Military Review

The most massive armored personnel carrier of World War II

44
"Combat buses." The most massive armored personnel carrier of the Second World War is not German Ganomag, which, in fact, became the first full-fledged ancestor of the genre, launched into mass production before the outbreak of the war, and the American armored personnel carrier M3. Like its German counterpart, the American combat vehicle was a half-track armored personnel carrier with similar characteristics: a combat weight of 9 tons and a capacity of up to 10 people plus a crew.



Armored personnel carrier M3A1


In total, from 1940 to 1945, the American industry manufactured the 31 176 armored personnel carriers M3, as well as various military vehicles built on a single base. This record of mass was surpassed only by post-war production armored vehicles. M3 remained the main armored personnel carrier of the American army throughout the Second World War. Also, the machine was actively supplied to the US allies under the Lend-Lease program, except for the USSR, which received only two armored personnel carriers. Sometimes it is confused with the light wheeled reconnaissance vehicle M3 Scout, which was really massively supplied to the Soviet Union during the war years and was used in the Red Army as a light armored personnel carrier. In addition, the USSR received a number of special vehicles on the M3 chassis, for example, T-48 anti-tank self-propelled guns armed with an 57-mm cannon and received the Su-57 designation in the Red Army.

The history of the creation of the M3 armored personnel carrier


As in Germany, the first full-fledged American armored personnel carrier was born from a line of half-tracked tractors. The creation of half-track armored artillery tractors and simply vehicles with a wheel-caterpillar mover in the United States began in the early 1930's. Four American companies James Cunningham and Sons, GMG, Linn, Marmon-Herrington worked on the creation of new machines at once. The progenitor for the vehicles being developed in the USA was the French Citroen-Kegresse P17 semi-tracked vehicle. Several of these cars, as well as a license to manufacture them, were acquired by James Cunningham and Sons.

On the basis of the French chassis, the Americans developed their own vehicles, which received the designation from T1 to T9E1. The first American half-track car was designated the Half-Track Car T1, it was already ready in the 1932 year. In the future, such vehicles have continuously developed. The T9 model was considered the most successful of the first prototypes. It was based on the chassis of a Ford truck with the 4x2 wheel arrangement, a Timken caterpillar mover was installed on the machine instead of the rear axle, the caterpillar was rubber-metal.


Citroen-Kegresse P17


Half-tracked vehicles were interesting primarily for the American cavalry, and later tank parts. This technique had increased cross-country ability and could operate better in rough terrain and off-road conditions compared to conventional trucks. After the appearance of the light wheeled reconnaissance armored car M1938 Scout in 3, the U.S. military decided to combine this vehicle with the existing developments of wheel-tracked tractors. At the same time, the body of the car, of course, was increased.

The first version of the new combat vehicle, combining the elements of the chassis and body of the reconnaissance armored vehicle M3 Scout and the rear tracked trolley Timken, received the designation M2. This vehicle was positioned as a half-track armored artillery tractor. The machine was actively used in this capacity throughout the Second World War, all in the USA, an 13 691 similar tractor was assembled that could carry anti-aircraft, anti-tank and field guns, along with a crew of 7-8 people. Tests of the new car showed great potential as a specialized vehicle for transporting motorized infantry. Quite quickly, a full-fledged M3 armored personnel carrier appeared, which outwardly differed little from a half-track armored artillery tractor. The main difference was the increased M3 length, which could carry up to 10-12 paratroopers, while the entire interior of the body was rearranged. Serial production of the new armored personnel carrier began in the 1941 year.

Already during the war, the American military had the idea to combine the M2 and M3 models so as not to keep two very structurally close combat vehicles in the troops. M3A2 armored personnel carrier was supposed to be unifying, the start of mass production of which was planned for October 1943 of the year. But by this time, the program for the production of half-tracked combat vehicles was seriously revised. According to the original plans, it was planned to collect more than 188 thousand, these are astronomical figures. However, by the middle of the 1943 of the year it became clear that the M8 wheeled cannon armored car was more suitable for arming the reconnaissance units, and the M5 fast tracked tractor for artillery units. In this regard, the need for wheeled and tracked vehicles has seriously decreased, and the production of a single M3A2 armored personnel carrier has been abandoned.


