Military Review

Let's Talk About Science: A Visualization Method for the Structure of Reinforced Composites for Aircraft

58

In the section “Talk about science” it is proposed to discuss the improvement of the visualization method of reinforced composite materials (composites) with nanofibers, which allows one to obtain and track substances with truly unique properties. In particular, we are talking about reinforcing polymers with carbon fiber (CFRP), for which it is extremely important to monitor the orientation of the fibers inside the base material.


Polymers reinforced with various fibers are actively used today in the automotive and aircraft industries.

Thus, many manufacturers try to transfer gliders (wings) of airplanes to the field of “polymer-fiber” production. As a result, such material reduces the total mass of the aircraft (unmanned aerial vehicle), while increasing its resistance to mechanical stress, including the resulting axial stress during over-maneuvering.


But it was with the observation of the location of the fibers, affecting (location) the mechanical and optical properties of the material, that the scientists had problems. Usually, heavy-duty X-ray sources were used for these purposes. But this kind of radiation could ultimately affect the very nanofibers that were embedded in the polymer to change its properties. To prevent such an influence, it was necessary to achieve visualization of the process in a simpler way. One option is to use conventional x-ray tubes.

Scientists from the Swiss research institute Paul Scherrer (Zurich) succeeded in this. Researchers have improved the small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) method to such parameters that it allows you to "read" data on the structures and location of fibers inside the polymer. This is an important step on the path to when the sample of the material for the orientation of the fibers in it can be examined using, as already noted, a conventional X-ray machine - without the use of extraordinary powers.

But why is only the first step?


The fact is that the conventional SAXS method is extremely slow for real-time research. So, you can scan a centimeter sample of material for the future polymer wing of the aircraft in just a few hours. If the operation is carried out faster, then the resolution of the “picture” will be so low that it will become impossible (or extremely difficult) to investigate the orientation of the fibers in it.

To implement the updated method, Swiss specialists use a set of so-called x-ray lenses behind the sample. As a result, scattering diagrams can be drawn up, on the basis of which the computer creates a visual interpretation of the internal structure of the sample. Moreover, in this situation, one x-ray is sufficient. The updated method allows to obtain x-ray projections of relatively high resolution with a frequency of 25 frames per second for approximately 11 seconds.

Scientists believe that this method will not only track the orientation of the same carbon fibers in the reinforced polymer, but also program this orientation, followed by precise fixation in the final version of the material. Thus, the mechanical, optical, temperature and other properties of the sample can be set programmatically with full visual control of the execution of this program. In turn, this will answer the question, for example, about the compliance of the parameters of the aircraft glider with the technical task before it is finally assembled and passes all the necessary tests. Invaluable help for aircraft designers.
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  1. Sky strike fighter
    Sky strike fighter 12 November 2019 18: 17 New
    +2
    I’m sorry that I’m a little off topic. But it seems like about science too. I found information on the Internet that greatly surprised me. Joint development with Western countries. Has anyone canceled state secrets? And if the Americans take advantage of these developments? recourse request
    Tests of the Russian hypersonic ramjet engine began.

    The Baranov Central Aviation Engine Building Institute has begun bench testing of a prototype of a promising hydrogen hypersonic ramjet engine, which is being developed as part of the large-scale international project HEXAFLY-INT. This publication N + 1 was told at the institute’s stand at the International Engine Forum, held at VDNH from April 4 to 6. The first tests showed that the technology demonstrator of the new power plant is able to function reliably at an air speed of 7,4 Mach numbers (9,1 thousand kilometers per hour).

    https://nplus1.ru/news/2018/04/05/engine
    1. bk316
      bk316 12 November 2019 18: 27 New
      +6
      Someone canceled the state secret?

      If joint development is by definition not state secret ....
      1. knn54
        knn54 12 November 2019 19: 09 New
        -1
        Today, only the Boeing 787 has a wing that is 100% made of composite materials.
        1. Shurik70
          Shurik70 12 November 2019 19: 14 New
          +2
          Quote: bk316
          Someone canceled the state secret?

