Slavs and the First Bulgarian Kingdom in the VII-VIII centuries

Slavs and the First Bulgarian Kingdom in the VII-VIII centuries

Khan Kubrat with the army. Hood. Dmitry Gyudzhenov


Slavs in the Subunavia and the Balkans from the middle of the VII century


By the middle of the VII century. Slavicization of the Balkans was over.

The Slavs were actively involved in the economic development of the occupied districts, for example, a tribe of Veleghizites from the Thebes and Dimitriads region sold the besieged Thessaloniki already in the 70 of the 7th century. corn.

We see the following Slavic tribal unions in the eastern part of the Balkans: in the Byzantine province of Scythia - the union of the northerners, in Lower Moesia and partially Thrace the union of the "seven tribes", as well as in Moesia - the Timochan and Moravian, where the encouraged or predecessors lived were not known. To the south, in Macedonia, the following clavlinia: Draguvites (Dragovites) or other Uvitans, Sagudates, Strumeans (Stremeni), Runchins (Richnids), Smolensk. In Dardania and Greece, there is a union of four tribes: Vayunites, Velegesites, Milenians (Milinians) and Yezerets (Jesherites), in the Peloponnese - Milings and Eserites.

After the fall of the power of the “nomadic empire”, the Avar over the Slavs and after their migration and the Ants to the territory of Byzantium beyond the Danube, the “democratic” tribal system was fully preserved - “everyone lived his own way”. Moreover, there is friction between the tribes and a complete lack of desire for unity.

Despite the fact that in the 70 years of the VII century. the Accident intensified again, and even part of the Croats and Serbs, as well as the Slavs who settled in Macedonia, fell under its rule, the Haganate no longer had the strength to make long campaigns towards Constantinople, but only to conduct border wars. The Avar forces were undermined by the Slavs, the Samo state, and the uprisings of the Bulgars (Bulgarians) who lived in Pannonia in the 30 of the 7th century: some of them migrated to related tribes in the steppes of Eastern Europe, and a small part, some, to Italy, others, under the leadership of a certain khan of Kuvrat, the nephew of Organa, to the north of Macedonia, although archaeologically there are no traces of Turkic-Bulgarians here (V. Sedov).

In such conditions, among the Slavic tribes, for whom, after resettlement, more favorable living and economic conditions developed, the process of forming an early state or tribal power structure stopped.

Proto-Bulgarians at the beginning of the 7th century


By the time of the creation of the first Bulgarian kingdom, the Bulgarian tribes proper wandered or lived on a vast territory from the Caspian to Italy.

In the framework of the established tradition, we will call that part of them that came to the lower Danube, the Proto-Bulgarians.

These tribes, the heirs of the Huns, were subordinate to the Tyur Haganate. And if in Italy or Pannonia there were only small groups of them, then they steadily populated the steppes of the Sea of ​​Azov and the Black Sea.

At the same time, when the Bulgars or Bulgarians are fighting the Avars, in 634, after the liberation from the rule of the Turkic Khaganate, Khan Kubrat or Kotrag from the Dulo (Dulu) dynasty founded Great Bulgaria. The unification of the Black Sea hordes occurred during the civil war in the Western Turkic Khaganate (634 - 657 gg.), Which could not react to these events (Klyashtorny MG). These nomadic tribes lived a tribal life and were at the first, “tabor” stage of nomadism. Although they had a "capital" aul - on the site of Fanagoria on the Taman Peninsula.

Note that historians continue the debate about whether one person is Kubrat (or Kuvrat) and a certain Krovat, a nephew of Organa who fought with the Avar Kaganate, or different, but these historical personalities, firstly, are separated in time, and secondly, in space, the power of the Avars could not extend in any way to the lands of the Sea of ​​Azov and the Black Sea and was limited to Pannonia and the surrounding lands.

Therefore, we can say that these leaders have only similar names.

After the death of Kubrat in the 40 years, who lived in the Sea of ​​Azov, the Bulgarians, separated, according to legend, between his five sons, could not provide adequate resistance to their khazars, headed by the Turkic clan of Hagans - Ashinov.


Khan Kubrat and sons. Hood. Al Alexiev Howard

Clashes between the hordes occurred in the North Caucasus, and the victory was on the side of the Khazars. The fate of the Bulgarian tribes was different: some of the Bulgarians went north and created the state of the Volga Bulgars, some remained under the Khazars, called "Black Bulgarians", these are the ancestors of modern Balkars. Khan Asparuh, the third son of Kubrat, took his horde to the Danube and strengthened in the Danube Delta (Artamonov M.I., Pletneva S.A.). Patriarch Nicephorus wrote:
“The first son named Bayan (Vatvaian or Batbayan), in accordance with his father’s will, remained in the great-grandfather’s land until now, · the second, called Kotrag, crossing the Tanais River, settled opposite them. The fourth, having crossed the Istra River, is located in Pannonia, which is now under the Avars, becoming subordinate to the local tribe. The fifth, who settled in the Pentapolis under Ravenna, turned out to be a tributary of the Romans. ”


The third son, Asparuh, settled, according to several translators, between a certain river Ogla (Olga?) And the Danube, on the left side of the Danube, this marshy place represented "great security from enemies." Other researchers believe that this is not about the Ogle River, which is not possible to identify, but about the territory:
"Settled near Istra, reaching a place convenient for living, called in their language Oglom (most likely from 'aul,), inaccessible and insurmountable for enemies."
(Translation by V. Litavrin)

This is the territory of the lower reaches of Seret and the Prut, and this happened in the 70 of the 7th century.

Once there, the Asparuh horde immediately after respite began to raid across the Danube, onto lands that, despite all the vicissitudes, remained under the control of the Byzantine Empire.

In 679, the Bulgarians crossed the Danube and robbed Thrace, in response to them, Constantine IV himself (652 — 685 gg.) The empire had been waging war by this time for almost seventy-five years, at first with Sassanid Iran and then with the Caliphate, two years before that had signed the world for thirty years with the Arabs, this had enabled the Vasileus to pay attention to other problematic border territories. Konstantin “ordered all the fems to be transported to Thrace”, the question remains what was meant by the term “fema” in this particular case: a fema as a military district or a fema is a combined detachment of the district, and the second question is whether these military units were only from Thrace or is it there were really all “themes”, that is, also from Asia.

The Danube includes an empire fleet. The army crossed the Danube, presumably in the area of ​​modern Galati (Romania). The Bulgarians, as once the Slavs, frightened by the forces of the empire, took refuge in swamps and some fortifications. The Romans spent four days in idleness, not storming the enemy, which immediately gave courage to the nomads. Because of the aggravated gout, Vasilevs leaves for the waters in the city of Mesemvria (modern Nessebar, Bulgaria).


Walls of Mesemvria (Nessebar, Bulgaria). Author photo

But military happiness is changeable, and chance often frustrates brilliant plans and undertakings. Overwhelmed by inexplicable fear, the cavalry spread the rumor that the Vasileus had fled. And the general flight begins, upon seeing this, the Bulgarian riders found themselves in their element: they pursue and destroy the fleeing enemy. In this massacre all the units of Thrace fell, and now the path through the Danube was clear. They cross the Danube, reach Varna and discover beautiful lands here.

It should be noted that Slavic clavinia have already settled in these places. Most likely, after the clashes with the Avars in 602, the Antian tribes, from which we heard information about the union of the "Seven Tribes" (seven tribes) and northerners, settled here. Most likely, there were other tribes whose names were not reflected in the sources.

Archaeologists show that the settlement of the Black Sea coast of Bulgaria by the Slavs took place in the 20 of the VII century. As was usual for the Byzantine Empire, it tried to streamline relations with new migrants and perhaps they were or became “federates” of the empire, i.e. allied tribes.


Sea in the Varna region. View from Cape St. Atanas. Author photo

This was extremely important for Byzantium, since in the conditions of ongoing wars from the middle of the VI century. the line between the catalog stratiots and other categories (for example, the federals) is erased and recruitment for war takes place for hire from any categories of persons liable for military service.

So, the Proto-Bulgarians or Bulgars found themselves on new lands. There are different versions of how the seizure of lands inhabited by Slavic tribes took place: peacefully or by agreement (Zlatarsky V., Tsankova-Petkova G.), without military action (Niederle L., Janitor F.). Researchers note different statuses that fell under the power of the Bulgarian clavinians: it is believed that the northerners interacted with them on a contractual basis, had their own leaders, their archon Slavun (764 / 765 g.) Is known, although they were moved to new habitats, in while the Slavs from the "Seven Tribes" were subjects or having a "pact" with the pro-Bulgarians, again, the interaction within the term "pact" has different meanings. According to another assumption, the northerners were one of the tribes of the “Seven Tribes” alliance, whose name was preserved, and this tribe was resettled from other allied tribes in order to weaken their alliance (Litavrin G.G.).

