Military Review

Rogatina, sulitsa and sovna. Special varieties of Russian spear

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Russian warriors of past centuries could use different weapon. However, for centuries, the main weapon of the infantry was a spear. Such weapons constantly evolved due to changes in various design features, which allowed him to more fully meet current requirements. The evolution of the spear led to the emergence of several of its special variants of particular interest.



Tips of copies of the 11th-13th centuries Photo Swordmaster.org

Classification Issues


It is known that in the Middle Ages and later the development of weapons in Russia was a constant and continuous process. New weapons designs appeared regularly, including poles, which were then distributed and gave the soldiers an advantage over the enemies.

For obvious reasons, most of the spears and other weapons perished without a trace, but surviving samples help archaeologists and historians restore the overall picture and its individual elements. History spears in Russia are constantly supplemented with new details, but the general ways of its development have long been identified and well studied. There is also a classification of copy tips used in different periods.

For example, in A.N. Kirpichnikov's "Old Russian weapons" famous spearheads are divided into seven types with several subtypes. One type includes weapons with a similar design and shape, and subtypes depend mainly on the size of the product. Separation by periods was also applied, which made it possible to classify finds from the 9th to the 13th centuries in the classification.


Different options for stag meat. Illustration from the book "Historical Description of Clothing and Arms of the Russian Forces"

Some types of tips differ markedly from other representatives of the classification, which may be of great interest. In addition, in the history of the Russian spear there are some controversial points that should also be considered.

Weighting Course


Perhaps the most famous spear variety in Russia is the stag. The first references in sources and archaeological finds of this kind date back to the middle of the 12th century. Later, staghorn became widespread in the infantry and cavalry, and also became a hunting weapon. In the last role, she continued to be used almost until the beginning of the last century.

At its core, staghorn was an enlarged, reinforced and weighted spear. It was made on the basis of a strong pole of greater thickness with a length comparable to human growth. The feather of such a spear most often had a laurel-shaped form; tip length could reach 500-600 mm. There were also special requirements for the strength of the sleeve. The finished product was noticeably larger than other copies, and also several times heavier.

Due to the reinforced design, the catfish could deliver more powerful stabbing and chopping blows. Such weapons were distinguished by greater penetrating power, due to which they could be used both against infantry and in the fight against cavalry. The Russian army began to use hornets almost immediately after their appearance - in the 12th century. The share of such weapons in the total number of copies was constantly changing, but was always quite large. The last mention of the use of rogatins in the army dates back to the 17th century. Further development of promising weapons has reduced the role of spears.

Rogatina, sulitsa and sovna. Special varieties of Russian spear
A textbook lubok depicting a hunting use of a stag. Wikimedia commons

Special characteristics allowed the use of stag and hunting. Such a "career" of reinforced spears lasted much longer. Rogatins were used when hunting large and dangerous animals - the use of such weapons against bears is best known. Some hunting slings were distinguished by the presence of a characteristic crossbar near the feather. This part served as a kind of stopper and allowed the hunter to keep the affected prey at a safe distance.

Between a spear and an arrow


In the past, throwing darts were very common. In Russia, such weapons were called Sulitsa. It was a throwing spear of small size and limited mass. In fact, it was larger than a bow arrow, but smaller than a normal spear. The first samples of this kind date back to the 9th century. Sulitsy was used by all Slavic tribes, and then entered into service with the military and squads. The development of such weapons as a whole repeated the evolution of the spears, although with some differences.

Outwardly and in construction, the groom looked like a spear, but was smaller and lighter. The length of the shaft usually did not exceed 1,5 m, and the tip was not longer than 200 mm. To simplify the design and save the tip, they could equip the tip not with a sleeve, but with a stalk driven into the shaft.

Small and light as well as larger and heavier samples are known. The difference in mass led to some differences in combat qualities. Like spears, sulits received tips with feathers of various shapes. Mostly elongated types were used, capable of showing the best punching effect when throwing.