          If joint development is by definition not state secret ....

          Hydrogen direct-flow hydrogen-powered nuclear fuel is a secret Soviet development, about which only general information has leaked to the media.
          1. astepanov
            astepanov 13 November 2019 10: 15 New
            0
            Quote: Shurik70
            Nuclear fuel hydrogen direct-flow

            Do not confuse anything?
            1. Shurik70
              Shurik70 13 November 2019 21: 18 New
              0
              For example, a cruise missile of project 375 of the Lavochkin Design Bureau with a direct-flow nuclear jet engine of OKB-670 design, M. M. Bondaryuk.
              Or the project of the strategic aircraft M-60 with an atomic turbojet engine of the "rocker" scheme.
              There were also purely reactive circuits with heating in an atomic reactor, without intake of external air. They didn’t get to the plane because they did not solve the issue of the strength of uranium rods - when working on the ground, small pieces of uranium flew out of the engine, infecting the area.
              Google to the rescue.
              1. astepanov
                astepanov 14 November 2019 09: 57 New
                0
                And what role does the hydrogen you mentioned play in these engines?
                1. Shurik70
                  Shurik70 14 November 2019 18: 55 New
                  0
                  Quote: astepanov
                  And what role does the hydrogen you mentioned play in these engines?

                  Working body.
                  Hydrogen does not chemically react with uranium, can heat up very quickly, hydrogen plasma, in comparison with other gases, has the highest speed at equal temperature. And if hydrogen “catches” the neutron, it will still remain a non-radioactive element.
                  It was hydrogen that was passed through the reactor, and then air was added to the plasma.
                  1. astepanov
                    astepanov 14 November 2019 19: 41 New
                    0
                    Thank. Got it.
        2. Astronaut
          Astronaut 12 November 2019 22: 33 New
          +3
          The MS-21 also has a composite wing
        3. astepanov
          astepanov 13 November 2019 10: 14 New
          +1
          Quote: knn54
          Today, only the Boeing 787 has a wing that is 100% made of composite materials.
          So what? What about rocket bodies? What about fuel rocket tanks?
          To the author of the article: no “nanofibers” are used in composites for aviation! Carbon fiber materials with diameters from 1 μm or more are used. "Nanofibers" exist, but they are almost impossible to orient, and the price is such that the entire budget of the Moscow Region will go to one wing.
          Absolutely Chubais "nano" people heads confused
    2. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 12 November 2019 18: 59 New
      +2
      Together with Australia.
      Australians want to shine - create something
      "breakthrough".
      But there is no wind tunnel and calculation methods.
      So they cooperated with the Russians.
    3. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 12 November 2019 18: 59 New
      +4
      Back in the 1991 year, in December, our cryogenic propellant scramjet demonstrator was launched from Baikonur. CIAM did. The launch vehicle launched the device, after which the scramjet started up, did some work, developing 10M, it seems, in the upper atmosphere. The Kazakhs were then very offended that this launch from Baikonur occurred without their permission.
      1. Chaldon48
        Chaldon48 12 November 2019 19: 27 New
        +2
        They need to pray from morning to evening that they generally have a state, and even with such a vast territory. What is interesting, they thought, surrounded by Lenin, in any case, I think, not about the interests of the Russian people, giving up the original Russian territories in such numbers to illiterate nomads?
        1. SOVIET UNION 2
          SOVIET UNION 2 12 November 2019 22: 34 New
          0
          When created, thought for ages. Nobody thought that descendants would give out Kemsky volosts. And if you make a claim, it’s already to the descendants of the Bolsheviks. The Bolsheviks at one time gathered as they could and saved the country for posterity. But the descendants were ungrateful to their ancestors. They also make claims (to their ancestors) and accuse them of all sins, although they themselves could not create anything, they only squander the inheritance. And if anyone is to make a complaint, it’s the modern government. Why squander the country? And after all, movement towards the reunification of lands is not observed. On the contrary. Only there is talk, to whom to give our land for use! And let's create the TORA! Maybe this will push the process and it will go faster !? That we ourselves. Not even that. We can’t do anything! That’s what came from the words that everything is done badly with us and we ourselves don’t know anything. They programmed themselves for the lack of research and development programs. Nevertheless, the counterrevolution in the 90s was led by the smartest people! And we turned out to be illiterate nomads. That we all profiled for fuk.
          1. max702
            max702 13 November 2019 00: 33 New
            0
            The Russian empire was declared a prison of peoples, therefore, the Russian peasant must pay and repent to these very "unfortunate" peoples .. That the Bolsheviks did well and did it .. The truth is they didn’t calculate and the Russian peasant ended, and with it the USSR cadavre .. Right now they’re trying something to do (it’s not in vain that Russia is the most successful country of the entire former USSR), but I’m afraid that they took up late, the ridge is broken, and it’s not a fact that we will revive ..
            1. SOVIET UNION 2
              SOVIET UNION 2 13 November 2019 08: 11 New
              0
              Oh well! Prison of the Nations! And then who is the USA? Peoples Prison Overseer? Russians repent? For what? For the preservation of the peoples of the Republic of Ingushetia and the USSR? But do Russia what the Europeans did during the colonization? Then what should Russia do? Do Europeans and Americans often repent? Or is there nothing for them? Oh liberals, liberals! Your complete idea is liberalism’s idea and it hasn’t brought any positive to Russia! hi For good, you need to drive you into three necks! am
              1. max702
                max702 16 November 2019 19: 07 New
                0
                I voiced the doctrine of the Bolshevik Party to you, and you suffered some kind of crap .. At least learn a little history .. So don’t need USSR 2.0. Enough for the Russian to feed everyone else. Live on your own!
                1. SOVIET UNION 2
                  SOVIET UNION 2 17 November 2019 06: 50 New
                  0
                  I do not agree with your doctrine. She is not faithful. She turns everything upside down. hi
                  1. max702
                    max702 17 November 2019 09: 30 New
                    0
                    Quote: SOVIET UNION 2
                    I do not agree with your doctrine. She is not faithful. She turns everything upside down. hi

