Military Review

GAZ-66: wars and experiments

40

One of a kind


GAZ-66 turned out okay and versatile machine. The eight-cylinder engine provided high power-to-weight ratio, self-locking differentials coupled with perfect weight distribution and geometric cross-country allowed to storm the craziest obstacles, and the hoodless layout provided excellent visibility. Actually, there were only three drawbacks: high fuel consumption, mocking for the driver the placement of the gearshift lever and the location of the crew seats directly above the front wheels. And if they were ready to put up with the first two drawbacks in the army, then the third drawback became almost fatal for Shishigi. Awareness of this came in Afghanistan, when the detonation of any mine under the wheels of a truck inevitably led to injuries and sometimes fatal injuries to the driver. Therefore, the GAZ-66 was hastily withdrawn from the limited contingent of Soviet troops and since then it has been rather cool about the combat use of the machine.



One of the episodes of the early combat use of the GAZ-66 in the modification of B. Prague. 21.08.1968 g. On the cab and the tent of the car there are identification white strips of machinery of the Warsaw Pact countries. Something similar we will see many years later in Ukraine


Although, of course, no one was in a hurry to write off the Shishig from the military service - there was simply nothing to replace the truck in the 80-90's. Incidentally, this was used by the design bureau of the Gorky Automobile Plant and was in no hurry with deep modernization. With all due respect to the engineering headquarters of GAZ, look at the evolution of the German Unimog S-series (which was largely a prototype of "shishigi"). In many respects, of course, this was due to the conservatism of the main customer in the person of the Ministry of Defense, but GAZ-66 was widely used for civilian needs and just then regular modernization would be very appropriate. The first time the GAZ-66 truck was updated several years after it was launched into production - in the 1968 year.


Unimog S series. Many consider it an object of imitation in the design of the GAZ-66


This was the second generation that lasted on the assembly line for as many as 17 years. Then two-number indices appeared, for example, the base version was 66-01. Now “Shishiga” could take on board 2 tons at once (by the way, on the most recent prototypes this figure was increased to 2,3 tons only due to new tires). Also, the "second series" of the 66-th car received a centralized system for pumping wheels, black-out headlights and, most importantly, the ground clearance increased to 315 mm. GAZ-66 could now be sent for export - for this they improved the interior trim, improved the instruments in the cab, put new carburetors, a transistor ignition system and even tubeless tires. Fuel consumption fell to 26 liters per 100 km. Of course, the main buyers of the car were countries with a hot climate, so the engineers had to adapt the cab to the appropriate conditions. I must say that this was not an easy task. A huge eight-cylinder engine, full of heat, was located actually between the passenger and the driver, which complicated its thermoregulation. It remains to be seen whether the designers managed to solve this problem with export modifications, but for Soviet drivers in the summer the cabin was unbearably hot in the summer and remained.


Army everyday life GAZ-66 second series


GAZ-66 has always been an experimental platform for various innovations of GAZ engineers, a large part of which was to improve the patency of the car. So, in the 60's on the airborne GAZ-66B, which was mentioned in the first part of the story, mounted caterpillar movers of a triangular shape. However, this design did not lead to a breakthrough in the cross-country ability of an already cross-country truck. Competition between car manufacturers in the USSR, if any, was only for state defense contracts. A typical example of this phenomenon was the GAZ-34, an all-wheel drive three-axle truck that has much in common with Shishiga. Then the army needed a new generation of medium-sized trucks capable of towing artillery pieces and one of the promising projects was the Moscow ZIL-131.

GAZ-66: wars and experiments



Experienced tracked GAZ-66Б

















Military and life tests of the triaxial GAZ-34


Gorky designers in spite developed a new machine, as much as possible unified with the then-adopted GAZ-66. If we compare the 34 car with the ZIL-131, which was promising at that time, it turns out that the gas truck on the 1,3 tons is lighter with a similar payload, shorter and has a more capacious body. Despite the fact that the clutch was taken from ZIL-130, the gearbox was borrowed from ZIL-131, the motor was left native to Shishigi. Of course, power in 115 l. from. frankly not enough, and a more powerful gasoline engine simply could not fit. Perhaps a diesel would save the situation, but there were no such structures at all in the Soviet Union. Nevertheless, the tri-axle Shishiga passed the entire test cycle quite successfully (including several cars that passed from Moscow to Ashgabat and Ukhta) and was even recommended for use. However, the ZIL-131 arrived in time, which turned out to be more powerful and more convenient. Is it worth regretting that the Soviet Army did not have yet another cabover truck with a Jesuit gearshift lever arrangement?

