Military Review

Beginning of the Battle of Stalingrad: the Nazis - "dizziness from success"

44

One of the largest and longest battles in stories humanity, page of courage and heroism of the Soviet soldier - Battle of Stalingrad. At the same time, an important component of the battle itself is how the Nazis marched towards the Volga, who is the author of the operation with the transfer of the 6 Army to Stalingrad.


It all started as an easy walk of the very 6 Army.

A separate discussion is devoted to events in the bend of the Don. Alexei Isaev notes that some time before the "official" start of the Battle of Stalingrad, the Germans experienced something similar to "dizziness from success", when they considered that they could not be far ahead of Stalingrad and could not expect them to be ahead.
A lot of photos of where the Nazis are walking, but no one is ahead. And they really believed that no one was ahead.

But over time, the Nazis, including units of various allies of the Germans, in particular Italians and Romanians, began to understand: an easy walk to the Volga with a subsequent exit in the direction of the oil fields of the Caucasus turns into a grand battle - a battle, in the literal sense of the word, for every meter, for every a stone, for every piece of land.

In the TacticMedia story, historian Aleksey Isaev talks in detail about how the greatest battle began and the details that preceded the Battle of Stalingrad.

Photos used:
German military archives
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  1. iConst
    iConst 12 November 2019 14: 47 New
    +10
    Stalingrad is a topic for a dozen serious films. Only Fedya and other liberd need to be eliminated somewhere. Otherwise, they will vulgarize everything.
    1. The leader of the Redskins
      The leader of the Redskins 12 November 2019 14: 58 New
      +5
      And still the whole tragedy of that battle is unlikely to be conveyed. When the battlefield set up individual flights of stairs, floors ... And so in every building!
      1. iConst
        iConst 12 November 2019 15: 07 New
        +8
        Quote: Leader of the Redskins
        And still the whole tragedy of that battle is unlikely to be conveyed. When the battlefield set up individual flights of stairs, floors ... And so in every building!