But if Theophanes the Preacher uses the term “conquering” in relation to the Slavs, then Patriarch Nikifor “subjugated the Slavic tribes living in the vicinity”: these sources leave no doubt that we are, of course, talking about hostilities. Fighting here, the Bulgarians conquer the Slavs: the union of seven tribes and northerners, then they seize the territory from the Black Sea to the Accident, along the Danube. Litavrin G.G., despite the fact that he considered the power of the Proto-Bulgarians to be soft, notes:
“For almost a century, sources are silent about any independent political activity of the Slavs within Bulgaria. They participated in his campaigns as infantry units of the Khan’s troops, without making any attempts to show ethnic solidarity with the Slavs living outside Bulgaria. ”


If earlier nomads attacked the territory of settled peoples and left in the steppe, this time they are resettled by all the people on the territory of settled peoples.

The Asparuh horde was at the first, “tabor” stage of nomadism. It was extremely difficult, and most likely, almost impossible to do in the area of ​​the Danube estuary, where they were located in the 70's. VII century, but it was also impossible to roam freely in the captured provinces of Moesia, archaeologists note the appearance of permanent camps and burial grounds, only at the end of the VII - beginning of the VIII century, "in particular, the Novi Pazar burial ground" (Pletneva S.A.).

Khan Asparuh, as Patriarch Nicephorus wrote, moves entire tribes of Slavs to the Avar and Byzantine borders. They retained a certain autonomy, since they were borderline (Litavrin G.G.).


Khan Asparuh. Hood. M. Petrov.

In August 681, Byzantium recognized the Bulgarian conquests in the provinces of Scythia and both Moesia, and begins to pay tribute to them. So the state was formed - the First Bulgarian Kingdom, which was established in the Balkans.

Nomadic "state" in the Balkans


What was this early political entity?

The Bulgarian or Proto-Bulgarian tribal union was essentially an army of one people or a people-army. The khan was not just a khan, but a "khan of the army."

The whole world was divided into "their state", in Turkic "el", and those who need to be destroyed or enslaved. Primitive military administrative activity was the basis of the Proto-Bulgar Turks. Note that the sklavinia did not have one. Such despotic governance was an important cementing factor of the new state, or, in the scientific language, of a costly pre-class association, which, having fallen into the sphere of interests of the Byzantine Empire, immediately began to undergo erosion. But at the initial stage, nomadism prevailed. Although in the first period of coexistence, the Bulgarian conquerors and the conquered Slavs lived and ruled from a single center, with the exception of some autonomous clavinias, cruel military discipline and organization changed the way of the Slavs.


"Bulgarians cross the Danube" Hood. Dm Gugenov

Based on his idea of ​​a “state”, the khan built relations with subordinate peoples through their heads, who the Slavs were in the region, we do not know, therefore, it is not worthwhile to say that they were exclusively princes, “archons”. Given the level of development of Slavic society during this period, it could also be the head of the clan (elders, etc.). And it was precisely with the heads of the tribes that the khan communicated, that he treated them completely tyrannically, is beyond doubt, so even in 811, Krum Khan "forced the Slavs leaders to drink" from a bowl made from the head of Vasilyevs Nikifor I.

Note that despotism for this period is not an evaluation category, but the essence of management.

Political events in the Balkans in the 7th - early 9th centuries


In the Balkans, in the areas adjacent to Constantinople, both the Slavs subordinated to the Proto-Bulgarians and the free Slavonia of Macedonia and Greece become the key adversaries of the Romans.

Byzantium during the absence of the Arab threat constantly conducts military operations against them. But in the conditions when the state process slowed down among the Slavs, they could not render due resistance to the enemies.

In 689, Justinian II Rinotmet (Beznosy) (685 – 695 gg .; 705 – 711 gg.) Started the war against the Proto-Bulgarians and Slavs, apparently, the Slavonia were located very close to Constantinople, as he was forced to make his way to Thessallonics, on the way, casting aside the “great hordes of Slavs” and fighting the Bulgarians, he transferred part of the captured Slavs with their families to Opsiky, to Asia Minor, and he himself with difficulty broke through the ambushes of the Bulgarians.

But after losing power, he was forced to seek help from Tervel (701-721 gg.), The successor of Asparuh. Khan, to his advantage, helped Justinian II to regain his throne, for which he received the royal utensils and the title of "Caesar", the second after the emperor in the Byzantine hierarchy.

But Justinian II, due to his psychological characteristics, forgot about the help of the khan and opposed him on a campaign. With him was a fleet and a Thracian cavalry. The troops are located near the city of Ankhialo (Pomorie, Bulgaria). Proto-Bulgarians, experienced and attentive rider warriors, took advantage of the lack of clear command from the emperor, the carelessness of the Romans, “like animals ... suddenly attacked the Roman herd” and completely defeated the equestrian Byzantine army. Justinian shamefully fled from them on a ship to the capital.

After the death of Justinian II, the Arabs besieged in 717-718. Constantinople, while they landed on the European part of the territory. Success first fleet and the "secret" Greek fire, then frost, disease and the fortress of the walls of the city and the soldiers brought the enemy to defeat. Tervel, on the basis of a friendship treaty with the Roman Empire, assisted her capital during the Arab siege, destroying 22 Arabs, according to Theophanes the Byzantine. And in the same year, the Proto-Bulgarians and Slavs from Greece took part in the conspiracy of the former Emperor Anastasius II (713-715), who went on a campaign with Khan to Constantinople, but the Proto-Bulgarians betrayed him, having received significant gifts.

At the same time, the Bulgarians (and the Proto-Bulgarians and Slavs are now called by this name) participate in campaigns against Byzantium (the raid of 753). In the empire itself, there is a Slavicization of entire regions, which began during the period of domination of the Avar Haganate, so, after the plague of 746-747. The Peloponnese became completely Slavic, the Slavs appear among the highest officials of the empire, for example, the Patriarch of Constantinople · was a eunuch Nikita.

But at the same time, pressure begins on the Slavs who settled the borders of the empire, their relocation to other territories.

The iconoclast emperor Konstantin V (741-775 gg.), Taking advantage of a respite on the eastern front, immediately launched an offensive in Europe, conquering Slavonia in Macedonia and on the Greek border in 756. These were lands of the Dragovites or Druzhuvites and Sagudates.

In 760, he made a new campaign, or rather a raid on the Bulgarian borders, but in the Vyrbishsky mountain passage 28,7 km long, the Bulgarians ambushed him, most likely, her direct executors were Slavs experienced in this matter. The Byzantines were defeated, the stratigus of the theme of Frakisiev died, the Bulgarians got weaponand they begin retaliatory fighting. The pressure of Byzantium was probably associated with the strife that took place in Bulgaria. During it, intermediate success was on the side of one of the clans, whose representative, Taurus, became khan in 30 years. The Slavs, obviously his opponents, fled to the emperor. He, in turn, marched by sea and by land against the Proto-Bulgarians. Taurus drew thousands of allies to his side 20, most likely it was the Slavs who did not obey the Proto-Bulgarians, but were independent Slavs, and with these forces he started a battle that lasted all day, the victory was on the side of the Romans. The battle took place on 30 on June 763, the Vasileus triumphed, and the captive Proto-Bulgarians were executed.

The civil strife in Bulgaria continued, and Taurus and his superiors, who defeated but took the throne of Sabin (763 – 767 gg.), Who tried to conclude an agreement with the Romans, were accused of betrayal and fled to Vasileus, the Bulgarians elected a new khan - Pagan , during the visit of which the Byzantines secretly seized the leader of the northerners “Slavun, who did a lot of evil in Thrace” for peace talks in Constantinople. Together with him they seized the apostate and the leader of the robbers Christian, who was brutally executed. It was hard to say whether he was a Slav or not, yes, perhaps the person who had just adopted Christianity could hardly have been Greek, but Feofan the Byzantine is silent about his ethnicity. Bulgaria, as an ideologically weak association, gradually fell under the influence of the empire: probably there was a struggle of parties (clans), Byzantine supporters helped to capture its opponents, they helped bring the family and relatives of Sabin to the empire. The capture of the archon of the border Slavonia was probably due to the fact that he was not loyal to the khan and he looked at this incident through his fingers, the destruction of the strong and independent leader of the Slavic tribe was only in his hands.

Byzantium and Bulgaria are trying to capture the independent Slavonia of the eastern Balkans, this movement, as we saw above, began even under Justinian II.

In 772, the Romans, having gathered a huge army, opposed the 12 of thousands of Protobolar, who planned to conquer the Slavic tribes and resettle them in Bulgaria. With a sudden raid, the army of Constantine V defeated the army of Bulgarian boiles and captured them, making a triumph.

In 783, the logofet Stavraki, by order of Vasilisa Iryna, made a campaign against the Slavins. The troops were sent against the Slavs of Greece and Macedonia, to conquer the Smolensk, Strimonians and Rhinkhins of southern Macedonia and the Sagudates, Vayunites and Velezites in Greece and the Peloponnese. “Passing to Thessalonica and Hellas,” wrote Theophanes the Confessor, “he subjugated everyone and made tributaries of the kingdom. He also entered the Peloponnese and delivered to the kingdom of the Romans many captives and prey. ”

Some Slavs, for example, in the Peloponnese, were subordinated only in the tenth century, these are tribes of the Milings and the Ezerites. The Slavic tribes, who were previously free and levied tribute to the Greeks, were given a tribute - “pact” in the amount of 540 nomism for milings, 300 nomism for esterites.

