Military Review

"Order B". Satisfying the motor hunger of Soviet tanks

119

Diesel needed as air


The tank building program of the Soviet Union provided for the appearance in the army of several types of armored vehicles at once - from light T-37A to giants T-35. But the T-26 and a series of high-speed BTs were to become truly massive. If in the first case it was enough gasoline 90-horsepower engine from the Leningrad plant them. Voroshilov, but BT required a different technique. As everyone remembers, the 400-strong Liberty aircraft engine became a temporary measure, but its cost and chronic shortage of components seriously impeded the development of tank building. Innokenty Khalepsky, head of the Department of Motorization and Mechanization of the Red Army, in this regard, as early as 1929, warned that "the power of the motors and the speeds of the tractors do not in any way meet the tactical requirements of the motorized units." This problem was superimposed on the requirement of the leadership of the USSR at all costs to increase production tanks with chronic lack of motors. At first, the problem was solved by installing the M-17 aircraft engine on high-speed tanks, but Rybinsk Aircraft Engine Plant No. 26 could, in particular, in 1934 allocate only 80 engines to BT. The remaining 220 were intended for the T-28 medium car, and later for this stories the heavy T-35 should have come up.



Tank diesel B-2


Why did the industry decide to switch to heavy motor fuel? In accordance with the decree of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks of November 15 of November 1930 of the year “On the situation in the oil industry”, rational use of oil products and the mass transfer of all types of vehicles to diesel fuel were paramount. In many ways, this became a necessary measure - in the young Soviet republic there was not enough capacity for the deep processing of natural hydrocarbons into high-quality gasoline. In turn, engineers in diesel engines were impressed by high fuel efficiency, fire safety and reduced interference for radio communications due to the lack of spark ignition. According to Evgeny Zubov in the book “Tank Engines (from the History of Tank Building)”, the first attempt to develop a heavy fuel engine for ground vehicles was the 2-stroke AMBS diesel engine. The abbreviation was the abbreviation of names (Alexander Mikulin and Boris Stechkin, it was they who built the engine for the Tsar Tank in 1917). However, such an ambitious task was left without continuation.


They planned to install a diesel engine on the utopian Tsar Tank.


After not very successful attempts to create the Alpha and OH-1 oil engines in the second half of the 20s, domestic engineers designed a high-speed engine at the Central Institute of Aviation Motors aviation diesel AN-1 ("aviation oil"). It was a 12-cylinder unit, the layout is no different from traditional gasoline counterparts. The diesel engine in the original version developed 750 liters. s., but over time it was possible to disperse it to 1250 liters. with. - It was in this modification that he went into the series. Aircraft oil engine gave a series of engines of various powers, which were installed on aircraft, locomotives and river vessels.


Workers of the Kharkov Locomotive Plant. In the future, the enterprise will become the main developer of B-2 and a forge of personnel-motor builders for the industry of the Soviet Union


An attempt to create a true tank diesel was made at the Voroshilov plant in 1935, when they developed the DT-26 engine for the T-26 light tank. The motor had a mass of 500 kg, a working volume of 7,16 l and developed 91 l. s., however, failed the test, developments on it were postponed. Two years later, at the Kirov experimental engineering plant, they began to build two diesel engines for the T-26 at once - the first was an 4-stroke D-16-4, and the second was an 2-stroke D-16-2. Both units developed 130 l. from. and had eight cylinders (D-16-4 was V-shaped, and D-16-2 was opposed). Actually, then the understanding came that the V-shaped layout of a diesel engine with an 4-cycle cycle would be most optimal for the tank. D-16-4 due to excessive dimensions (did not fit into the MT T-26) did not go into series, which finally left the Soviet light tank without an engine on heavy fuel. A little later, in 1936, at the Kirov plant, a new diesel engine project was launched for medium and heavy tanks DMT-8. The innovation for the 2-stroke engines of that time was the modular design - each segment had two cylinders, a common combustion chamber, intake and exhaust valves. Of the four modules or compartments, an 8-cylinder diesel was assembled, and of five, respectively, an 10-cylinder. The first in the modular design business in 1930 was the designer A. A. Mikulin, when he was developing the M-34 aircraft engine. He then made in-line from the designed V-shaped engine and already worked on the entire experimental part on it. Fast, simple and inexpensive ... And in the 1939, the DMT-8 engine went for testing, but it showed unsatisfactory results - vibration during operation, high consumption of oil and fuel, as well as burnout of the pistons. The DMT-8 did not reach the series - the situation was saved by the development in Kharkov of the 12-cylinder engine, which will subsequently become the legendary B-2.

Kharkov legend


We need a “powerful diesel engine” - this is exactly the task that Kharkov Locomotive Plant received in the spring of 1931 from the department in charge of the production of locomotives, wagons and diesel engines. The name of the department was very funny - “Parvagdiz”. So, this same “Parvagdiz” posed a difficult task for Kharkovites to develop a diesel tank engine from scratch. In order to meet the tank purpose, the diesel engine must be adapted to frequent changes in traction and speed, and not be afraid of shaking, shock and high levels of dust. As mentioned above, in addition to the Kharkov plant, similar tank engines were also dealt with at the Leningrad State Plant No. 174 named after K. E. Voroshilov, however, the Kharkiv residents had a higher level of competence in this area.

"Order B". Satisfying the motor hunger of Soviet tanks

Director of KhPZ Konstantin Fedorovich Chelpan. In 1937, he was accused of "disrupting a government assignment for the production of diesel engines"


Back in the 1912 year, a unit was created at the locomotive plant that was engaged in the program of internal combustion engines, where, after a couple of years, the first oil engines appeared. Moreover, the range was wide: from small 15-strong to ship giants in 1000 l. from. Already in the post-revolutionary time in Kharkov (in the factory department of “400” or, as it was also called, thermal), a four-cylinder diesel engine D-40 was developed, developing 470 l. from. and characterized by very low 215 rpm. It should be noted that, to the credit of the developers, the diesel was equipped with nozzles and a fuel pump of its own design. In addition, the motor was more stationary due to its size and was not suitable in the tank MTO. We needed a revolving and compact engine with great modernization potential so that it could be installed in a light, medium, and heavy tank. And it would be nice to have some bomber in the nacelle. The task was formulated to develop an 12-cylinder V-shaped 4-stroke revolving diesel engine with a power of at least 400 hp They called it BD-2 and it was intended to be a wheeled-tracked light BT - it was required at all costs to replace their gasoline engines M-5 and M-6. It is necessary to stop here separately and explain that such a technique until then in the world did not exist. The requirements were unique. The motor must be powerful, at the same time compact and suitable in terms of characteristics for tough tank operation. And it is very desirable to circumvent in specific parameters the German low-power (only 110 hp) Zaurer diesel engine, which at that time was already limited to the English Vickers.


Nikolay Alekseevich Kucherenko - one of the developers of B-2



Ivan Yakovlevich Trashutin. At the time of birth, B-2 is a design engineer in the department of heat engines of KhPZ


To test the necessary experimental data in Kharkov, at the beginning of the 1932 of the year, an 2-cylinder DB-14 with a capacity of 70 liters was built. from. As mentioned above, such a modular design approach saved time and resources. On the compartment, engineers worked out the engine’s duty cycle, crank mechanism and gas distribution features. Calculations showed that in the 12-cylinder version, a diesel engine could develop 420 l. pp., which exceeded the basic requirements and was much better than the German "Zaurer" - he would have dispersed in such a configuration to 330 l. from. After testing the compartment in April of 1933, a full-fledged DB-2 diesel engine was assembled and placed on a test bench. With a relatively small mass of 640 kg and a working volume of 38,17 liter, the prototype tank engine at 1700 rpm produced 400 l. s., but turned out to be "raw" for most nodes. In fact, the 2 DB could work without breakdowns for no more than 12 hours. Nevertheless, after surface repairs, the prototype was installed on the BT-5, which, as a result of a heart transplant, was never able to return to the factory floor on its own - the engine always refused. Only until October 1934, about 2 design changes of one or another level of complexity were introduced into the 1150 database. In the future, it was this prototype that received the in-plant name “Order B”, from which the B-2 will appear.

