Military Review

Hybrids and mutants. European tank of the future

59

Upgraded Leopard


For many lovers of military equipment news last week has become solemn ceremony of transferring to the Bundeswehr the first modernized main battlefield tank Leopard 2A7V. We recall that it was held on October 29 in Munich. “Tanks are sexy, this is the quintessence of an annoying offensive start with a brazenly sticking long gun,” said Pavel Felgenhauer, a journalist and military columnist. It's hard to argue.




But we have a lot of room for other discussions about armored vehicles and everything connected with it. What is the best main battle tank? Do I need to switch to the caliber 152 mm? Do I need a new lightweight tank like Griffin? As shows история, answers to these questions can only be given by practice, and many "beautiful" theories often end in nothing. It is enough to recall that before World War II, many considered light tanks to be the basis of armored forces ...

Modern Germans, unlike the Germans of those years, do not like to experiment. At least if it concerns military equipment. We recall that until now there is not a single fifth-generation fighter of their own or bought from other countries. There are no atomic submarines and, of course, there is no analogue of “Almaty”. But there is a proven and adored all over the world Leopard 2.

What is the new version? In short, nothing revolutionary. However, the latest electronics, excellent protection and a powerful L55 / L55A1 gun (apparently, both versions of the gun will be used by the Leopard 2A7V) will make the German car even better at the end of the 2020's. Add here the MKM programming system, which allows you to fire high-explosive DM11 programmable shots and comfortable conditions for the crew, and you will get perhaps the best serial tank of our time.

Franco-German "miracle"


But then a few questions pop up. First of all, sooner or later the technology will have to be changed for something anyway: the Leopard 2 is after all produced since the 1979 of the year. Secondly (and this, perhaps, is more important), Berlin is trying to join large-scale military projects of other, primarily European allies. And above all, the French. In this regard, the most indicative project is the sixth generation pan-European fighter, known as Next Generation Fighter or, if convenient, FCAS (this is the name of the entire program).

With tanks, everything is not so clear. At last year's Eurosatory, KNDS Group, a joint venture between French Nexter Defense Systems and German Krauss-Maffei Wegmann, introduced the EMBT (European Main Battle Tank) program. Behind the formidable name is a strange and mysterious "character." This is nothing more than a hybrid of the French Leclerc and the German Leopard 2, which is not very popular in the world. From the German tank they took the hull, chassis, engine and transmission. From Leclerc - a tower with a gun, fire control system, automatic loader and other equipment.



The logic is this: the chassis of a German tank is famous for its reliability, and Leclerc - for the fact that it has an automatic loader. Needless to say, not everyone liked this “original” approach. “You can’t just mechanically cross two tanks of slightly different concepts,” said military expert Viktor Murakhovsky on this occasion.

It’s hard not to agree. The idea is not cheap enough, but there are almost no real conceptual advantages. An automatic loader is, of course, good. But manual loading was never a problem for the Germans, and they could provide a high rate of fire. But whether the French automatic machine will work reliably and “as it should” is hard to say.

Large caliber


The next direction of development of the European tank looks more natural. This is an increase in the caliber of the main gun. In January of this, at the International Armored Vehicles 2019 conference, it was announced that the French defense giant Nexter was testing a modified Leclerc armed with an 140-millimeter gun. Already then modernized in this way Leclerc made more than 200 successful shots. At the same time, Nexter claims that the new 70 gun is percent more efficient than the western 120-millimeter tank guns.



By the way, one involuntarily recalls the Soviet “195 Object” with a carriage layout, which they wanted to equip the 152-mm gun 2А83. As well as rumors about the possible installation of a gun of this caliber on the T-14 tank. Now, in the light of the financial and technical problems of the Russian defense industry, all this is clearly not on the agenda. The maximum you can count on is the small-scale production of T-14 and other samples based on "Almaty". We recall that the T-72Б3 was chosen as the basis for the armored forces of the Russian Federation.

