Course of construction
All work on the 23550 project is carried out by enterprises from the United Shipbuilding Corporation. The design of a multi-purpose patrol ship was developed at the Almaz Central Design Bureau, and the construction was entrusted to the Admiralty Shipyards. A number of other enterprises are participating in the construction program as equipment suppliers.
The contract for the construction of two “Arctic” for the Ministry of Defense was signed in April 2016. According to the document, the lead ship “Ivan Papanin” should have been delivered to the customer before the end of 2019. The next “Nikolai Zubov” was planned to be put into 2018 and delivered to 2020-m Nevertheless, already during the construction, the financing plan was changed, as a result of which the deadlines shifted to the right.
Work on the design of "Ivan Papanin" began in the autumn of 2016, and on April 19 of the 2017, an official bookmark took place. 25 October 2019 g. The ship was launched into the water for subsequent completion at the wall. In the early twenties, the lead ship will go for testing. Its delivery is scheduled for 2023.
Plans for "Nikolai Zubov" are also adjusted. It was not laid in 2018 - this will happen only in 2020. The deadlines have shifted accordingly. The ship will begin service in 2024.
At the moment, only two ships of project 23550 for the naval contracted fleet. In the recent past, it was reported that the FSB border service could also acquire such ships, but it has not yet placed an order. Moreover, information about the interest from the border guards has not received official confirmation.
The purpose of the ships
“Ivan Papanin” and “Nikolai Zubov” belong to the class of universal patrol ships of the Arctic zone that is unique to our fleet. They are designed to work in the harsh conditions of the northern seas and therefore have a special design and special tasks. Etc. 23550 provides for the construction of a patrol ship with the functions of an icebreaker and a tugboat.
From icebreakers, new patrol ships receive a reinforced hull and other design features that ensure work in the Arctic. Ice class ship - Arc7. "Ivan Papanin" is able to overcome ice up to 1,7 m thick. Ice 1 m thick breaks through on a continuous course. The design of the ship as a whole and its individual systems is adapted to harsh northern conditions.
In terms of equipment and weapons, the 23550 Ave. combines a warship and a support vessel. There are sufficiently developed detection and lesion systems. There is also special equipment inherent to rescue ships and tugboats.
A universal patrol ship should work in northern latitudes and solve a number of problems. First of all, he is a guard, because of which he must search and hit surface or air targets. Icebreaking capabilities can be used in their own interests or for escorting other vessels. For the same ship, 23550 Ave. needs towing equipment.
Ship Ave. 23550 has a full displacement of approx. 9 thousand tons with a length of 114 m and a width of 20 m. The characteristic rounded contours of the bow are provided. The tiered superstructure is offset back. In its aft there is a hangar for a helicopter. To use the last feed of the ship forms a take-off area.
The ship’s main power plant was built on the basis of four 28-9DG diesel generators of Kolomna production with 3,5 MW capacity. Concern Ruselprom supplies rowing electric motors with a capacity of 6,3 MW. The movement of the ship is provided by two such motors rotating two screws. There is also a bow thruster.
GEM provides a speed of up to 18 nodes and a maximum cruising range of approx. 10 thousand miles
The crew of the ship is 60 people. It is possible to take on board another 50 people. Stock autonomy - 70 days.
The Arctic project proposes the use of a set of various electronic systems for monitoring the situation, searching for targets and guiding weapons. Reported on the use of radar detection and guidance "Positive", navigation locator, shipborne electronic warfare system, etc.
The basic one weapons the 23550 Ave. guard is the bow 76-mm AK-176MA artillery mount. It also provides for the use of smaller-caliber barrel systems to protect against light craft. If necessary, the ship will be able to carry rocket weapons. For this, it is proposed to place a container version of the Caliber complex on it.
Aft hangar and platform provide for the basing of a Ka-27 or UAV helicopter of various types. There are volumes in the ship’s hull for transporting two speed boats of 03160 “Raptor” Ave. and one hovercraft of 23321 “Manul” Ave.
Ship Ave. 23550 has aft towing equipment. With its help, it is proposed to provide assistance to those in distress or to tow detained vessels. It is planned to install two electro-hydraulic cranes with 28 t lifting capacity for working with various loads.
Universal combat unit
Thus, in a few years, the Russian Navy, represented by the Northern Fleet, will receive the first of the promising universal ships capable of solving a wide range of combat and auxiliary tasks. Soon after, the second ship of the same type will enter service.
The implementation of the contract for two universal patrol ships, etc. 23550 will have obvious positive consequences. First of all, it should be noted that the structure of the surface forces of the Navy in the Arctic will include specialized ships adapted to work in this region. At the same time, they will be able to solve their own combat missions or perform the functions of icebreakers, ensuring the operation of other ships.
Available project data indicate the possibility of installing various additional equipment, such as containers of the Caliber complex or other equipment. Due to this, watchdogs will be able to perform various tasks, including transport and humanitarian nature. As noted at the launching ceremony of "Ivan Papanin" on the water, this is a warship designed for peaceful work.
However, there are reasons for criticism. So, the ship presented, with all its advantages, has a limited set of weapons. In the event of a collision with a serious opponent, it may be insufficient. A watchman can carry Caliber missiles, but they are not part of the standard weapons system.
To protect the Arctic part of the state border and the northern seas, only two ships of 23550 Ave. were ordered. The Northern Fleet has powerful surface forces, but it will only have a couple of universal patrol ships at its disposal. Perhaps in the future there will be a new order for patrolmen of a new type, which will strengthen the naval group.
The alarm is caused by the pace of construction. According to the 2016 agreement, the head ship Ivan Papanin was supposed to begin service this year, but so far it has only been launched. The construction of the second guard was planned to start a year ago, but now it has been moved to 2020. The reasons for such shifts are known and understandable, but the situation as a whole is worrying.
Nevertheless, the descent of the lead ship - even if it got out of the original schedule - in itself is an occasion for optimism. This event gives a start to a new stage of work, and in a few years, a fundamentally new multi-purpose ship will appear in our navy, and not the last of its kind. Having entered the service, “Ivan Papanin” and “Nikolai Zubov” will be able to demonstrate the full potential of the original concept, which, possibly, will be developed in new projects.