Military Review

Atomic torpedo and multipurpose submarines. 627 project

In the USSR, research and search for the appearance of nuclear submarines began in 1949, when they achieved the first real results in the creation of a national nuclear submarine. weapons and for four years, a research nuclear reactor has been operating. In 1950, some commanders were privately notified of these studies. fleets (in particular, the commander of the Northern Fleet was notified, where they intended to introduce new equipment). 09.09.1952 years I.V. Stalin signed a decree of the Council of Ministers “On the design and construction of facility 627”. To carry out work in accordance with this document on the creation of nuclear submarines (an object, and later - project 627), two groups of scientists and designers were formed in Moscow, one of which, under the leadership of V.N. Peregudov, entrusted with the design study of the ship, and the second, under the guidance of N.A. Dollezhal - his power plant. General guidance on the creation of a domestic atomic submarine was carried out by Academician A.P. Director of the Institute of Atomic Energy of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Alexandrov. The overall coordination of the work was carried out by one of the nuclear submarine enthusiasts - deputy. Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR V.A. Malyshev.

Atomic torpedo and multipurpose submarines. 627 project

Naturally, the most difficult problem was the development of a nuclear power plant, which could be placed on board the underwater vessel. The first Soviet purely “terrestrial” nuclear power plant with a capacity of 5 mW was commissioned in Obninsk in 1954 (used for urban power supply). Then they created the first ship reactor (for its time it was the most powerful in the world), which was intended for installation on the “peaceful” nuclear-powered icebreaker “Lenin”. This icebreaker, in fact, was an experienced ship, which served to work out the power ship installation.

Research Institute №8 of the Ministry of Medium Machine Building, under the leadership of N.A. Dollezhal, became responsible for the development of the steam generating installation for a submarine. The steam turbine power plant was designed by the SKB of the Kirov Plant (chief designer Kazak) and SKB-143. The plant "Electrosila" created electrical equipment. Looking ahead, it should be noted that many experts believe that the main drawback of the electric power installation of the first domestic nuclear submarine was mounted electric generators, which worked only in conjunction with the main turbo-gear units. This limited the duration of the vessel being in reverse or on the “foot” with the capacity of backup batteries.

K-3 "Leninsky Komsomol"

8 March 1956, the launch of an experienced "boat" reactor, which was mounted in Obninsk near Moscow. But “the first pancake was a lump” - due to the design flaw in the reactor lid, there was a leakage of radioactive water. Later the cover design was changed. Requirements for nuclear safety of ship power plants were also not immediately formed. So, for example, at the beginning of 1950's, it was suggested that the overload of radioactive fuel could be carried out on the high seas (of course, accepting such a proposal would cause everyone participating in the operation to be exposed).

The experimental submarine of the 627 project was primarily intended for testing in the open sea conditions of the first model of a nuclear power plant with a steam-water reactor. However, the ship was also viewed as the leading model of a new strategic weapons system designed to combat the main “potential adversary” - the United States of America. The nuclear-powered ship was supposed to deliver nuclear strikes on naval bases, as well as other strategic targets located on the coast. For this purpose, the submarine was supposed to arm the T-15 steam-gas heavy-duty torpedo (length 24 m, caliber 1550 mm, range to 50 thousand m) equipped with a nuclear warhead (the dimensions of the latter determined such monstrous torpedo dimensions). The work of design teams was carried out in an atmosphere of super-secrecy, with the involvement of a very narrow circle of participants. In addition, at the initial stage of the program implementation, practically no naval specialists were involved in the work, which had a bad effect on the formation of the nuclear submarine.

Group V.N. Peregudova in March 1953, the work on the pre-sketch project of a nuclear submarine was completed. The first domestic nuclear-powered ship should have a double-shell architecture with an unusually large (near 13) extension and cross-section that was close to circular. The two-shaft powerplant should have achieved maximum underwater speed over 25 knots. Hydrodynamics of KK took part in the formation of the ship’s architecture. Fedaevsky (TsAGI), as well as VI Pershin (Central Research Institute-45). The boat (for the first time in the USSR) received a "cetacean" shape of the nasal tip, which was optimized for scuba diving, but significantly reducing its characteristics in the surface position. This form of the nasal tip caused a serious discussion among the creators of the nuclear-powered icebreaker (some designers insisted on retaining the “shiplike,” traditional, shape of the nasal tip). However, the opinion of Peregudov, who believed that the nuclear-powered icebreaker must first of all be adapted for diving, gained the upper hand. The oval shape of the nose was later implemented on the US nuclear submarines of the type “Skipjack” (the lead ship entered service in 1959 year), as well as on subsequent nuclear-powered ships that were designed and built in the United States. However, in the Soviet Union it was finally approved only on the second-generation submarines.