M3A1 Scout


M3 armored personnel carrier design


The American armored personnel carrier M3 received a classic bonnet car layout. An engine was installed in front of the combat vehicle, the entire part was a motor-transmission compartment, then there was a control compartment, and in the aft part there was an airborne compartment, where up to 10 people could freely accommodate. In this case, the crew of the armored personnel carrier could consist of 2-3 people. Thus, under normal conditions, armored personnel carriers transported up to 12-13 fighters along with the crew.

In the design of armored personnel carriers, automobile units and components, which were produced by a well-developed American automobile industry, were widely used. The mass production of armored wheeled caterpillar tractors and armored personnel carriers is largely due to the presence of such a production base that made it possible to produce military vehicles at a large number of enterprises without prejudice to the release of freight transport and tanks.

Armored personnel carriers were distinguished by the presence of an open box-shaped hull simple in production, the sides and feed of the hull were strictly vertical, rational angles of inclination of armor were absent here. The hull was assembled using rolled armored plates of surface hardened armor steel, the thickness of the armor on the sides and stern did not exceed 6,35 mm, the highest level of reservation was in the frontal part - up to 12,7 mm (half an inch), this level of protection was provided only by bulletproof booking. Rational angles of inclination had only a sheet of the engine compartment (26 degrees) and a frontal sheet of the control compartment (25 degrees). Reservation of the bottom was absent. For landing and disembarkation of the crew, two doors were used on the sides of the hull, and paratroopers landed through the door in the aft sheet of the hull, from the frontal fire of the enemy, the paratroopers were protected by the body of the armored personnel carrier. The crew of the machine consisted of 2-3 people, the landing - 10 people. On the sides of the hull there were five seats, under which there were luggage compartments, the paratroopers sat facing each other.



The M3 armored personnel carriers used a white 160AX liquid-cooled six-cylinder in-line liquid-cooled engine. The engine produced maximum power 147 hp at 3000 rpm. This power was enough to disperse an APC with a combat weight under 9 tons to a speed of 72 km / h (this maximum speed was indicated in the instruction manual). The cruising range of the car along the highway was 320 km, the fuel reserve was approximately 230 liters.

All American armored personnel carriers were distinguished by sufficiently powerful small arms. The standard was the presence of two machine guns. The large-caliber 12,7-mm Browning machine gun M2HB was mounted on a special M25 machine between the seats of the commander and the driver, and the 7,62-mm Browning M1919A4 machine gun was located in the rear of the hull. On the M3A1 version, the heavy machine gun was already placed on a special M49 ring turret with additional armor. At the same time, at least 700 cartridges of 12,7-mm caliber were transported in each machine, up to 4-x thousand cartridges for an 7,62-mm machine gun, as well as hand grenades, sometimes the Bazooka anti-tank grenade launchers were also placed, in addition to weapons the paratroopers themselves.


Assembly of armored M2 half-track artillery tractors


One of the features of the M3 armored personnel carriers was the location in front of the machine of a single-drum winch or buffer drum, whose diameter was 310 mm. Machines with a similar drum favorably differed from armored personnel carriers with a winch in their cross-country ability, as they could confidently overcome wide trenches, ditches and scraps. The presence of a drum allowed American armored personnel carriers to overcome enemy trenches up to 1,8 meters wide. The same drums could be found on wheeled Scouts, which were supplied to the USSR. At the same time, the German Sd Kfz 251 half-track armored personnel carriers did not have such devices.

Experience in combat use and evaluation of the M3 armored personnel carrier


The initial combat experience with M3 armored personnel carriers in North Africa was not successful. The debut of new combat vehicles came in operation "Torch". From the very beginning, armored personnel carriers were used by the Americans quite widely, in each armored division there were 433 armored personnel carriers M3 or M2 tractor units: 200 in tank regiments and 233 in an infantry regiment. Quite quickly, American soldiers nicknamed such machines "Purple Heart", it was undisguised sarcasm and a reference to the American medal of the same name, which was given out as a battle wound. The presence of an open hull did not protect the paratroopers from shells of air blasting, and the reservation often passed even before the enemy machine-gun fire. However, the main problems were not related to the technical features of the vehicle, but to the improper use of armored personnel carriers and the inexperience of American troops, who had not yet learned how to properly use all the advantages of the new technology, involving armored personnel carriers in solving unusual tasks. Unlike soldiers and junior officers, General Omar Bradley immediately appreciated the capabilities and potential of such equipment, noting the high technical reliability of the M3 armored personnel carrier.