In the book "Confrontation" Daniyal Ibragimov gives the memories of the designer Nikolai Alekseevich Kucherenko, who very accurately described the events of that time:
“Understanding that military affairs cannot stand still, our factory team set itself the task of replacing the gasoline engine with a powerful small-sized high-speed diesel engine. But in the practice of tank building such a diesel engine was not yet. And then the decision came - to create it ... And the engine was created! However, he did not immediately fall into place. Like an obstinate horse, the new engine delivered a lot of trouble. During the tests of the modernized machine, various breakdowns occurred. But the designers did not despair. Diesel gradually began to "get used to" - to work steadily on the test bench and in the prototype. "


To be continued ...
Author:
Photos used:
en.wikipedia.org
119 comments
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  1. zyablik.olga
    zyablik.olga 10 November 2019 05: 12
    +12
    Very interesting! good
    If I am not mistaken, during the years of the Second World War, when there was a shortage of diesel engines, gas engines were installed on the T-34?
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 10 November 2019 05: 26
      +8
      Quote: zyablik.olga
      Very interesting! good
      If I am not mistaken, during the years of the Second World War, when there was a shortage of diesel engines, gas engines were installed on the T-34?

      Do not be mistaken, there was such a thing! However, like the weapons of the “thirty-four” - 45 and 57mm guns! And the first is not from a good life !!!
      Regards, Kote!
      1. zyablik.olga
        zyablik.olga 10 November 2019 05: 32
        +6
        Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
        Do not be mistaken, there was such a thing! However, like the weapons of the “thirty-four” - 45 and 57mm guns! And the first is not from a good life !!!
        Regards, Kote!

        Dear Mikado, thanks for the reply! Hello to your cat!
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 10 November 2019 07: 52
          +7
          Quote: zyablik.olga
          Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
          Do not be mistaken, there was such a thing! However, like the weapons of the “thirty-four” - 45 and 57mm guns! And the first is not from a good life !!!
          Regards, Kote!

          Dear Mikado, thanks for the reply! Hello to your cat!


          Dear Olga, alas, but you were mistaken in the addressee! Although your fault is definitely not !!! Now in cat bowls.
          There are two cat-feeds on the site:
          The first is the former Mikado, or today, Pan Kohanka, he is in the world Nikolay with a cat named Mikado!
          The second is the former Kotische, or after the forced rebranding of Kote Pan Kokhank in the real world, Vladislav with the cat Sonya, tobish I wink
          As a matter of fact, it’s my fault in choosing a nickname and repeatedly misleading the members of the forum, well, as they say “nasharu” spontaneously leaned into the cellar of Pan to protect his sour cream from rats, so sorry! Right now the "dog lovers" will come and will again "laugh" about the "beguiled pussies again" laughing
          Your good wish, I will definitely throw off Nikolai in a personal !!!
          Regards, Vlad! hi
          1. Aviator_
            Aviator_ 10 November 2019 20: 05
            +5
            Cat, glad of your reincarnation! I already decided that you disappeared forever. Glad I was wrong drinks
            1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka 10 November 2019 20: 07
              +8
              Sergey, I thought you knew! Who am I! Oops. Apparently I missed it !!! But nevertheless, I am glad that everything was so resolved! Good evening!
              1. Leopold
                Leopold 15 November 2019 07: 30
                +6
                Vladislav hi Well, firstly, my (yes, from a mustache-tailed fellow) congratulations on capra. good drinks And secondly, although it may not be news for you, Kotische and Mikado, let’s say so, are back in service. The cat is in the rank of Captri (demoted, as far as I understand), and Mikado in the rank of Lieutenant General (which is very strange, why not Vice Admiral?). I will be glad to see you both on the fields of VO. soldier
                Regards, Leopold. (Sergei) hi
                1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                  Kote Pan Kokhanka 15 November 2019 20: 16
                  +6
                  Sergey, thank you for your kind words!
                  Regarding kaptri, slipper chose successfully! feel
                  For which he was punished with the involvement of a celestial resource! wink
                  Well, then I’ll again five or six in the same slipper !!! smile
                  At celestials, my hand weighs me tired !!! lol
                  Glad to read you brother in the tail, look into Pan's cellar for his sour cream!
                  Regards, Vlad!
                  1. Leopold
                    Leopold 16 November 2019 01: 26
                    +6
                    Vlad hi I propose to "you" and me - just Seryoga. As for the sneaker, I guessed it, because I myself am the same. This is a fixable matter, let the "younger" slowly "fatten". Celestials - they are good, they just do not need to be angry. Lately - so in general. Apparently the dominance of "rodents" affects. lol And this is our work, so that they only have to leave them in their dustpan and on the street. We’ll live again, my friend. To sour cream - this is us with all zeal. drinks If any help is needed - just meow, we will help and fight off the dogs and strangle the rat. soldier
                    Sincerely, Seryoga!
                    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                      Kote Pan Kokhanka 16 November 2019 04: 34
                      +5
                      On all counts, my tail!
                      Regards, Vlad!
                      1. Leopold
                        Leopold 16 November 2019 04: 39
                        +6
                        Accepted, Vlad! They call my Lynx, though the tail is like that of a spaniel, for which he received a clique. laughing
        2. Blacksmith 55
          Blacksmith 55 10 November 2019 10: 19
          +6
          Thanks for the article, very interesting, I look forward to continuing.
      2. mark1
        mark1 10 November 2019 10: 06
        +4
        Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
        ... weapons "thirty-four" - 45 ... mm guns!

        This is a fallacy, this was not. There is no confirmation anywhere except for the photo of the tower on the armored train.
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 10 November 2019 11: 02
          +4
          Quote: mark1
          Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
          ... weapons "thirty-four" - 45 ... mm guns!

          This is a fallacy, this was not. There is no confirmation anywhere except for the photo of the tower on the armored train.

          This is mentioned by a number of respected Authors, including V.O. Shpakovsky in the book "Tanks of the Great War" and Katorin in his encyclopedia. Apparently the conversation is not about serial tanks, but restored after repair in besieged Leningrad and at the Stalingrad Tractor Plant.
          As for the photos, a lot of things didn’t reach us, however, like the T-34 images with a 57mm gun!
          Regards, Kote!
          1. mark1
            mark1 10 November 2019 11: 23
            +6
            The 45 mm gun on the T-34 is a big debate that has been going on for several decades. No one can confirm the installation of this gun documented. There are a lot of photos of tanks of the Stalingrad plant with various screening methods and with varying degrees of destruction, but they are all with F-34 (well, the mask must be cast differently, etc.). But with the T-34-57 everything is clear. there are documents and photographs (including a damaged tank) hi
            1. Bad_gr
              Bad_gr 10 November 2019 23: 29
              0
              Quote: mark1
              The 45 mm gun on the T-34 is a big debate that has been going on for several decades.

              "....." At the end of April, I graduated from the courses and in the rank of "junior lieutenant" went with a group of commanders to the city of Gorky to receive tanks. We are stuck there. The "Thirty-fours" intended for us were assembled, but the 76-mm guns and sights were missing.
              In Gorky, these guns were not fired, but 45-mm anti-tank guns were made. Moscow was strictly asked for the plan, and these 34-mm guns were installed on some T-45s. Of course, less powerful than the required three-inch. In addition, there were no sights for them. Many guys refused such tanks, although they tried to convince us that the guns were good, and we would get the sights "on the spot." In what place is unclear. It was June XNUMX, the devil knows what was happening on the fronts.
              The Germans were advancing. There was no time to sit back and wait for sights or tanks with 76-mm guns ........ "
              https://oper-1974.livejournal.com/1129390.html
              1. mark1
                mark1 11 November 2019 06: 50
                +2
                Quote: Bad_gr
                but lacked 76 mm guns and sights.
                In Gorky, these guns were not produced, but 45 mm anti-tank guns were made. They asked Moscow strictly for the plan, and some 34-mm guns were put on some T-45s.

                How is that? A field gun in the tower without adaptation, especially since there was a tank version and it seemed to be produced there (at least it went on the T-70) and there was a sight to it.
                Quote: Bad_gr
                Many guys refused such tanks,

                And they (even theoretically) could afford it?
                1. EvilLion
                  EvilLion 18 November 2019 08: 51
                  -1
                  Yes breshet simply.
              2. Alexey RA
                Alexey RA 11 November 2019 14: 55
                +4
                Quote: Bad_gr
                At the end of April I graduated from the courses and in the rank of "junior lieutenant" went with a group of commanders to the city of Gorky to receive tanks. We are stuck there. The "Thirty-fours" intended for us were assembled, but the 76-mm guns and sights were missing.

