Military Review

Contactless bottom mine MIRAB. Ambiguous weapons of the USSR Navy

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Contactless bottom mine MIRAB. Ambiguous weapons of the USSR Navy
Split layout mines Mirabeau



In the thirties of the last century, Soviet engineers were actively engaged in the development of naval mines, including new classes. create weapon non-contact action and landmines for production from aircraft. First aviation a mine with an induction fuse was the MIRAB product, which was put into service in 1939. However, by the time it was put into service, it was not possible to solve all the assigned tasks.

Evolution min


In 1932, a REMIN mine of the Ostekhbyuro development was adopted by the Navy of the Red Army. It was a river bottom mine with an induction fuse, designed for staging from ships. Using a specially designed galvanometric relay, the mine performed target detection and was blown up. Hitting surface of the object carried by the blast in the bottom.

Shortly after the appearance of REMIN in Ostekhbyuro, they began to develop new non-contact fuses with enhanced characteristics. In 1935, similar work allowed to launch a project to modernize an existing mine. According to the results of the revision, the new mine should have been distinguished by increased reliability and the ability to install from a ship or from an airplane.

The new mine received the designation MIRAB (“Induction river aviation mine for shaving flight), under which it remained in stories.

development of existing


In the MIRAB project, it was proposed to use some successful developments on REMIN. At the same time introducing new devices and components. As a result, the new mine outwardly almost did not differ from the previous one, but the internal equipment was completely different. Properly distinguished and fighting qualities.

Mina MIRAB has retained a characteristic curved body, covering all internal units. Outwardly, the hull resembled a stone, due to which the mine at the bottom of the reservoir did not visually stand out and did not create disturbance of the current. At the same time, the hull was reinforced in accordance with the expected loads when dropped from an airplane.

Inside the outer casing placed all the major components of mines placed in their own housings. The product equipped 64-kg charge of TNT. Next to it was a sealed casing with a battery, a fuse and a hydrostatic safety device.

The main element of the fuse was an induction coil, borrowed from the REMIN mine. It was located round the bottom of the mines and contained 34 thousand. Turns. The coil responsive to the vertical component of the magnetic field goal.

Mirabeau was first used in the detonator two-pulse action. When a pulse arrives from the reel, testified to the appearance of a certain object, start the relay. If a second impulse was received during the operation of the relay, an undermining command followed. Otherwise the fuse returns to standby mode. The two-pulse circuit reduced the sensitivity to interference and increased the likelihood of reliable destruction of the target.

Proximity fuse for Mirabeau provided nerazmagnichennyh defeat surface targets with a displacement of at least 20 t system action radius -.. To 5 m This allowed us to use mines only on the rivers or shallow waters. To avoid injury or operation, the mines should have put at intervals of not less than 25 m Depth setting -. From 1,5 to 8 m.


these mines. 1 - charge; 2 - housing; 3 - fuse; 4 - germokorpus with instruments; 5 - fuse; 6 - coil; 7 - protective strip coil


The length of the finished MIRAB product was 1,03 m, width - 688 mm, height - 700 mm. Weight - 260 kg. For use in surface director of the mine was equipped with wheels. on the body can also be mounted parachute. Planned fold mine with strafing (5-50 m) or at low altitudes (50-150 m).

Mina on tests


Development of the project was completed in Mirabeau 1937 In the same year, "Ostekhbyuro" disbanded, and the project was taken over by the newly formed CDB-36. This organization has completed the necessary work and brought the mine to adopting. In addition, she later performed the same upgrade.

In tests with the boats or ships, directors no problems. Mina fell from the aft ejector and neatly lay on the bottom. A few minutes later she moved into the firing position, and could hit targets.

Soon, on the Black Sea near Feodosia took the test with discharge from the aircraft. Mirabeau was the bearer of a bomber DB-3. Mina was completed parachute area 3 sq.m. It turned out that when dumping in a wide range of ranges and altitudes, the mine is splashed at a speed of approx. 100 m / s. Hit the water gets too strong, and drew a fuse failure.