Modern reconstruction of the tip of the sulitsa. Photo Dic.academic.ru

The main way to use the Sulits was throwing at the enemy. Depending on the mass and speed, such a weapon could break through the enemy’s light defense, or at least get stuck in it. The infantryman could carry several gangs and some other weapon, which expanded his combat capabilities. The use of the witch as a spear was not excluded, but its effectiveness was limited by objective factors.

The period of relatively active use of propelling pole arms fell on the X-XIII centuries. In the future, a change in battle tactics and the emergence of new types of weapons led to a reduction in the use of streets. They later went out of use.

Mysterious Owl


In 1841, the publication of the multi-volume work of A.V. Viskovatova "Historical description of clothing and weapons of the Russian troops." In this work, all known data on the weapons of the Russian armies were collected, but there was also some new information. One of the mentioned examples of pole arms caused controversy.

In the first part of the book, among the armaments of the infantry and cavalry, a soviet was mentioned. This weapon was defined as the likeness of a horn with a tip in the form of a large knife with one-sided sharpening. The book also had two drawings - one depicted the actual piece of iron, and the second was attended by a horseman with such weapons.


The first known image of a spear of the "owl" type (below). Illustration from the book "Historical Description of Clothing and Arms of the Russian Forces"

It was further established that the term “owl” had not previously been applied to any real weapon. Something similar was found only in one of the lists of the Novgorod Chronicle I, but even in this case there was no complete certainty. The fact is that this fragment of the document is inaudible, and in other lists in this context other weapons appear.

Over the past century and a half, the history of Russian pole arms has been seriously supplemented and comprehensively studied. Despite this, any traces of the sovni described by A.V. Viskovatov, still not found. However, the name “owl” or “owl” has come into circulation and has been actively used to this day.

Different domestic museums store differing archaeological finds called sovnies. Moreover, to this day it is unclear what kind of real weapon the author of the “Historical Description” had in mind. The version about the mistake made is very popular. However, so far not all questions in the context of the Soviets have answers, and disputes continue.

Specialized and tenacious


The development of copies in Russia continued for several centuries and led to very interesting results. In different periods, on the basis of the "ordinary" spear, various specialized specimens appeared with one or another feature. Nevertheless, one of the main weapons of the infantry and cavalry was still a spear in its original form - with one or another type of tip.


Horsemen with pole arms. The fighter on the left has a owl. Illustration from the book "Historical Description of Clothing and Arms of the Russian Forces"

The reasons for this are understandable. Spears of the main types, despite the development and change of design, were a simple, convenient and versatile weapon for the infantryman or rider. Other samples, such as stag beetle or sturgeon, were designed to solve specific problems and therefore should only complement the main weapon. However, this role did not adversely affect their distribution. All known varieties of copies were actively used and refined.

Over time, pole arms have lost their value to armies. However, some of its varieties were still interesting for hunters. Of all the specialized varieties of the spear, the longest part of the exploitation was the stag, the features of which were useful not only on the battlefield. But she, in the end, could not compete with a newer and more advanced weapon, using different principles.
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  1. mark1
    mark1 13 November 2019 06: 45 New
    +7
    As far as I know, the peak lasted in the cavalry until the beginning of the 40s of the 20th century. It would be necessary to mention the peak of Cyril.
    1. kalibr
      kalibr 13 November 2019 07: 42 New
      +4
      Nadezhda Durova, a cavalry girl who served in the Lancers (and not in the hussars, like in the movies) was very unhappy with the fact that during the exercises it was necessary to twist the peak above the head with one hand! Here is how!
  2. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 13 November 2019 07: 29 New
    +4
    And I always thought that the stag beetle is a primitive wooden tool in the form of a long pole and pointed branches at the end, and you see how ... belay
    1. Nyrobsky
      Nyrobsky 13 November 2019 10: 22 New
      +6
      Quote: Leader of the Redskins
      And I always thought that the stag beetle is a primitive wooden tool in the form of a long pole and pointed branches at the end, and you see how ... belay