New generation


Most important: the project of equipping the Leclerc tank with an 140-millimeter gun did not arise from scratch. This is part of the larger Main Ground Combat System, or MGCS program, designed to give Europe a brand new tank. Which will not be a modernized version of Leclerc or Leopard and can give the EU countries a conceptual advantage in battle.

What is MGCS, in a broad sense? At the beginning of 2016, the joint French-German enterprise KNDS presented the first information. According to the first information, we are talking about a tank of the so-called classic layout: it will become the embodiment of many years of experience of European tank builders.



However, everything is not so simple. The first serious stumbling block was the choice of tools. Recently, Die Welt wrote in her article “Mehr Feuerkraft und Ladeautomatik - Wettstreit um die Superkanone” that a serious debate flared up around the main caliber. While the German Rheinmetall offers an 130-mm gun, French partners want the aforementioned caliber - 140-mm. The Germans focus on the competitive advantages of their guns, in particular, the possibility of its installation on the Leopard and Abrams. At the same time, Rheinmetall announces an increase in firepower by 50% due to an increase in caliber. For the first time, recall, Rheinmetall showed a new cannon in the 2016 year: since then, its confidence in its righteousness has only strengthened. According to the data presented, during testing, the gun at a range of 1000 meters laid all ten shots on a sheet of A4 format.

At the same time, of course, the French 140-mm gun is potentially more powerful and "revolutionary." On the other hand, if selected, the mass of ammunition will be higher, and the load on the gun barrel and its wear will increase. So here the choice of tools for a European tank is a debatable issue. As well as equipping the T-14 with a new 152-mm caliber gun.

What is the end result? The new tank, like the sixth generation fighter, the Europeans want to get in the 2030's. This is a very realistic time frame for which you can create a fundamentally new car and bring it “to mind”. If you look broader, the fate of MGCS is directly dependent on Russia. After all, both the new tank and Next Generation Fighter were, in a broad sense, the answer to Russia's annexation of Crimea and military operations in the Donbass. All this gave a huge incentive to both the American and the European military-industrial complex. And most importantly, money that can be used to implement new programs.
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  1. Basarev
    Basarev 7 November 2019 18: 20
    -14
    For some reason, it seems that the Europeans will achieve their goal and create a completely new tank. And we will remain with the poor T-72B3 until the end of the reign of the person. Lifetime, eternal rule. Many, many decades. I do not believe that the person will leave herself or the protests will knock her out of the Kremlin. In my opinion, the ruling clan is now impregnable. And if there are changes, then only after the funeral of the monarch. But we can’t survive it.
    1. Spambox
      Spambox 7 November 2019 18: 36
      +10
      Oh, do not rush to bury us, and it’s never too late to be in time .... There is a question of minimum sufficiency for reasonable money. For local conflicts and r72b3 it is quite good for itself, but in the case of a global conflict: "we go to heaven, and they just die" (c)
      1. Chaldon48
        Chaldon48 7 November 2019 21: 53
        -4
        Do not forget that any tank is vulnerable, like any combat unit, and Russia has a quantity like everything is in order. I read that along with those tanks that have 69000 units, plus 70000 units of various other armored vehicles, a significant part has already been modernized. Go off the assembly line and brand new.
    2. mark1
      mark1 7 November 2019 19: 01
      +20
      Quote: Basarev
      And we will remain with the poor T-72B3 until the end of the reign of the person

      Do you, Arseniy, know a joke about how Vovochka passed the zoology exam, but learned only about lice? Here in your comments the same trend is visible - you reduce the answer to any question to one topic.
    3. Prisoner
      Prisoner 7 November 2019 19: 07
      +9
      Theme about the European tank. What are you drawn to the wrong steppe? laughing
    4. Krasnoyarsk
      Krasnoyarsk 7 November 2019 19: 46
      +15
      Quote: Basarev

      For some reason, it seems that the Europeans will achieve their goal and create a completely new tank. And we will remain with the poor T-72B3 until the end of the reign of the person.