In terms of overall dimensions, combat weight and other characteristics, the American M3 wheeled-tracked armored personnel carrier was comparable to the most massive Wehrmacht armored personnel carrier Sd Kfz 251, which entered the post-war history nicknamed the Ganomage. At the same time, the internal usable volume of the American armored personnel carrier was approximately 20 percent more due to the simpler form of the hull, which provided the landing party with greater comfort and convenience. At the same time, the German armored personnel carrier was distinguished by more powerful armor, including due to the installation of armored plates at rational angles of inclination. At the same time, due to a more powerful engine and the presence of a front drum, the American analogue surpassed the German car in mobility and cross-country ability. In addition, the equipment of almost all American armored personnel carriers with heavy-caliber 12,7-mm machine guns could also be added. But the lack of an armored roof was a common shortcoming of mass production armored personnel carriers of the period of World War II.



Over time, the Americans developed tactical models and techniques for using new equipment, corrected children's sores, and actively used M3 armored personnel carriers in all theaters of war. Already during the fighting in Sicily and in Italy, the number of complaints about new equipment decreased significantly, and reviews from the troops were replaced by positive ones. During Operation Overlord, armored personnel carriers were used especially massively and were subsequently actively used by the Americans and their allies until the end of hostilities in Europe. The fact that the car turned out to be quite successful is evidenced by both the huge release of both the M3 armored personnel carriers and special equipment based on them, and the armored M2 half-track artillery tractors, whose total production during the war exceeded 50 thousand units.
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Articles from this series:
The main armored personnel carrier of the Wehrmacht. Sd.Kfz. 251 Ganomage
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  1. Spike Javelin Touvich
    Spike Javelin Touvich 29 October 2019 06: 04 New
    +8
    hi great article
    1. Mik13
      Mik13 29 October 2019 12: 23 New
      +12
      Quote: Spikes Javelin Touvich
      hi great article

      Well, yes, great.
      Only the author, when comparing with the German counterpart, forgot to mention that the American product has a front axle and the German has no. And this affects the cross-country ability (especially the ability to overcome trenches and ditches) much more than the presence of a “front drum”.
      1. Saxahorse
        Saxahorse 29 October 2019 22: 48 New
        +2
        Quote: Mik13
        And this affects the cross-country ability (especially the ability to overcome trenches and ditches) much more than the presence of a “front drum”.

        Not certainly in that way. Weight distribution on the axes is very different. The Germans turned out more like a caterpillar conveyor with the optional ability to steer the front wheels. Before can hang in the air, harp dragged. But the Americans have a classic 6x6 truck with only a trolley, it has a large load on the front axle and without a front drive the ditch will not climb.
        1. irontom
          irontom 30 October 2019 06: 31 New
          +2
          Let's just say that American engineers began to do half-geese with a front-axle drive as soon as they got serial four-wheel drive trucks, an example of 3 thin FWD mod B
      2. Spike Javelin Touvich
        Spike Javelin Touvich 31 October 2019 10: 43 New
        0
        I also noticed this, but nevertheless I try not to comment, because many authors left this site, others simply stopped writing.
        So let's support the author
  2. Mountain shooter
    Mountain shooter 29 October 2019 06: 55 New
    +7
    Wow volume! The Yankees loved the comfort of fighting. But seriously, this is because the speed of movement of motorized infantry on roads and without them. Stability during shelling of low intensity. Yes, in general - better than walking ... laughing
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 29 October 2019 15: 27 New
      +5
      Loved the Yankees in the comfort of fighting

      And what's wrong with that? It struck me at one time that during the Vietnam War they carried drinking water for soldiers on planes from the Himalayas. I would like it myself. so that my Ministry of Defense takes care of me in the same way. Only the hell ... soldier
      1. Alf
        Alf 29 October 2019 20: 22 New
        +5
        Quote: Sea Cat
        during the Vietnam War, they carried drinking water for soldiers on planes from the Himalayas.

  3. Zeev Zeev
    Zeev Zeev 29 October 2019 07: 27 New
    +12
    The article is good, there is only one remark. The USSR received 118 half-track M2 armored personnel carriers and 840 half-track M5 / M9 armored vehicles (a modification of the M3 armored personnel carrier, which was distinguished by a more powerful engine, cheaper armor and a different location of firing points) under the Lend-Lease regime.
  4. Monster_Fat
    Monster_Fat 29 October 2019 07: 35 New
    -5
    Little attention is paid to the combat use of the machine in the Allied armies and in various wars, as well as its modifications ....
    1. Professor
      Professor 29 October 2019 08: 22 New
      +11
      Quote: Monster_Fat
      Little attention is paid to the combat use of the machine in the Allied armies and in various wars, as well as its modifications ....