      Moreover, the hunting cattle was improved into a mechanical one when it entered the carcass of the beast to a certain stop, which acted as a trigger and the blade of the cattle was opened inside the carcass, cutting flesh to increase blood loss and at the same time preventing the blade from falling out of the wound. In theory, a terrible weapon.
      1. Dym71
        Dym71 13 November 2019 12: 32 New
        +4
        Quote: Nyrobsky
        Moreover, the hunting stalk has been improved in mechanical

        1. Nyrobsky
          Nyrobsky 13 November 2019 13: 46 New
          +4
          Quote: Dym71
          Quote: Nyrobsky
          Moreover, the hunting stalk has been improved in mechanical


          This is the option I had in mind. Thank you for giving visual material. hi
          1. svarga911
            svarga911 14 November 2019 16: 03 New
            0
            I think that the device has not received any distribution. Rather, it remained on paper, and at best in a single, prototype.
    2. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I 13 November 2019 14: 32 New
      +6
      Quote: Leader of the Redskins
      I always thought that the stag beetle is a primitive wooden tool in the form of a long shaft and pointed branches at the end,.

      Rogatins ... they were all sorts! And with the "crossbar" "crosswise" ...
      . And with such a "zugugolina" ...

      And what was hunting with a horn! Can you compare it with the modern one ?! There is no drama now! ...
      1. Private-K
        Private-K 14 November 2019 09: 28 New
        +1
        Tsar Alexander the 2nd walked on a bear with a horn. Repeatedly.
        True, the huntsman with a gun was hiding behind - well, such a thing, the danger does not greatly reduce.
        1. Nikolaevich I
          Nikolaevich I 14 November 2019 10: 16 New
          +3
          They hunted with a horn in the 20 century ... it is claimed that in the 21 century there are extreme lovers!Like any citizen of the XXI century, I thought that this method of hunting had long sunk into oblivion. But it turned out to be wrong. When I wandered along the upper reaches of Pechora, in the village of Yaksha I happened to see some kind of strange spear, with a large - forty centimeters - tip. One face of the spearhead was sharpened like a razor, but the other remained completely dull.
          To my question to the owner: “What am I holding in my hands?” Is it really a berdysh? ”- the hunter, laughing, replied that it was a Tunguska“ palm ”, or in Russian a“ horn ”. He explained to me that without a horn, he never goes into the forest. And absolutely it is indispensable when hunting a bear.
          At that moment I did not believe the owner of the spear. Tell me, who in their right mind would go for a bear with a horn, a weapon of Russian infantrymen of the VIII century, when there is a whole arsenal of firearms? However, they do. Even today in Siberia you can still find people who go for a bear with a horn. One on one. They call themselves hunters, all the rest are just arrows for them.
          For bear hunting, two species of Russian rostin and one native species are known - “Tunguska”, which is considered the oldest.
          The device of the Tunguska cattle is straightforward: the forged tip is put on the shaft - the "town hall". The shaft is made from bird cherry or mountain ash. Its length is equal to the growth of the hunter, and the thickness is not more than four and a half centimeters. For special strength, as well as to prevent it from slipping in the hands, the cattle is covered with steamed birch bark ribbons.
          The tip of the stag beetle is called by the hunter “feather” or “palm”. It is attached with hot resin to the thicker, butt, part of the shaft. And on the lower end of the spear they put on a wooden knob called “heel” or “inlet”.
          The size of the Tunguska "palm" very rarely exceeds two meters, while its Russian "sister" is much larger.
          Russian horn is conventionally divided into “birch bark” and for “hunting after”. The birch bark of a cattle is more massive. They protect it from the attacking beast. And the cattle for chasing less and more convenient. It is needed when dogs attack the bear.
          Our staghorn also differs from the Tungus palm by the presence of a metal guard at the base of the tip. Garda hunters call the "crossbar". And here is the attention! Instead of forged guards in the Middle Ages, a cross from the horn was tied with leather straps. Hence the current name. In addition, so that the blood of the beast does not flow along the shaft of the spear, a horsehair sultan was often attached below the crosspiece.