But the conquest of other tribes could be in the form of a "pact", perhaps only on the condition of paying tribute and, most likely, participating in hostilities while maintaining autonomy. The empire was in dire need of combat reserves. So, in 799, a certain “archon”, the head of the border unit and the leader of the Slavs of Velzitia or Velegesitia — the Velegesites (the region of Thessaly and the city of Larisa), Akamir, participated in a conspiracy to overthrow Irina, therefore, he was quite tightly integrated into the higher echelons authorities, if he could act in such an important matter.

But the Slavs, who settled in the Peloponnese near the city of Patras, began to pay tribute to the metropolitan of the city, “deliver these supplies in accordance,” wrote Konstantin Bagryanorodny, “to the distribution and complicity of their community,” on autonomy.

The new emperor, who seized the throne by force, Nikifor I Genik (802 - 811), acting on the principle of "divide and conquer", carried out the resettlement of part of the feminine troops from the East to the border territories of the Slavs, which caused the movement among the Slavic tribes, which before This was paid tribute from the surrounding city and the indigenous inhabitants, the Greeks. In 805, the Slavs of the Peloponnese revolted.

Obviously, such a policy did not delight the Bulgarian kingdom, in 792 the Bulgarians defeated the young emperor Constantine VI, son of Irina, capturing the entire royal convoy, and the new Khan Krum (802 - 814 gg.), After the reforms, significantly strengthened his strength . In 806 g. Vasilevs made an unsuccessful campaign in Bulgaria, in 811 g. He repeated it. Vasilevs plundered the capital Pliska, everything that he could not carry away he destroyed: he killed both children and cattle. To the offers of Krum Komsomol, he refused. Then the warriors of Krum, most likely Slavs, erected wooden fortifications on the way of the Romans, all in the same Vyrbishsky passage. The huge army was ambushed and defeated, the emperor was beheaded:
“Krum, having chopped off the head of Nicephorus, hung it on a pole for several days for review by the tribes who came to him and for the sake of our shame. After that, taking it, exposing the bone and shackling it outside with silver, made him, to extol, drink from it the archons of the Slavs. ”


Genesis of the Slavic state


The synthesis and mutual cultural exchange between the conquerors and the conquered can be observed in all periods of history, but the key factor of this period was violence and the principle of “grief for the vanquished” was fully implemented.

The victory of the Proto-Bulgarians provided them with an unconditional right to control the life and death of the conquered Slavic tribes, and the fact that the Slavs prevailed numerically did not matter. Otherwise, based on “symbiosis” and “coexistence,” it is difficult to explain the flight of Slavic tribes in Byzantium from the Proto-Bulgarians: “in 761-763. from Bulgaria left to 208 thousand Slavs. "

The warrior people in the person of the khan collected tributes, moved Slavic tribes to the borders of their possessions, used the conquered as a labor force to build fortifications, in particular, during the construction of the grandiose first capital of nomads. So, at the site of the settlement of Pliska, a huge winter village was created with a total area of ​​23 sq. km, the length of the shaft was 21 km, smaller winter roads were located nearby, several other winter roads were in the territory of Malaya Scythia.


Bulgarian runic inscription. City Museum of Byala. Bulgaria. Author photo

An important task, especially of nomadic rulers, was to "increase the number of their subjects." “Since the formation of the Bulgarian state,” G.G. Litavrin - centralized exploitation was undoubtedly the dominant form of seizing surplus product from free community members and citizens. ”

And given the fact that the main rural population consisted of Slavs, this happened through the collection of a “pact” tribute from them in favor of the conquering tribe (V. Beshevliev, I. Chichurov).

Of course, the Proto-Bulgarians cannot talk about any state from the point of view of the formation approach, especially about the early feudal state, they stood on the way to the state, at the stage of "military democracy", and nothing more. The advantage of the Proto-Bulgarians, like the Avars over the Slavs, was exclusively technological (military affairs). This was the prevalence of nomads over farmers at the same level of development, and with a concentration of forces such steppe tribal associations could even face off against sharply more developed peoples such as Byzantium.

As with most "nomadic states", an important factor in Bulgaria was the process of settling of horsemen-riders on the ground, in conditions when it was impossible to "camp" roaming. On the one hand, this factor strengthened the amorphous structure of the "nomadic empire," and on the other hand, it contributed to the disappearance of the "people's army" of horsemen, which was the key to the success of the nomadic "state." In the end, the khan was the khan of the army of the people. About one hundred to one hundred and fifty years, the dominance of the Turkish Turks or Protobolar was absolute. According to archaeological data, ethnic dualism is present until the beginning of the 9th century. (Sedov V.V.). Real symbiosis begins only from the moment when the assimilation of the already settled Proto-Bulgarians by the Slavs, who had an overwhelming numerical superiority, takes place. As we wrote above, the neighborhood of a powerful Byzantine civilization influenced the collapse of the Bulgarian, Turkic community, where the leaders of the proto-Bulgarian tribes began to acquire “their own interests”, contrary to the interests of the “warrior people”, during the “civil wars” (VIII century), as it seems , many representatives of the nobility died, the Slavic leaders began to claim their place. If in the accident the process of settling of the dominant nomadic people did not happen, then due to geographical features (small area for nomadism) and political, proximity to the capital of the world - Constantinople, this happened with the proto-Bulgarians. Thus, the transformation of the nomadic “state” into a Slavic state began through a serious time period, no less than 150 years after the start of living in one territory, where the key factor was the decrease in the military strength of the proto-Bulgarian ethnos and the overwhelming numerical superiority of the Slavic ethnos.

To be continued ...

Sources and literature:
Artamonov M.I. History of the Khazars. SPb. 2001.
Ivanova O.V. Litavrin G.G. Slavs and Byzantium // Early feudal states in the Balkans of the VI - XII centuries. M., 1985.
Klyashtorny S.G. First Turkic Kaganate // History of the East in six volumes. M., 2002.
Litavrin G.G. Bulgarian zone in the 7th-12th centuries // History of Europe. M., T.III. 1992.
Litavrin G.G. Slavs and proto-Bulgarians: from Khan Asparuh to Prince Boris-Mikhail // Slavs and their neighbors. Slavs and the nomadic world. 10 release. M .: Science, 2001.
Litavrin G.G. The formation and development of the Bulgarian early feudal state. (end of VII - beginning of XIvv.) // Early feudal states in the Balkans of VI - XII centuries. M., 1985.
Niederle L. Slavic Antiquities, M., 2013.
Pletneva S.A. Khazars. M., 1986.
Pletneva S.A. Nomads of the southern Russian steppes in the Middle Ages IV – XIII centuries. M., 1982.
Sedov V.V. Slavs. Old Russian nationality. M., 2005.
Konstantin Bagryanorodny. About managing an empire. Translation G.G. Timpani. Edited by G.G. Litavrina, A.P. Novoseltseva. M., 1991.
Patriarch Nicephorus "Breviary" // Codex of the oldest written news of the Slavs. T.II. M., 1995.
Patriarch Nicephorus "Breviary" // Chichurov I.S. Byzantine historical works: "Chronography" of Theophanes, "Breviary" of Nicephorus. Texts. Transfer. Comment. M., 1980.
Codex of ancient written news about the Slavs. T.II. M., 1995.
Theophanes "Chronography" // Chichurov I.S. Byzantine historical works: "Chronography" of Theophanes, "Breviary" of Nicephorus. Texts. Transfer. Comment. M., 1980.
Theophanes "Chronography" // Codex of the oldest written news about the Slavs. T.II. M., 1995.
Theophanes the Byzantine. Chronicle of the Byzantine Theophanes from Diocletian to the kings of Michael and his son Theophylact. Translation by V. I. Obolensky. Ryazan. 2005.
Chichurov I.S. Byzantine historical works: "Chronography" of Theophanes, "Breviary" of Nicephorus. Texts. Transfer. Comment. M., 1980. C.122.
Miracles of St. Demetrius of Solunsky. Translation by O. V. Ivanov // Codex of the oldest written news about the Slavs. T. I. M., 1994.
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  1. Operator 14 November 2019 07: 49 New
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    Porridgeous article laughing

    Then the motley ethnic East-European nomadic Turks suddenly have a "state with a capital" on the Taman Peninsula (which, of course, no one can find). That mono-ethnic Bulgars (exactly the same Turks) for centuries can not form their own state - in the presence of the capital Pliski.

    Moreover, the author clearly cannot think systematically - claiming the overwhelming numerical superiority of the Slavic-speaking population of Thrace (present-day Bulgaria), he forgets about such a trifle as the overwhelming numerical minority of the Slavs on the territory of Transylvania (inhabited by Roman colonists) and Greece (inhabited by local Hellenes).

    Plus, it does not at all take into account the fact that the so-called Slavs of Thrace, at the time of the arrival of the Bulgars, for the most part had ancestors of local hamites, assimilated by the Ants in a cultural and linguistic sense. This explains the lack of resistance to the aliens of the Bulgars from the heterogeneous Slavic-speaking population.
    1. Bar2 14 November 2019 09: 19 New
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      Quote: Operator
      Forgets about such trifles as the overwhelming numerical minority of Slavs in the territory of Transylvania (populated by Roman colonists) and Greece (populated by local Hellenes).