      Do you think that it is worth replacing the "persona" and we will immediately start building aircraft carriers, cruisers, PAK DA, T-14, etc.? With this socio-political system, whoever is put in the Kremlin, everything will be as it is now. Nothing will change dramatically.
      1. Basarev
        Basarev 7 November 2019 20: 48
        -17
        Under this socio-political system, no matter who you put in the Kremlin, everything will be as it is now.

        Person created and supports such a system. It is necessary to eliminate the person - and the system will change. And since all the troubles of Russia are from the existing system, in fact the only person responsible for the problems is the person.
        1. Krasnoyarsk
          Krasnoyarsk 7 November 2019 21: 21
          +12
          Quote: Basarev
          It is necessary to eliminate the person - and the system will change. And since all the troubles of Russia are from the existing system, in fact

          You most likely did not understand me. By the words "socio-political system" I meant the capitalist system. And capitalism, with the change of one person, even if it is the president, will not change. Because this is a system! To change something for the better, it is necessary to change the system itself.
          1. Basarev
            Basarev 8 November 2019 07: 23
            -8
            It is not capitalism that is to blame for our troubles, because in Russia it is not capitalism, in Russia it is a vile perversion. Normal capitalism is like in Germany, Japan, Singapore, the USA, at worst. And Russia can build normal capitalism, but the main obstacle to this is the ruling clan and the person who is intolerant of any changes.
    5. Catfish
      Catfish 7 November 2019 22: 27
      -3
      In my opinion, the ruling clan is now impregnable.


      That is, how is it not criminal?
    6. Mikhalych
      Mikhalych 8 November 2019 08: 50
      -1
      Somehow I think ...

      What smoked the venerable before you began to think?
      hi
      1. Basarev
        Basarev 8 November 2019 10: 15
        -4
        I just understand with reason that we in tanks already fall into hopelessly lagging behind. But the local leaven of fervor crushes any healthy thoughts, all contrary to the line of the party.
    7. Private-K
      Private-K 8 November 2019 14: 40
      0
      But you, uncle "Basarev", are a masochist. wassat
      1. Basarev
        Basarev 8 November 2019 16: 21
        +2
        I am not afraid of minuses, because minuses only confirm the veracity of my words: the kvas dominating here hate and throw minuses over everything that is at variance with the myth in their head - that is, the most healthy and truthful criticism.
        1. Krasnoyarsk
          Krasnoyarsk 8 November 2019 21: 39
          0
          Quote: Basarev
          with a myth in their head - that is, the most healthy and truthful criticism.

          Criticism, or criticism? This is the essence of your minuses.
        2. Golovan Jack
          Golovan Jack 8 November 2019 21: 58
          0
          Quote: Basarev
          here the leavened ones hate and throw minuses everything that is at variance with the myth in their head - that is, the most healthy and truthful criticism

          You just appointed yourself the most objective on the site.

          Crown doesn’t press, buddy? wink
        3. Oleg (Kharkov)
          Oleg (Kharkov) 12 November 2019 22: 54
          +2
          Quote: Basarev
          I'm not afraid of the cons

          you plus just for this phrase!
          1. Bobik012
            Bobik012 4 January 2022 21: 25
            0
            These disadvantages pay him well.
        4. LastPS
          LastPS 22 November 2019 01: 43
          0
          You are biased, fermented patriots also get their portion of the minuses.
    8. Oden280
      Oden280 8 November 2019 16: 11
      0
      The Germans and the French have already twice tried to develop a joint tank and once self-propelled guns. Nothing ever happened.
      1. Bobik012
        Bobik012 4 January 2022 21: 24
        -1
        There ischo airplane in the passive and whatnot. So sleep well. Leopard Forever ...
  2. knn54
    knn54 7 November 2019 18: 26
    -1
    Stirred "Armata" viper's nest ...
  3. Tank jacket
    Tank jacket 7 November 2019 18: 29
    +7
    Europeans will soon have no time for tanks. European Muslim Caliphate will not need tanks. Usually needed Toyota Hilux for jihadmobiles laughing
    1. Nenie Lynn
      Nenie Lynn 15 November 2019 04: 35
      0
      Quote: Tank jacket
      Europeans will soon have no time for tanks. European Muslim Caliphate