          In general, in the world there has long been a "movement" of extreme hunters ... "hunters" to adrenaline! In England, the USA, for example, there are extreme hunters ... fans of hunting a bear with the English "longbow '' ...
  3. Siberia 75
    Siberia 75 13 November 2019 09: 42 New
    +5
    As far as I remember, weapons very similar to Sovnuy are in the eastern images, Arab and Turkish.
    And the Chinese, who (if they take their idle talk seriously) invented everything in the world, go about in every pseudo-historical film with Sovny systems.
    1. sen
      sen 13 November 2019 10: 35 New
      +2
      The Mongols definitely had a sovna. In the series "Invincible Warrior" was shown. It was used mainly on foot against a horse.
      1. Siberia 75
        Siberia 75 13 November 2019 10: 40 New
        +9
        Quote: sen
        The Mongols definitely had a sovna. In the series showed

        You need to be very careful about information from the hood. films. The famous medieval historian KA Zhukov, sorted out several "historical" films, so he probably didn’t cry
        1. sen
          sen 13 November 2019 10: 46 New
          +2
          No, not a feature film. They showed a specific historical restored weapon and determined who had the best weapon.
      2. Undecim
        Undecim 13 November 2019 12: 52 New
        +7
        The Mongols definitely had a sovna.
        The Mongols could have guan tao - a Chinese halberd.
        1. Undecim
          Undecim 13 November 2019 12: 54 New
          +6
          In Japan, a similar weapon was called naginata.
    2. Private-K
      Private-K 14 November 2019 09: 31 New
      0
      Glaive and glaive-like gizmos were very common.
      50-150 cm shaft + 40-70 cm blade. Full of all sorts of variations on the length and shape of the blades.
  4. Avior
    Avior 13 November 2019 10: 07 New
    +7
    At its core, staghorn was an enlarged, reinforced and weighted spear. It was made on the basis of a strong pole of greater thickness with a length comparable to human growth.

    Rogatin was used against the attacking enemy or the beast, resting one end against the ground, the inertia of the enemy himself was mounted on the tip of the enemy’s horse in battle, or a bear on the hunt.
    Something like that

    Rogatina was too heavy to act in battle, like an ordinary spear, with one hand, but very strong, so as not to break when applied with focus on the ground. The pointed end of the shaft was sometimes made on the horn for better emphasis on the ground.
    When hunting, if you did not use a shield, you could hold the stag beetle with both hands.
    The crossbar on the hunting slings limited the depth of penetration and allowed to keep the beast at a distance.
    When hunting a den, having teased a bear, they put the stag beetle down to the ground and put a point to the hole so that the crawling beast would sit on it, inflicting mortal wounds on itself. Therefore, the stag beetle was longer, with a more massive and longer tip. When hunting in pursuit, a bear was stopped by dogs with a horn. Most often, the moment was chosen when the beast transfers its attack to the hunter and then they took it to the horn. The attacking bear usually attacks on four legs, in several quick jumps. Therefore, a tip is applied to the neck, chest, less often under the groin, after which the base rests on the ground. .... The task of the hunter striking and holding the staghorn is to get the bear to the slaughter place and help the beast to inflict the most severe, fatal wound on itself. With the right blow, the heart, lungs, liver, important blood arteries, the spine may be damaged from a wide leaf-shaped blade, from which the beast very quickly loses its strength and dies.
    Rogatina does not give the bear the first moments to get and bend the hunter, and after that it becomes not up to it. In addition, a partner and dogs are usually involved in the finishing.