                In fact, the F-34 was the only 76-mm tank gun that had no problems with production. We must pay tribute to Grabin - he was able to optimize the design of the gun for the then production.
                The F-32 had problems, but they were due to the fact that it was given to the LKZ, and this plant could not or did not want to establish the production of a "foreign" weapon for it - because the F-32 "killed" the Kirov L-11. As a result, the KV had to change the F-32 to the F-34 (more precisely, the ZIS-5).
          2. beeper
            beeper 10 November 2019 16: 13
            +6
            As for the photos, a lot of things didn’t reach us, however, like the T-34 images with a 57mm gun!

            hi At the turn of the 90-2000s, when, nostalgically, in the light of the mass of new information that had appeared, I was closely and in detail interested in the tank topic, I more than once came across pictures of our T-1941 with a 34-gun in the tower knocked out (in 57 near Moscow). Apparently, a photo of that experienced tank, which was previously tested in July 1941 at the Sofrinsky training ground ?!
            As far as visual memory fails me, the photo was taken from behind the tank tilted to the left, and the turret with a long and thin 57-mm cannon was also turned to the left.
            I think that many people saw this photo too, but did not attach any importance to it - it was just that the gun, uncharacteristic of the "T-34", was not "conspicuous" ?!
            In some publications, this tank was called the "anti-tank version" T-34 "".

            Just now I looked in the book "Unknown T-34" of the Publishing House "Exprint", 2001, page 70-there are also two blurry dark photos of such "thirty-fours" with a 57mm ZIS-4 cannon, whole-tested already in June-July 1943.
            And on pages 69-70 of the same book, a description of the ups and downs of the installation and testing of the ZIS-4 in the "thirty-four", the shortcomings of the gun itself and the shells for it ... as a result, in 1943 for installation in a tank, it was late, as it was in full development and an elongated 76,2 mm experimental S-54 cannon was tested (as indicated in this book), and on the way were 85-mm tank guns with a much more powerful effect of high-explosive fragmentation shells.
            1. Undecim
              Undecim 10 November 2019 17: 54
              +12
              As far as visual memory fails me, the photo was taken from behind the tank tilted to the left, and the turret with a long and thin 57-mm cannon was also turned to the left.
              1. Undecim
                Undecim 10 November 2019 17: 57
                +11

                T-34−57 with a modified model of the gun ZIS-4 during testing at Sofrinsky training ground, July 1941
              2. beeper
                beeper 10 November 2019 18: 22
                +6
                hi Bravo, dear Undecim! good You, as always, are at a documentary height! yes
                It is this photograph!
                I also remembered the open hatch and the snow, but still many years passed and shocks for me, so I did not "create false entities", I hoped for the sufficiency of the named "signs" and was not mistaken. smile
                Thank you, because I have received confirmation from you that I have not yet been completely overcome by senility and that I can be sure of something! winked
          3. Alf
            Alf 10 November 2019 21: 00
            +5
            Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
            IN. Shpakovsky in the book "Tanks of the Great War"

            Did he bring a photo? We all have known for a long time that Shpakov's "master" is to assert anything. How many times have he been caught by the hand?
          4. Vlad.by
            Vlad.by 1 February 2020 21: 11
            0
            Pictures of the T-34 with a 57mm gun are. And were in, look in the archives. But with the 45th - the first time I hear.
      3. Pavel57
        Pavel57 10 November 2019 10: 58
        +3
        57mm was a great anti-tank gun. But for other tasks it was rather weak.
      4. The comment was deleted.
    2. Evgeny Fedorov
      10 November 2019 05: 33
      +9
      Yes, at the beginning of the war I had to put M-17
    3. Amurets
      Amurets 10 November 2019 06: 11
      +7
      Quote: zyablik.olga
      If I am not mistaken, during the years of the Second World War, when there was a shortage of diesel engines, gas engines were installed on the T-34?

      Greetings, Olya love You are not wrong. Due to the lack of V-2, M-17 gasoline engines were installed not only on T-34 tanks, but also on KV. "They were installed at the end of 1941 - early 1942. According to various estimates, only about 1300-1500 vehicles. plant 183 back in June 1941 There is a decree of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR dated September 16, 1941 "On the installation of the M-17 engine in the T-34 tank." According to this decree, the documentation was developed and transferred to STZ and Krasnoe Sormovo, which produced such options. : //studwood.ru/2057802/bzhd/dvigatelem "http://istorya.ru/forum/index.php?showtopic=6502
      One of the results of the evacuation of many plants and factories in the Urals was the irregular supply of materials and equipment, which led to the appearance of several unusual options for the KV tank, and the differences affected not only the turret, hull and armament, but also the engine. After the Kharkov Engine Plant No. 75 was evacuated in July 1941, a shortage of B-2 engines arose. In order not to stop production in September 1941, M-37 engines, previously used on T-1 heavy tanks, were installed on 1940 KV-17 tanks of the 35 project of the LKZ as their replacement.
      Outwardly, these tanks were distinguished by five additional fuel tanks, with a capacity of 160 liters each, which were installed on the fenders. Additional fuel tanks were needed to compensate for the higher fuel consumption that the M-17 engine had: from 4,7 to 9,5 liters per 100 kilometers (V-2 diesel: from 2,7 to 5). The same extraordinary measures to replace the B-2 with the M-17 had to be taken at the ChKZ in November-December 1941. There were produced 130 KV-1 tanks of the 1940 project, ChKZ with M-17 engines.
      1. Cut Samshitov
        Cut Samshitov 10 November 2019 06: 59
        +10
        Additional fuel tanks were needed to compensate for the higher fuel consumption that the M-17 engine had: from 4,7 to 9,5 liters per 100 kilometers (V-2 diesel: from 2,7 to 5).
        Are you seriously? Is the TANK's consumption less than that of a modern small car?
        1. Golovan Jack
          Golovan Jack 10 November 2019 07: 10
          +9
          Quote: Sawing Boxwood
          Is the TANK's consumption less than that of a modern small car?

          It’s more per kilometer, not 100. But for B-2, the numbers are strange, there are about 150 l / 100 km. Plus or minus.
        2. Amurets
          Amurets 10 November 2019 07: 16
          +8
          v2-5bfe5fc4e659d100aba2d823
          Quote: Sawing Boxwood
          Are you seriously? Is the TANK's consumption less than that of a modern small car?

          In the source, from where I took the error quote. Real expenses

          https://zen.yandex.ru/media/xtorik/istoriia-dizelia-
          1. haron
            haron 10 November 2019 08: 40
            +4
            Quote: Amurets
            Real expenses

            Good afternoon.
            And why is there such a significant difference in costs per 1 km and 1 hour, if we take it in relative units.
            That is, approximately 1% of gasoline consumption is consumed per 90 km of solariums, and 60% of gasoline per hour of operation.
            Thank you.
            1. Mar.Tirah
              Mar.Tirah 10 November 2019 09: 39
              +8
              Quote: haron
              And why is there such a significant difference in costs per 1 km and 1 hour, if we take it in relative units.

              The D-12 (not forced) has a consumption of 50 liters per hour. The flow rate is counted in hours, as is the motor resource. Because it was used everywhere wherever possible. And in the DES on ships, and on coastal vessels, and on river vessels, and on all-terrain vehicles. Disgusting diesel engine in terms of service life and maintenance. With a high consumption of lubricants and fuel. Very fastidious in maintenance and was afraid of overheating, because everything is on rubber bands. They did it for a short period of battle. Nevertheless, they still use stocks of the Ministry of Defense because huge stocks accumulated in its years.
              1. Okolotochny
                Okolotochny 10 November 2019 11: 38
                +10
                On diesel locomotives, old tractors, hour meter are still available.
                1. irontom
                  irontom 10 November 2019 14: 33
                  +3
                  Now capitalism, taking into account and control, even idling an engine is a fuel and a moto resource, so in the Jeepies and Glonas sensors that are used for monitoring, the operating time of the motors is tracked, I know one organization where idle work is allowed only in winter to warm up the engine. And the fact that the priest is freezing in a cooled cabin does not flatter them.
                  1. Okolotochny
                    Okolotochny 10 November 2019 14: 39
                    +2
                    By the way, according to the regulations, diesel locomotives are supposed to be launched (engines), especially in cold weather. And the sensors - DUTs are installed, fuel level sensors. But I talked about the old "versions" of the Soviet era.
          2. Undecim
            Undecim 10 November 2019 11: 03
            +8
            Fuel consumption by the T-34 tank (1941 service manual).
      2. Luvad
        Luvad 10 November 2019 08: 17
        +1
        What are from 4.7 to 9.5 liters of ale?
      3. vladcub
        vladcub 10 November 2019 10: 52
        +5
        Nikolay, thanks for your addition.
        Regarding tanks with the M-17, once in my childhood I heard the story of war veterans. In their frost part, because of these engines, half of the tanks failed even before the battle. I don’t remember why it happened, but I only remembered his conclusion: they shot someone because of the motors.
    4. svp67
      svp67 10 November 2019 08: 03
      +5
      Quote: zyablik.olga
      If I am not mistaken, during the years of the Second World War, when there was a shortage of diesel engines, gas engines were installed on the T-34?