                    I repeat this is not my doctrine, but the Bolsheviks who carried out the October coup in 1917 .. Therefore, I say that there are enough crazy ideas to solve at the expense of the Russian people .. There are very few left and whether the big question will be reborn .. By and large it’s the national question and ruined the USSR, the outskirts of the center gobbled up ..
                    1. SOVIET UNION 2
                      SOVIET UNION 2 17 November 2019 20: 14 New
                      0
                      Well, why then does modern power not revive the Russian people? The population of Russia is stupidly replaced by migrants. There are no borders of the Russian territory. Where should Russians live? Why is English being propagated in Russia? Where are the Slavic names of the same enterprises? Why are Russian language and Slavic writing so shy today? We surrendered even the posts to the Anglo-Saxons. We have a president, a senate, senators, municipalities and other English words.
                      1. max702
                        max702 19 November 2019 16: 42 New
                        0
                        [quote = SOVIET UNION 2] But why then the modern government does not revive the Russian people? The population of Russia is stupidly replaced by migrants. There are no borders of the Russian territory.
                        This requires CLEANERS similar to the 30th years .. but the state is not ready for this yet, and showing the liberda in an extremely scary form (actually worse) is just a step towards preparing this .. Everything will be, but later ..
                      2. SOVIET UNION 2
                        SOVIET UNION 2 20 November 2019 07: 55 New
                        0
                        I will not argue. Wait and see! hi
  2. Aerodrome
    Aerodrome 12 November 2019 19: 10 New
    0
    Quote: Sky Strike fighter
    I’m sorry that I’m a little off topic. But it seems like about science too. I found information on the Internet that greatly surprised me. Joint development with Western countries. Has anyone canceled state secrets? And if the Americans take advantage of these developments?