Let us digress from the topic and mention another attempt by the Gorky Automobile Plant to enter the prestigious niche of large-format army trucks.


GAZ-44


At the beginning of the 70's, the four-axle GAZ-44 "Universal-1" was developed, which, in fact, is a kind of hybrid between an ordinary truck and an armored personnel carrier. The car was run in at the 21 Research Institute, but Universal-1 did not show any radical breakthroughs in comparison with the analogues from Bryansk and Minsk and remained in the experienced category. After that, GAZ began to strictly adhere to the main line for the production of light trucks for the needs of the Ministry of Defense. Well, I didn’t forget about armored personnel carriers ...

Handyman


Let's talk about the numerous modifications of the GAZ-66, which had the status of experienced or were in service. Of course, the whole variety of options cannot be covered, and it will be boring. Therefore, we touch on the most original. This, of course, was a van with a KSH-66 integrated body with a cab, in which the "Shishigu" can be identified only by wheels and lighting equipment. This device was assembled to withstand the shock wave of a nuclear explosion and therefore had streamlined shapes - on average, shock resistance increased three times. Continuing the theme of single-volume vehicles based on the GAZ-66, one cannot fail to mention the 38AC air transport bus, which was released in as many as 6000 cars. The bus was distinguished by curved panoramic windows, 19 soft seats and foam plastic insulation in body panels. In the AMC-38 variant, eight seated wounded and seven recumbent ones could be placed on the bus. Later in the 1975 year, another bus appeared - APP-66, which was a simplified version of the 38AC, was distinguished by its excessive weight, low passability and was assembled in the amount of 800 pieces. It should be noted that all these machines were not assembled in Gorky. Buses were made in Moldovan Bender, Voronezh and at the factory number 38.


Atomic resistant arms GAZ-66-based van


Experienced truck tractor GAZ-66P


Dressing point AP-2


For many years, the brisk and passable GAZ-66 has become the hallmark of the medical service of the army of the Soviet Union. The most widespread, of course, was the AC-66 ambulance bus with a K-66 body, capable of taking on board up to 18 the wounded. A little later, the AP-2 dressing machine came to him in a pair, which was assembled at the Medoborudovanie enterprise in Saransk. The set included frame tents, deploying which, it was possible to simultaneously tie up to 14 people. At the end of the 80's, the whole medical complex PKMPP-1 appeared in the army, consisting of four GAZ-66 vehicles with K-66 kungs. Two of them were responsible for transporting the wounded and medical staff, the rest were loaded with belongings and medical equipment.




Experienced AC38




APP-66




Buses based on GAZ-66 in the "cemetery"


The most exotic versions of the GAZ-66, of course, were cars with pontoon parks, collapsible bridges and multiple launch rocket systems. DPP-40 for the Airborne Forces has become in many ways an absurd and very expensive embodiment of the idea of ​​creating an airborne pontoon fleet with a carrying capacity of 40 tons. Firstly, to give the necessary lightness, the elements of the pontoons had to be made either from non-ferrous metals, or using inflatable rubber sections. And secondly, the pontoon fleet itself was located on 32 GAZ-66 cars (initially on a lightweight version of GAZ-66Б). How many IL-76 vehicles was required for such an armada? We also considered the use of GAZ-66 series vehicles for the transportation of an average CARM road collapsible bridge. For this, a simple truck platform was not suitable, therefore, they came up with a Shishigi truck tractor with an index P. However, a light machine did not cope with such a load and the bridge was given to the ZIL family.


The one and only BM-21B based on the GAZ-66B


In 1967, the BM-12В 21-barrel multiple launch rocket system appeared on the base of the landing troops on the basis of the previously mentioned lightweight GAZ-66Б. In fact, it was an abridged version of the BMN-40 21-barrel system, which was put on the Ural family. In 6 seconds, a fire-breathing kid could release to a range of 20 km the entire charged stock of high-explosive M-21ОФ and recharge again using the 9Ф37 machine, which was also based on the GAZ-66. And, of course, all this artillery could be parachuted.