    1. Vasyan1971
      Vasyan1971 13 November 2019 22: 06 New
      +2
      "Popped the bear on the hunter - be him on the horn!" ©
      1. Avior
        Avior 14 November 2019 02: 49 New
        +3
        The edge of the staghorn is a rampage.
        On the rampage climbed, it's just about her
    2. Yura
      Yura 14 November 2019 00: 04 New
      0
      It was already a long time ago, I was in fifth grade then - the second half of the sixties, my father told me about how he had hunted a bear with a horned head twice (in the bottom photo with a miniature it is very similar to what he was telling), according to him the cattle in the ground is quite close to the body, you wait when the beast that rises rushes at the hunter and at the right moment you tilt it towards the bear and squat it yourself, make a movement backward without releasing the pole (this is probably to get away from the paws), and then according to the situation, first time on it According to the words, the bear ran so hard and got lucky that he could only wait until the time came to take the skin, and the second time he had to finish off with a hunting knife, which he wore two, one of them looked like a huge cleaver (by the way, I remember him). My father was not yet thirty when he was hunting, how much time has passed since then and how swiftly, now I’m more than twice as old as him on that hunt.
  5. Undecim
    Undecim 13 November 2019 12: 37 New
    +7
    Mysterious Owl
    There is nothing mysterious in the owl. Explicitly the author's term, introduced into the circulation of A.V. Whiskey. If anything is a mystery, it’s the motives that prompted Viskovatov to create it.
    As for the weapon itself, in Europe a similar chopping - piercing weapon had several varieties, a falshard, a glaive, a body.

    In the figure, position 4 is a falshard or foshar, used from the XNUMXth to the XNUMXth centuries.
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 13 November 2019 12: 55 New
      +6

      Halberds and glaive.
  6. svp67
    svp67 13 November 2019 13: 32 New
    +3
    Due to the reinforced design, the catfish could deliver more powerful stabbing and chopping blows.
    In general, the long-tree piercing-chopping weapon is a clear sign that the opposing side had protective equipment. That is, the enemy had "armor"
  7. hohol95
    hohol95 13 November 2019 15: 56 New
    +6

    Soldiers of the combined grenadier battalions of the Yekaterinoslav army, armed
    cavalry carbines and knives on the shafts - "knives on the arms"
    November 1788, XNUMX
    Oleg Leonov. Armament "Potemkin" grenadiers. 1786-96 // Zeichhaus. - 2003. - No. 21 (1/2003)
  8. hohol95
    hohol95 13 November 2019 15: 59 New
    +4
    Wikipedia
    “Knife on the Town Hall” is a polearm weapon that was in service with two combined Grenadier battalions of the Yekaterinoslav Army, a small part of the Zaporozhye Cossacks and the corps of foot Little Russian shooters at the end of the XNUMXth century.
    ... These knives were armed, in addition to two combined grenadier battalions, Zaporozhye Cossacks, and in 1790 in Tula 5000 knives were made for the corps of foot Little Russian shooters. The “knives on the arms” were rather wide single-blade blades mounted on short poles. The blade was with a slight bend. As can be seen from the letters, they were intended for stabbing and chopping strikes, as well as for aiming. This weapon did not receive distribution and soon became obsolete.
  9. Al_lexx
    Al_lexx 13 November 2019 21: 14 New
    +3
    The article is entertaining, but the author has clearly superficial knowledge about the armament of the Russian infantry. References to some official historical works are completely doubtful, precisely because they are official and modern.

    Never (!) In the Russian army a spear, or even a spear, was the BASIC weapon of the infantry. There was not even an infantry formation for the normal use of such weapons. Moreover, the infantry itself was not the main striking force of the army, but as an auxiliary for the protection of the camp, etc., as well as during the storming of fortifications.
    Rogatina was the main weapon of the heavy (armored) Russian cavalry. And it was precisely the heavy cavalry chained in armor and chain mail that was the main striking force of the Russian army of the 11-14 centuries. Sobsna, a powerful strike with a wedge, heavily armed cavalry, in order to break through and cut the ranks of the enemy, this was originally a Russian invention, which was later adopted by the Europeans, some of which were the same numbered Slavs.
    As a rule, light horsemen (often slaves (squire), heavily armed horse boyars), who were also an auxiliary force in heavy cavalry, armed themselves with sulitsy. And the Russian infantry, at all times, the main weapon was a sword and shield. And the construction was specifically designed for this weapon. Around the 14 century, the main weapon of the infantry was the berdysh.
    In general, foot spearmen, this is a purely and originally European theme in the infantry, developed by them to perfection. Spearmen served in the Russian army, but these were hired Europeans, the remains of the weapons of which are shown here in some photographs.