    private companies like to be deigned to "state secrets", you see, there are commercial interests, not "homeland", and they don’t include "deeply" into "state secrets", not included in the "list" of enterprises working for the defense industry. how they began to "openly" live!
  • Saboteur Holuy
    Saboteur Holuy 12 November 2019 18: 19 New
    -19
    There is no science in Russia
    1. bk316
      bk316 12 November 2019 18: 24 New
      +16
      There is no science in Russia

      And eat bread and generally the last hedgehogs .... recourse
      1. SOVIET UNION 2
        SOVIET UNION 2 12 November 2019 22: 37 New
        -1
        And the hares disappeared somewhere. Already do not cross the road. recourse laughing
        1. Ehanatone
          Ehanatone 12 November 2019 22: 51 New
          +3
          "the hares disappeared somewhere. They no longer cross the road"
          Right now, fines are better right under the wheels! ...
    2. Mountain shooter
      Mountain shooter 12 November 2019 18: 27 New
      +11
      Quote: Diversant Holuy
      There is no science in Russia

      There is. You just don’t do it ...
      1. Saboteur Holuy
        Saboteur Holuy 12 November 2019 18: 56 New
        -15
        Everything worked out in the USSR ... or Chinese, Russian initially nothing
        1. RUSS
          RUSS 13 November 2019 00: 17 New
          0
          Quote: Diversant Holuy
          Everything worked out in the USSR ... or Chinese, Russian initially nothing

          Russia is in 10th place in the ranking of the leading countries of the world in terms of the cost of research and development: in 2016, the country spent $ 39,9 billion on these goals.

          In terms of the ratio of science costs in gross domestic product (GDP), Russia with an indicator of 1,1% lags behind the leading countries of the world and is in 34th place.

          In terms of the cost of research and development per one researcher, Russia occupies the 47th place - $ 93 thousand per year.
    3. Sky strike fighter
      Sky strike fighter 12 November 2019 18: 28 New
      +6
      Quote: Diversant Holuy
      There is no science in Russia

      Just to chat? winked Even something not very smart. repeat
      1. SOVIET UNION 2
        SOVIET UNION 2 12 November 2019 22: 43 New
        -1
        If there is science, where does it manifest itself? Why do not we sell, but buy technology? Why do we attract foreign companies, not domestic ones? How strange for the existence of domestic science! The same motorcade was created with the involvement of foreigners. Why did the Chinese and KAMAZ create a joint venture to produce engines from 20 liters? Will we assemble Chinese motors? Where is our science?
        1. Saboteur Holuy
          Saboteur Holuy 13 November 2019 07: 13 New
          -5
          And so it will be ... no one wants to change anything, you can only force it! For example, a man came to the EP party and offered to nominate a young woman, one of the strongest mathematicians who actually writes the most complicated programs in the military-industrial complex, as a candidate for deputy, she at one time refused to leave with friends to graduate from the university in the USA and went to work in our defense ... so the party EP didn’t even lead an ear, they were not impressed by the fact that she was in science, a mathematician, they simply didn’t notice her, but put forward some Showman ... Schreins, athletes, showmen in Trend. ..Mathematics and Young Scientists are not quoted, as the population said in EP, this does not mean ...