      They put, like on the HF, the M-17 already mentioned here. So far, in Chelyabinsk, in Tankograd, the Kharkov plant, after evacuation, started production
    5. Bad_gr
      Bad_gr 11 November 2019 00: 02
      +1
      T-34 V-2 and M-17 engines

    6. EvilLion
      EvilLion 18 November 2019 08: 48
      -1
      On KV-1, too, it seems there were such 100 pieces.
  2. nikon7717
    nikon7717 10 November 2019 06: 11
    +6
    People who walked new roads filled cones, and to the Second World War created a line of engines for tanks. Thanks to them for that!
    1. knn54
      knn54 10 November 2019 11: 06
      +2
      B-2 was at least thirty years ahead of its time And at the same time had a "resource" for modernization / improvement.
  3. andrewkor
    andrewkor 10 November 2019 06: 20
    +9
    I will always be proud of the fact that I began my career at the Barnaultransmash plant (current name). There are 190 final assembly of diesel engines D12, D6 of various modifications (more than 70) in the workshop. During the Second World War, the plant √77, based on the production facilities of Kharkov, Stalingrad, Leningrad, Izhora was built literally from scratch. The first wagons with equipment arrived in Barnaul in January 1942, and on 06.11.1942/2/10000 the first B11 engine was assembled and tested. In total, over 2 engines were manufactured during the War years, this is XNUMX ℅ from the entire production of BXNUMX.
  4. Amurets
    Amurets 10 November 2019 06: 43
    +13
    We needed a revolving and compact engine with great modernization potential so that it could be installed in a light, medium, and heavy tank. And it would be nice to have some bomber in the nacelle. The task was formulated to develop a 12-cylinder V-shaped 4-stroke revolving diesel engine with a capacity of at least 400 hp
    The author, thanks for the interesting story, but I’ll clarify a little. The BD-2 (V-2) engine was ordered as an diesel engine and was first installed on the R-5 aircraft
    https://topwar.ru/116114-dvigatel-v-2-pobeditel-i-dolgozhitel.htmlВ процессе доводки мотора учитывалось второстепенное его предназначение — возможность использования на самолетах. Уже в 1936-м самолет Р-5 с дизелем БД-2А (быстроходный дизель второй авиационный) поднимался в воздух, но этот мотор в авиации так и не был востребован — в частности, из-за появления более подходящих агрегатов, созданных профильными институтами в эти же годы.
    The AN-1 / M-40 / ACh-30 family had family ties with:
    M-34. AN-1 repeated many technical solutions of the Mikulinsky motor, in addition, the M-30B (as already mentioned) used the monitoring station from AM-38.
    The tank V-2, which stood on the T-34 and, like the N-1, was developed under the program of "oil" aircraft engines (it had the index N-3). At one of the stages of its refinement, the developments of OND CIAM were used.
    No less tank TD-30B - conversion of M-30B.
    AN-1M and M-50 - diesel engines for boats.
    https://p-d-m.livejournal.com/35840.html
    1. abc_alex
      abc_alex 10 November 2019 10: 15
      +7
      Quote: Amurets
      At one of the stages of its refinement, the results of ONI CIAM were used.

      Let's wait and see how the author sets out the story of the actual creation of B-2. Will the author say, to put it mildly, some involvement engineers from the Charomsky group in the work on the B-2 and the actual results of the work of Kharkov citizens.
      So far, the author has been steadily steadfast in the official history story and it seems that in the end we are waiting for the classic finale with the engineering feat of Kharkov designers and accusations against the totalitarian regime.

      By the way, you, too, are a little confused. B-2 was shipped exactly like a tank. Just launched two programs at the same time. In Moscow, an diesel engine, in Kharkov (I can never understand why it is there, and not in Kolomna?) Is a tank. Apparently it occurred to someone to compare the results of both programs.
      1. Amurets
        Amurets 10 November 2019 10: 47
        +7
        Quote: abc_alex
        (I will never understand why it is there, and not in Kolomna?)

        Kolomensky Zavod at that time was loaded with the production of diesel engines 38В8, 38K8 for submarines of the "M" and "Shch" types and diesel engines "1D" for boats of the "S" series and for the latest series of mines of the "L" type. "Engine" magazine # 4 (10) July-August 2000
        http://engine.aviaport.ru/issues/10/page08.html
        And here is a list of those organizations that were engaged in the creation of diesel engines: In the early 1930s. in the Soviet Union in the field of diesel engine construction, a number of organizations have already begun work on the creation of aircraft and tank diesel engines of high power. The development of diesel engines was carried out by the Institute of Aviation Motors (IAM, since 1932 - CIAM), the Moscow Automobile and Road Institute (MADI), the Auto-Tank-Tractor Bureau of the Technical Department of the Economic Department of the United State Political Administration (ECU OGPU) and the Scientific Automotive and Tractor Institute (NATI) in Moscow, the Central Research Diesel Institute (TsNIDI) in Leningrad, the Ukrainian Research Institute of Internal Combustion Engines (UNIIDVS, later UNIADI) in Kharkov. In MADI, under the guidance of Professor N.R. Briling was developing a two-stroke diesel engine, other organizations were making four-stroke ones. "
        So, the cooperation between KhPZ and the Ukrainian Research Institute of Internal Combustion Engines (UNIIDVS, later UNIADI) in Kharkov is logical.
        https://zen.yandex.ru/media/xtorik/istoriia-dizelia-v2-5bfe5fc4e659d100aba2d823
        1. abc_alex
          abc_alex 10 November 2019 11: 39
          +5
          Quote: Amurets
          Kolomensky Zavod at that time was loaded with the production of diesel engines 38В8, 38K8 for submarines of the "M" and "Shch" types and diesel engines "1D" for boats of the "S" series and for the latest series of mines of the "L" type.

          Everything is so, but frankly speaking, in this period of free production and the USSR did not exist at all. Everyone was busy and loaded with something. I just don’t understand the logic of transferring the topic to the plant, who had never before done anything in detail? The result of that work was, in my opinion, predictable.

          Quote: Amurets
          And here is a list of those organizations that engaged in the production of diesel engines:


          I'll tell you more! The work went not only in the framework of the official order. In 1940, a letter from the Central Committee was addressed by the staff of the Stalingrad Tractor, with a proposal to begin production of a line (!) Of tank diesel engines based on the tractor used in production. They promised to issue at least three units of different dimensions for a light, medium and heavy tank and set up a series for the year.
          1. Amurets
            Amurets 10 November 2019 12: 44
            +6
            Quote: abc_alex
            I just don’t understand the logic of transferring the topic to the plant, who had never before done anything in detail? The result of that work was, in my opinion, predictable.
            There was a diesel department at KhPZ and diesel engines were built, but these were slow-speed, bulky, heavy compressor diesel engines suitable for stationary or marine installations. So, KhPZ had no experience in creating high-speed diesel engines. Here I agree with you.
            "At the steam locomotive plant, back in 1912, a division was created to deal with the program of internal combustion engines, where the first oil engines appeared a couple of years later. Moreover, the range was wide: from small 15-horsepower to ship giants of 1000 hp. Already in the post-revolutionary period in Kharkov (in the factory department "400", or, as it was also called, thermal) they created a four-cylinder diesel D-40, developing 470 hp and distinguished by a very low 215 rpm. It should be noted that, to the credit of the developers, the diesel was equipped with injectors and a fuel pump of its own design. In addition, due to its dimensions, the engine was rather stationary and was not suitable for the MTO of the tank. "
            1. Elturisto
              Elturisto 12 November 2019 21: 16
              +1
              You were clearly indicated already that the V-2 was originally a tank, and was designed as such. What do you think were fools in the USSR at that time? All the information on the history of the V-2 is available on the Internet.
              1. Amurets
                Amurets 12 November 2019 23: 19
                +1
                Quote: ElTuristo
                You have already clearly indicated that the V-2 was originally a tank, and was designed as such.