      who would say, in the great Muslim country of Russia (according to Soloviev) .... fellow
  4. mi ah
    mi ah 7 November 2019 18: 31
    -2
    So what's the problem? And the T-72 is good, and let it rule for life
  5. Thrifty
    Thrifty 7 November 2019 18: 37
    +4
    The case when the Europeans are burning with desire, but do not see the need, because there is much more disagreement than a real approach to creating a new European tank, which risks also becoming a tank of only these two countries - Germany and France.
    1. English tarantas
      English tarantas 7 November 2019 19: 43
      +2
      In my opinion the opposite. They see the need, but they don’t burn with desire. If you would like, you would have chosen the same gun long ago, and not everyone was pushing their own profit, in extreme cases, they could combine common experience and develop a new gun.
  6. Blacksmith 55
    Blacksmith 55 7 November 2019 18: 39
    +5
    All 10 shots per A4 sheet, that's cool.
    Is it interesting only on the go or standing on the tank?
    1. Yuriy_999
      Yuriy_999 7 November 2019 21: 48
      +2
      yeah, considering that two calibers are bigger than A4 sheet :). That is a shell in a shell
    2. dokusib
      dokusib 8 November 2019 11: 32
      -1
      Rifled gun or smoothbore? If rifled then nothing surprising.
  7. Undecim
    Undecim 7 November 2019 19: 11
    +11
    “You can’t just mechanically cross two tanks of slightly different concepts,” said military expert Viktor Murakhovsky on this occasion.
    And no one "just like that" crosses them. The chassis has been specially modified for the installation of a French turret.
    And then, what are the conceptual differences between the AMX Leclerc and Leopard 2 tanks that prevent the French turret from being mounted on a German chassis? In addition, this is not a tank, but for now only a demonstrator.

    The Leopard's chassis goes under its own power to "reforg".
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 7 November 2019 19: 23
      +4

      Tower installation.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 7 November 2019 19: 32
        +8

        Demonstrator during testing at the test site
        1. Undecim
          Undecim 7 November 2019 19: 55
          +10
          But whether the French automatic machine will work reliably and “as it should” is hard to say.
          Over 27 years of operation, there have been no complaints about the automatic loader. Why would they appear today?
      2. Bad_gr
        Bad_gr 7 November 2019 23: 34
        +3
        Quote: Undecim

        Tower installation.

        If you decide to put a 140mm caliber cannon on the tank, then, probably, the Leclerc tower will stand on the Leopard, since the loader can’t cope with such ammunition, and I still don’t even hear about the Leopard automatic loader.
    2. karabass
      karabass 7 November 2019 20: 36
      +3
      So after all, when modernizing our tankers, they put a turret from t - 80 on another tank (I personally saw it) I just forgot which one (it was a long time ago, and I didn’t pay attention)
      1. Bad_gr
        Bad_gr 7 November 2019 23: 44
        +3
        Quote: karabass
        So after all, our tankers, when modernizing, put a turret from t - 80 on another tank

        On the T-80, the same loading mechanism as on the T-64 (cab type, attached to the tower).
        In the T-72 (T-90), the AZ ammunition is attached to the bottom of the tank, so it is not compatible with the T-80.
        1. mark1
          mark1 8 November 2019 14: 18
          0
          Quote: Bad_gr
          So after all, our tankers, when modernizing, put a turret from t - 80 on another tank