However, the real visiting card of the GAZ-66 with "weapons in hand" was a dumbbell with a charger-23-2 in the back. Here, the military perfectly combined the speed and maneuverability of the Shishigi with the deadly flurry of anti-aircraft gun fire. The Middle East, Africa, the North Caucasus, Ukraine - none of the conflicts in these territories could do without gantracks on the GAZ-66 platform.

To be continued ...
Author:
Photos used:
gruzovikpress.ru, ru.wikipedia.org, drive2.ru, zr.ru, auto.ru
Articles from this series:
"Shishiga": legend number 66
40 comments
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  1. tihonmarine
    tihonmarine 10 October 2019 18: 21
    +7
    "Shishiga" was, of course, a workhorse for the army (for there were no better ones), but buses based on GAZ-66 are something "obvious and incredible", as if they were not assembled at the plant, but by the students of the State Technical University in their training workshops.
    1. sabakina
      sabakina 10 October 2019 18: 35
      +1
      I remember that I had to put the engine on the "Kuban" .... Where was the trouble! "....
      1. Blacksmith 55
        Blacksmith 55 10 October 2019 21: 23
        +10
        GAZ 66 had only one advantage, it was cross-country ability. The inconvenience of the cabin, a fairly small payload. The engine, if not entirely new, constantly lost oil through the rear main bearing, they already wrote that fuel consumption was simply very high.
        If they sent him to harvest, and this also happened, then they tried to put him on the service, for example, to deliver lunches to machine operators.
    2. pv1005
      pv1005 10 October 2019 21: 36
      +2
      Quote: tihonmarine
      "Shishiga" was, of course, a workhorse for the army (for there were no better ones), but buses based on GAZ-66 are something "obvious and incredible", as if they were not assembled at the plant, but by the students of the State Technical University in their training workshops.

      In general, you are not so far from the truth. The assembly of such buses was carried out at the military ARZ, where the main workers were conscripts, yesterday's graduates of vocational schools.
    3. Abu Artyom
      Abu Artyom 29 October 2019 23: 13
      0
      AC38 I remember some kind of workshop made. Our aluminum body was.
  2. neri73-r
    neri73-r 10 October 2019 18: 27
    +1
    Thank you, I wonder, do not forget about the kitchen facilities!
    1. sabakina
      sabakina 10 October 2019 18: 37
      -1
      Are you talking about fork knives / spoons? wink
      1. neri73-r
        neri73-r 10 October 2019 18: 39
        +1
        Quote: sabakina
        Are you talking about fork knives / spoons? wink

        No, I'm talking about their service in the kitchen facilities of the army, with specialized kungs.
        1. Lopatov
          Lopatov 10 October 2019 22: 02
          0
          Quote: neri73-r
          No, I'm talking about their service in the kitchen facilities of the army, with specialized kungs.

          In my opinion PAKs based on shisharik did not. Too small.
  3. sabakina
    sabakina 10 October 2019 18: 32
    +1
    GAZ-66 ... A whole epoch ... I don't know why the designers did not check Shishiga for a land mine explosion ... "Checked" Afghan. And it became clear that Shishiga is beautiful everywhere, but not at the front end and not in the front column. (again, gantrucks with ZU-32-2 are good where there is no danger of being blown up by a mine or land mine). An ambulance, a command post, a car for a shuttle bus, but just keep the field kitchen in check ... I don't want to load attention, but I really liked the video ...
    1. tihonmarine
      tihonmarine 10 October 2019 19: 51
      +4
      Quote: sabakina
      "Checked" Afghan.

      Angola had already tested it before, well, they immediately stopped using it.
      1. Evgeny Fedorov
        11 October 2019 11: 19
        +1
        It seems to me that one of the reasons for such a low resistance of GAZ-66 to mines could be, in particular, the small mass of the truck. However, the pressure that the machine exerted on the ground often led to the detonation of even anti-tank mines. In the photo below, the result of the undermining of the Italian anti-tank anti-track mine TS / 6,1. The first cars of the convoy passed quietly through the mine, and in the third, an explosion ...
        1. tihonmarine
          tihonmarine 11 October 2019 12: 02
          +3
          Quote: Evgeny Fedorov
          The first cars of the column calmly passed through the mine, and the third explosion ..