                On the Internet, like on a fence, a lot has been written. "The history of the future V-2 had other roots: in the years of the first five-year plan, there was a laboratory of internal combustion engines in Kharkov, in July 1931 it received the task, like CIAM, for a draft design of a powerful aviation A small laboratory, numbering only 45 employees and six machine tools, grew into the Ukrainian Research Aviation Diesel Institute (UNIADI), which was headed by Ya.M. Mayer, who was previously head of the "heat engine subdivision" of KhPZ. In January 1932, the institute developed a draft a project of a 12-cylinder V-shaped aircraft diesel engine AD-1 with the following parameters: power 500 hp at a speed of 1600 rpm, estimated specific fuel consumption 185 ... 195 g / hp zh. To assess the decisions made there they developed, built and tested several options for two-cylinder engine compartments.> http://redtanks.bos.ru/v2_sozd.htm
                The tank V-2, which stood on the T-34 and, like the N-1, was developed under the program of "oil" aircraft engines (it had the index N-3). At one of the stages of its refinement, the developments of OND CIAM were used.
                https://p-d-m.livejournal.com/35840.html
                1. Elturisto
                  Elturisto 14 November 2019 09: 10
                  +2
                  The use of R&D for aircraft diesels in V-2 is not denied by anyone.
  5. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 10 November 2019 07: 49
    +8
    The 90 horsepower engine on the T-26 did not suit the military. Due to the fact that the Soviet "Vickers six-ton" turned out to be overweight and the former motor from the boat worked at the maximum mode, often overheated, was fire hazardous ... The Poles also faced this problem in their 7TP, by the way, they were the first to mass-install a diesel engine on a tank ...
    1. Bormanxnumx
      Bormanxnumx 10 November 2019 09: 57
      +3
      Quote: Leader of the Redskins
      ... The Poles also faced this problem on their 7TP, by the way, they were the first to massively install diesel on a tank.

      The first serial diesel tank is the Japanese Type 89 "Otsu")
      1. knn54
        knn54 10 November 2019 15: 56
        +2
        A diesel engine was installed on the Polish 7TP tank (as on the Japanese one) in 1933.
        1. Bormanxnumx
          Bormanxnumx 10 November 2019 16: 39
          +4
          Quote: knn54
          A diesel engine was installed on the Polish 7TP tank (as on the Japanese one) in 1933.

          They installed it, only the Japanese in 1933 already launched it in a series, and the Poles could only do this in 1935.
  6. rocket757
    rocket757 10 November 2019 07: 54
    +4
    When the time for the "war of motors" came, OUR ancestors had what would answer the ill-wishers, the enemies!
  7. svp67
    svp67 10 November 2019 08: 02
    +10
    (Alexander Mikulin and Boris Stechkin, it was they who built the engine for the Tsar Tank in 1917)
    And the same is UNSUCCESSFUL, since two engines from the downed Zeppelin were installed on the Tsar Tank
    Simultaneously with the creation of the V-2, KhPZ gained experience, although it was unsuccessful to install the AN-1 diesel engine in a tank:
    "According to the Decree of the Council of Labor and Defense (STO) of May 23, 1936, the AN-1 diesel engine was to be installed in the T-35 heavy tank, the serial production of which was organized at the KhPZ. On July 26, 1936, working drawings of the AN- were received from CIAM. 1, and on January 16, 1937 - one copy of a diesel engine.In June 1937, when the preliminary design of the tank was completed at plant No.183, it turned out that due to the large size and increased power and torque of the engine, it was essentially necessary to design a new tank, and this was deemed impractical. Thus, it was not possible to use a serial aviation diesel in the T-35 tank. "
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 10 November 2019 08: 12
      +10
      If I’m not mistaken, two 200 “strong” gasoline maybahs were installed on the Tsar Tank.
      1. KERMET
        KERMET 10 November 2019 08: 31
        +5
        As far as I remember, Bosch fuel pumps and nozzles were installed on the first diesel engines, and the B-2 resource did not exceed 50 hours ... The M-17 had 250 hours
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 10 November 2019 08: 42
          +6
          The first M-17 resource also had no more than 50-75 engine hours. But by the beginning of the war, his resource had been brought up to 300 hours.
          1. mark1
            mark1 10 November 2019 10: 11
            +2
            Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
            But by the beginning of the war, his resource had been brought up to 300 hours.

            You can say so, but it will be a little wrong because M-17 discontinued from the mid 30's. Then the motor resource was brought up to 300-400 hours.
  8. bubalik
    bubalik 10 November 2019 11: 25
    +6
    Why did the industry decide to switch to heavy motor fuel? In accordance with the decree of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks of November 15 of November 1930 of the year “On the situation in the oil industry”, rational use of oil products and the mass transfer of all types of vehicles to diesel fuel were paramount. In many ways, this became a necessary measure - in the young Soviet republic there were not enough capacities for the deep processing of natural hydrocarbons into high-quality gasoline.

    ,, new motors, but the oil industry did not develop. and even at the very beginning of the war, how many vehicles were abandoned, not because of breakdowns, but because of a lack of fuel.
    1. Alf
      Alf 10 November 2019 21: 06
      +3
      Quote: bubalik
      but the oil industry did not develop.

      Undeveloped oil industry and undeveloped logistics are somewhat different things.
      1. bubalik
        bubalik 10 November 2019 21: 13
        +5
        ,, and logistics too.
      2. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 11 November 2019 15: 01
        +2
        Quote: Alf
        Undeveloped oil industry and undeveloped logistics are somewhat different things.

        In fact, there were big problems with the oil industry. In 1941, a paradoxical picture emerged: B / KB-70 was at least flooded, and diesel fuel was not enough.
        The mobilization plan of the national economy for the 1941 war year provided for the supply of NPOs to 174,5 thousand tons of B-78 aviation gasoline. In the presence of 56,9 thousand tons of this type of gasoline in the untouchable reserves of NPOs, the security of annual demand was less than 22,5%. For other types of gasolines, the need for NPOs was planned to meet (taking into account the use of cash emergency reserves) for B-74 by 28,6%, for B-70 and RB-70 - by 98,8%. But the B-70 and RB-70 were used mainly on outdated types of aircraft, and the main share of the needs for them fell on training units and refresher courses.

        For ground forces, fuel requirements were met by KB-70 and B-59 by 82,5%, on gasoline - by 62%, on diesel fuel - by 45,3%. That is, the most favorable was the situation with the provision of fuel for light tanks T-26 and BT. At the same time, the rearmament of the army to new types of tanks with diesel engines - KV, T-34, T-50 - was not adequately provided with fuel.

        © Melia A.A. Mobilization training of the national economy of the USSR.
        The reason for the shortage of diesel fuel is simple - 47522 Army ChTZ-65 ate it as if they weren’t crazy (more than 90% of the diesel fuel was consumed by them).
        1. Alf
          Alf 11 November 2019 20: 59
          +1
          Quote: Alexey RA
          In fact, there were big problems with the oil industry.

          Interesting numbers, thanks.
  9. Ural-4320
    Ural-4320 10 November 2019 11: 29
    +9
    I was with my son in the Museum of the History of the T-34 Tank, which is north of Moscow along the Dmitrovskoe highway. There are a lot of tanks on display in the courtyard, as well as many T-34 parts and assemblies found by the search teams. And now I, an adult uncle, make an unexpected discovery for myself: the V-2 diesel has 4 valves per cylinder, 2 camshafts per block, as well as an aluminum cylinder head. Not every motor now has such technical solutions, and this is the end of the 30s!
    Yes, there is this information in the article about V-2, but why is it not there when mentioning the T-34 tank as a whole?
    And why then didn’t they do anything like this for conventional equipment in the USSR?
    1. Operator
      Operator 10 November 2019 15: 02
      +5
      The entire V-2 engine was made of aluminum alloy "silumin" (including pistons and excluding the steel crankshaft, crankshaft bearing liners, cylinder liners, connecting rods, camshafts, valves, compression and oil scraper rings)

      http://www.gruzovikpress.ru/article/2993-dizelniy-dvigatel-v-2/
      1. Ural-4320
        Ural-4320 10 November 2019 15: 09
        +2
        Yes, your truth. I reviewed the photo of the motor from the museum.
    2. Elturisto
      Elturisto 12 November 2019 21: 18
      0
      How it wasn’t done. All diesel engines including the T-44,54,55,62,72,90-development of the B-2.
      1. Ural-4320
        Ural-4320 12 November 2019 23: 46
        0
        This is a military diesel engine, but I mean a citizen. For example: we fought with the Italians about the engine on the Zhiguli, broke through the upper valve, and could get the twin-shaft, which they had, or do the same themselves. But they didn’t.
  10. The comment was deleted.
    1. grave
      grave 11 November 2019 09: 21
      +3
      Do not trash the name of Comrade Stalin with unsubstantiated accusations. We have never "brutally" killed. There was a reason.
    2. abc_alex
      abc_alex 11 November 2019 17: 12
      +3
      Quote: Alexey Lobov
      March 11, 1938 was brutally murdered by the executioners of the NKVD in a prison in Kharkov, on the orders of a certain IV Dzhugashvili.
      The hero-designer was rehabilitated by the Military College of the Supreme Court of the USSR on July 28, 1956. The scum that killed and ordered the assassination of this great Designer and Man was never brought to justice.