      The legitimate question is, why aren’t the Slavs mentioning Latin-speaking Dacians and where are the “great” Greeks, why do they all allow these Bulgarian non-Slavs to nimble on their lands? Where are the "ancient" Athens and the victorious Sparta? Somehow, by this time they were completely asleep. In Sparta, besides the broken brick, there’s nothing to see, there are some kind of "Slavs" who settled there. The city of Olympia, where the Olympic Games were held, is generally a village, there isn’t even broken brick there, only remodels. All of these stories are ridiculous.
      -Island Lesbos was never called -Lesbos, but called -Methelin is quite Russian.
      - The island of Crete was never called - Crete, but called Candia i.e. Khan Island.
      -On medieval maps, the “ancient” Troy is quite visible in its place.

      If you recall the Alexiad Anna Komnina 11-12v then there are generally jokes on the joke. Byzantines i.e. Tsar Alexei (not the emperor) fights off the settling Lombards — these are the Wenedians — the Slavs from Italy, led by the Varangian, calling for help, who would you think? Scythians, yes, Scythians were allies of Byzantium in the 12th century. Then Byzantium fought with the Celts led by Ruselius, which were conquered by Rome in the 4th century and so on.
      1. Bar2 14 November 2019 09: 38 New
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        and Bulgaria itself on medieval maps reads like
        -Burgaria i.e.Bulgaria, that is, the city of Burgas, but there is no Bulgas.
        -There is a city border in Romania
        -Mangalia, almost Mongolia. these are the names

        1. kalibr 14 November 2019 09: 49 New
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          And there is also a gray fox in Chinese, and if you start drawing it, then there will be even more words similar to Russian!
      2. Trilobite Master 14 November 2019 13: 24 New
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        Quote: Bar2
        The legitimate question is, why aren’t the Slavs mentioning Latin-speaking Dacians, and where are the “great” Greeks, why do they all allow these Bulgarian non-Slavs to nimble on their lands? Where are the "ancient" Athens and the victorious Sparta?

        I give up. I do not know the answers. Let's get it right. smile
        Quote: Bar2
        The island of Lesbos was never called Lesbos, but it was called Methelin in Russian language.
        - The island of Crete was never called - Crete, but called Candia i.e. Khan Island.
        -On medieval maps, the “ancient” Troy is quite visible in its place.

        Quote: Bar2
        and Bulgaria itself on medieval maps

        Boring. For a year, one could come up with something new, not limited to home-grown linguistics and ancient miniature maps.
        As for linguistics, they explained to you: if in the process of language development one phoneme replaces another, then this replacement occurs in all similar cases, and three identical phonemes or consonant phonemes in a row is completely insufficient to recognize the words that contain them as related or cognate.
        Regarding maps, it seems that the world has changed a lot since then. If we compare the outlines of geographical objects on medieval maps and modern ones, somehow they do not really coincide. However, the inscriptions on these maps are new believers unconditionally believe. Why do you think that those who drew these maps possessed true knowledge of geographical names, if they did not possess knowledge of the objects themselves? Explain where they could get this knowledge from. Here he draws: “Burgaria” or “Tartaria” - how does he know that these objects are called that way and are located there?
        I had occasion to be in one place. I don’t remember the name of the village, but there is something about the foam and the mustache. There is a river with white water, very fast. Nearby is also a village, some kind of horse name - Konkino or Konevo. In the distance, sometimes, in good weather, mountains are visible. People live different there - there are dark, there are light, there are brown-eyed, there are gray-eyed, there are thick, there are thin, tall and small. They speak Russian there, but it's wonderful, not all words are understandable, and some are confused - for example, a puppy is called a kitten. Around the fields and hills. The river flows from south to north, but in the area of ​​the village makes a loop to the east. Fruits grow there that we don’t have, like orange plums, but with a fluffy skin and others taste like. There are big fluffy apples, but with one big bone inside. There are berries like raspberries, but they grow larger on large trees, and there are berries that look nothing like red and sour, grow on bushes and have one long seed.
        They say that if you go up this river and walk for a long time, you will come to the mountains, where wonderful people live, who say not like us and don’t dress like us, and are called, in my opinion, rats and eagles, or something like that . And if you go down the river for a long, long time, you will go out to the big sea, but along the way you will still have a huge city, where people like us live. Leaving this place, we rode first along the river downstream, then along the steppe, then drove into a big city standing on a big river, then turned north and then drove home.
        Draw me a map of these places according to my description. I didn’t lie a word, I simply encrypted or rewrote some names and names as if I had heard them only once a few years ago.
        1. dzvero 14 November 2019 14: 00 New
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          You know, in my opinion the majority does not represent the nature of the problems facing historians. Hence the “accusations” of “porridge” and various far-fetched associations and interpretations. It would be nice to conduct an educational program about what types of sources are used in historical research and how to trace the history of the people depending on their lifestyle. I hope then that understanding will come that the "porridge" comes from an attempt to combine subjective written sources with limited finds of field archeology of nomadic peoples. And so this article (and the whole cycle) perfectly explains what happened in those "dark ages."
          1. Trilobite Master 14 November 2019 14: 53 New
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            Quote: dzvero
            It would be nice to have an educational program

            I once suggested to Edward to write an article or a series of articles about the work of a professional historian. What they are taught at the university, how scientific work is built, what knowledge and in which areas a historian-scientist should have, how the source base is formed, what requirements are presented to the sources for introducing them into scientific circulation, in short, tell us about that “kitchen”, from which articles, monographs, dissertations, etc., come out, and how then it is discussed, criticized ... In such a work, for example, one can talk about failed defenses of dissertations, how and why they failed. You can talk about auxiliary historical disciplines, such as source study, chronology, archeology, historical psychology, about related scientific disciplines used by historians, such as paleobotany, climatology ...
            But this must be done by a professional.
            I understand that our history buffs will immediately pounce on the author and begin to bleat, like "the author stuffs his own price," "you will not praise yourself ..." (because a true coprophage will never get hungry), but you can ignore them - each has its own ways of saying thank you.
            Dear Edward, maybe it is time to return to this issue? smile hi
            1. dzvero 14 November 2019 15: 50 New
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              It will definitely be interesting. Indeed, in fact, there is much in common with the analytical processing of intelligence, especially when there are doubts about their reliability, objectivity, etc. If the material will be presented in this aspect, then the VO audience will only win.
              1. Edward Vashchenko 14 November 2019 17: 17 New
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                I always compared this to an investigation in the Ministry of Internal Affairs: a lot of similarities)
                Best regards hi
                1. Trilobite Master 14 November 2019 20: 27 New
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                  Quote: Edward Vashchenko
                  I always compared this to an investigation.

                  I, too, although I came to such a comparison, looking precisely from the side of the investigator, and not the scientist. smile
            2. Edward Vashchenko 14 November 2019 17: 16 New
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              Dear Michael, started work)
              I repent, but there is no time.
              I will try to publish soon. hi
              1. Trilobite Master 14 November 2019 17: 20 New
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                We will wait with interest. And ... thank you. hi
            3. 3x3zsave 14 November 2019 20: 15 New
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              "The true coprophage never got hungry" Michael, well, what can I say? I kneel before the phrase! Bravo!!!
              1. Trilobite Master 14 November 2019 20: 31 New
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                Quote: 3x3zsave
                Michael, what can I say?

                You can also thank those thanks to whom this phrase was born - they are sources of inspiration. laughing
                Thank you, Anton. smile
                1. 3x3zsave 14 November 2019 20: 44 New
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                  Inspiration, a complex thing, equally affecting both the twilight side of the human soul and the sunrise.
                  1. Trilobite Master 14 November 2019 20: 47 New
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                    It became even interesting, the phrase being discussed is the fruit of the twilight side or sunrise? smile
                    1. 3x3zsave 14 November 2019 20: 59 New
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                      Everything is relative, like formal logic. "A lot of cheese - a lot of holes, a lot of holes - a little cheese, a lot of cheese - a little cheese"
                      1. Trilobite Master 14 November 2019 21: 04 New
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                        Here, just everything is unequivocal. Holes in cheese make mice. A lot of cheese - mice come, make a lot of holes, little cheese remains. smile
                      2. bubalik 14 November 2019 21: 18 New
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                        hi
                        I am ashamed: our business is serious, and we, old people, play toys. (6) “The mouse is a syllable; but a mouse chews cheese, therefore, a syllable chews cheese. " Suppose that I do not know how to unravel it; but what trouble do I have from my ignorance? What damage? Without a doubt, I should be afraid that a syllable comes into a mousetrap or, in my negligence, a free syllable of some book will eat all the cheese. However, one can drive away fear even more cunningly: “A mouse is a syllable; the syllable does not gnaw cheese; therefore, the mouse does not gnaw cheese. " (7) Oh, childish absurdities! And for their sake we wrinkle our foreheads? For their sake let go of the beard? Teach them people, dull and pale? (C) Seneca
                      3. Trilobite Master 14 November 2019 22: 16 New
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                        Quote: bubalik
                        we old people

                        We are young in soul.
                        Mouse = thinking. Therefore, when the mouse chews on cheese, it ponders it. And the person who observes this, but the cheese does not impede the process.
                        "Love the Russian language!" (c) A. Fomenko
                    2. 3x3zsave 14 November 2019 21: 22 New
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                      The discussion was inspired by the association with the composition "Nautilus Pompilus" "Throat grains"
                    3. Kote Pan Kokhanka 14 November 2019 21: 33 New
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                      Quote: 3x3zsave
                      Everything is relative, like formal logic. "A lot of cheese - a lot of holes, a lot of holes - a little cheese, a lot of cheese - a little cheese"


                      Quote: Trilobite Master
                      Here, just everything is unequivocal. Holes in cheese make mice. A lot of cheese - mice come, make a lot of holes, little cheese remains. smile


                      That's why there are “cats” to catch “mice” and reduce the number of holes in cheese !!! laughing
                      Eduard, your work today is gorgeous !!! My sincere congratulations.
                      Hi guys, I read your comments with pleasure, I didn’t even put cons to the natives, let them grab their own!
                      Regards, Vlad!
                2. Hantengri 14 November 2019 21: 19 New
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                  Quote: Trilobite Master
                  It became even interesting, the phrase being discussed is the fruit of the twilight side or sunrise?