        I mean not only the Stalingrad meat grinder itself, but also the steppe battles.
        And also (although History does not have a subjunctive mood) what would happen if Reichenau had not suddenly died.
        And the battle for Voronezh? Almost nothing is known about it, although in terms of intensity and losses it was practically not inferior to Stalingrad. And also this battle did not allow the transfer of Wehrmacht forces to Stalingrad.
        1. Lyuba1965_01
          Lyuba1965_01 12 November 2019 17: 21 New
          +9
          According to the special commission, which determined the degree of urban destruction after the war, 92% of all residential buildings (18 out of 220) were destroyed in Voronezh.
          In Stalingrad, 90% of the housing stock was destroyed.
          According to other information, "not more than 20% of the housing stock has been preserved."
          And also very interesting about Voronezh.
          When the Germans entered there, they decided to appoint a burgomaster from the locals.
          There was not a single traitor to the whole city.
          Voronezh turned out to be the third, after Leningrad and Sevastopol, by the duration of its presence on the front line.
          During the whole war there were only two cities - Stalingrad and Voronezh, where the front line passed through the city itself.
          In Voronezh operations, 26 German divisions, the 2nd Hungarian (fully) and the 8th Italian army, as well as the Romanian units were destroyed. The number of prisoners was greater than near Stalingrad.
          In the battles on Voronezh land, about 400 Soviet soldiers died ...
          1. Eug
            Eug 14 November 2019 17: 18 New
            +1
            Several attempts have been made to recapture Voronezh, as Rokossovsky writes about it casually. But I did not see a detailed description, although it would be very interesting to know the details.
            1. Lyuba1965_01
              Lyuba1965_01 15 November 2019 17: 32 New
              +1
              As far as I know, Voronezh was released in parts from August 42 to January 43.
              I also heard something like a myth, allegedly when Voronezh was taken by the Germans, then to that commander of the Soviet troops, Vatutin (?) Said: if you beat Voronezh tomorrow, then you can shoot. The name of the person who says varies depending on the narrator.
              But you are right. Everything is somehow vague in the liberation of Voronezh. It seems that it’s not very smooth for someone’s biography, although it seems that so many years have passed and all the commanders of these operations passed away ..
              And there are still strange moments in this story. The defense of Voronezh, its significance for the Victory is no less important than the defense of Stalingrad.
              But!!!
              Voronezh did not receive the title "Hero City". If I am not mistaken, in the 70s he was awarded the Order of the Patriotic War of the 2008st degree. In XNUMX, he was awarded the title "City of Military Glory", but not "Hero City", although the inhabitants of the city and the war veterans who lived there wrote many times throughout the years of the USSR asking him to be assigned this title. and in the name of EBN, and also without an answer.
              There is an opinion that this was not done because many Hungarians (incidentally, distinguished by incredible cruelty according to the locals) who fought in the German army died there.
              Well, after the Second World War, peace, friendship, brothers forever, and with the Hungarians as well ... maybe this explains this attitude to Voronezh?
              But also this is not entirely logical. After the overthrow of Antonescu, the Hungarians, together with Soviet troops, liberated Austria and Hungary itself. Although, Odessa, Sevastopol - Hero Cities.
              1. Eug
                Eug 16 November 2019 09: 13 New
                0
                I know only two cities in which long and hard battles took place in the Great Patriotic War - Stalingrad and Voronezh. And if the Stalingrad battles are described in sufficient detail, the Voronezh battles are very sparing. I wonder why.
                1. Lyuba1965_01
                  Lyuba1965_01 16 November 2019 13: 53 New
                  0
                  The battle for Voronezh is also described in detail, but, I repeat, there is a strangeness.
                  For some reason, it merges with the protection of the city from the Nazis, who nevertheless entered it, although they did not occupy the whole city, with the battle for its liberation.
                  The city was defended mainly by local cadets and soldiers of the NKVD, as were local, as was the people's militia.
                  And immediately after the description of their description, operations were underway to release him.
                  There were two of them: the Ostrogozh-Rossoshanskaya operation and the Voronezh-Kastorensky.
                  If you are interested in this topic, try reading the books of A.M. Abbasov "Voronezh Front: a chronicle of events" and the memoirs of USSR Marshal F. Golikov.
                  Honestly, I tried to read them, but because I’m not a military man, it was difficult for me to “read” battle maps, so a lot remained vague.
                  But I think you will understand us much more than me.
              2. nikolai711
                nikolai711 25 January 2020 21: 49 New
                0
                Antonescu, he’s like a Romanian, a conductor, etc. Maybe they wanted to write Admiral Horthy / the head of Hungary and Hitler’s last ally. /
                1. Lyuba1965_01
                  Lyuba1965_01 25 January 2020 23: 59 New
                  0
                  Oh, sorry, you're right.
                  Just, apparently, was not particularly attentive when writing.
                  Just before this comment, I read articles about Romanians during the Second World War, and that is purely mechanically and wrote it down.
                  Thank you for correcting.
        2. Aleksandre
          Aleksandre 12 November 2019 23: 30 New
          +4
          Quote: iConst
          And also (although History has no subjunctive mood) what would happen if Reichenau had not suddenly died

          What would have changed if he had stayed alive? Neither von Bock nor Paulus, as it were, were children in military affairs.
          1. iConst
            iConst 13 November 2019 11: 01 New
            -1
            Quote: Aleksandre
            Quote: iConst
            And also (although History has no subjunctive mood) what would happen if Reichenau had not suddenly died

            What would have changed if he had stayed alive? Neither von Bock nor Paulus, as it were, were children in military affairs.