In nuclear submarines of the 627 project, compared with foreign and domestic diesel-electric submarines, the maximum depth of immersion increased by one and a half and amounted to about 300 meters. This required the use of new steel for a strong body. Its development was entrusted to the Central Research Institute-48 of the Ministry of Shipbuilding (headed by G. I. Kopyrin). AK-25 alloy created on the basis of bronestali.

PLA K-3 "Leninsky Komsomol" pr.627 at the pier

The autonomy of the diving of a nuclear submarine of the 627 project should have been equal to 60 days, which made new, higher demands on the life support system of the vessel.

The project of the first atomic-powered vessel of the USSR was created on the basis of the largest domestic diesel-electric submarine (diesel-electric submarine) of the 611 project. It was decided to keep the basic layout of the vessel, using some elements of the onboard systems and design.

The full-scale development of the experimental nuclear submarine of the 627 project, which received the cipher “Keith”, was transferred to Leningrad SKB-1953 (later PKB Malakhit) in the spring of 143. V.N. Peregudov was appointed chief designer, which ensured the necessary continuity of work. The PKB team already had experience in developing submarines with "unconventional" power plants. For example, in 48-53, a 617 project boat with a steam and gas turbine power plant was built there.

Also, work was carried out to create a "main caliber" of the ship - torpedoes T-15. But the tests of the nuclear warhead for the torpedo, which were carried out at the Semipalatinsk test site, ended in complete collapse.

In May, 54 year completed work on those. nuclear submarine project, and in July to participate in the program attracted naval experts. The conclusion of the sailors on the draft of the new ship was not favorable: the problematic character of the use of the ship in its main purpose was noted - nuclear strikes on targets located on the coastal territories of the potential enemy. Also, indications were made of insufficient speed during full travel, high noise, low torpedo weapons, low maintainability and resource, as well as some other disadvantages.

This was the reason for introducing some radical changes into the project: the nuclear submarine lost its "supertorpedo" T-15, receiving instead of it the usual, but enhanced torpedo armament. As a result, it took almost complete reworking of the design of the bow of the hull up to the second compartment. The maximum underwater speed of the vessel increased. The submarine was reoriented to combat the transports and warships of the enemy. The layout of the boat's premises was worked out on special wooden mock-ups, which were made full-size for the compartments of the nuclear submarine (this was the first time in Soviet submarine shipbuilding).

The scope of work on the creation of the first Soviet nuclear submarine is evidenced by the fact that 135 enterprises and organizations that were located throughout the Soviet Union, including 20 design offices and about 80 manufacturing plants of various equipment, were attracted to the program.

The development of design drawings for the 627 boat began in March, 1954, the year before the technical design was finally approved. In June, 1954 of the year in the city of Molotovsk at the plant No.402 (now the Severodvinsk North Machine-Building Enterprise), in an atmosphere of strict secrecy, in a specially fenced off section of the slipway began construction of the first Soviet submarine nuclear-powered submarine.

24 September 1955 held a solemn ceremony of the official laying of the vessel. 9 August 1957, the submarine was launched. September 14 1957 loaded nuclear reactors.

The training of submariners for the first Russian nuclear submarine (as well as for other submarines of the first generation) was conducted on a full-scale stand, which was built in Obninsk. The first commander was appointed captain of the first rank of Osipenko, the engineer-captain of the second rank Akulov became the commander of the electromechanical part (he was also responsible for the nuclear power plant).

From 3 July 1958, the submarine, which was assigned the tactical number K-3, was on the sea trials, which took place in the White Sea. 04.07.1958 to 10.03 for the first time in stories Soviet fleet for the movement of the vessel used atomic energy.

The tests were completed on 1 December 58 of the year. During them, the power plant power limited 60% of nominal. However, despite this, the maximum speed was 23,3 node, which exceeded the calculated value by 3 node. For the successful development of technology, the first time after the Second World War, the commander of the K-3 Osipenko was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union. Today his name is the training center for the training of nuclear submarine crews in Obninsk.