      An armored personnel carrier managed to fight a lot in Israel right up to the 1990's. I know about its application to the First Lebanese directly from the participant. The Tsadalnikov had it in service until the 2000 year.




      1. Zeev Zeev
        Zeev Zeev 29 October 2019 08: 33 New
        +7
        The last use of Zahlam was during exercises in the 2007 year. I personally watched them being transported on trailers after exercises at the base near Jerusalem.
        1. Professor
          Professor 29 October 2019 09: 05 New
          +8
          Quote: Zeev Zeev
          The last use of Zahlam was during exercises in the 2007 year. I personally watched them being transported on trailers after exercises at the base near Jerusalem.

          As targets wink or all the same batash?
          1. Zeev Zeev
            Zeev Zeev 29 October 2019 09: 14 New
            +8
            As an armored personnel carrier of the headquarters of the reserve division.
            1. Professor
              Professor 29 October 2019 11: 25 New
              +4
              Quote: Zeev Zeev
              As an armored personnel carrier of the headquarters of the reserve division.

              They know how to squeeze the last juices out of technology. I also found Dakota. good
              1. Zeev Zeev
                Zeev Zeev 29 October 2019 14: 51 New
                +4
                Well, “Dakota” seemed to fly before 1998.
              2. Catfish
                Catfish 29 October 2019 15: 29 New
                +1
                Is it Douglas?
                1. Professor
                  Professor 29 October 2019 16: 27 New
                  +6
                  Quote: Sea Cat
                  Is it Douglas?

                  He is. Decommissioned only in 2000.
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 29 October 2019 17: 24 New
                    +3
                    Yes, I read that the Americans used them back in the Vietnam War. A successful car, our copy, in my opinion, was called Lee-2?
                    1. Professor
                      Professor 30 October 2019 06: 54 New
                      +1
                      Quote: Sea Cat
                      Yes, I read that the Americans used them back in the Vietnam War. A successful car, our copy, in my opinion, was called Lee-2?

                      Exactly. Dakota was a very simple and reliable aircraft, but since it flew always and everywhere it fought unmeasured.
      2. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 29 October 2019 13: 55 New
        +3
        A mortar was carried on it in the 90s.
  5. Amurets
    Amurets 29 October 2019 07: 52 New
    +3
    The progenitor for the vehicles being developed in the United States was the French Citroen-Kegresse P17 semi-tracked vehicle. Several of these cars, as well as a license to manufacture them, were acquired by James Cunningham and Sons.
    The most interesting thing is that Adolf Kegress worked as a mechanic of the royal garage in which he began the development of autosledges, the prototype of a semi-tracked automobile chassis. The inventor of the half-track chassis is Benjamin Holt. “In 1890, an original-design steam tractor was built at the Stockton Wheel Company plant in California, owned by the Holt brothers. A boiler, a steam engine, a transmission and a metal tracked track were installed at the rear of the frame. There was one wheel in front that served to control the machine. For 30 years, this arrangement has become classic for heavy tractors, both steam and internal combustion engines.
    “In the 30s of the twentieth century, the surname Kegress became a household name - in many countries of the world semi-caterpillar cars began to be called“ kegresses. ”Foreign automobile historians wrote dozens of books and hundreds of articles on this subject. However, as a rule, very little attention is paid to their works Adolf Kegresse’s early developments made in the Russian Empire, and it was precisely in Russia, with the assistance of Russian industry and the personal support of Emperor Nicholas II, that the talent of the French inventor was first clearly manifested. th in the USSR and supported to this day stereotype of "conservatism and conservatism of the tsarist regime, which delayed motorization of the country".
    http://www.gruzovikpress.ru/article/16140-pribory-kegressa-adolf-kegress-v-rossii-i-ego-polugusenichnye-avtosani/
    1. hohol95
      hohol95 29 October 2019 08: 28 New
      +9
      But it was in Russia, with the assistance of Russian industry and the personal support of Emperor Nicholas II, that the talent of the French inventor was first clearly manifested. This fact does not fit with the stereotype of the “conservatism and inertness of the tsarist regime that impeded the country's motorization” adopted in the USSR and supported to this day.