    Russian horn has always had a crosshair at the base of the blade. A tail made of wool or cloth was tied to it, so that the blood would be absorbed and not wet the shaft so that it would not slip. From here it got its name.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 14 November 2019 06: 03 New
      +5
      In general, foot spearmen, this is a purely and originally European theme in the infantry, developed by them to perfection. Spearmen served in the Russian army, but these were hired Europeans, the remains of the weapons of which are shown here in some photographs.

      You can argue here!
      The first one. The Byzantine Authors describing the weapons and tactics of the Slavic tribes almost always mention a large (growth) infantry shield, spear and sulim. So it is safe to say that the Slavs, and later the Old Russian Wars, right up to the era of Svyatoslav’s campaigns, used the mass of infantry tactics with caraway seeds in their arms of the spear! Rogatina in our sources is mentioned only from the 12th century.
      The second one. If we read our annals, then this weapon continues to play its role in equipping foot militias of cities. However, even local self-government (thousand, sotsky, and ten) was tied to this. I think it is doubtful that the bulk of the people acted “horse and arm”! The standard set of "pawn" is sewn, ax, spear.
      The third. The theory of forged rati on the Kulikov field. A number of scientists of the last century are sure that the armament of infantry on the model of the Macedonian phalanges played a special role in the defeat of Mamaia's troops. The truth of the statement is debatable, but why not!
      1. Al_lexx
        Al_lexx 14 November 2019 19: 32 New
        0
        Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
        The Byzantine Authors describing the weapons and tactics of the Slavic tribes almost always mention a large (growth) infantry shield, spear and sulim.

        I do not consider the Byzantine authors reliable sources, since Byzantium (and not only it to the west of Russia) regularly received stars from the east. This is the first.
        The second one. "Militia", as you call it, has never played a key role in the army in Russia. The basis of the army were horse boyars and their purchased serfs, otherwise called serfs, who made up the boyar squad (only the horse). At the beginning of the service, the slave could be a lightly armed horseman, covering the flanks and rear of the heavy boyar cavalry. Gradually, as you get a share from Duvan, the serf could become a heavily armed war, going on the attack in line with the boyars. The same and landless boyar children. The war itself was precisely the improvement of his armor and weapons.

        Well, pedestrian regiments did not go in Russia. This is not Rome, which specifically built stone roads for this. )))
        The foot formation took place only during the siege of fortifications and on both sides. In a campaign or cavalry, or a carabule army. There were simply no other permanent military formations in Russia.
        Permanent foot army formations appeared only after the reforms of Ivan IV. These are the same archery regiments. For their movement carts were used, which sharply reduced mobility and required additional protection. Before the reforms of Ivan the Terrible, Russian squads did not move like that.
        .
        And to argue is of course your right. I do not like arguing as a form of dialogue. Truth is not born in such a dialogue.
        1. bk0010
          bk0010 14 November 2019 22: 27 New
          +1
          It seems that the infantry in Russia disappeared under Vladimir the Baptist, and was revived under Ivan the Terrible.
          1. Al_lexx
            Al_lexx 15 November 2019 00: 13 New
            -1
            Quote: bk0010
            It seems that the infantry in Russia disappeared under Vladimir the Baptist, and was reborn under Ivan 4 Grozny