K-3 in January 1959 was transferred to the Navy for trial operation. It ended in 1962 year, after which the ship became a "full-fledged" warship.

The double-hulled boat, having a hull of a large, practically “torpedo” extension in cross section, was almost round. The bow of the tip gave an ellipsoid shape, while the stern had "flat" contours, which were caused by a two-shaft layout.

Schematic section of the PLA pr.627 and scheme of the nose after the upgrade

The robust housing was made of AK-25 steel and was divided into 9 waterproof compartments:
1. Nasal torpedo;
2. Battery; residential;
3. Central office compartment;
4. Auxiliary equipment compartment;
5. Reactor compartment;
6. Turbine compartment;
7. Electromechanical compartment;
8, 9. Residential compartment and compartment ship systems.

The ship was equipped with a nuclear power plant having a nominal capacity of 35 thousand l. with. including a pair of VM-A water-to-water reactors with a capacity of 70 mW (located successively in the middle part of the hull in the center plane of the vessel) with steam generators and a pair of turbo-gear 60-D units with a total power of 35 kh.s. For a nuclear submarine developed low noise CPR (adjustable pitch propeller).

The reactor compartment was equipped with iron-iron biological protection, which ensured the radiation safety of crew members. There was a pair of diesel generators DC DG-400 (diesel engine M-820). Auxiliary electric motors ensured the speed of movement up to 8 nodes.

The main equipment of the boat was depreciated to increase its acoustic stealth, vibration-damping coatings were used, the light hull of the ship also received an anti-hydrolocation coating (for the first time in the world for nuclear submarines). However, despite the measures taken, the first nuclear-powered ship of the USSR significantly exceeded its American counterparts in noise levels.

The boat was equipped with hydroacoustic armament, which was based on the MAS (hydroacoustic station) MG-200 "Arktika-M", capable of operating in echo and noise direction finding. The antenna station was located in front of the felling fence. Also, there were a hydro-acoustic station for detecting sound underwater communications and hydroacoustic signals “Svet”, noise-guiding “Mars-16KP”, as well as GUS for detection of underwater obstacles “Luch”.

The radar armament included a radar for controlling torpedo shooting and the detection of surface targets Prism, as well as the radar reconnaissance station Nakat.

Radiocommunication facilities similar to those used on the submarines of the 611 project and the 613 project were installed on the submarine. The composition of the navigational armament was supplemented with the “Pluto” navigation system, which ensured the use of weapons and ship navigation when sailing within 80 ° of southern and northern latitudes.

Torpedo armament was placed in the bow of the vessel and consisted of eight 533-millimeter torpedo tubes. Ammunition - 20 torpedoes 53-61 or SET-53. Depending on the tasks performed by the submarines there were various options for loading. For the first time in the submarine fleet of the USSR it was possible to conduct torpedo fire at depths up to 100 meters. The development of data for torpedo fire was provided by the Torii machine gun.

The vessel had a ventilation and air conditioning system providing the necessary level of temperature and humidity conditions during submergence (developed by the GIPH, supervisor VS Shpak). The system used a chemical method of replenishing oxygen and absorbing carbon dioxide (it should be noted that this decision, which increased the risk of fire on board the ship, led to the death of the nuclear submarine K-70 in 8).

Characteristics of the nuclear submarine project 627
Maximum length - 107,4 m;
Width is greatest - 7,9 m;
Average draft - 5,7 m;
normal - 3065 m3;
full - 4750 m3;
Reserve buoyancy - 30%;
Extreme depth of immersion - 300 m;
Full submerged speed - 30 nodes;
Surface speed - 15 nodes;
Autonomy - 60 days;
Crew - 104 person.

The first Soviet nuclear submarine almost immediately began to develop the Arctic region. K-3 under the command of the captain of the first rank Osipenko in 1959 passed 260 miles under the Arctic ice. 17 July 62 of the year, this boat made the transition to the North Pole, but high density ice cover prevented the ascent, its thickness reached 12 meters.

The submarine K-3 was given the name "Leninsky Komsomol" shortly after the Arctic campaign.