Attempts have been made design improvements, but they did not give the desired result. During the tests done 40 discharges, and in most cases the mine broke.

However, Mirabeau was recommended to the adoption. It was proposed to use only with surface directors, but not with the aircraft. The corresponding order was in 1939, and soon after began mass production. In production involving several companies from different cities.

upgraded mines


In the same 1939, work began on improving Mirabeau. The main aim was to provide the use of mines aircraft. Also managed to increase the combat characteristics. The resulting sample was called UM - “Weighted Mine”.


Reset mines on tests


Mine UM received a charge of TNT weighing 260 kg, resulting in a weight of up to 400 kg. The product was equipped with a parachute system from the MAV-1 mine with a dome of 7,5 sq.m. Such a parachute allowed to increase the charge, as well as reduce the splashdown speed to 25 m / s. MIND could be dropped from heights of at least 400 m.

Mina UM had adopted the Soviet Navy in 1941, the plant "Kommunar" in Zaporozhye began preparations for its production, but the beginning of the Great Patriotic War canceled all plans. Apparently, the PA has not gone into mass production.

A few years later, in 1942 36 of CDB-engineers have developed a project of modernization of Mirabeau-1, take into account the shortcomings and operating experience of basic products. In this project, they improved the case, rebuilt the power supply, used a new executive relay and simplified the safety mechanism. Mirabeau-1 successfully passed factory tests, but not entered into service.

Combat application


The first batches of MIRAB mines were shipped to the customer only in 1940-41. The production of such weapons faced some problems of various kinds, but they managed to establish it. However, by the beginning of World War II, fleet there were less than a hundred serial mines. Subsequently, the release of weapons continued, but its pace left much to be desired, and MIRAB did not become the mass mine of the fleet.

There are several episodes mirabs application on various fronts. So, in mid-July 1941, the armored boats of the Danube Flotilla put 15 mines in the path of the advancing enemy. In early September, on this section of the Danube Germans lost two minesweeper boat. The site was blown up, but apparently to no avail. In August 1942-th in the same area were blown Romanian ship.


Mina UM parachute system. 1 - mine; 2 - connecting strap; 3 - parachute; 4 - exhaust sling


In July and August of the 1942, the Black Sea Fleet completed four missions of MIRAB mines. The enemy was able to get information about the places of productions, but clearance of mines continued until the beginning of September - all the time captured the port is not used. At the same time the German side lost several boats and ships.

It is known that the struggle with Soviet non-contact mines has become a noticeable problem for the German mine-sweeping forces. German experts had experience in dealing with non-contact mines of foreign manufacture, but Soviet ones were new to them. In addition, trawling was hindered by a double-pulse fuse. The Germans learned to fight MIRAB, but during this time they lost several ships.

mixed sample


In the domestic literature for many years Mirabeau called a failure model. The appearance of such estimates was promoted by small volumes of output, low reliability of equipment, low charge and the impossibility of staging by airplanes. In addition, until recently, there were no data on the results of combat use.

Information from German documents appeared only a few years ago and noticeably changed the overall picture. It follows that the MIRAB mines, despite the limited use, were able to inflict some damage on the enemy. Moreover, one of them worked after a year at the bottom in a combat-ready position - a very remarkable episode. Thus, the available data no longer allow MIRAB to be considered a clearly disastrous project.

It makes sense to a more balanced assessment. Mirabeau showed acceptable results and can be considered a good weapon for specific tasks. It was intended to work in shallow water and in practice coped with it. At the same time, it could be of great benefit if it could be dropped from aircraft. However, the UM modification suitable for use by aviation did not reach the fleet. In addition, the results of combat employment adversely affected small production volumes.