          They put the tower from the T-80UD (decommissioned) on the T-80B.
  8. NF68
    NF68 7 November 2019 19: 13
    +3
    Most likely, the Franco-German tank, which in the future will replace the Leopards and Leclercs, will run on "batteries" such as the MDS magnetic-dynamic storage device and electric motors. On one or a pair. Electricity for the batteries will be generated by one or several units based on MTU MB-890 engines

    https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liste_von_Dieselmotoren_f%C3%BCr_milit%C3%A4rische_Rad-_und_Kettenfahrzeuge_der_MTU_Friedrichshafen

    As a result, the mobility of tanks will be better than those currently in service. The engine resource and most importantly the transmission will be much higher since the transmission itself will practically disappear.
  9. garri-lin
    garri-lin 7 November 2019 19: 19
    +3
    Good start, right. Let them go this way.
    1. NF68
      NF68 7 November 2019 19: 21
      0
      Quote: garri-lin
      Good start, right. Let them go this way.


      Would bring all this to mind in an acceptable time frame.
      1. garri-lin
        garri-lin 7 November 2019 19: 23
        +1
        But this is by no means. My post was sarcasm, but the emoticon was lost.
        1. NF68
          NF68 8 November 2019 21: 08
          0
          Quote: garri-lin
          But this is by no means. My post was sarcasm, but the emoticon was lost.


          Can and bring. The same goes for the new fighter. The USA began to behave very impudently. This makes the Germans and the French move.
          1. garri-lin
            garri-lin 8 November 2019 22: 28
            0
            The hybrid is unlikely. They need to stir up a new platform. Type of Almaty. With a margin for the long future, years on 50. And in the process of developing such a platform, apply new developments for the phased modernization of the existing park. And you do not need to turn the tank into a tank destroyer with monster guns. 120 eyes for 99% of targets on the battlefield. And for enemy tanks there are missiles.
            1. NF68
              NF68 9 November 2019 17: 03
              0
              Quote: garri-lin
              The hybrid is unlikely. They need to stir up a new platform. Type of Almaty. With a margin for the long future, years on 50. And in the process of developing such a platform, apply new developments for the phased modernization of the existing park. And you do not need to turn the tank into a tank destroyer with monster guns. 120 eyes for 99% of targets on the battlefield. And for enemy tanks there are missiles.


              Germany and France have been engaged in similar developments for a long time. The Germans have already brought diesel engines to mind. The same goes for electric motors. The development of magneto-dynamic storage is also close to completion. At least, lithium-ion batteries have recently been installed on a large number of serial lekovushki and these batteries were not bad. Surely successful civilian developments will be used in the development of military equipment.
              1. garri-lin
                garri-lin 9 November 2019 19: 18
                0
                That is yes. Previously, the military went to civilian and was considered exclusive, but now the world has unfolded.
                1. NF68
                  NF68 10 November 2019 17: 08
                  0
                  Quote: garri-lin
                  That is yes. Previously, the military went to civilian and was considered exclusive, but now the world has unfolded.


                  Somehow we accidentally got into conversation with a local German. He just works as an engineer at one enterprise that produces transformers, batteries, and the devil knows what kind of electrical equipment. He explained to me that if you develop and produce new sophisticated "batteries" only for a relatively small number of new types of tanks or infantry fighting vehicles, then the cost will be unrealistically high, and if you use the developments in civilian life and in the army, then this is a completely different matter. For example, the Mercedes C class model W-205 produced since 2018.

                  https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mercedes-Benz_Baureihe_205

                  C 200, C 200 4MATIC, C300, in addition to the usual ICE, have electric motors of 14 hp. And C350 e electric motor power is already 82 hp.

