassies to the Huns of Attila. At these camps the rear services were also needed, which they called "rugi-russians", therefore European chroniclers did not notice them. And they noticed after they determined independence and became a military force.
    The Huns-Huns were "not besieged by China", but raided, because they were not satisfied with the rules of trade. They unfastened by force what they needed.
    I took the “hand-ruggers-wear” porter from my head, by analogy with the “goal-coolie” porter in the countries of the East.
    Antique sources about the Slavs have nothing from ancient sources; these are modern historians urged to slavish the Slavs, like venets that were from the Baltic tribes.
    The times of the Huns and Avars in Europe are called the "Dark Ages", the time of the formation of modern peoples and states. Here are the Huns and gave rise to ethnogenesis for the European nations by blowing their passionary energy.
    I didn’t write that this is a “controlled process”, these foreigners themselves began to organize themselves according to complementarity and lasted until Charles the Great.
    The Slavs have the word "GOAL" in the words like "GALICIA", GOAL "-HOLODrans, that is, beggars, PURPOSE Or as a Taunt of Roguli, villagers, a Ukrainian, a great or mighty hand.
    Read Turkic words from the Huns among the Slavs at Anna Dybo.
    If you look at the history of the Slavs, you always rely on the Turkic peoples of the Huns, Avars, Bulgarians - these are Western and Southern Slavs, Eastern Slavs, Bulgarians, Khazars, Pechenegs, Torques, Kipchaks (Polovtsy). The Slavs spread mainly within the Baltic tribes, among the Poles it was the Avars - the Masurian culture, those who converted to Christianity became Poles, and the pagans who preserved faith to the old gods remained Prussians.
    The rogues were not runaway slaves. These rug-Russ left without masters became the military power of the Slavs. The Slavs lived in small villages and did not have military strength comparable to the Russian squads. Russ-rugs walked "POPULD" along the rivers and collected tribute and selected beautiful women and boys for sale to merchants-slave traders.
    Rugi-Russes lived independently for 200 years and their military camps turned into cities like Kiev, Chernikov, and then the Normans, led by Oleg, seized power in Kiev.
    There were THREE educational centers of the Slavs of Pannonia; this is Czech Shek; the Masurian culture is Lyakh-Khoriv and the eastern Slavs are Rus-Kiy.
  22. Turkir 30 November 2019 18: 28 New
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    Undoubtedly, the most compelling hypothesis of “Khorolud” is “Shine of Horse”.
    As for ac. Kirpichnikov, then everything came from the west, as did the neighbors from the east, who believe that history is made by those who can write a lot, and all the evidence is based on kitchen linguistics based on close phonetic harmonies, which was done by Western "historians" by the same principle since the 17th century.
    The article is weighted. and therefore interesting. Thank.
  23. mamonthful 10 January 2020 15: 48 New
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    God, what nonsense.

    seriously, "with the addition of meteorite iron"? "Shine of Khoros"?

    most of the Russian blades were imported from western Europe - finite.