          More than that, this woman is valued only where she is doing specific things, and nobody helps to advance further, she goes on business trips to scientific conferences and knocks out ... not thieves because ... how is Science here? Where in Russia Science is on paper, there are terry apparatchiks, and they only move their own! There are only gifted programmers, the blat doesn’t channel there, but programmers are not allowed into politics! It turns out it is profitable to be a deputy of the State Duma! There only on Blat!
          That's why the showmen in the State Duma cut the budget ...
          Yes. And you will not prove to anyone here, WE DO NOT have SCIENCE, and users write nonsense in response! So Widmo and the President are deceived ...
          1. SOVIET UNION 2
            SOVIET UNION 2 13 November 2019 08: 20 New
            0
            Well, in Russia, how? Stole a little-planted. He stole a lot in politics or power. Well, how can a mathematician get into power under the laws of Russia? If there is no money, you are a loser! And why are the authorities losers? Here she is a mathematician. Smart? Why is there no money? So stupid, pretending to be smart! Here, as they say, ** If you are so smart, why then so poor? ** That's all alpha and omega of modern realities! hi On the one hand, the saying seems to be true. Smart will work, dumb no! By this logic, the most intelligent swindlers come out. And mathematicians, physicists, astronomers, engineers and so on are stupid! And it seems like iron logic! But something does not fit. Why?
          2. okko077
            okko077 13 November 2019 11: 04 New
            +2
            Why are artists, singers, film actors the forefront of society? They are all just clowns and do not create an intellectual product! Why are we being taught
            focus on these jesters ...
        2. bk316
          bk316 13 November 2019 11: 52 New
          +1
          engine release from 20 liters? Where is our science?

          Is this a science? Nda how everything is started ....
      2. Ehanatone
        Ehanatone 12 November 2019 22: 54 New
        +2
        Saboteur Holuy
        "There is no science in Russia"
        The letter "a" in the name is clearly superfluous ...
    4. Aerodrome
      Aerodrome 12 November 2019 19: 11 New
      +7
      Quote: Diversant Holuy
      There is no science in Russia

      but lackeys divorced ....
    5. Flatter
      Flatter 12 November 2019 21: 01 New
      0
      A wind tunnel for whom
  • Thrifty
    Thrifty 12 November 2019 18: 27 New
    0
    It is interesting to know what is being done in this direction, especially since the future lies in such materials.
    1. Sky strike fighter
      Sky strike fighter 12 November 2019 18: 37 New
      +1
      Whose intelligence are you working on? soldier
    2. Whisper
      Whisper 12 November 2019 19: 06 New
      +5
      There are developments and very serious ...
      OCSiAl develops technologies for introducing nanotubes into various materials. The list of concentrates, suspensions and products based on nanotubes is available at https://ocsial.com/en/solutions/
  • bk316
    bk316 12 November 2019 18: 34 New
    +6
    Again such an article. I read it well, took note and immediately try to forget.
    Questions left
    What does this have to do with VO ...?
    why in general should such a narrow topic as flaw detection of polymers be brought to the news ....?


    The funny thing is that this is profanity: even to increase erudition is not suitable. The basis of the invention are as follows from the article "a set of x-ray lenses." What is this in the article is not described. Let's honestly who of those who read it now knows what an X-ray lens is and how it works. Separate BUT THE SAME QUESTION TO THE AUTHOR.
    1. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 12 November 2019 18: 55 New
      +3
      The first thing that came to mind about the “X-ray lens” is that you can direct the x-ray radiation in the right direction using total internal reflection, approximately the same way as in optical fibers. Here are the bundles of such "X-ray guides" and you can liken a lens to this range.
      1. ProkletyiPirat
        ProkletyiPirat 12 November 2019 20: 40 New
        +1
        You describe the method of optical fibers, it is used to determine the integrity for destruction, but not for flaw detection, and its application limits the chemicals and polymerization methods of KM, which just reduces the strength parameters (therefore, the method is unpopular and is often replaced by forced structural weakening ("preventing damage) ") in conjunction with the introduction of conventional sensors). Here we are talking either about determining the cavities \ microcavities \ nanocavities in the polymer and \ or about determining the gradation of contrast additives in this polymer.
    2. Demon_is_ada
      Demon_is_ada 12 November 2019 20: 55 New
      +2
      This is most likely a profiled electrode where electrons are sent. Nobody knows how to influence X-ray quanta yet, acre aliens laughing There is no problem at all to control a bunch of electrons, so it is directed to the surface at a certain angle (the surface itself is not a bunch) so that the radiation goes in the right direction, it is possible to create a scanning (traveling) X-ray, and from below below the object you can cram a bunch of separate receiver matrices, when processing on a computer, you can create a 3D model ... well, somehow it’s probably so in reality ... although who knows what akyn sang about, well, that is, a journalist laughing
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 13 November 2019 19: 19 New
        +1
        If you believe that controlling the flow of electrons can focus the x-ray radiation that occurs when these electrons are decelerated, then you are very mistaken. Look at the radiation pattern of a decelerating electric charge - this is a donut.
        1. Demon_is_ada
          Demon_is_ada 14 November 2019 11: 37 New
          0
          It’s not possible to focus at the moment, no ... you can just direct it. Although who knows, maybe because of the speed of redirection they use, you can simply mechanically move the cobalt gun, given the radiation power, I think more efficiently ... who knows for sure, you need to check ...
          pysy and javot thought apos after he wrote ... but in general why ??? Isn’t it easier to stack correctly during manufacture? belay
          1. Aviator_
            Aviator_ 14 November 2019 19: 49 New
            0
            Isn’t it easier to stack correctly during manufacture?