Thus, in other circumstances, the MIRAB mine could remain in history as one of the most interesting and well-deserved examples. However, not all design and production tasks were solved, which limited the potential of the weapon. Nevertheless, in the resulting form, the MIRAB mines contributed to the fight against the enemy - even if not too big.
Author:
Photos used:
Allmines.net, Aviaru.rf
24 comments
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  1. svp67
    svp67 11 November 2019 18: 24 New
    +9
    I honestly believed that only the Germans had such mines. Thanks to the author for the new information. And honestly, it’s worth considering what rivers our fleet planned to put such mines on, giving those tasks in the 36 year?
    1. knn54
      knn54 11 November 2019 19: 40 New
      +8
      Mine RIVER, while on Lake Peipsi. In the Sea of ​​Azov also proved to be quite good. Well, and at the mouth (and not only) of the Danube.
      Regarding the small charge, I say, cruisers do not walk along rivers.
    2. Amurets
      Amurets 11 November 2019 22: 51 New
      +4
      Quote: svp67
      And honestly it’s worth considering what rivers our fleet planned to put such mines on, giving those tasks in the 36th year?

      In those years, a similar mine was planned to be adopted by the Amur, Dnieper and Pinsk fleets. Well, then the geography of application expanded. As he mentions: "knn54 (Nikolai) Mina is RIVER, and at the same time on Lake Peipsi, the Sea of ​​Azov also performed well. Well, at the mouth (and not only) of the Danube."
    3. Saxahorse
      Saxahorse 11 November 2019 23: 08 New
      +5
      Quote: svp67
      And honestly it’s worth considering what rivers our fleet planned to put such mines on, giving those tasks in the 36th year?

      Danube, Wisla, Rhine, Oder, etc. In Europe, there are enough waterways with a very large cargo turnover. Yes, and most German and Polish seaports have shallow channels. And the DB-3 aircraft with its small combat load but serious range here fit perfectly. However, it was from the plane that the mine did not want to get up right away, and the armored boat to the Rhine wasn’t so easy to send. So the mine did not enter.

      A good article, thanks to the author!
    4. Narak-zempo
      Narak-zempo 11 November 2019 23: 34 New
      +3
      Quote: svp67
      And honestly it’s worth considering what rivers our fleet planned to put such mines on, giving those tasks in the 36th year?

      On the Thames, on the Nile, on the Ganges.
    5. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I 12 November 2019 00: 11 New
      +4
      Quote: svp67
      I honestly believed that only the Germans had such mines

      You have noticed it right! We still know little about the development of weapons in some "areas" of the Soviet defense industry! I “heard” about the development of non-contact mines and torpedoes with non-contact detonators in the 30 years in the USSR, but, frankly, I did not remember “specifics” at the time of reading the article (although I recall the mention of the 2-pulse induction fuse ...) in his "archive" rummage!
    6. your1970
      your1970 17 November 2019 18: 35 New
      +1
      Quote: svp67
      what rivers did our fleet plan to put such mines on, giving those assignments in the 36 year?

      On absolutely any ENEMY rivers ....
      That is why the military was interested in the production of aircraft ...
  2. Igorpl
    Igorpl 11 November 2019 19: 19 New
    -1
    Some kind of weak charge for a sea mine. And cc is not it.
    1. svp67
      svp67 11 November 2019 19: 42 New
      +2
      Quote: Igorpl
      Some kind of weak charge for a sea mine.

      And for the river?
      1. Igorpl
        Igorpl 11 November 2019 19: 46 New
        +2
        For river, some civilians and for the loss of time for trawling, perhaps. It depends on how much and where.
      2. The comment was deleted.
        1. Amurets
          Amurets 11 November 2019 23: 35 New
          +5
          Quote: Amurets
          The combat power of the Sungarian river flotilla was composed of ships and parts of the marine corps.