            More or less like this. To be more precise, regular infantry appeared under Ivan the Terrible. Prior to this, there were only equestrian boyar squads recorded on track records. We are not considering the people's militia here. Yes, and it was largely developed in Novgorod., Since there was no prince. In other cities, the prince's squad consisting of boyar squads and the personal squad of the prince himself. All these were exclusively horse formations. And it could not be otherwise, since the boyars lived on their estates + fortresses, along with their slaves. To get under the banner of the prince, a messenger and a boyar squad were sent, with clockwork horses immediately appeared in the prince's city. In the cities themselves there was a small foot squad, exclusively and solely for carrying out the current guard duty, in peacetime mode.
            There was also a constant carabile foot army. But these were armed detachments of merchants who guarded ships that were not related to public service, in contrast to the boyars, who were on service records, received personalized salaries, as well as for every serf, who was contained by the boyar and regularly carrying border (border) service.
    2. Tank hard
      Tank hard 16 November 2019 17: 48 New
      +1
      Quote: Al_lexx
      Never (!) In the Russian army a spear, or even a spear, was the BASIC weapon of the infantry. There was not even an infantry formation for the normal use of such weapons. Moreover, the infantry itself was not the main striking force of the army, but as an auxiliary for the protection of the camp, etc., as well as during the storming of fortifications.

      Why even ?! Since the 626st century, Slavs were mentioned by Roman authors. For example, reading Mauritius, conclusions can be drawn. that the tactics of the Slavs was similar to the tactics of the Germans, which means building a wedge. they (the Slavs) are quite familiar with the presence of growth shields. which were used in the first line, they knew how to fight in the ranks. The Slavs often served as mercenaries from different peoples: Byzantines, Huns, Goths, Avars, Arabs, and therefore were skilled warriors who did not take anyone into mercenaries. Byzantium restored the old Roman fortifications on the Danube and built new ones - to the north and south of the Balkan Range Despite this, the Slavs besieged Constantinople three times (in 811 - in alliance with the Avars and two times - in 820 and in XNUMX - on their own !!!). Are weak warriors capable of this without infantry?
      Already at the Russes (Oleg, Igor, Svyatoslav), there was such a developed squad that they fought both on horseback and on foot, with the phalanx (the phalanx is impossible without the use of a long spear, several rows with spears and skillful use of these weapons in the ranks). They fought against Byzantium, who knew well the construction of both the phalanx and the tactics of the Roman legions. All this indicates how serious the Russian army was. If we take territories such as Novgorod, then they generally fought mainly with infantry and formation. Permanent contacts with the Scandinavians (they certainly knew the system, and made good use of the construction with a wedge, and the language cannot be called weak Viking warriors) they definitely left their mark on the military tactics of the Novgorodians. and therefore the system. and they knew the work of a spear (the same Vikings, master of the spear masterly). Something like this... repeat
    3. Tank hard
      Tank hard 16 November 2019 21: 56 New
      -1
      Quote: Al_lexx
      And it was the heavy cavalry chained in armor and chain mail that was the main striking force of the Russian army of the 11-14 centuries. Sobsna, a powerful strike with a wedge, heavily armed cavalry, in order to break through and cut the ranks of the enemy, this was originally a Russian invention, which was later adopted by the Europeans, some of which were the same numbered Slavs.