            Of course, they try to stack it correctly, but it’s about control - to see what really happened, and not according to the documents.
    3. okko077
      okko077 12 November 2019 21: 44 New
      -1
      But nothing that the sanctions in these technologies sharply slowed down the MS-21 with the manufacture of its "black wing". Did we make a wing of someone else’s material on our plane using someone else’s strength components? It turned out that the MS-21 is also not entirely ours, and not just along the wing ... We put the pi_ndo engine on it also because we do not have cool units and systems that are attached to the engine ... That's why there is braking with the installation PD-14 on board! It’s impossible to stick foreign generators and pumps to our engine, and there’s no sense. I really want to see the MS-21 with our engines and units, and with our systems this will be a breakthrough.
      Who cares about the composition of imported equipment:

      http://newsruss.ru/doc/index.php/%D0%9A%D0%BE%D0%BC%D0%BF%D0%BB%D0%B5%D0%BA%D1%82%D1%83%D1%8E%D1%89%D0%B8%D0%B5_%D0%B8_%D0%BC%D0%B0%D1%82%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%B0%D0%BB%D1%8B_%D0%9C%D0%A1-21#cite_note-27

      And PD-14 has problems with import substitution and sanctions, and they are quietly silent about them:
      https://bmpd.livejournal.com/3739052.html
      1. Scoun
        Scoun 13 November 2019 06: 03 New
        +4
        Quote: okko077
        And PD-14 has problems with import substitution and sanctions, and they are quietly silent about them:

        And what, it is necessary to shout?
        And with the MS-21 and with the composite, and with the PD-14, and with the PD-35, issues are being resolved and made. It’s just that people work and don’t yell.
        1. okko077
          okko077 13 November 2019 10: 49 New
          -3
          I forgot to ask you. No need to trouble yourself, this is a forum, here they exchange opinions ... Work further ..
          1. bk316
            bk316 13 November 2019 11: 55 New
            +2
            And what, it is necessary to shout?

            exchange opinions here ...

            They asked you ... And you scream ...
            This is not an exchange of views, it is a screech.
            1. okko077
              okko077 13 November 2019 17: 11 New
              -2
              You have outlined a circle of problems in the subject, with facts and links, and you scream patriotically pointless, everything is normal ?! Not normal .. Read and remember, while between squealing on the forum, there are still normal people ...
              1. bk316
                bk316 13 November 2019 17: 16 New
                +3
                you squeal patriotically pointless, they say everything is fine

                Am I screaming? You rave ....
                1. okko077
                  okko077 13 November 2019 17: 43 New
                  -2
                  Yes, in your comment "0" information ... One spam
                  1. bk316
                    bk316 14 November 2019 12: 29 New
                    +1
                    One spam

                    First squeal, now spam.
                    Is it the same for you?
                    Or are you generally not responsible for your words?
                    Then of course go on.
                    Balabolism just does not interest me and is not even particularly annoying. People to increase their own self-esteem tend to balabolit ....