                  If you look from the point of view of Hegelian dialectics, your unconditionally lucid phrase contains, in the withdrawn form, the reason for your birth - the gloomy consciousness of the alternative-talented de'Bills. laughing
                  1. bubalik 14 November 2019 21: 28 New
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                    Hantengri
                    Today, 22
                    gloomy consciousness

                    ,,, here, it can be considered as a certain element of sadomasochistic distortions. what
                  2. Trilobite Master 14 November 2019 21: 56 New
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                    Yes, the first law of dialectics is simply there, cheers to the old Hegel. smile
                    We will wait for the other two to show themselves. hi
        2. lucul 14 November 2019 22: 08 New
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          I once suggested to Edward to write an article or a series of articles about the work of a professional historian. What they are taught at the university, how scientific work is built, what knowledge and in which areas a historian-scientist should have, how the source base is formed, what requirements are presented to the sources for introducing them into scientific circulation, in short, tell us about that “kitchen”, from which articles, monographs, dissertations, etc.

          Well, why so much verbiage? )))
          We can say simpler - "third-rate disease." There is such a term among physicians when students begin to undergo symptoms of diseases, but the theoretical base is still not enough ....
          So here - access to information, thanks to the Internet, is wide, and people draw amateurish conclusions without understanding the essence.
          The question is that the whole history was written by the winners, in every way concealing their problems, therefore it is so difficult to get to the bottom of the truth.
    2. Bar2 14 November 2019 22: 12 New
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      Quote: Trilobite Master
      Boring. For a year, something new could be invented, not limited to


      Actually, I have a lot of new thoughts. I worked on different sites. And on this, the Chief Editor, Dude, spoke like this



      those. he and his moderators protect your naive, fragile worldview or a policy of double standards in action.
      1. Trilobite Master 14 November 2019 22: 29 New
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        I'm sorry it happened. I sincerely speak. However, the law is the law, and the rules of the site are the rules of the site. But I will try to find your failed debut in VO. I became interested.
        I repeat once again: I am sorry that it will not work to discuss your creation in public.
        1. bubalik 14 November 2019 22: 38 New
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          I will try to find

          But remember: anger, fear - it all leads to the dark side laughing
          As soon as you take the first step along the dark path,
          you can’t turn off him anymore ... bully(C)
        2. Hantengri 14 November 2019 23: 18 New
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          Quote: Trilobite Master
          But I will try to find your failed debut in VO. I became interested.

          "Don’t put d @ cancer of the hoppy treat,
          To protect yourself from disgust:
          Drunk, screaming, he will not let you sleep,
          And in the morning I’ll get tired of asking for forgiveness for that. "(C)
          1. Trilobite Master 15 November 2019 00: 23 New
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            Don’t worry, colleagues. smile
            I got acquainted with the linguistic research of the Bar 2 (it did not take much time), but still with you. hi
            In this case, I completely agree with Chuvakin. This is not even Samsonov. There is nothing to discuss. There is no need to publish.
  • RF man 17 November 2019 10: 31 New
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    Could you share the sources of information on genetic research? I would like to read
    1. Operator 17 November 2019 12: 02 New
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      Reformat site, articles by Klesov.

      ethnic composition of peoples - "picture" mode by request in the browser.
      1. RF man 17 November 2019 12: 45 New
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        Thank you so much. For a long time I’m going to read publications on this subject ..
  • Korsar4 14 November 2019 07: 58 New
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    The most interesting place seems to be the thesis of dividing into “one’s own state” and all the others.

    But even now, such a system of views is often maintained. Especially if, under stress, the plaque of civilization subsides.
  • kalibr 14 November 2019 08: 37 New
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    Great stuff, Edward. The funny thing is that I stood on this cape in ... 1968 year and ... did not know anything about it! And by your efforts, after so many years ... returned to childhood.
    1. Edward Vashchenko 14 November 2019 11: 04 New
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      Yes, Vyacheslav Olegovich,
      Good afternoon,
      very interesting with this cape. The EU allocated 3 million euros, in addition to excavations, they made an excellent reconstruction. Copies of finds and a fantastic panel depicting the life of the Romans are here in the VI century., Life-size.
      What to say. - Well done, we have ancient ancient settlements, much more significant, sharply larger, the same, my dear, Panticapaeum, great places for popularization and tourism, but ...
      By the way, I posted a photo of Nessebar, the whole restoration of Byzantine churches is done by the Americans, their Byzantine funds, etc., it is clear that there is no direct path between the American restoration and friendship - unfriendly relations with Bulgaria, but somehow, a reason to think.
  • The comment was deleted.
  • knn54 14 November 2019 09: 31 New
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    Ibn Ruste reports, "... the Rus live on an island that is on the Danube, covered with forests and swamps, unhealthy and cheese, that it is worth stepping a foot on this land as it begins to fluctuate, from the abundance of moisture in it - This island is Rügen ( Singing) and the tribe that lived on it, called from ancient times - Rugami. " Which in medieval German documents are constantly called Kievan Rus. The state of Ruginland.
    Godefroix from France, puts "Ruthenia" between Byzantium and Hungary!
    Until the 14th century, the Wallachians / Vlachs lived only in the Balkans, in the territory of Macedonia and Bulgaria, because among the titles of the kings of the Second Bulgarian Kingdom was the title - “King of the Vlachs”
    During the strengthening of the First Bulgarian Kingdom, these territories were controlled by the Bulgarians. In the pre-Avar period (which they unreasonably lengthen), these territories were controlled by a powerful Slavic political association, which can be considered our first ancestral state of the Danube Rus. From the Byzantine chronicles of the 6th century, we learn the names of the powerful princes Dobryaty and Musoky and the governor of Ardagast and Peyregast.
    FIRST KIEV ON THE AI RIVER (DANUBE) - THIS TODAY IS KILIA EARLIER - SINGE ISLAND
    SM..M Solovyov- "THE SLAVIC TRIBE does not remember his coming from Asia, the leader who brought him out of there, but he kept the legend of his initial stay on the banks of the Danube, of moving from there to the north and then of secondary movement to the north and east, due to the onslaught of some powerful enemy "...
    The chronicler Nestor writes, "..Slavs from ancient times lived in the Danube countries and in the XNUMXth century were driven out by the Bulgarians from the south, who left to the Dnieper, and from Pannonia by the Volokhs (still living in Hungary) moved to present-day Russia and Poland and other lands."
    After the death of Princess Olga, there was already no one to keep Svyatoslav in Kiev, and he, taking a small retinue, left in 969 on the Danube.
    The prince decided to restore justice - he decided that the ancient Danube should become the middle of Russia, and therefore the capital of all Rus should again be at the mouth of the Danube, in the area of ​​Kiev that existed here in ancient times ...
    1. Edward Vashchenko 14 November 2019 13: 46 New
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      Nicholas,
      Ibn Ruso does not write about the Danube.
      Modern historiography, with rare exceptions, believes that the Russ are newcomers from the north, the question of who these Normans are or Western Slavs separates modern Normans and their opponents.
      The toponym Kiev was widespread in the zone of settlement of the Slavs: in central, southern and eastern Europe, as O.N. Trubachev
      Sincerely.
      1. knn54 14 November 2019 15: 05 New
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        Nestor the Chronicler “And the Dnieper flows into the Pontine Sea with three estuaries, this sea is called Russian, and Saint Andrew, brother of Peter, taught it, as I said.”
        ONLY the Danube flows into the Black Sea with three mouths. And then it is clear. In "what" Kiev could be Andrew the First-Called.
        And let the Arab historian did not write specifically the Danube, but Istria, Oli do not play a role.
        1. Bar2 14 November 2019 21: 24 New
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          Quote: knn54
          Nestor the Chronicler “And the Dnieper flows into the Pontine Sea with three estuaries, this sea is called Russian,

          and you can’t send the link?
    2. Hantengri 14 November 2019 19: 27 New
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      Quote: knn54
      The chronicler Nestor writes, "..Slavs from ancient times lived in the Danube countries and in the XNUMXth century were driven out by the Bulgarians from the south, who left to the Dnieper, and from Pannonia by the Volokhs (still living in Hungary) moved to present-day Russia and Poland and other lands."