      "... The main task of the cataphractists (heavily armed rider (Greek)), the horse is completely covered with armor, including horse chest and forehead shells and our armor, the rider is maximally protected by armor, armed with a spear, mace, sword, dagger, sometimes bow) ... Their main (heavy cavalry) task was to break through dense horse constructions of the enemy and here it was necessary to use a spear. Swords, daggers, maces, daggers were too short for this and were used only in case of breakage or loss of a spear. Plate cavalry could only be used against cavalry or light infantry. The opinion that cataphracts (heavy, plate cavalry) successfully rammed and crushed the dense ranks of heavy infantry is absolutely wrong. If it were so easy, then infantry would simply not be needed, since the cavalry always defeated it in both infantry and hand-to-hand combat. Meanwhile, the infantry continued to exist and develop. There is not a single mention of ancient authors that the cavalry in a head-on attack broke through the infantry phalanx ... I think it makes no sense to list all the evidence of the powerlessness of the cavalry against infantry in hand-to-hand combat.
      Montekukuli, the commander of the Habsburg troops who wrote a military treatise at the end of the 17th century, says this: "If the company of pikemen is tightly closed, then the cavalry can’t be torn apart by anything; in order for the spearmen not to go within 20 steps will let ... "
      V.V. Taratin
      cavalry in war
      page: 42 - 44
      There are many links to sources. Crécy, Agencourt, Lake Peipsi, I think, and should not be cited as an example, these are well-known examples of the fiasco attacks of heavy cavalry against infantry ... repeat By the way, both Rome and Byzantium are Europe, which was before the Russian army of 11-14 centuries, which had incomparably greater financial opportunities in comparison with the Russian army of 11-14 centuries, developed heavy cavalry (very expensive and therefore very little), tremendous experience the use of cavalry. including the experience of various peoples from the Cimmerians and Scythians to the equestrian phalanx of Alexander the Great. so what did Russian inventors teach (in your words), and what did the Europeans and the “Germanized Slavs” adopt there ?! wink
      1. Al_lexx
        Al_lexx 18 November 2019 19: 25 New
        -1
        Quote: Tank Hard
        "... The main task of the cataphractists (heavily armed rider (Greek)), the horse is completely covered with armor, including horse chest and head-on shells and our armor, the rider is maximally protected by armor, armed with a spear, mace, sword, dagger, sometimes bow) ... Their main (heavy cavalry) task was to break through the enemy’s dense horse constructions and here it was necessary to use a spear

        Neither in Rome nor in Alexander, cavalry was the main force. There were no dense horse constructions in Europe at least until the 12-13 centuries. The cataphracts served precisely to dissect the dense system of foot infantry (and not cavalry, as you write). For dissection, it was the spearmen’s formation, with large rectangular shields, in a dense multi-row formation, since there was essentially no other way to break such a formation. At the same time, the Russian infantry never had larger rectangular shields (which made the spear system almost invulnerable) and did not walk around the field with squares. What are the squares in the anus, when the territory of Russia, for the most part, is covered with forest, and in those days almost impassable?))
        Spear infantry, squares of Roman legions, Alexander's phalanx, Spartans on foot, etc., are the main striking force in Europe. I am not saying that they did not have heavy cavalry. I say that she was an auxiliary force, against the general background (the number of fighters on the field). And the farther east, the more important the cavalry is, the greater its percentage in the troops. There are many reasons for this. First of all, the distance between major cities, which in Europe was not spawning. The lack of a developed network of stone-paved roads. On horses for weeks and months from one city to another traveled. The infantry would simply become a pack force for dragging the forage, to such distances that it would not die of starvation itself.)) And that is why the dense walking system with spears did not receive such a spread in our country as in Europe.
        However, I do not like to argue, because as if that (?). My opinion is not in one month and has not been formed from any source. You like to believe that the Russian infantry was formed in the image and likeness of the European and that in Europe cavalry was the main force on the battlefield - your right.
        1. Tank hard
          Tank hard 18 November 2019 20: 25 New
          -1
          Quote: Al_lexx
          The cataphracts served precisely to dissect the dense system of foot infantry (and not cavalry, as you write). For dissection, it was precisely the formation of spearmen, with large rectangular shields, in a dense multi-row formation, since, in fact, there was no other way to break through such a formation.

          You are completely mistaken. There are sources, I indicated them with examples. On your part, only your own unproven opinion, you have the right to it, I have the right to no longer take you seriously, your opinion is no longer interesting to me, I like to read fiction better, the Strugatsky, for example. hi
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  10. svarga911
    svarga911 14 November 2019 16: 08 New
    +1
    Hunting with slingshots has always been collective, and one-on-one hunting is from the series “Madness of the Brave,” a special and deadly kind of dashing, which very often ended in the death of even experienced hunters.