Later, the K-3 submarine underwent a modernization, which consisted in carrying out some modifications that increased the reliability of the steam-generating unit, installing a new torpedo fire system, replacing some equipment, and improving radio-electronic equipment. The antenna GAS "Arktika-M" was moved to the bow of the vessel from the fencing of the cabin. In the nasal tip there was formed an influx, projecting beyond the hull lines, and an antenna of the MG-10 noise-finding station was placed above the torpedo tubes.

627 submarine of the project (K-3 after modernization)

The submarine of the 627 project significantly exceeded the first American nuclear submarine SSN-571 "Nautilus", which was put into service in September 55 of the year (earlier K-3 on 3,5 of the year). In particular, the Soviet submarine had a much greater submerged speed (around 30 nodes against 22 nodes of the American counterpart) as well as a maximum depth of immersion (300 and 210 meters, respectively).

The operation of the nuclear submarine "Leninsky Komsomol" was completed in 1991, while the ship served along with the other nuclear-powered ships. In August, the 67 of the year in the Norwegian Sea, during his return from military service, a fire broke out on board the vessel, which caused a fire in hydraulics. As a result, 39 people died.

After the Leninsky Komsomol was written off, it was proposed to convert it into a museum ship (the Malakhit design bureau developed a corresponding project). However, for some reason this did not happen.

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  1. Yuri11076
    Yuri11076 16 July 2012 09: 04
    A boat was very good for its time. There was something to be proud of. And now our submarines are the best in the world ...
    1. Tirpitz
      Tirpitz 16 July 2012 09: 35
      And you, dear, are aware that until that time, until the USSR through a dummy company purchased in Japan the Toshiba machines for high-precision processing and grinding of metal of the USSR submarines were the noisiest and were easily discovered by NATO boats and ships.
      1. Armata
        Armata 16 July 2012 10: 20
        Quote: Tirpitz
        through a shell company did not purchase Toshiba machines for high-precision metal processing and grinding in Japan

        Since then, nothing has changed 95% of the machine stock in factories producing precision parts for turbines, and the drives are still imported.
      2. Arc76
        Arc76 16 July 2012 10: 22
        Most people here do not believe this. But the Americans even imposed economic sanctions against the Japanese after this story. The thing was that in the USSR they could not make a machine for processing a screw, because of the backwardness in electronics, it was not possible to create a CNC.
      3. Very smart
        Very smart 16 July 2012 20: 31
        Kolega, do you know that there is an office under the name UTZ in Radyansk Vkraina ???
        The idea was when the USSR bought and tricked out Japanese machines for precision screw processing ?! And all turbine blades of decent quality are still being made in St. Petersburg at the old factory with the old equipment. And UTZ ....
        And as for the detection and the words "easy", then do not "la-la". It's not that simple. It is not in vain that the Americans created detection lines (SOSUS, etc.) in the north and east and invested unmeasured grandmothers in this. You just can't find a fig. I tried it, I know. There was noise, but related to various factors. There is no need to indiscriminately find fault with our industry and our boats.
      4. iegudeil
        iegudeil 3 August 2012 04: 56
        They were noisy for another reason.
        Soviet boats were built according to a two-hull scheme. This gives increased buoyancy and the ability for developers to place part of the bulky equipment in the space between the light and durable body. Which in turn leads to a reduction in development time. At the same time, the free space inside the durable case is increasing, and this is a maneuver for the developer to upgrade and replace equipment.
        But the two-body design leads to a deterioration in streamlining due to holes and "windows" in the lightweight body. The light body sometimes resonates in certain travel modes. Increased total volume of the ship and, accordingly, more drag.
        If you are smart in approaching some problems, then some of the disadvantages can be turned into advantages.
        The most important reason why the boats were noisy was that no one seriously set the task of reducing noise in the entire ship complex.
        For example, on a 671 project, there was a very good CEO, one of the best in the 70th year. But the electrochemical air regeneration system with its noisy compressors killed the sensitivity of the system. At times, it was necessary to turn off the electrochemistry and use chemical regeneration, but this was generally considered an emergency mode of using regeneration and did not provide normal crew life.
        General ventilation was also performed in general industrial design. No one then thought to equip fans with low noise. In my radar there were 400 hertz fans of the cochlea type from which the ears were planted after a couple of hours of work at the station. Generators for general ship control systems and central post systems roared like buffaloes, and the generator noise insulation had no sound-absorbing coatings. Depreciation of the generators themselves was also primitive.
        True, the entire durable case was covered with a sound-absorbing coating from the inside, but no measures were taken for individual nodes.