      Nestor, he’s just like that and writes: "in the XNUMXth century"? Could you share a reference to this amazing quote from Nestor?
  • Keyser soze 14 November 2019 10: 35 New
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    Thanks to the author for a good article.

    I love to adhere only to scientific argumentation and therefore I want to advise the author to supplement his undeniably excellent knowledge in the historical field with modern research on genetics.

    There are many publications in first-class publications, such as the cancellation of Nature (Ancient human mitochondrial genomes from Bronze Age Bulgaria: new insights into the genetic history of Thracians), which can clarify or clarify many historical productions. As well as many studies of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, together with the University of Florence or other well-known universities.

    I give an example - in medieval as well as in modern Bulgarian DNA haplogroups typical for Turkic peoples are minimal - about 0,8-1,5 %%. So call the Bulgarians Turks UTB so-so.

    The modern DNA of the Bulgarians is dominated by haplogroups characteristic of the local population, who have been living here since the Bronze Age, for which the Thracians can be mistaken (Θρᾷκες is a letter at the beginning of the name called “Tita”, if that ...). This must be evaluated when we talk about the Slavs in the Balkans. The Thracians did not disappear anywhere, they were here and remained the predominant population, despite the Slavs and Proto-Bulgarians who settled on the Yeti of the earth.

    I love science, which dispels superstition and myths and clarifies and complements history.
    1. Operator 14 November 2019 10: 59 New
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      The main (but not dominant) haplogroup in the modern population of Bulgaria is the rude E1 (about one third), the same as its neighbors - Greeks, Albanians and northern Macedonians. Hamites appeared in Europe (the Balkans) from Asia Minor about 10000 years ago and, along with the Illyrians and Aryans, are the first settlers after the last ice age.

      The descendants of the Slavs (R1a) make up a quarter of the population of Bulgaria, the descendants of the Turkic-speaking Bulgars (R1b) - about one fifth, the rest - the descendants of Asia Minors (J2) and others.

      But the trick is that the Slavic quarter of the population of Bulgaria was able to assimilate all other ethnic groups culturally and linguistically laughing
      1. Keyser soze 14 November 2019 11: 13 New
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        the Slavic quarter of the population of Bulgaria was still able to assimilate all other ethnic groups in the cultural and linguistic sense


        Operator .... I will not get involved in such a subjective dispute with you. It's nonsense, anyway, the French are arguing now Franks (Germans) or Gauls or British now Danes or Germans or Normans in general and who shaped the nation as a culture and language.

        In your spirit of extrapolating facts, we can accept that modern Americans are Germans and their culture is formed by Cromuel’s “faithful”, but it will be a mistake.

        All the same - adhere strictly to the scientific facts of archeology, history and genetics and you will not be mistaken in any way. All other policies and Wishlist. Or just universal rubbish from YouTube.
        1. Operator 14 November 2019 12: 47 New
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          You actually listen to what the representatives of the largest Slavic state in the world tell you laughing

          The French on 2 / 3 are descendants of Erbins / Celts / Gauls (R1b) and on 1 / 10 are descendants of Illyrians (I1 and I2). Another thing is that in the 5 century a German minority (mestizos of the Celts with the Scandinavians) came to their lands - Franks and gave the locals their name. The modern language of the French is a hybrid of Celtic with Latin with the distorted name of Charlemagne (Charles le Mans).
          1. Keyser soze 14 November 2019 13: 11 New
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            You actually listen to what the representatives of the world's largest Slavic state laughing tell you


            The operator, of course we listen to you and even understand what is at stake - how do you write in the Bulgarian alphabet and speak the language that comes from the Bulgarian 9 century, so everything is clear ... laughing
            1. Operator 14 November 2019 13: 24 New
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              I speak my native language - Russian / Slavic / Aryan.

              And the alphabet is a business, for example, I like Latin (to simplify the computer keyboard) laughing
          2. Edward Vashchenko 14 November 2019 17: 21 New
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            You actually listen to what the representatives of the largest Slavic state in the world tell you

            This is not a valid argument and strange, even jokingly smacks of shallow chauvinism.
            Do not disgrace our people, write about gallogroups.
            1. Operator 14 November 2019 18: 30 New
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              Quote: Edward Vashchenko
              our people

              Is that the "chosen one" or something? laughing
              1. Trilobite Master 14 November 2019 20: 10 New
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                Quote: Operator
                Is that the "chosen one" or something?

                No, do not tolerate me, so many thoughts, so many thoughts .... repeat
                To whatever people you consider yourself, Operator, this people should be ashamed of you.
                The best thing, from a human point of view, that can be the reason for your statements is dense stupidity, probably caused by some kind of organic damage to the brain or simply age-related changes in it. I repeat, this is the most harmless reason for the appearance of people like you, since there are enough stupid sick people in any nation, moreover, in each nation their ratio is approximately the same as normal, the appearance among its representatives of figures like you, in general, does not cast a shadow over him - as they say, a family has its black sheep, it happens to everyone. I am ashamed of you, of course, but a little.
                But if you adhere to the ideas that you are promoting here, without being sick or demented, aware that you are writing and speaking, then then for the people that you represent, it becomes a real shame. Personally, I am ashamed only for the fact that you transmit your vile beliefs with the help of my native Russian language.
                If people like you (I mean ultranationalists and other chauvinists) begin to appear in a country in droves, this is a clear sign that the country is seriously ill. And the fact that I periodically react here to your messages only says that I sincerely hope that you are just a local holy fool, and not this very sign, because if you are sane, then fighting with you here is all the same that trying to burn green chancre with greenery, instead of drinking antibiotics. But since I can’t ensure that the country takes “antibiotics” - this is a whole range of political and economic measures that can be implemented only at the highest level of the country's leadership, I will continue to practice with the “green”, maybe at least some benefit will come of it.
                I didn’t write this because there are Bulgarian colleagues among us today, among their fellow citizens there is also a similar infection, they will not be embarrassed. I just sometimes want to remind VO readers who they are dealing with with you, and once again demonstrate by your example what the commitment to various pseudo-scientific concepts in history leads to.
    2. Mac Simka 15 November 2019 22: 41 New
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      In principle, the haplogroups of the indigenous population of the Thracians can be traced only along the female line. Other genes are already dominant in masculine.
  • pytar 14 November 2019 12: 44 New
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    To the author: An interesting article, although it has controversial hardening. Which is normal in view of the complexity of the topic. I want to make a few notes, without claiming to be the "first instance" of course!
    There is a lot of controversy over the title of titles of Prabolgar sovereigns! The title "Khan" has a Turkic origin, but there are preserved inscriptions in Bulgaria, where for example Omurtag and Malamir use the title KANAΣYBIΓI (known and KANAΣYBHΓH, as well as a few more similar ones), transliterated as “kana juvigi”, “kanas ubigi”, etc. According to the semantic meaning of these titles, there are many variations and assumptions. Some consider the word KANAS as a derivative of the Slavic Prince.
    VIII century stone with Greek inscription made during the reign of Omurtag:

    The "Turkic origin" of the proto-Bulgarians, modern science / genetics / clearly denied. On the territory of Bulgaria, many burials of Bulgarian grandees from this period have been preserved. A study of the perishable remains shows an absence of ethnic kinship with the peoples of the Turkic group. Undoubtedly, the Prabolgars contacted them (as well as with the Slavs), far before the emergence of Danube Bulgaria. And of course there was mutual interaction in all areas of life. But these are not related peoples by origin. The Thracians, even the Goths, lived on the territory of modern Bulgaria and gave weights bringing in the genetic pool of modern Bulgarians. The process of merging into a single nation received a decisive push after the 9 century, when Prince Boris I, adopted Christianity as the state religion, the official language became Slavic, and the written language was Cyrillic.
    Here is an interesting video of two famous Russian researchers of early Bulgarian history.


    Regarding where the decisive battle between the Asparuh’s troops and the Byzantine army took place, recently the prevailing opinion has become that this place is located south of the Danube delta near the village of Nikulitsa in present Northern Dobruzhi. There, archaeologists found the remains of an impressive military camp corresponding to prabolgar traditions with an area of ​​48 sq. Km. The construction of such a scale could put an entire army with their families. And the area corresponds to that described in the Byzantine chronicles. It is likely that Asparuh entered into an alliance with the Slavs, since the Byzantine imperial army did not dare to go through the territories where the Slavic tribes could ambush. I met information that in the battles with the Byzantines not all the Prabol army participated, since at that time part of the army fought in Transnistria, restraining the pressure of the Khazars.



    The first capital of Danube Bulgaria, city ​​Pliska was built / completed over about 80 years and also represented a very impressive settlement. The total area is 21 sq. Km, and to the courtyard from 500 dka with stone walls with water heating under the floors. During the construction, Byzantine and Persian technologies were used, which gives reason for the alleged Iranian origin of the Prabolgars. The city had 3 defensive rings. An external moat and shaft with dimensions of depth 7 m., Width 10 and length 20 km. The inner city was protected by stone walls / quadra / s thickness 2,60 m. And height 12 m. The third was built of brick. All of them were part of one well-designed selection system.