      What then slowed down the country's motorization? Revolutionaries of various stripes?
      Was Adolf Kegress the chief engineer of an automobile factory? He set up mass production of cars in the country?
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 29 October 2019 15: 37 New
        +2
        Alexei, I don’t know who and what was slowing down there, but the fact is clear: we didn’t have armored personnel carriers before the war, we didn’t have a word at all! request
        1. Amurets
          Amurets 30 October 2019 00: 01 New
          +2
          Quote: Sea Cat
          but the fact is clear: before the war we didn’t have armored personnel carriers, there wasn’t from the word at all!

          Here you are wrong. Such work was carried out. And the author’s article on which I confirm this. This is the opinion of the author and the link to the article https://topwar.ru/86580-razvitie-bronetransporterov-v-rossii-ot-pervyh-do-nashih-dney-chast-vtoraya.html
          “I would like to write something of my own and try to“ taunt ”the military a bit, for the reason that they did not contribute to the adoption of such necessary weapons as armored personnel carriers, because the army was in dire need. But I won’t do this, let others do it. "
    2. Undecim
      Undecim 29 October 2019 08: 43 New
      +2
      Well, in order to completely disgrace the proponents of the stereotype of “conservatism and inertia of the tsarist regime”, provide data on the production of cars in Russia and their presence in the army during WWI in comparison with other countries.
      1. Potter
        Potter 29 October 2019 10: 55 New
        +1
        Under the Tsar-Father during the WWII, automobile plants were built in Moscow: AMO, then ZIL, in Fili (redesigned into an aircraft factory), in Yaroslavl (YaAZ), now YMZ, the only one working now as a motor vehicle, and in Rybinsk (Russian Renault), after GAZ Revolution No. 3, since 1924 aircraft engine plant, now NPO Saturn, aircraft engines and gas turbines.
        1. Undecim
          Undecim 29 October 2019 12: 24 New
          +5
          And with production, how things were "under the king", can it even be compared?
    3. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 29 October 2019 11: 10 New
      +12
      Quote: Amurets
      But it was in Russia, with the assistance of Russian industry and the personal support of Emperor Nicholas II, that the talent of the French inventor was first clearly manifested. This fact does not fit with the stereotype of the “conservatism and inertness of the tsarist regime that impeded the country's motorization” adopted in the USSR and supported to this day.

      Yeah ... apparently, from the great progressiveness of the regime, the first automobile plant for mass serial production of trucks was only begun in 1916, the second year of the war (it was launched only under the new government). Prior to this, the regime had no loans for the auto industry. And without a state loan and state order, a car factory in Russia could either survive with difficulty or not survive - like Lessner (who closed his car factory after two years of production and was re-qualified to produce torpedoes). For the "rich and rapidly developing domestic market" of the Empire was characterized by extremely low demand for vehicles. Mobilization of cars by type marne taxis Russia could only dream. sad
      1. Amurets
        Amurets 29 October 2019 12: 24 New
        +3
        Quote: Alexey RA
        Yeah ... apparently, from the great progressiveness of the regime, the first automobile plant for mass serial production of trucks was started by construction only in 1916

        Or maybe from the great mind of the tsarist government? Importing a complete car into RI was cheaper than components for it because of draconian import duties on component parts: carburetors, magnetos, radiators. This was true not only for cars. By the way, you probably remember how the chemical glassware was imported into the Republic of Ingushetia in sealed form and it had EMNIP tags on it for inspection. Then this ware was not subject to customs duty.
      2. dzvero
        dzvero 29 October 2019 14: 20 New
        +2
        Mass motorization requires more or less good roads. Both in cities and intercity routes. And the roads are maintenance. Roads will be built - there will be demand for cars. There is a demand for cars - the road network will develop. But even in western Europe, the process at that time was just beginning.
    4. Saxahorse
      Saxahorse 29 October 2019 23: 06 New
      +2
      Quote: Amurets
      and the personal support of Emperor Nicholas II, the talent of the French inventor was first clearly manifested. This fact does not fit with the stereotype of the “conservatism and inertness of the tsarist regime that impeded the country's motorization” adopted in the USSR and supported to this day.