          Armored boats like Se-Chung
          "Patrol boats with a displacement of 10-15 tons. - 10.
          The main armament of gunboats were 120- and 72-mm. universal guns and coaxial 13,2 mm anti-aircraft machine guns. On armored vehicles were installed 75 - and 37 mm. guns and machine guns, on patrol boats - 2-3 machine guns each. The training gunboat had two 70 mm. guns and 4 easel machine guns.
          In addition to the specified weapons, gunboats could take 30-80 minutes of various types, and a training gunboat - 30-40 minutes. The main core of the flotilla were the sumps of the Ding-Bian and Shun-Tian types. These were modern warships, in terms of their tactical and technical qualities that fully met the conditions of this river theater. Having a displacement of 270-290 tons, a length of 60 m, a width of 8 m, a draft of 0,9-1,2 m, two main engines running on liquid fuel, the ships could reach a speed of 35 km / h, currents - 25 km / h. The crew of each ship was 60 people.
          All warships of the Sungarian flotilla were consolidated into five combat and eight guard detachments. The first division is 3,4,5 combat units. The second division - eight watch units. The 1st and 2nd divisions made up the squadron. The 1st and 2nd combat detachments reported directly to the Commander of the Sungarian River Flotilla.
          Marine Corps Flotilla.
          The marines of the flotilla consisted of 3 regiments.
          1st and 2nd regiments - over 800 people. each; 3rd to 700 people The regiments were intended for landing operations and therefore had amphibious assault weapons.
          1st MP regiment - 30 landing motorized bots (30 people / each)
          2st MP regiment - 20 landing motorized bots (30 people / each)
          3rd MP regiment - 60 small landing motor boats (15 people each) and 20 large and small rubber inflatable boats.
          The reserve of the flotilla MP was the flotilla training squad — up to 550 people.
          And that MP of the Sungarian flotilla was 2300 people.
          The total strength of the Sungarian flotilla by August 9, 1945 - 3250 people.
          The main base of the Japanese naval forces was in Harbin, where the flotilla headquarters, training squad, shipyards and workshops, a hospital and other coastal institutions were located.
          The main maneuvering bases of the flotilla were Sanxing, Jiamusi, Fujin (all on the Sungari River), Heihe (Sakhalyan) on the Amur River and Hutou on the Ussuri River.
          Since 1941 a land uniform similar to the Manzhou Guo Army was introduced for the entire SRF personnel.
          The Sungarian flotilla, having ships and considerable marines, was a fully prepared formation for operations at the river theater. "Link also.
      3. Avior
        Avior 12 November 2019 00: 55 New
        +4
        Did you know about the existence of a specific river mine? To be honest, for the first time I learned that we had such ones.
        German bottom - everyone knows, I remember the film was.
        1. Amurets
          Amurets 12 November 2019 01: 43 New
          +3
          Quote: Avior
          German bottom - everyone knows, I remember the film was.

          Allegro with fire. In June 1941, the Nazis tried to block the Black Sea Fleet in Sevastopol, throwing a fairway with new top-secret magneto-acoustic mines. To neutralize this formidable weapon, a special group of professional miners was created, who, at the cost of their lives, completed the most difficult task of the command.
          Read more at Kino-Teatr.ru. Https://www.kino-teatr.ru/kino/movie/sov/192/annot/
          And about the Mirab mine several times there were mentions of this mine, but only that it was on the armory of the RKKF, but without application details.
          1. Avior
            Avior 13 November 2019 00: 50 New
            +1
            Yes, Allegro with fire.
            My first ever intimate acquaintance with German bottom mines.
          2. Avior
            Avior 13 November 2019 01: 29 New
            +2
            By the way, the film was shot on real events. Moreover, the real story was even more dramatic - part of the work was carried out under water.
            and there was a gramophone too.

            He was again alone with the mine. Everyone took refuge in a trench, a few hundred meters away. I drilled a hole in the pitch darkness in the cap - the instrument compartment. He waited until dawn and made sure that the photocell connected to the fuse was not in the mine. Then he put a gramophone in front of the cap, lowered the membrane to the plate and jumped into the trench. The trench, in general, was open to visibility. Had the sound “trap” in the cap - Ohrimenko would have smashed it to shreds ...
            They spoke, sang the violin in different voices. He did not remember the composer, he knew only the name of the record: "Allegro with Fire."
            It was necessary to remove the detonator capsule from the mine. He turned the pressure ring holding the neck cover - and at the same moment there was a dull thump inside the mine’s body. And after it distinct: tick-tock, tick-tock, tick-tock. The clockwork has earned!
            He got up, brushed off the sand and slowly walked towards the trench. And with every cell of his body, with every nerve he felt: now he’ll tear behind his back, and everything will be over ...
            The explosion did not happen. Convinced that the mine can not be raised, the Nazis did not provide any "traps". The capsule exploded. The switch tore off the stopper, and he hit the hull ... When it was all over, when he was surrounded on all sides, congratulated, shook hands, captain of the 2nd rank Morozov asked: “Put on your tunic, I’ll photograph you for history ...”