            Paulus was a staff theorist. Therefore, after the appointment, the 6th Army hostilely accepted him. Remained memories that the officers between themselves expressed contempt for him. They considered him a purebred sissy. And the psychological climate in the troops is worth a lot.
            1. Aleksandre
              Aleksandre 13 November 2019 13: 41 New
              +3
              Quote: iConst
              Paulus was a staff theorist. Therefore, after the appointment, the 6th Army hostilely accepted him. Remained memories that the officers between themselves expressed contempt for him. They considered him a purebred sissy. And the psychological climate in the troops is worth a lot.

              In fact, Paulus was not a newcomer to the 6th (she is the 10th) army, in 1939-1940 he held the post of chief of staff in it. Yes, and in the failures at the front because of his relationship with the officers, it is somehow poorly trusted, there are still not hysterical young ladies from the institute of noble maidens gathered, but an ordnung is an ordnung.
              1. iConst
                iConst 13 November 2019 18: 25 New
                0
                Quote: Aleksandre
                Yes, and in the failures at the front because of his relationship with the officers, it is somehow poorly trusted, there are still not hysterical young ladies from the institute of noble maidens gathered, but an ordnung is an ordnung.

                What are the failures? Start listing - I will bend my fingers.
                That's real, I'm waiting.
                1. Aleksandre
                  Aleksandre 13 November 2019 22: 42 New
                  0
                  Quote: iConst
                  What are the failures? Start listing - I will bend my fingers.
                  That's real, I'm waiting.

                  Yes, at least the extremely unfortunate idea that the Romanian and Italian units may have some practical value. Especially on the flanks, yeah.
                  However, do not you consider the defeat in the Battle of Stalingrad a failure for the Germans?
                  1. Jager
                    Jager 14 November 2019 19: 13 New
                    0
                    Romanians and Italians stood on the flanks not of a good life. The Germans already lacked troops throughout the theater. Do not forget that army groups diverged to Stalingrad and the Caucasus. And there was simply nothing to close the gap between them. This was just the perfect chance to use mobile armored units. It was then that the deficit of tanks in Germany proved itself fully. The Wehrmacht was still incredibly strong, but the bell of an imminent catastrophe was already ringing on it.
                    Why? Yes, because Blitzkrieg failed, Hitler refused the main goal - the capture of Moscow.
                    The campaign to Stalingrad and the Caucasus is an attempt to strangle the USSR, since it could not be defeated immediately. Having lost oil and transport routes, a huge range of industrial enterprises in the Caucasus and the Volga region, the future of the Union would be very vague. But moving away from the Blitzkrieg strategy and dispersing forces, Germany eventually strangled herself in the war of attrition.
                    1. Aleksandre
                      Aleksandre 14 November 2019 19: 24 New
                      0
                      Quote: Jager
                      Do not forget that army groups diverged to Stalingrad and the Caucasus.