        If there was an opportunity to get reliable information about Amer’s boats, then we would have accumulated a lot of bad things about them too.
  2. AK-74-1
    AK-74-1 16 July 2012 09: 27
    Good article. Submarine 627 project proof of the achievements of the military-industrial complex of the USSR.
    1. Tirpitz
      Tirpitz 16 July 2012 09: 32
      It is rather proof of how a country can mobilize its scientific and production potential to achieve its goal. Now there is no such thing. Leadership is limp.
      1. Alx1miK
        Alx1miK 16 July 2012 23: 01
        I agree. Then there was hot blood and heads were clogged with ideas.
  3. Diesel
    Diesel 16 July 2012 09: 53
    In my opinion, the Americans called boats of this type "Roaring Cows", although the weapons on it were quite good
    1. Tirpitz
      Tirpitz 16 July 2012 10: 01
      You are absolutely right, these boats were tracked without any problems and they were constantly monitored.
      1. desava
        desava 16 July 2012 20: 12
        "Roaring cows" APL pr. 675 - "clamshells" - I repeat once again. And so you can call all submarines indiscriminately! I see all the "experts" here: every second "goldfish" is called, every first "roaring cow" ...
        1. Very smart
          Very smart 16 July 2012 20: 40
          Colleague, I absolutely support - there are a lot of experts ... a lot. Everyone heard something, but no one is responsible for the market! If you start to find fault, then you can remember "Hiroshima", "kerosene stoves", etc. But for some reason no one remembers the real "goldfish", "black hole" and the real achievements of the Soviet "dish-making" industry.
          1. Ruslan67
            Ruslan67 16 July 2012 21: 10
            Ostap Bender correctly said - it is necessary to kill such experts!
            1. Diesel
              Diesel 16 July 2012 22: 00
              The point is not how they were called, but in the childhood diseases of Soviet boats of the 1st and 2nd generations, in particular - Noisiness
              1. desava
                desava 16 July 2012 22: 29
                Quote: Diesel
                in particular - Noises

                which was offset by other qualities of the ship and crew.
                1. lotus04
                  lotus04 17 July 2012 05: 45
                  Quote: desava
                  which was offset by other qualities of the ship and crew.