      Yyyes! You did it! I knew that it was not appropriate for someone to write that. I congratulate you on the excellent "Pravdinsky" style. Are you not familiar with the results of the Kharkiv motor tests? Those after which the KB was actually overclocked?
    3. Elturisto
      Elturisto 12 November 2019 21: 19
      +1
      Failed up a bit. His face is gangster. Having progressed in creation, he went after the age of 37.
  11. The comment was deleted.
    1. abc_alex
      abc_alex 11 November 2019 18: 51
      +3
      Quote: Russo Turisto
      Under the leadership of Chelpan, an aluminum tank diesel V-2 was created, which was installed in the T-34 and other vehicles. For the development of the engine, the engineer received in 1935 the Order of Lenin and the title of Chief Designer.


      Hmm ... But there is a subtlety: From April 19 to 26, 1938, three B-2s were tested at the plant’s stand. The first worked for 72 hours. The second after 100 hours of operation showed increased oil consumption, smoky exhaust, a crack in the cylinder head. At the third, the crankcase burst. In 1935, Chelpan was given the Order of Lenin, but even in 1938 there was no motor. Of course, the accusation of a Greek conspiracy now sounds absurd, but Chelpan was arrested in 1937, and the B-2 did not work properly even in 1938.
      1. Jura 27
        Jura 27 12 November 2019 04: 58
        +1
        [/ quote] Hmm ... But there is a subtlety: From April 19 to 26, 1938, three B-2s were tested at the plant’s stand. The first worked for 72 hours. The second after 100 hours of operation showed increased oil consumption, smoky exhaust, a crack in the cylinder head. At the third, the crankcase burst. In 1935, Chelpan was given the Order of Lenin, but even in 1938 there was no motor. Of course, the accusation of a Greek conspiracy now sounds absurd, but Chelpan was arrested in 1937, and B-2 did not work properly even in 1938. [quote]

        If clarified, then B-2 arr. 1938 was very distantly related to Chelpan's BD-2, the latter generally barely worked, and that did not last long. Without touching on the topic of unfair repression, I must say bluntly that Chelpan failed to create a light fast tank diesel.
        And B-2 has aviation roots, one purely aviation component in the engine speaks of this. It was removed only in the B-44 diesel engine in 1944.
        1. abc_alex
          abc_alex 12 November 2019 10: 02
          +1
          Quote: Jura 27
          Chelpan failed to create a light high-speed tank diesel.

          Exactly. For the sake of this, I actually started my "injections" into the branch. In my opinion, the role of Chelpan is overblown and unjustified, and the role of the real creators of the motor is understated. We don't even really know the names and destinies of these people.
          1. Jura 27
            Jura 27 12 November 2019 10: 59
            +1
            [/ quote] We do not even really know the names and fates of these people. [quote]

            I agree that the real story of the creation of B-2 has not yet been written and it is possible that the archives on this topic are still not open. And if they are not open, then there is something to hide. Therefore, it is possible to guess about genuine events only by indirect facts (like more than 1000 changes have been made, that is, hello to the new engine! This was after Chelpan when V-2 appeared, instead of BD-2).
          2. Amurets
            Amurets 12 November 2019 23: 33
            +1
            Quote: abc_alex
            Exactly. For the sake of this, I actually started my "injections" into the branch. In my opinion, the role of Chelpan is overblown and unjustified, and the role of the real creators of the motor is understated. We don't even really know the names and destinies of these people.

            Victor Berezkin. On the way to B-2.http: //redtanks.bos.ru/v2_sozd.htm
            Legendary B-2: Three Pages of Fate http://engine.aviaport.ru/issues/04/page18.html
        2. Astra wild
          Astra wild 14 November 2019 19: 38
          0
          It was probably not real at the time.
  12. karabass
    karabass 10 November 2019 13: 09
    +2
    Thanks for the good article! Eternal memory to our grandfathers and great-grandfathers!
  13. Aliken
    Aliken 10 November 2019 13: 27
    +1
    Smart guys, thanks.
  14. dgonni
    dgonni 10 November 2019 15: 07
    +5
    Well, let's say this! In the darkness of memories of designers, the engine was designed for aviation. But given the rapid increase in the power of aircraft engines on gasoline, it was decided to shove it into the tracked vehicles. If it were originally designed for a tank, then the crankcase would be cast iron, however, like cylinder blocks. For a weight of + 0,5 tons for a tank is not critical, but it will be critical for an airplane.
    PS! Physically, the entire structure of the V-2 produces in it an aircraft engine in a diesel version, but adapted for ground equipment!
    P.S. 2! Supercharged Options! No one has seen? I have seen. There, in fact, over the entire fixture, the same centrifugal compressor from AM-34/35. These were calmly giving out 600 horses.
    1. mark1
      mark1 10 November 2019 17: 16
      +3
      Quote: dgonni
      Supercharged Options! No one has seen? I have seen. There, in fact, over the entire fixture, the same centrifugal compressor from AM-34/35. These were calmly giving out 600 horses.

      V-2K for KV-1 naturally aspirated 600 hp V-2 CH (SNF) with a centrifugal supercharger up to 850 hp, V-12 up to 750 hp
      1. dgonni
        dgonni 10 November 2019 18: 02
        0
        Oh, oh? It’s not so!
        1. mark1
          mark1 10 November 2019 18: 10
          0
          Quote: dgonni
          Maltz is wrong!

          But as?
    2. abc_alex
      abc_alex 11 November 2019 18: 32
      0
      Quote: dgonni
      Well, let's say this ...

      Slightly wrong.
      Kharkov diesel was still planned tank, albeit high-speed.
      Kharkov residents themselves convinced the government that making a universal motor is not realistic.

      They used aluminum in it because they sought to correspond to the advanced trends of technical thought in engine building. Cast iron diesel was offered at STZ and, in principle, there were such diesels. Although not in such a dimension.
      (500 kilograms is still not comic weight, if the tank weighs not 50 tons, but 5. Even 100 kilograms save on the weight of the engine, this is potentially an additional 100 kilograms of fuel)
      By the way, very many in the then military industry did not understand why to make a massive tank engine out of scarce aluminum. And even during the war, attempts were made to replace aluminum with cast iron and steel.

      Quote: dgonni
      Physically, the entire structure of the V-2 produces in it an aircraft engine in a diesel version, but adapted for ground equipment!


      And just the Kharkiv design bureau received a trophy jumo-205, born aviation, as a prototype. In addition, it was regularly "enhanced" by the specialists and developments of the Charomsky Design Bureau on the AN-1 engine. And in the end, after overclocking the design bureau, the Moscow specialists practically altered the engine by making more than 2000 changes to it, as Charomsky himself wrote, in fact, having adapted the aircraft engine for ground technology. And it turned out, to put it mildly, not quite the engine that was originally made in Kharkov.
      1. mark1
        mark1 12 November 2019 07: 42
        0
        Quote: abc_alex
        And just the Kharkov design bureau as a prototype received the trophy jumo-205, nee aviation.

        So what is common between a two-stroke and a four-stroke except fuel and ignition method? You will understand the essence of the question from the beginning.
        But the connection between the AN-1 and B-2 is very clearly traced.
        1. abc_alex
          abc_alex 12 November 2019 09: 55
          0
          Quote: mark1

          So what is common between a two-stroke and a four-stroke except fuel and ignition method? You will understand the essence of the question from the beginning.

          Listen, there is a historical fact. After the war in Spain, this engine was at the disposal of the USSR. He was transferred as a prototype to a diesel design bureau in Kharkov. How much tact was shown at the same time and how fully Kharkiv citizens used this, I did not say anything about this. But the fact is undeniable: the prototype of the V-2 was aircraft engines. In what proportion is German and its own BN-1 is a separate issue.
          1. mark1
            mark1 12 November 2019 10: 57
            0
            Quote: abc_alex
            After the war in Spain, this engine was at the disposal of the USSR.

            And when did the war in Spain end? B-2 already existed at this point
            .
            Quote: abc_alex
            In what proportion is German and its own BN-1 - this is a separate issue

            No way. If you have a need to tie the origin of Soviet tank diesels to the Germans, then take 3TD as the basis, 5TD they just have German ancestors. But this, already, is a completely different story.
            Nevertheless, it is worth studying the essence of the issue.
            1. abc_alex
              abc_alex 12 November 2019 22: 10
              0
              Quote: mark1
              And when did the war in Spain end? B-2 already existed at this point

              This is not true. At least until 1938, the V-2 was an inoperative design that could not even stand bench tests. Only in 1938, when specialists from Moscow were seconded to Kharkov, the engine was able to start at least at the stand. With over 2000 design changes.