    View of Pliska from high:



    1. Edward Vashchenko 14 November 2019 13: 51 New
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      Boyan
      thanks for the expanded comment,
      Unfortunately, there is no way to read and answer now.
      Best regards hi
    2. Edward Vashchenko 15 November 2019 06: 52 New
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      Dear Boyan,
      thanks for the comment.
      A short answer:
      Proto-Bulgarians - unambiguously Türks, firstly, archaeologically - this is a single culture, from the Sea of ​​Azov to the mouth of the Danube, uniformity remained until the 9th century, and later the so-called Balkan-Danube culture, a variant of the Saltovo-Mayatsky culture (S.A. Pletneva).
      The unity of the rites, the worship of Tenge, the cup from the head of the enemy leader, for example, is recorded in written sources, the military structure is all from the Turks. (Monasteries).
      The beginning of the use of the term “prince” by the proto-Bulgar Turks is quite natural, within the framework of the predominance of the Slavic population.
      Obviously, the ethnic processes in the territory captured by the Proto-Bulgarians were complex: the remains of the Romanized Thracian population are preserved, the formation of an ethnic group in the territory of modern Romania is an example where, for example, the Slavs assimilated.
      Regarding the “peaceful” movement of the Proto-Bulgarians, we have all two written sources and both do not speak of any world, I brought them.
      Genetics cannot help anything here - there is very little material for analysis, as d. N., Head of the Laboratory of Genomic Geography, Institute of General Genetics, RAS
      Oleg Balanovsky:
      “DNA genealogy (Klesov and the like) have rendered genetics a great service.
      She brought to the point of absurdity and showed the danger of the temptation of straightforward interpretations of the history of haplogroups as the history of peoples. ”

      Do not rush to extremes, G.G. Litavrin to his scientific opponents-friends in Bulgaria: there are no significant changes in the picture of the formation of the Bulgarian state, which, by the way, I described in the article, relying on leading experts in this field and sources.
      Alas, we Slavs, like no other people tend to look for what is not or a black cat in a black room. And truth is on the surface.
      Sincerely. hi
      1. pytar 15 November 2019 11: 37 New
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        Dear Edward, the topic is very complicated, a lot of puzzles! In various publications I met opinions covering the entire possible spectrum! More questions than answers! In recent years, new and very surprising results have appeared. Your stats really impressed me and I recommended it to my friends.
        The prevailing earlier view of the "Turkic origin of the Proto-Bulgarians" is no longer supported by most researchers. There is no doubt that the Turkic culture influence is there, but Iranian is also traced.
        As for genetics, the Asparuhov proto-Bulgarians are definitely not the Turkic people. Here under the "Turkic peoples", conditionally !!! the ancestors of modern Azerbaijanis, Turks, Turkmen, Altai peoples, etc. are considered. Modern Bulgarians, like their ancestors, are very far in genetic characteristics from these peoples, even despite 500 years of Turkish slavery. Proto-Bulgarians Asparuh were very numerous people. In Bulgaria, a large amount of genetic material has been collected from their burial. There have been very interesting large-scale studies on these issues since recent years. If they were "Türks", they would have left genetic markers characteristic of Turkic peoples in modern Bulgarians. I am not an expert on the issue, I quote the results of international studies from recent years.
        By genotype, modern Bulgarians are at the same time Slavs, Thracians and Proto-Vols. It is at the expense of the Proto-Bulgarians that the genetic proximity of the current Bulgarians to the population of northern Italy, where Asparuh’s brother Alcek settled, is being explained. Bulgarian toponymy is still found there. In the region of the old capital of Bulgaria - Veliko Tarnovo, two years ago, archaeologists found a lot of Gotha settlements, which dated back to the time of the formation of the First Bulgarian Kingdom. In the city's museum, a number of archaeological finds of the Gothic ascension are on display. About the Thracians ... because of their influence, some scholars about the Bulgarians even introduced such an interesting term - "Mediterranean Slavs"! A bunch of our customs come from them. The Thracian tombs preserved a large number of perishable remains. In this regard, several personal stories of our time! My friend, an archaeologist by profession, made herself a genetic study in 4 licensed laboratories. All the results turned out to be the same -100% Thracian ... Another friend of mine (by the way he was a Mogamedanini and considered himself a Turk) turned out to be genetically ... goth! Just a descendant of the Goths who lived near Tarnovo. It was a joke, but when he knew his origin, he went to the museum and looking at the Gothic artifacts, said - "damn, this is from my ancestors, I'm starting to learn German!" lol
        There is still an interesting genetic study from 2014. The topic was whether there is a connection between modern Bulgarians and the pre-Thracian population of the so-called "first agricultural Neolithic civilization" in the Balkans? The opportunity to clarify the situation was given by archaeological finds and burial remains containing suitable genetic material. It turned out that these ancient people left their genes in 70-75% of modern Bulgarians. The fact means that every new people coming has been assimilated with the locals by continuing their genetic line. In general, modern Bulgarians with the same foundation can be called descendants of the Thracians, Proto-Bulgarians and Slavs.
        On the subject of genetics, of course you cannot fall to extremes! The picture should be painted in a comprehensive manner - to the eyeballs with all other scientific methods! I am not an expert, I quote what I read.
        Another amazing fact, I will say about the capital Pliska! In the 1972 city near Varna, archaeologists make a discovery dated to the 5 thousand. years old / pre-Thracian period. 297 coffin with over 3 thousand. angry items. Many consider this gold the oldest in the world.





        The discovery itself is impressive, but true senation is different! It turned out that many of these objects and decorations made with geometric proportions and constants are one to one, coinciding with the proportions of the geographical location of the sacred revenge in Danube Bulgaria. Pliska, Madara horse, proto-Bulgar ridge, etc. etc. This is not from an “alternative history,” but a fact. No one can give a clear explanation of the case. The discovery gave rise to the hypothesis that the Proto-Bulgarians are descendants of the ancient Black Sea civilization, which once arose along the shores of the Black Sea and drowned as a result of rising sea levels. Ie, proto-Bulgarians are the evolution of that pre-Thracian autochronous population. Controversial hardening, but the question remains open! It is possible that the Proto-Bulgarians, having no direct connection with the ancient peoples, crossed the Danube and built their structures on geo-energetic places, which the ancients used. Let us hope that science will sooner or later give answers!
        I wish you successful work, and writing new interesting articles on VO! hi
        1. Edward Vashchenko 15 November 2019 16: 53 New
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          Dear Boyan,
          Your stats really impressed me and I recommended it to my friends.

          Thanks!
          You have a detailed comment, very interesting.
          I will say a few words, I have great skepticism about this new theory, as the outstanding archeology theorist L.S. Klein said: DNA analysis will take its modest place among auxiliary disciplines, since with the advent of radiocarbon analysis we did not have radiocarbon archeology.
          And speaking from the point of view of analysis: there are extremely and extremely few materials for research.
          So that your acquaintance-archaeologist was very lucky, found the DNA of an entire Thracian and made an analysis)))
          I’m joking, you’ll think about it, maybe I’m a Goth or a Thracian, I have Bulgarians in my family) my great-great-grandfather, a Cossack, just like Sholokhov, after the 1878 war, returned to the farm with his Bulgarian wife.
          Something like this
          hi
          1. pytar 15 November 2019 17: 59 New
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            Dear Edward,
            I have great skepticism about this new theory, as the outstanding archeology theorist L. S. Klein said: DNA analysis will take its modest place among auxiliary disciplines

            You have the right, because healthy skepticism is the basis of the classic scientific approach! DNG examinations have probative value in courts. Occurrence, patronymic, etc.. It is clear that when it comes to history and things that happened far into the past, the situation is not so clear. I believe all scientific methods are applicable. No one can be ignored! If DNA studies illuminate "dark fields", why not use them to get more elements to the mosaic?
            In Bulgaria, for obvious reasons, a huge amount of research is being conducted on native history, beliefs, traditions, language, origin, etc. Some of them are jointly with international scientific institutes. Unfortunately they are translated into English, but rarely in Russian. On the other hand, it was in Russia that more than 90% of the historical heritage associated with the medieval Bulgarian culture was preserved. Fate disarmed that in Old Bulgaria that civilizational code was created, which is at the heart of Russian. When Bulgaria was covered with centuries of darkness, Russia became the continuer of this culture. This is our common Slavic civilization!
            I’m joking, you’ll think about it, maybe I’m a Goth or a Thracian, I have Bulgarians in my family) my great-great-grandfather, a Cossack, just like Sholokhov, after the 1878 war, returned to the farm with his Bulgarian wife.

            Here genes let themselves know! good
            1. Edward Vashchenko 15 November 2019 23: 00 New
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              This is our common Slavic civilization!