                      Then, among the unsuccessful decisions, based on what you have said, one can also attribute the replacement of directive 41 to directive 45. Perhaps this is debatable, since the Wehrmacht really needed fuel by that time, but nonetheless, stretching the front several times wasn’t good led.
                      1. Jager
                        Jager 14 November 2019 19: 26 New
                        0
                        All this was already a desperate attempt to grab the falling pants ...
      2. Alex paritsky
        Alex paritsky 12 November 2019 16: 51 New
        -14
        While we reached these floors and stairways, we ran out of breath 3000 kilometers of fields and gardens!
        1. Yuriy_999
          Yuriy_999 12 November 2019 23: 36 New
          +3
          Well, from Berlin to Stalingrad it’s not at all 3000 km, but 2200 km. Moreover, a third of the distance did not pass through the territory of the USSR. Do not remember how long the Wehrmacht ran to the border with the USSR?
          And before that, he fled to the edge of France (more than 1300 km). That’s where the “hundred meter” was, as soon as they didn’t tear off the breather :)
    2. Greenwood
      Greenwood 13 November 2019 04: 06 New
      +8
      Quote: iConst
      Stalingrad is a topic for a dozen serious films.
      Reliably films about the war were shot in Soviet times. This was facilitated by the fact that war veterans were alive, and sometimes many actors and members of the film crew participated in hostilities and knew firsthand about the horrors of war.
      Now the "directors" like Bondarchuk or Mikhalkov, whose brain is inflamed with chronic anti-Soviet interests and the desire to earn dough, are filming obscene nedofilm trying to imperfectly imitate Hollywood, instead of following the domestic traditions, plus in every way obscuring the Soviet regime. The result in the end is one: a failure at the box office, devastating reviews from critics and spitting spectators.
  2. Igorpl
    Igorpl 12 November 2019 16: 33 New
    +3
    They also had excessive optimism about the attack on the Soviet Union. People do not change.
    1. Alex paritsky
      Alex paritsky 12 November 2019 16: 45 New
      -15
      In the event of an attack, Stalin was optimistic. Recall Mayakovsky: "Climb ?! Good! Erase it into powder!"
  3. Alex paritsky
    Alex paritsky 12 November 2019 16: 41 New
    -21
    Funny title. The Germans needed to cover 3000 kilometers to supply their troops, and the Russians needed to overcome 800 meters to force the Volga to supply their army. And they drove through in
    Volga millions of its soldiers and the tone of ammunition. So who was in this situation fun?
    1. Valerikk
      Valerikk 12 November 2019 17: 24 New
      +10
      Quote: Alex Paritsky
      Funny title. The Germans needed to cover 3000 kilometers to supply their troops, and the Russians needed to overcome 800 meters to force the Volga to supply their army.

      What strange measurements of distances you have ... It’s direct, as in that joke - from head to tail 7 meters, and from tail to head 2. The Russians, apparently, have technical support to the Volga through some kind of space-time portal happened?
    2. sergo1914
      sergo1914 12 November 2019 20: 47 New
      +5
      Quote: Alex Paritsky
      Funny title. The Germans needed to cover 3000 kilometers to supply their troops, and the Russians needed to overcome 800 meters to force the Volga to supply their army. And they drove through in
      Volga millions of its soldiers and the tone of ammunition. So who was in this situation fun?


      “Never underestimate the predictability of stupidity (C) ...”
    3. Ehanatone
      Ehanatone 12 November 2019 22: 41 New
      +2
      "So who was having fun in this situation?"
      I reviewed the Ural dumplings or something - judging by the photo it seems like not a teenager!
    4. Yuriy_999
      Yuriy_999 12 November 2019 23: 38 New
      +1
      And how many millions have surpassed?
    5. Pilat2009
      Pilat2009 14 November 2019 17: 27 New
      0
      Quote: Alex Paritsky
      And they drove through in
      Volga millions of its soldiers and the tone of ammunition

      And it was not necessary to deliver to the Volga?
      Logistics was that there what is the same
  4. Valerikk
    Valerikk 12 November 2019 17: 25 New
    +7
    Quote: Alex Paritsky
    In the event of an attack, Stalin was optimistic. Recall Mayakovsky: "Climb ?! Good! Erase it into powder!"

    Do not attribute Mayakovsky’s optimism to Stalin
  5. vitvit123
    vitvit123 12 November 2019 19: 23 New
    +2
    Quote: Alex Paritsky
    In the event of an attack, Stalin was optimistic. Recall Mayakovsky: "Climb ?! Good! Erase it into powder!"