                  Or E-Class manufactured since 2018 year

                  https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mercedes-Benz_Baureihe_213#Ottomotoren

                  E350 with 14 hp electric motor. E350 e already 88 hp. Mercedes-AMG E 53 4MATIC + 22 hp

                  GLE V 167 https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mercedes-Benz_V_167

                  And so almost all brands of passenger cars.
  10. Azis
    Azis 7 November 2019 20: 11
    +2
    It's all nonsense ... There is no "commander's cupola" anywhere.
    Now, in the light of the financial and technical problems of the Russian defense industry
    Most of the problems are due to the multiple increase in the number of "gaskets" between the customer (MO) and the contractor (MIC) represented by any state corporations - LLC (the legal form of the enterprise is generalized), the founder of which is the GC, LLC, the founders of which are the aforementioned LLCs, simply LLCs established by unknown members of the chain, as well as the corporatization of military-industrial complex enterprises, where the shareholders / managers are often incomprehensible offshore companies, the above-mentioned LLCs, as well as simply persons who are not completely fed up with privatization. The same fire is poured into the export orientation (to the joyful songs of those in power - not by oil and gas, after all!) And the announced course towards DIVERSIFYING MIC enterprises. The conversion has already taken place. Yes, she helped some to survive, but many current managers and billionaires grew up in these "pans from the defense industry" ... It's time, probably, to completely return the significant enterprises of the complex to state control. And beautiful cartoons for enemies and Indians can simply be removed by enthusiasts in Skolkovo on a voluntary basis.
    1. Firelake
      Firelake 8 November 2019 08: 11
      +2
      The state is the most inefficient owner. You just need to create the institution of normal reviewers. Although this is not about Russia
      1. Bobik012
        Bobik012 4 January 2022 21: 19
        +1
        The state is the most ineffective owner

        Tell it to the Chinese laughing
        1. Firelake
          Firelake 6 January 2022 10: 19
          0
          Well, tell me. I am sure the Chinese IT business will laugh like all other techs
  11. Vladimir_2U
    Vladimir_2U 8 November 2019 03: 21
    +4
    Felgenhauer to a sex therapist, definitely.
  12. sen
    sen 8 November 2019 05: 57
    +1
    From Leclerc - a tower with a gun, a fire control system, automatic loader and other equipment.

    Interestingly, how do they solve the problem of long non-standard sub-caliber shells?
    1. Bad_gr
      Bad_gr 8 November 2019 16: 50
      +1
      Quote: sen
      Interestingly, how do they solve the problem of long non-standard sub-caliber shells?

      They have a unitary ammunition (the crowbar sits in the sleeve, too).
      1. sen
        sen 9 November 2019 07: 49
        +1
        No, it turns out even longer for an automatic loader than with separate charging.
        1. Bad_gr
          Bad_gr 9 November 2019 20: 18
          0
          Quote: sen
          No, it turns out even longer for an automatic loader than with separate charging.

          It depends on which automatic loader. At Leclerc, the machine was placed in a tower niche (this is clearly visible on Undecim's schematic) and the AZ was created just under the unitary unit, which is quite logical with such an arrangement of the ammunition.
          But ours, the combat unit in the hull. In the absence of people in the tower, you can probably come up with a unitary AZ with such a layout, but it’s unlikely to be simple.
          1. Bobik012
            Bobik012 24 February 2022 11: 41
            0
            probably, you can come up with an AZ for a unitary and with such an arrangement

            Pushing?!
            1. Bad_gr
              Bad_gr 24 February 2022 11: 51
              0
              If part of the ammunition rack is placed in the aft niche of the tower (like Leclerc), then the option with a unitary is quite real and use it purely for sub-caliber shells, in which the length of the scrap can also be extended due to the length of the sleeve
              That's how it is here
  13. Klingon
    Klingon 8 November 2019 11: 47
    +1
    Quote: Mih-ai
    So what's the problem? And the T-72 is good, and let it rule for life

    The T-72 was good in the 80s, and now it is yesterday’s tank. Even on B3 and the turret * the death of a tanker * stuck when and on the 80-ke still then remotely controlled (I’m sure that in real combat conditions they will be twisted, because there’s no benefit from them, it’ll only interfere)
    good living places slipped to the level of IS-3.
    I can’t understand one thing. T-72 and T-90 have great compatibility, why couldn't the T-72 be upgraded to the T-90M level?