                  The Soviet era was marked by the creation of a number of world record-breaking boats: the largest boats were Project 941 “Shark” (underwater displacement - 48 tons), the fastest - Project 000 “Anchar” (up to 661 knots), the deepest - 44,7 “Fin” (up to 685 m), high-speed and maneuverable underwater fighters of the project 1K Lira.
          2. iegudeil
            iegudeil 3 August 2012 12: 23
            I agree with you. The industrialization of the USSR began just shortly before the war. In order to build such a shipbuilding city as Molotovsk (Severodvinsk), the White Sea-Baltic Canal was first built. Then it was necessary to learn how to build ships, train engineering and working personnel, introduce technologies, standards, and determine the strategic path. Whatever they say today about Stalin, but it really was a brilliant statesman who programmed the country's development for decades to come. Now there are no such statesmen. Everything that was created later and with the blood of millions of people was given to the deriban to merchants and crooks. Only fear for their own destiny forces the current rulers to take some steps to maintain the former power of the country.
        2. iegudeil
          iegudeil 3 August 2012 01: 48
          I support your remark. 675 projects had very poor hydrodynamic characteristics due to missile containers. Behind each container was a niche of a gas vent. A lot of different hatches and cutouts in a lightweight housing to provide maintenance of missile containers. They did not give due attention to the fitting of individual parts of the same hatches. Therefore, the boat not only roared but also boomed. But most of all the GTZA roared.
          The onboard power supply for the main mechanisms was DC, as in all 1st generation boats. Therefore, mechanical AVRs (Automatic Voltage Regulators) also added crackles to the noise response. Nevertheless, the boats of this project performed their tasks and served right up to the 90s. With P-5 cruise missiles, the boat could destroy an entire compound of ships by firing from outside the enemy's anti-submarine defense zone on guidance from the TU-95RTs aircraft, the "Success" complex.
          I am telling you in such detail because I myself served in 70-71 on such boats. The disadvantage of the boat was also the small number of torpedoes on board. Torpedoes could only be loaded in the base using specially hung brackets near the front cover of the torpedo tube. The trim was given by blowing the bow groups of the Central City Hospital and the stern group was filled with water. The hole of the torpedo tube was above the water and the torpedo was introduced from the front of the torpedo tube. And so with each of the four torpedo tubes. A total of 4 torpedoes from the nose. As a rule, there was no stock of torpedoes inside the first compartment. There was no charging device either. Although the developers envisaged keeping a stock of torpedoes in the first compartment and loading them manually, this was not actually done. At least when I was serving. In the stern there are two smaller torpedo tubes. Charging is also through the front of the device, but there are 4 spare torpedoes on racks with manual charging. In total, only 10 torpedoes. The bow torpedo compartment was at the same time living quarters. These boats were often on combat duty in Cuba and the Sargasso Sea. Their maneuverability was excellent. The boat is equipped with two powerful diesel engines and could, in principle, walk like an ordinary diesel engine. Which was used for short-distance crossings to refurbished factories in the North. They even composed a joke. "From behind the Kuvshin Island, frightening the English fleet, our nuclear-powered ship went out with diesel engines".
      2. iegudeil
        iegudeil 3 August 2012 03: 39
        I disagree with you about constant surveillance. What is constant surveillance? This is when someone sat down on the boat. But such cases were few and all the more inconsistent.
        If the SOSUS system determined that our boat was present in such an area, then it still had to be found in this area and try to block it. There were few such cases. In this regard, there was almost parity.
        I want to remind you that divers rarely use active surveillance tools. Therefore, it is not possible to constantly accompany. Changing the stroke parameters leads to the loss of contact.
        Suppose that the observing side turns to the side no earlier than 3–4 minutes to determine new elements of the target’s movement for another 2 minutes, and at this time it is also necessary to change your own motion parameters, which again leads to a delay in determining the location. Given the mass of ships and size, the reaction to changes in heading and speed also occurs with a delay. Therefore, most often, contacts are short-term and it is very difficult to keep them. The easiest way is to turn on the active near-detection (mine detection) station and sit on the tail at a distance of 10-15 cable. But in this case you immediately find yourself.
        The tactics of our commanders are constantly changing course and speed. Moreover, the course can be changed both by a sharp turn and by a slow circulation. In this case, the observing side will not be able to maintain contact for a long time. There is also the "Furious Ivan" maneuver, here you can unexpectedly collide. This is exactly what happened to the K-219 off the American coast.
        Americans generally prefer to go at low speeds to hear further, but this is also a minus in their tactics. At the right time, they cannot gain the necessary speed and make a dodging maneuver. The boat the greater the speed the better maneuverability.
        On their boats, the entire bow is occupied by a GAS antenna. For better sensitivity, the antenna cowl is made tender. In a collision, the antenna becomes 100% unusable and the repair cost is crazy.
        On our boats in the upper part of the bow are torpedo tubes. This is such a battering ram that will break even the aircraft carrier’s hull.
        Therefore, Amer’s Caps are afraid of our maneuvers and are incapable of prolonged contact.
        Well, if the contact is quickly lost, then what kind of constant tracking can be discussed.
        It is more appropriate to say that the situation is being monitored. Well, basically everyone is just doing it.
  4. Vito
    Vito 16 July 2012 10: 44
    Our submarine fleet was born in tremendous agony, with errors, losses and miscalculations inevitable in these cases. But the leadership of the USSR was quite clearly aware of the whole necessity of the appearance of a nuclear fleet in our country! And they created it. Yes, the first projects of our nuclear submarines Americans contemptuously christened (a roaring cow), there was such a thing! BUT, after all, they brought it to mind and now NATO SOSUS no longer justifies itself. You can achieve everything, the main thing is to know what you want and of course the WILL to achieve the result.
  5. Maxim86
    Maxim86 16 July 2012 10: 50
    The construction of the first Soviet nuclear-powered ship K-3 is described in great detail and in an interesting way in the book "The Atomic Submarine Epic".
  6. Neutral
    Neutral 16 July 2012 11: 27
    Forum users.
    Honestly, I want to cry when you read.
    How many CRI, research institutes, how many minds were in demand ...
    The triumph of intelligence
    And now???
    Who does not know "if you are so smart, why are you so poor" ...
    Those. the measure of the mind is not scientific and technical achievements, but banal "loot"
  7. borisst64
    borisst64 16 July 2012 15: 43
    Displacement of the nuclear submarine of project 941 - 50 thousand tons