      Forgive me, but the royal garage is a weak example of the level of "motorization of the country" laughing

      In general, Nikolai’s interest in caterpillars was born out of the king’s passion for hunting. So whoever shot the animals, they say so far his records in the number of animals killed have not been broken. Well, you need to get to the places of hunting somehow. In the old fashioned way, it’s not comme il faut on a sled, so I welcomed the inventors of all sorts of half-tracks with skis instead of wheels. Pure snowmobile!
  6. hohol95
    hohol95 29 October 2019 08: 29 New
    +6
    As for the MZ armored personnel carrier, launched into the series simultaneously with the M2, its hull was 250 mm longer. Instead of boxes for artillery shells in the back, ten seats for landing were installed (with their backs to the sides). There was no rail for attaching machine guns, and the standard 7,62-mm machine gun M1919A4 was mounted on a rack in front of the body. In the aft sheet there was a door for landing and landing of paratroopers, the rest of the MOH was completely identical to M2. Its mass and dynamic characteristics have not practically changed. From 1942 to 1943, White, Autocar and Diamond T manufactured 12 armored personnel carriers.

    In 1942, a half-track production program was approved until 1944, which provided for the production of 188 combat vehicles.

    The program mentioned above caused the birth of the twins M2 and MZ - armored personnel carriers M5 and M9. The fact is that after its adoption it became clear that the capacities of the main three manufacturing companies would not be enough. They decided to attract the International Harvester Company to the production of cars. However, when creating prototypes intended for this company, some changes were made to their design compared to the basic versions.
    According to American data, 1158 half-tracks were transferred to the Soviet Union, including 342 M2, 2 MZ, 401 M5, and 413 M9. According to the latest data published by Russian researchers, the USSR received 1200 half-track armored personnel carriers, of which only 118 were sent to the armored and mechanized troops of the Red Army.

    Mikhail Baryatinsky - Lend-Lease tanks in battle
  7. serg.shishkov2015
    serg.shishkov2015 29 October 2019 09: 12 New
    +1
    American half-track BTR is a classic of the genre! But with unarmoured * half-units * they didn’t have a little thing - between the two wars only two models were launched into a small series, one of them- * Otokar * T17 was delivered to us by Lend-Lease in versions of the airfield refueling and communication vehicles
    1. irontom
      irontom 30 October 2019 07: 01 New
      +2
      You are wrong, half-track Lombard tractors and half-track all-wheel drive modes were actively used in the national economy. FWD, and various mods. at Kegress. Considering that in the development of all-wheel drive cars the United States was ahead of the planet, massive four-wheel drive trucks went already in the 10s Jeffrey Quad, FWD, Walter and others - the army team demanded all-wheel drive. Standard trucks were developed for the army in the late 20s. The Depression put, we know the result. Half-geese on Kegressa were on a horse in the 20s and early 30s, but rested on a resource of caterpillars. By the mid-30s, four-wheel drive became more profitable, the reliability of CV joints and transmissions, low-pressure cylinders increased.
      The trouble is that the engineers of the USSR at this moment in pursuit of an all-terrain vehicle for three pennies on a half-track drive drove through, as a result, when they realized that they were halfway deadlock and paid attention to four-wheel drive, it was too late - there was a war tomorrow.
  8. Sibiriya
    Sibiriya 29 October 2019 11: 53 New
    +3
    An interesting article with snacks and photos. It would not hurt a little statistics of combat use. Author plus good
  9. Alex013
    Alex013 29 October 2019 14: 14 New
    +2
    Article plus. Self-propelled guns SU-57 based on the M3 were also supplied. For combat use:

    “With great success, self-propelled guns SU-57 were used as part of reconnaissance teams of brigades and corps, essentially as an armored personnel carrier with enhanced artillery weapons. In accordance with the instructions for the use of SU-57 in the Red Army, its small arms (for a crew of 4 people ) was one DP or DT machine gun (since there was no American machine gun) and three PPSh machine guns.
    On January 14, 1945, the 6th separate Cherkasy Order of Bohdan Khmelnitsky, 11th degree, a motorcycle regiment (1st Guards Tank Army, 1st Belorussian Front), while crossing the Odzuvol River (Poland), caught up with the outgoing German convoy, in the rear of which there were several “Panthers” ". In the regiment, in addition to two hundred motorcycles, there was a tank company of Valentine IX tanks of 10 vehicles, an artillery division of two-armed personnel of 8 self-propelled guns SU-57, a battery of 76-mm ZIS-3 guns, which were towed by an MZA1 Scout car, and machine-gun company "Maxim" (12 pieces) installed on the "Willis", and a company of machine gunners on 13 armored personnel carriers MZA1.
    After a brief meeting, it was decided not to hit the “tail”, but the “head” of the column, having previously cut off the Germans from the crossing.
    The commander of the 6th separate motorcycle regiment, V. N. Musatov, allocated for the operation the Dolgopolov tank company (Valentine IX) of six vehicles and the SU-57 division, landing assault rifles on armored personnel carriers. Major Ivanov was appointed to lead the group.
    At full speed, bypassing the column from the flank across the field, Soviet tanks and self-propelled guns seized the bridge and hit the head of the column. The Germans rose a terrible turmoil. The shooting started. Cars turned left into an open field, but there were many ditches. Throwing cars, the Germans began to run away, running already to the right to the forest. And then they were hit by machine guns of ripened motorcyclists ... The Panthers, marching in the rearguard of the column, did not get involved in the battle and hastened to leave the river, finding a ford.
    Since the German units were scattered, it was necessary to calculate the trophies and report on the results of the battle to a higher command. But the 1st Guards Tank Army was continuously advancing to the West, and the regiment was supposed to provide reconnaissance on one of its flanks. Therefore, a simple and clear report was sent to the army headquarters: "The regiment defeated the enemy column of 5 kilometers in length."
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 29 October 2019 15: 43 New
      +3
      Quote: Alex013
      On January 14, 1945, the 6th separate Cherkasy Order of Bohdan Khmelnitsky, 11th degree, a motorcycle regiment (1st Guards Tank Army, 1st Belorussian Front), while crossing the Odzuvol River (Poland), caught up with the outgoing German convoy, in the rear of which there were several “Panthers” ". In the regiment, in addition to two hundred motorcycles, was tank company of tanks "Valentine IX" of 10 vehicles, a two-rifle artillery battalion of 8 SU-57 self-propelled guns, a ZIS-76 3-mm battery of guns that were towed by an MZA1 Scout car, as well as a Maximov machine-gun company (12 pieces) mounted on the Willis , and a company of machine gunners at 13 armored personnel carriers MZA1.
      (...)
      At full speed, bypassing the column from the flank through the field, Soviet tanks and self-propelled guns seized the bridge and hit the head of the column.

      On the issue of the relevance of tank speeds from the TTX tables and about slow infantry tanks. smile
      Table speed "Vali" - 25 km / h. However, these tanks served in reconnaissance units, did not lag behind the other, table more high-speed equipment, and even overtook German motorized columns.
      1. maximghost
        maximghost 29 October 2019 23: 04 New
        0
        Well, the PT-76 also served in reconnaissance units, although it is slower than the Soviet three (T-64 / T-72 / T-80) and t-55AM / T-62M and BMP. In reconnaissance units, it was not always determined precisely the fast technique.
  10. Catfish
    Catfish 29 October 2019 15: 34 New
    0
    Citroen-Kegresse P17


    How lovely! I immediately remembered the Royce of Vladimir Ilyich in Gorki, instead of the front ski wheels, and the back of the Kegress caterpillar. Wonderful car and Lenin really liked. smile
    1. hohol95
      hohol95 29 October 2019 16: 41 New
      +4

      The construction of cars began only at the beginning of 1919. Until the end of March 1920, 12 copies of the Austin-Kegress armored vehicles used by the Red Army units in the battles of the Civil and Soviet-Polish Wars were built at the Putilov Factory. Armored vehicles were in service with the Red Army until 1933.

      And the army would have liked it if the country had a developed automobile industry!
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 29 October 2019 17: 21 New
        +4
        I would like, of course ... Only Austin (Austin) is a British car, the tracked mover is French, and the Maxim machine guns are American. Russian there is only a compilation of all of the above.
        1. phair
          phair 30 October 2019 03: 19 New
          +1
          https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KUwApT_ooTo
          who says plagiarism, and I say tradition.
        2. hohol95
          hohol95 30 October 2019 08: 25 New
          +1
          Armor and felt for lining - Russian!
          And the hands of workers collecting these and early BA models in Russian factories.
          That's just those factories were not automobile!
          Let's not crush the water in the mortar ... hi