              Quote: mark1
              No way. If you have a need to tie the origin of Soviet tank diesels to the Germans, then take 3TD as the basis, 5TD they just have German ancestors. But this, already, is a completely different story.


              Ah, what are you talking about :)
              You understood me wrong. I do not draw a direct relationship between B-2 and German engines. More likely from the Moscow AN-1 Charomsky. I am simply giving historical facts to illustrate the very controversial history of this motor. The B-2 has pronounced aviation roots, and a very strong "foreign influence", there was a moment when the fuel system for it was directly purchased abroad. At the same time, it was designed as a tank and was produced during the war in huge quantities entirely on a domestic base.
              Of the direct borrowing of technical solutions there was no question, of course.
              1. mark1
                mark1 13 November 2019 05: 52
                +1
                Quote: abc_alex
                B-2 has pronounced aviation roots,

                If you are talking about a thrust bearing and a long toe, then yes.
                Quote: abc_alex
                and a very strong "foreign influence", there was a moment when the fuel system for him was directly purchased abroad.

                What is this "influence"? then we have our whole life, from the time of Gostomysl (and before him) "foreign influence." By the way, the normal operation of the diesel engine without smoke and vibrations was achieved with our fuel equipment.
                1. abc_alex
                  abc_alex 14 November 2019 11: 20
                  0
                  Quote: mark1
                  If you are talking about a thrust bearing and a long toe, then yes.

                  And about that too. Although at first you need to remember that it is high-speed. Why does a tank need a high-rev engine? This is a purely aviation chip. Aluminum in the body is also not particularly needed for a tank engine.

                  Quote: mark1
                  What is this "influence"? then we have our whole life, from the time of Gostomysl (and before him) "foreign influence." By the way, the normal operation of the diesel engine without smoke and vibrations was achieved with our fuel equipment.

                  Normal work was achieved when, through the efforts of dozens of engineers and hundreds of military workers, they raised the quality of manufacture of all components and brought the entire structure to mind. There was little to replace the fuel system. There it "suddenly became clear" that for serial production it was necessary to re-equip the plant almost completely and put half of the Union on the ears. And still, the engine was raw and not even really tested. As I say, it started working on the stands only by the end of 1939. Not in a tank, but on a stand.
                  1. mark1
                    mark1 14 November 2019 11: 44
                    0
                    Quote: abc_alex
                    Why does a tank need a high-rev engine?

                    Higher revs - higher power with smaller dimensions. The quality is not superfluous, including for the tank. (but I don’t argue with you about the initial idea)
                    Quote: abc_alex
                    And still the engine was damp and not really tested. Well, I say, he earned on stands only by the end of 1939.

                    Well, do not exaggerate the problems ... In the small series of V-2 from the 38th, do not forget about the BT-7M. And the problems with the resource and quality are mainly technological issues in large-scale production. this is a common misfortune of the Soviet engine building of that period (and not only)
                    1. abc_alex
                      abc_alex 14 November 2019 13: 38
                      0
                      Quote: mark1
                      Well, do not exaggerate the problems ... In small series B-2 from the 38th, do not forget about the BT-7M. And the problems with the resource and quality are mainly technological issues in large-scale production. this is a common misfortune of the Soviet engine building of that period (and not only)


                      It was not the most beautiful story with the transfer of UNIAM to the KhPZ as an experimental production base. At the KhPZ, there was no experimental site for diesel engines. So that made before 1940 can be considered laboratory samples. And the quality of the series is yes, it is undeniable, but there were not a few structural defects. And the fuel system was alien, Boshevsky, which was not worked out and the famous story with air filters ...
      2. Dmitry Nikolaevich 69
        Dmitry Nikolaevich 69 12 November 2019 17: 32
        +2
        Now they produce such diesel engines (or let out until recently) from cast iron (like D-100) In-line 6 ka. (half B2), both with and without supercharging.
      3. Amurets
        Amurets 13 November 2019 00: 04
        +1
        Quote: abc_alex
        And just the Kharkov design bureau as a prototype received the trophy jumo-205/27, nee aviation.
        This is still not the case. These are 5TDF and 6-TD diesel engines. 2-stroke diesel engines B2 and its heirs are 4-stroke V-shaped diesel engines of the photo and this diesel engine are in this article. [center]
        YuMO-205
        [/ Center
        5TDF
        1. abc_alex
          abc_alex 14 November 2019 11: 37
          +1
          Quote: Amurets
          This is still not the case.

          There in real life was a complicated mishmash. There, in fact, three organizations participated, each had its own prototype motor, created on an initiative basis. KB KhPZ with BD-2, UNIADI with AD-1, and TsIAM with AN-1. But the trophy engine was delivered to KhPZ, this is a fact, and it was to begin work on a new diesel engine. True, they initially demanded universal. But Kharkovites insisted that this was impossible in principle.

          Where did I start then? With the fact that he was ironic over the line to simplify the real history of the creation of this motor. She is extremely not simple.
          1. Amurets
            Amurets 14 November 2019 13: 10
            +1
            Quote: abc_alex
            Where did I start then? With the fact that he was ironic over the line to simplify the real history of the creation of this motor. She is extremely not simple.

            Yes, I agree with you. What you listed is work on 4 tactics, and
            there was still work on 2-stroke engines, I don't know what scheme Brilling used to design his diesel engine, but there was one more diesel: "In addition to the above-mentioned aviation diesels, in the early 30s, tank diesel engines of high power were developed in the USSR. UMM RKKA, issued in July 1931 by the Auto-Tank-Tractor Bureau of the Technical Department of the EKU OGPU in Moscow, in 1932 a project was completed and working drawings were developed for a two-stroke V-shaped 6-cylinder diesel engine PGE with a capacity of 400 hp (294 kW) for the wheeled-tracked amphibious tank PT-1.The author of the project B.A.Witt awarded the diesel engine the PGE brand in honor of the deputy.Chairman of the OGPU G.E. Prokofiev https://zen.yandex.ru/media/xtorik/istoriia- dizelia-v2-5bfe5fc4e659d100aba2d823

            Diesel PGE
            And they are right that even before the Second World War, the YuMO-205 diesel engine got into the USSR: "It was assumed that Germany already has several hundred combat aircraft with diesel engines. A lot of noise was made by the capture in Spain of the wreckage of the Junkers Ju-86 bomber with two Jumo-205 diesel engines. The aircraft and its engines were successfully transported to the Soviet Union. They assembled one of the two diesel engines and tested it at the stand at CIAM. " In general, the author undertook a very difficult and scandalous job.
            1. abc_alex
              abc_alex 14 November 2019 13: 44
              +1
              Quote: Amurets
              In general, the author undertook a very complex and scandalous work.


              Yeah, but the start of the cycle hints a lot at the template simplification. winked

              By the way, little is said about it, but a separate story was with the diesels of the Stalingrad Tractor Plant.
              I would venture to bring a document.

              Report by the leadership of the special design experimental department and the engine building design bureau of the Stalingrad Tractor Plant in the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks on the work on creating a new tank engine
              20 August 1940 g

              Tank engine building is in extremely bad condition in the Soviet Union. The use of aircraft engines on most tanks for a number of years and the erroneous conclusions made on the basis of the qualities of engines for tanks distracted the attention of the designers and managers of the ABTU KA and NKSM from the task of creating a special tank engine, which delayed not only its creation, but and identifying requirements that must be presented to the tank engine.

              Instead of carefully thought-out organization of design and experimental work and maximum efforts to create high-power engines capable of ensuring uninterrupted operation of the tank for 500-600 hours, having the smallest dimensions for the possibility of reducing the weight of the armor of modern powerfully armored tanks and suitable for cheap production on a massive scale of non-scarce and cheap materials, until now, orientations have been promoted on aircraft engines as full-fledged replacements for tank engines, although these engines do not have any of the qualities listed above.

              Only the lack of conscious concern for the quality of Soviet tanks and the reduction in the cost of manufacturing and maintaining each tank led to the fact that at present the design of new tanks is hampered by the lack of engines for them with the required power, and the operation of existing tanks is very complicated and expensive using a single diesel engine B-2, which is an unfinished model of an aviation diesel engine and which is neither reliable, nor very contact and powerful enough, nor any cheap engine. All this applies to engines obtained on the basis of B-2 (for the T-26 and the engine B-3). In addition, the production of the B-2 engine is carried out at one plant, the failure of which deprives the tank factories of the source of the engines ...