    Displacement Yamato (the largest battleship) - 62 thousand tons
  8. spdm
    spdm 16 July 2012 16: 14
    Yes, I even nastalgied. I remember in my childhood I ran to the pier, they stood in rows there. The most beautiful childhood memories, boats are on the 3rd or 4th side.
    And these white stripes (on the wheelhouse and nose), as a child, thought that there were teeth and boats. Yes, there was a time, sorry passed (+)
  9. Chicot 1
    Chicot 1 16 July 2012 19: 29
    By the way, it was on our submarines that the droplet shape of the bow was first used to increase the hydrodynamic characteristics ... According to history, this proposal was made by a woman. Alas, oh, but I don’t remember her name ... Soon this decision became widespread on other submarines, and not only nuclear ones ...
    1. Very smart
      Very smart 16 July 2012 21: 01
      Chicot 1
      Kolega, with regard to the role of women in the design and creation of ships, here, in my opinion, everything is so interesting, right up to the homeric laughter! The first thing that comes to mind ...
      On the base minesweeper "Mashka", where the designer was a woman, no latrine was provided by design !!! Like, trawling near the coast, they will tolerate !!! The process was planned as follows - a board with handrails was hung overboard, whoever wanted to walk overboard along it, sat on the edge and ... crap ... in front of an enthusiastic audience !!! I'm not kidding - it's true !!! During construction, this joy was corrected.
      On tankers like "Hanoi" the woman designed the sewerage system and placed the urinals in the latrine at a height of 1m 70 cm !!! When the pipes were being prepared, they were bent, the installers took them out and then caught themselves. They invited the designer, on the way they asked if she had a husband, how she lives with him, is everything good, as in intimate life ... And when they brought me into the room, it turned out that she was lower than the urinal !!! The fun was corrected, the aunt quit. Thank God!
      So the role of the individual in history and the role of women in shipbuilding ... is a dark matter!
  10. loft79
    loft79 16 July 2012 23: 42
    People! where is Kars? or was he banned? A site that ban without explanation. Bad site. Bring Kars back. bored without it). IMHO. And often provides interesting information. In some ways I do not agree, but different versions are needed. Kars has already expressed his position on correctness. Nothing criminal.
    1. Kars
      Kars 16 July 2012 23: 43
      They returned --- they returned me - thanks for the anxiety.
      1. loft79
        loft79 17 July 2012 00: 19
        Glad . waiting for new articles. But you are wrong about the Tiger Story. It was very far from the tiger. Again IMHO
      2. loft79
        loft79 17 July 2012 00: 34
        Kars ordered a book from the states of Sony PSG-1. Now it is spent on printing inappropriately. Can you tell me sites where you can download something on hardware?
        1. Kars
          Kars 17 July 2012 16: 19
          Quote: loft79
          a book from the states of Sony PSG-1.

          The fifth year I use Lbuk V3 and all the way

  11. iegudeil
    iegudeil 3 August 2012 15: 43
    In August of the 67th year in the Norwegian Sea, when returning from military service, a fire broke out on board the vessel, which caused a fire in the hydraulics. As a result, 39 people died.

    The article incorrectly indicates the date of death as a result of the fire. Here is a fragment of a photograph of a monument near the town of Zaozerny (Western Faces). The inscription on the monument is September 8, 1967. The picture was taken in 1973.
    A direct participant in these events, warrant officer L. Kushov BCh-1, also served on our crew.
    At the time of the accident, he was on watch on the steering wheels in the central post. A report was received from the watchkeeper of the 1st compartment about a fire in the first compartment, and somehow sluggishly, but then someone shouted "Burn" and immediately the hatch between the 1st and 2nd compartments opened. The hatch between the 2nd compartment and the central post was open at that time, and the commander was near the hatch. From the hatch of the first compartment, a sheaf of fire hit and two burning figures jumped into the second compartment. It was impossible to make out who it was. The commander reacted instantly and closed the hatch to the control room. Everyone who was resting in the second compartment died almost instantly. If the commander had hesitated, then the central post would also have died, and accordingly the boat would have also died.
    Four years ago, on Google Erthe, you could see that the monument was still intact. Shadows fell from the details of the memorial. Recently I looked at this place and saw only an empty area.
    Really devastation came here too?