    If they were waiting for THEY to climb! How could there be optimism of the attack at US! ???
  6. LAWNER
    LAWNER 12 November 2019 20: 35 New
    0
    Stalingrad is the victory of the Soviet peoples ... One can beat everyone alone ... But when they unite, there are no rivals for us.
  7. The comment was deleted.
  8. Paul Siebert
    Paul Siebert 14 November 2019 10: 51 New
    +2
    I think the best movie about the Great Patriotic War is the movie "They Fought for the Motherland." The last film with the participation of Vasily Shukshin. True, uncompromising, bloody. Just about these events. Endless retreat through the sun-scorched steppe. Countless stops, digging trenches, lack of water, skirmishes with the upcoming Wehrmacht.
    Was this operation a walk for the Germans?
    I doubt it.
    The Red Army reached the boiling point. This is what the hero of Shukshin says: "you spit - I will boil!"
    Three hundred times can be cited as evidence by Goebbels’s propaganda about the construction of sound bridges in the rear of the upcoming 6th Paulus Army. And you can just know the psychology of our Russian people.
    It is impossible to twist the spring of Russian patience endlessly. A critical moment is inevitable. And then - God bless the one who began to test us for strength ...
  9. gorenina91
    gorenina91 14 November 2019 13: 18 New
    -1
    -I don’t know., But personally I can’t understand ... -And why exactly Stalingrad ???
    -A, if in the same way the Red Army resisted in Kiev; Minsk; Smolensk ... and so on ...
    -Because then the USSR was not yet so exhausted by the war and there were huge unspent reserves behind ...- entire cities full of population, huge human potential ... -Yes, the Germans would simply be exhausted and bleached ... -Well, what would the weak do German tanks (weak guns, weak armor) in large Russian cities ??? -Yes, they would have been burned all there ... -And the German aviation would also not have been so effective ...- even in Kiev alone (and not only in Kiev) there were so many basements where the bombs would not have reached ...- Here they constantly cite the Brest Fortress as an example, which the Germans allegedly simply went around and left behind in their rear, but the whole "unencumbered cities" with our fighting soldiers in their rear in the rear, the Germans could not have left ... when they liberated Western Europe from the fascists, it was so ... -Germans only Koenigsberg surrendered several "alien cities" (Polish and Czech) .., and in their cities they held like ours in Stalingrad ...
    - So ... the professional Red Army personnel ... simply surrendered ... - So the detachments (or at least a "rumor" about them to really frighten) and other "emergency measures" were really needed ...
    -And she slowed down, this giant cadre surrendered army (almost 3,5 million) then the Germans ...- so she herself would how many would destroy the German troops; and during this time the USSR could have time to recruit another 2-3 such armies and strike at the exhausted German troops ... -But this did not happen ...
    -And then I had to rake all of Siberia “clean” in order to recruit new Siberian divisions ... -More nowhere else to recruit ...
    1. pogis
      pogis 14 November 2019 17: 19 New
      -1
      And near Moscow is not the personnel Red Army Germans peeped? Do not compare parts of the Red Army in the Far East, Siberia and Central Asia with parts of the western districts staffed by conscripts who became citizens of the USSR for a year. Such Germans 500000 people. home was released from captivity until the fall of 41.
      1. gorenina91
        gorenina91 14 November 2019 18: 36 New
        0
        - A different, “second” cadre army fell under the exhausted “Germans” near Moscow ... -And the “first” cadre army was defeated and for the most part captured ...
    2. Pilat2009
      Pilat2009 14 November 2019 17: 36 New
      -1
      Quote: gorenina91
      And if in the same way the Red Army resisted in Kiev; Minsk; Smolensk ... and so on ..

      And she resisted. While there were ammunition. For example, some URs fell after the garrison ran out of ammunition. The thirtieth battery was seized similarly, before that the Germans simply could not approach her. Sevastopol on Shirokorad fell because most of the artillery ammunition was taken out.
      where do you think millions of prisoners come from?
    3. Pilat2009
      Pilat2009 14 November 2019 17: 45 New
      -1
      Quote: gorenina91
      So ... the professional Red Army personnel ... just surrendered

      Ischo raz.Kadrovy army fell into the boilers and spent ammunition either died or scattered through the forests. Someone was trying to break through.
      In the year 43, there were no longer any boilers, they learned to fight. By the way, why did the Germans surrender if you follow your logic? If Paulus had ammunition with food, he would sit in Stalingrad forever
      1. gorenina91
        gorenina91 14 November 2019 18: 30 New
        +2
        .Under there were ammunition. For example, some URs fell after the garrison ran out of ammunition.