              This is just the beginning, the preamble. A suggestion:


              The very creation of the engine and its structural design should provide for the simplification of the manufacturing technology of all its parts. It is especially important that the engine being developed allows it to be used to obtain a number of engines with a wide range of powers, but with common spare parts and uniform operating rules.

              A similar type of engine with a capacity of 500 liters. with. It was developed by the special design department of the Stalingrad Tractor Plant based on the work of the plant on diesel tractor engines and in the context of the requirements of automotive technology for its manufacture. In terms of dimensions, the STZ brand 2M ‑ 16 engine is significantly smaller than the B ‑ 2 engine and equal in power to it.

              The mixture formation system used on this engine showed good results on a tractor diesel engine, which is accepted for mass production, and guarantees the required engine power. On the basis of this engine (changing the number of cylinders and some parts of it), it is possible to simultaneously produce engines with a capacity of 60, 90, 125, 185, 250; 375, 500, 650, 750, 1000, 1300 l. with. The entire series can be produced on the same equipment at the same time, since it has only three types of changing parts, the processing of which can be combined on one equipment.
              1. Amurets
                Amurets 14 November 2019 15: 40
                0
                Quote: abc_alex
                By the way, little is said about it, but a separate story was with the diesels of the Stalingrad Tractor Plant.
                I would venture to bring a document.

                Thank! I did not know that
  15. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 10 November 2019 20: 20
    +3
    Good article. Respect to the author. I look forward to continuing.
  16. grave
    grave 11 November 2019 08: 46
    +1

    Yu 86-Altitude modification Yu88 with a pressurized cabin and a ceiling of more than 10 meters-Altitude reconnaissance with high-speed dummies Yummo
    1. Dmitry Nikolaevich 69
      Dmitry Nikolaevich 69 12 November 2019 17: 30
      0
      I heard somewhere that the prototype of these engines was designed by a Russian engineer. And these diesels spoiled a prototype of a 2-stroke diesel engine with oppositely moving pistons 6TDF (Kharkov T-64 tanks)
      1. Amurets
        Amurets 13 November 2019 00: 12
        +1
        Quote: Dmitry Nikolaevich 69
        I heard somewhere that the prototype of these engines was designed by a Russian engineer.

        Well read: ›Forgotten Russian Engineer - Gustav Vasilievich Trinkler https://www.drive2.ru/b/514558523611284040/
    2. Elturisto
      Elturisto 12 November 2019 21: 23
      +1
      You confuse this Dornier ...
  17. bandabas
    bandabas 11 November 2019 11: 36
    0
    Unlike "our partners", the engines are omnivorous. Well, they won't run on wood.
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 13 November 2019 00: 19
      +1
      Quote: bandabas
      Unlike "our partners", the engines are omnivorous. Well, they won't run on wood.

      They will, only it is necessary to attach a gas generator to them. And on propane-butane will be on coal. Moonshine Panzerkampfwagen
      https://topwar.ru/82294-samogonnyy-panzerkampfwagen.html
  18. D-Master
    D-Master 11 November 2019 16: 33
    +1
    Very interesting, read in one go!
  19. Dmitry Nikolaevich 69
    Dmitry Nikolaevich 69 12 November 2019 17: 27
    +2
    Thanks to the author for the article, we are waiting for the continuation. I’ll add on my own that the diesel engine of that time did not have any particular advantages over the gasoline engine, which is why many countries with developed industry put gasoline engines on tanks even after the war ended. You must admit that the German industry in England and France was not inferior to the Soviet one, and the quality of the worker (education) was superior. However, even the first post-war tanks of these countries were mainly gasoline. (Diesel drawbacks are more weight, worse conditions for starting in cold weather, much higher cost, the use of better materials (alloy steels) in production (the last point is important for besieged Germany), the worst reliability (until 1944 - specifically for T34, and not for all diesel engines. That the diesel engine displays on the stand during testing is not something which comes out serially during the war years and was put on the T-34) Advantages - profitability (power reserve), fire safety (although there are statistics that 34 burned more often than other wrecked tanks, the fault is possible in the poor placement of fuel tanks).
    1. Elturisto
      Elturisto 12 November 2019 21: 29
      0
      Comrade, what kind of application of alloy steels are you writing about? Diesel works better on bottoms, and for tanks it is very important, a caterpillar mover. Alloyed steels, if used, are used for crankshafts and DD and DB. The English and Americans did not use diesel because of their lack of everything business. As soon as they appeared they immediately threw gasoline g ... but.
      Therefore, you’ll finish your revelations ...
      1. Dmitry Nikolaevich 69
        Dmitry Nikolaevich 69 13 November 2019 00: 59
        +1
        The British and Americans used diesel in limited quantities. Offhand diesel modifications of Shermans, valentines (some of them were used by both English and American diesel engines), etc. Now about the production of diesel and carburetor engines If you are special on this, do not argue. I am connected with this. Offhand to make normal fuel equipment without good (expensive) alloy steels will not work. Sprayer needle; sprayer itself; nozzle body; fuel pump). cylinder liner, turbocharger blades of a diesel engine. What can I explain to you the difference in price can be on, but at times. Now look at the first post-war modifications of leopard tanks, comets, and Americans - on most gasoline engines. And the last distribution of diesel engines in the automotive industry in the 30s and 40s and even in the 50s in Germany, the USA and England exceeded the number of diesel engines in the USSR by an order of magnitude. (This is because the diesel engines there over the hill were in bulk)
        1. sergevl
          sergevl 13 November 2019 01: 37
          -1
          I understand the story of the creation of v-2. in 30 in the ussr bought spanish suits for 12 cylinders and 550 hp from aluminum. That is an aviation gasoline engine. He was, worked, provided some kind of motor resource. On its basis, Mikulin made m100, then m 105, then 105 pF, then 107. And in order to deceive the system a bit, they decided to put diesel fuel on the same engine. Injection pump, new piston, instead of the spark nozzle. And fly on it further, since diesel is more economical. And so they were busy until 1937. In 1937, those who fumbled were shot. So it was customary then. What was the benefit of all this fuss was? Identical connecting rods, crankshaft, camshafts. But the output of the aviation diesel did not turn out very well, and even the Germans, although they were much more advanced in engines, did not go diesel in aviation. 86 diesel Junkers were replaced with a 111 petrol henkel.
          But poorly and poorly, the engine technology was developed, common to both types, with differences of course, but the fact that one plant could
          1. sergevl
            sergevl 13 November 2019 01: 41
            -1
            According to the results of B-2 and m 100 105 it was possible to produce the same people using the same technology. Suppose the shells or heads were slightly different, but the essence was the same, a decrease in the assortment of parts, unification.
            1. Jura 27
              Jura 27 13 November 2019 06: 25
              +1
              [/ quote] but the essence was the same, reducing the range of parts, unification. [quote]

              M-100 and V-2 are different motors, from the word at all, so there was no unification.
              And when they bought the M-100 in 1933, the BD-2 was already put in the tank and he even drove a little (around the yard).
          2. abc_alex
            abc_alex 14 November 2019 13: 06
            0
            Quote: sergevl
            I understand the story of the creation of v-2. in 30 in the ussr bought spanish suits for 12 cylinders and 550 hp from aluminum. Based on it, Mikulin made m100, then m 105, then 105 pF, then 107


            You did not understand correctly. The assignment for the future M-34 of the Air Force was issued in 1928, at the same time by US (aka TsIAM) it began work on the future M-34. And this motor has a unique block design, was assembled from separate modules pulled together by long studs. There was only one analogue in his world at that time - the English Kestrel. In March 1931, the motor was completed in design.
            Charomsky, designing the AN-1, relied on the design of the M-34, since he worked there at TsIAM.
            Accordingly, the V-2 engine after failed tests in 1938 was seriously modified by engineers sent to Kharkov from Moscow.

            Quote: sergevl
            According to the results of V-2 and m 100 105 it was possible to produce the same people using the same technology.

            No. To start the V-2 series in Kharkov, the KhPZ was fundamentally refitted. And only in November 1940 did they start talking about expanding production at the STZ site. But just as they were made at the KhPZ, they did the whole war in Nizhny Tagil.
  20. PilotS37
    PilotS37 14 November 2019 15: 13
    +1
    The innovation for 2-stroke engines of that time was the modularity of the design - each segment had two cylinders, a common combustion chamber, an intake and exhaust piston

    And how can this combustion chamber be common for two cylinders?