              Totally agree!
  • Operator 14 November 2019 13: 13 New
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    Quote: pytar
    ethnic kinship with peoples of the Turkic group

    Not a Turkic, but a Turkic-speaking group, which includes peoples with different phenotypes - from the Yakut Mongoloids (N1c1) to the Europoids of Azerbaijanis (J2).
    1. Keyser soze 14 November 2019 13: 21 New
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      Not a Turkic, but a Turkic-speaking group,


      And there is nothing very little left of Proto-Bulgarian and there is no way to understand which language group this language belonged to. The neighbors in the Caucasus and the Hun Federation - the Hungarians actually switched to the Finno-Ugric language, and we use the South Slavic dialect and no one knows what proto-Hungarian and Proto-Bulgarian languages ​​were.
    2. pytar 14 November 2019 14: 10 New
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      Yes! Of course you are right. Language and origin are often different. Speaking for "ethnic kinship", I do not mean the language, but the origin. By the way, Eugene is right that so far the ignorance of what language the prabolgars spoke. And in their origin, also a mystery! hi
      1. knn54 14 November 2019 14: 47 New
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        Boyan. Long time talking with the Chuvash. They (and not without reason) claimed kinship with the Proto-Bulgarians. In particular, well, a lot
        SIMILAR to Bulgaria toponymic names.
        And the inscription from Preslav :: TORTUNA PILE ZHOPAN. God blessed zupan. Zhupan is the title of ruler in the Balkans.
        1. pytar 14 November 2019 15: 23 New
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          Hi Nikolay! When I saw the traditional national clothes of the Chuvash, I was surprised! Somehow our Bulgarian here looked! A striking resemblance! Before, time came to the diagram with the genetic characteristics of the Chuvash. Compare it with the Bulgarian and ... the resemblance is visible with simple eyes! There is a large general section / presumably from common ancestors / and sections of the genetic contribution of neighboring / local / peoples by location, respectively, for the Chuvash and Danube Bulgarians. I cannot categorically say anything, but there is clearly a connection. hi
  • Operator 14 November 2019 13: 33 New
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    Quote: Keyser Soze
    proto-Hungarian and proto-Bulgarian which languages ​​were

    Judging by the dominant haplogroup R1b - Basque.
  • Engineer 14 November 2019 13: 41 New
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    In general, reading the sources, I had a clear conviction that the Bulgarians of Kutrigurs lived precisely behind the Danube since the 6th century. They are clearly referred to as living in the area of ​​the Avar power. Therefore, the evidence of the arrival of the Bulgarians Asparuh in the second half of the 7th century always seemed strange to me. Maybe the second wave, purposefully going to places already partially inhabited by relatives?
    1. pytar 14 November 2019 14: 14 New
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      Maybe the second wave, purposefully going to places already partially inhabited by relatives?

      There is such a version, and it may well turn out to be true! Like the version that the Prabolgars are relatives of a slender ethnic group who lived before in the Balkans. Somehow too conflict-free they settled south of the Danube! What a very rare occurrence at the time! The feeling that they did not come, but returned ...
    2. Edward Vashchenko 14 November 2019 14: 15 New
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      Denis, welcome!
      maybe, but in the sources something like this laughing
      1. Engineer 14 November 2019 14: 39 New
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        Good afternoon,
        Thanks for the article.
        Unfortunately, as I understand it, archeology does not allow distinguishing the Bulgarians from the Avar massif. Both of them deformed skulls, used jewelry made in polychrome style, etc.
        1. Edward Vashchenko 14 November 2019 17: 23 New
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          Denis,
          in Hungary does not allow, in other regions yet.
          1. Engineer 14 November 2019 19: 00 New
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            So Hungary is interesting to me, If the Bulgarians were in Subunavye before Asparuh, then most likely there
            1. Edward Vashchenko 14 November 2019 19: 56 New
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              Bulgarians Asparuh came from the Sea of ​​Azov)
              1. Engineer 14 November 2019 20: 05 New
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                I know that. But I think that in the Podunavye they were already met by relatives who had lived there for at least 100 years. Without this, I don’t have the ethnic map of the Subunav 5-7 centuries. I still won’t get to the opuses of Mr. F. Kurt. Maybe something will become clear.
  • kalibr 14 November 2019 13: 46 New
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    Quote: Edward Vashchenko
    By the way, I posted a photo of Nessebar

    I was in Nessebar too. Made a lasting impression! Slack!
  • Bully 14 November 2019 18: 13 New
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    After reading the article, he asked himself the question: what task did the author set for himself when publishing this material on VO? The only answer that comes to mind is another attempt to impose on readers the perception of events traditional for historical science. Since I cannot agree with this state of affairs, and at the same time there is no desire and time to engage in polemics with the author, I will go asymmetrically. To readers who would like to familiarize themselves with a different interpretation of the events mentioned, I propose to read a series of articles by the historian Sergei Lesnoy (1894-1967), "History in an Twisted Form."
  • tanit 14 November 2019 18: 41 New
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    Both the article and the comments of the Bulgarians are interesting.
    The operator, and it seems that Klesov himself hasn’t thought of the Khamites in the Balkans yet?))) Ahem, or I haven’t read it for a long time ...
    Vasily50, And you are Russophobe, Anglo-Saxon and Zionist. For Petukhov and Chudinov proved
    1. tanit 14 November 2019 18: 42 New
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      That all people are descended from Russians.))) And blaming someone for something is to be a Russophobe
  • Operator 14 November 2019 20: 21 New
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    Quote: Trilobite Master
    my native russian language

    Huseynov, change your language - it does not combine with your natural Russophobia.
  • kalibr 14 November 2019 21: 46 New
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    Quote: Bully
    For those who would like to familiarize themselves with a different interpretation of the events mentioned, I suggest reading a series of articles by the historian Sergei Lesnoy (1894-1967) "History in an undistorted form."

    And why is he better than Edward? Open new unknown documents? Excavated the city? Read unread labels? Did he do all this?
    1. Bully 14 November 2019 22: 50 New
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      People will get to know each other and figure out who is better, what they discovered, what they dug up, read, did. Why are you so tensed then? If you are familiar with the work of S. Lesnoy, conduct correspondence polemics with him for readers of VO. Readers will look at your arguments and draw conclusions themselves.
      1. Edward Vashchenko 15 November 2019 07: 03 New
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        Vladimir,
        let's lay out your work parameters, what are you doing ?, and people will be sorted out whether you know how to work or so-so. laughing
  • kalibr 14 November 2019 21: 49 New
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    Quote: Trilobite Master
    just a local holy fool

    Exactly...
  • kalibr 15 November 2019 09: 47 New
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    Quote: Bully
    People will get to know each other and figure out who is better, what they discovered, what they dug up, read, did.

    To understand, you need to know a lot. A polemic with the deceased is generally stupid ...
    1. Bully 15 November 2019 13: 39 New
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      Of course, knowledge is needed. However, they are necessary for the perception of any material, including the one that you regularly publish here with your fellow historians. Agree that publications are intended for a wide circle of readers of VO, and not just for 5-6 like-minded people.
      As for the controversy. You are a literate person and perfectly understood what I had in mind. The polemic is not conducted by a person, but with a system of views, statements, arguments. And this is a common practice when a specialist tries to refute any well-established system of statements, regardless of when it developed.
  • kalibr 15 November 2019 19: 49 New
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    Quote: Bully
    when a specialist tries to refute any established system of statements, regardless of when it developed.

    I just do not seek to refute anything, except perhaps that which is not based on verified information.
  • kalibr 15 November 2019 19: 51 New
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    Quote: Edward Vashchenko
    let's lay out your work parameters, what are you doing ?, and people will be sorted out whether you know how to work or so-so.

    At the sacred, Edward, swung ?! Do you want to reveal the younger scoop? Will not work!
    1. Edward Vashchenko 15 November 2019 23: 01 New
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      Yeah! In football and history, only everyone understands hi
  • KNOW 21 November 2019 13: 15 New
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    The author says "These nomadic tribes lived a tribal life and were at the first," tabor "stage of nomadism. Although they had a" capital "aul"
    And how do these savages create one of the largest and most beautiful cities in Eurasia ?? Pliska, Preslav, Bulgar, Bilär, Suar (Suwar), Qaşan (Kashan), Cükätaw (Juketau), Kazan. These cities are not military camps (aul), but handicraft and shopping centers with monumental buildings and stone walls. Read the description of the Great Preslav in the chronicles of Joan Exarch:
    “It’s a lot of smerd and poor man, and the wanderer reach far away to fortify the walls and coolies at the prince’s palace [the capital Preslav] and you see, that one is surprising. decorating all the buildings, decorating with a kamka and writing with darvo and other beggars. And you climbed into the palace [vtresniya grad] and you saw the tents and cherkvite, richly decorated with kamka and darvo and crimson, and opened it with marble and honey, and gold - and you don’t know with kakvo yes gi compare ... "
    Read also:
    http://archaeologyinbulgaria.com/2015/09/18/great-basilica-in-capital-of-first-bulgarian-empire-pliska-modeled-after-old-st-peters-basilica-in-rome-bulgarian-scholars-conclude/
  • alexey alexeyev_2 22 November 2019 00: 28 New
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    "Nomadic empire" is strong. Why did the author decide that the nomads will be able to create their own empire .. I would put a monument to the "unknown nomad" on whom everything can be blamed ..
  • raki-uzo 10 December 2019 15: 53 New
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    Kaiyu battle - The founders of the Ottoman Empire wore such flags. On the first and afterland picture stands out well.
    https://www.gzt.com/aktuel-kultur/kayi-boyu-ve-efsanelesen-iyi-simgesinin-10-madde-ile-bilinmeyenleri-2572634