        -What are you writing ???
        -Germans got whole arsenals of weapons: rifles, machine guns and machine guns in grease; shells; tens of millions of rounds; grenades; air bombs; anti-tank guns, which the Germans then used against our own tanks (they even strengthened our guns by drilling a charging chamber under a more powerful shell); even tanks, tractors and cars ...
        - The whole warehouse with a huge amount of ammunition, uniforms fell into the hands of the Germans; giant military warehouses with food ...- huge reserves of flour, various cereals, sugar, whole stores of condensed milk, stewed meat, canned fish; chocolate, alcohol, vodka, red wines, biscuits, food concentrates, dried fruits, sweets and other stuff ... -And it's just military depots, not counting civilian ...
        -In Sevastopol, the Germans even got entire warehouses with aviation gasoline and air bombs ... which the Germans then used and used against us ...
        1. Pilat2009
          Pilat2009 14 November 2019 18: 54 New
          -2
          Quote: gorenina91
          -What are you writing ???

          And what am I writing incomprehensibly? Yes, the depots were seized, if you don’t know the army has a certain stock of ammunition, everything else is transported. If the army enters the boiler, the supply ceases. Fershteen?
          As for Sevastopol, during the first assault, large-caliber shells began to be taken out of the warehouses, but they didn’t bother to deliver them back. Even if you had everything bombarded there, it was tight without shells
          1. gorenina91
            gorenina91 14 November 2019 19: 46 New
            0
            -The army, the corps, the large military units have a huge territory, a place of deployment, and even objects and those parts of the Fortified Regions that these corps, divisions, regiments, etc. ... occupy ... -and precisely in these territories and these warehouses, warehouses, etc. are located ...
            -You can just drop them when retreating; can be destroyed so that the enemy does not get it; but you can use them to destroy the enemy (shoot, feed your soldiers, bandage and use medicines for the wounded, etc. ... - all this was in abundance) ...- But all this was simply abandoned ...- and the enemy got it. ..
            - And the fuel ...- the first-class aviation gasoline that the Germans got in Sevastopol ...- the Germans then poured into the tanks of their planes ...- And the Soviet air bombs that the Germans also got in Sevastopol ...- the Germans managed to adapt .. .and hung them from their planes and loaded their bombers into the bomb compartments and bombed our troops with them ...
    4. Eug
      Eug 14 November 2019 18: 17 New
      +1
      The army was to become a wartime army, command posts were to be taken by the war nominees, who knew how and who were able to defeat the Germans at a tactical level. The army had to acquire a new quality, getting rid of the template, window dressing and hatred (first and foremost), first of all.
      1. gorenina91
        gorenina91 14 November 2019 18: 56 New
        0
        -Yes, but not to use the full potential of even that "original" Red Army ...- it was, if not a direct betrayal ... -this is such an unprofessional action of the Red Army commanders that no saboteurs are needed ...
        -And relatively well-fed and healthy our fighters were captured by the Germans .., in an unbreakable
        uniforms and boots ...
        -And not the German prisoners of war near Stalingrad ...- dirty, frostbite, sick, lousy ragged-dystrophics, who also had to be taken care of ...- And if these tens of thousands of these German prisoners-goners would simply be brought to the field would have been left there for the night in such a frost, then by morning they would have simply died out everything themselves ...
        1. Pilat2009
          Pilat2009 15 November 2019 06: 04 New
          0
          There were prisoners and they will be. The human body is so designed that it avoids death. There’s a man sitting in the camp, they don’t drink him, they don’t feed him, they shoot and burn people, everything seems clear, there is no hope, you just have to take and kill the tormentor, you don’t die just like that. but a person pulls to the last, clings to life