            1. Amurets
              Amurets 13 November 2019 05: 12 New
              +2
              Quote: Avior
              By the way, the film was shot on real events. Moreover, the real story was even more dramatic - part of the work was carried out under water.
              and there was a gramophone too.

              Yes, I knew, thanks for recalling the details. Later, when they put in multiplicity devices and combined magneto-acoustic fuses, the fight against mines became even more dramatic.
  3. Igorpl
    Igorpl 11 November 2019 19: 23 New
    +3
    Thanks to the author. Briefly and to the point. It's a pity you can’t put a plus somewhere.
  4. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 11 November 2019 21: 29 New
    +2
    Thanks. Not a hackneyed topic. Very informative.
  5. Sasha_rulevoy
    Sasha_rulevoy 11 November 2019 23: 54 New
    +1
    Information from German documents appeared only a few years ago and noticeably changed the overall picture. It follows that the MIRAB mines, despite the limited use, were able to inflict some damage on the enemy.


    Who drowned?
  6. Avior
    Avior 12 November 2019 00: 53 New
    0
    The product was equipped with a 64 kg TNT charge.

    small charge.
    At that time, wooden vessels walked along the rivers, and mine has an induction fuse
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 12 November 2019 05: 48 New
      +5
      Quote: Avior
      At that time, wooden vessels walked along the rivers, and mine has an induction fuse

      Yes! I agree, but look above the composition of the Sungarian flotilla, there were no wooden ships in it. And for normal civil shipping, mines will be harmless.

      A lot of such a hitch is needed, but the Chinese used to go until the 70s of the twentieth century. Until they began to crumble from decay ..
  7. Denimax
    Denimax 12 November 2019 12: 53 New
    +2
    I have not heard anything about such a mine. It was a river, it seems it was called Rybka, though it was a contact. Mines somehow did not pay much attention. At that time, I think it was not of great technical complexity to create torpedo mines for secretive remote mining.
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 12 November 2019 14: 30 New
      +6
      Quote: Denimax
      It was a river, it seems it was called Rybka, though it was a contact. Mines somehow did not pay much attention. At that time, I think it was not of great technical complexity to create torpedo mines for secretive remote mining.
      Here is the data on it:
      The mine was developed in 1915 for the navy under the designation "Small anchor mine of the Rybka type, as an anti-ship sea mine. However, too small an explosive charge (only 9-12 kg of TNT) allowed it to be used only against ships of very small displacement ("maximum - against submarines, torpedo boats, armored boats or river monitors). It was supposed to use these mines to protect the mouths of navigable rivers from the penetration of monitors into them, to cover beaches and other places convenient for landing marine landings. Some stockpiles of these mines have been stored since then in naval warehouses in Sevastopol.

      According to the German Memorial to Soviet trophy mines published in January 1942, Rybka mines were used by Soviet troops in quite significant quantities in 1941 in the Karkinitsky Bay of the Black Sea and the Sivash Bay of the Sea of ​​Azov in the Perekop and Turkish Wall areas against German landing craft (boats, boats, Siebel ferries). Reliable information on the use in subsequent years of the war is not available. To establish whether these mines were made in Soviet times was not possible.
      "http://weaponland.ru/publ/protivodesantnaja_mina_rybka_sovetskie_i_rossijskie_miny/20-1-0-941
  8. ser56
    ser56 12 November 2019 15: 09 New
    +1
    Thanks to the author for a little-known page in the history of the fleet!