          Maybe there was a multiplicity device on a mine. Yes, although everything happened, it is better to go through the desert than along the road.
  4. Paul Siebert
    Paul Siebert 10 October 2019 18: 50
    +4
    From the time of my service in the USSR Armed Forces I remember the "shishiga" kindly for its amazing cross-country ability and an unkind word for the inconvenience in the cockpit.
    1. Prisoner
      Prisoner 10 October 2019 19: 30
      +4
      The cabin is nothing else. Tolerant. winked But what about the transported personnel? Especially when on rough terrain, but with time deficiency. Coffee grinder. laughing Patency is yes. In the hands of a good carrier, this technique worked wonders.
      1. Anatole Klim
        Anatole Klim 10 October 2019 20: 00
        +14
        Quote: Captive
        But what about the transported personnel? Especially when on rough terrain, but with time deficiency.

        Well, the personnel must endure steadily and courageously all the hardships and deprivations of military service. And here I, being a schoolboy, along with other children of officers and warrant officers every day went to school from a remote division on the GAZ-66 with kung. Early in the morning departure, a conscript who was driving a soldier whose entire service consisted of delivering children to and from school — they picked up a very conscientious and responsible soldier, and the senior car was usually assigned a two-year-old jacket. First there was a country road of 7 km, which eroded in the spring and autumn, swept in the winter, then 25 km of the track of a pretty laden asphalt road. Of course, our school bus used to break down, but these were single cases and the soldier driver was the best friend of the kids, I watched the car all my free time, because in the morning children should be taken to school and then taken back. So shishiga in the army worked everywhere.
      2. 113262a
        113262a 10 October 2019 21: 27
        0
        Yes, drugs of a tank company — without zampotech and foreman — got into a 66 body! We were sometimes taken to the landfill!
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 10 October 2019 21: 38
          +2
          Yes, it’s better in it in the back, in the cab you are tormented to go long distances, nowhere to put your legs. But we pass, little devil, he will take him out of any dirt, although he is jumping like a mountain goat.
          1. 113262a
            113262a 11 October 2019 08: 22
            +4
            In German cobblestones, riding in the back turned into torture! I had to stand up so that the prichandals did not ring!)))
            1. tihonmarine
              tihonmarine 11 October 2019 12: 13
              +1
              Quote: 113262
              I had to stand up so that the prichandals did not ring

              And stick a stick in your teeth.
              1. VALERIK_097
                VALERIK_097 11 October 2019 20: 04
                +1
                a stick was usually inserted between the levers of the handout and the bridge bridge)))) During the service on the shishig, 87tys.km honestly skated, + 20 thousand winded. This time was 91-93.
          2. Lexa-149
            Lexa-149 12 October 2019 19: 35
            +1
            This is not such a problem - there is nowhere to put the legs. hi But when you walk along the mountain serpentine in the BTGr column on the rise and march 90-120km, then you think how to not boil. Therefore, I had to turn on the stove. Moreover, the street was +40 and above. That's where the buzz !!! laughing laughing I got out of the cab all wet !!!
      3. Momotomba
        Momotomba 11 October 2019 16: 25
        +1
        And once we drowned the shisharik in the very cabin. Drivers said that it was very convenient to enter, a threshold at ground level lol And all because we drove into a swamp, and the wheels were not lowered. While being pulled out, another 6 pieces of equipment, including the BAT-M, settled in the same swamp. The night was fun laughing
  5. serge siberian
    serge siberian 10 October 2019 18: 51
    +3
    Quote: neri73-r
    Thank you, I wonder, do not forget about the kitchen facilities!

    Yes, yes, and about the "chemists", the signalmen were not mentioned. And these guys have their own "shishigi" interesting. But on the whole it is good.
    1. Lopatov
      Lopatov 10 October 2019 22: 30
      +1
      Quote: serzh sibiryak
      Yes, yes, and about the "khimars", the signalmen were not mentioned. And these guys have their own "shishigi" interesting

      Probably most of the "shishariks" were among the signalmen and artillerymen.
      In the artillery there is a SOB carrier (the car of the senior officer of the battery 1V110), a surveyor 1T12, a transport vehicle from the Sanei 2F510, Vasilka 2F54. Testing machines. For example, for the "Competition" 9В871
  6. Cheerock
    Cheerock 10 October 2019 20: 01
    +3
    For the trophy raid competition, the GAZ-66 is the only possible tow truck that everyone prays for. And there is nothing to replace it, except, perhaps, a timber carrier forwarder, but it is very expensive.
  7. pv1005
    pv1005 10 October 2019 21: 41
    0
    Therefore, the GAZ-66 was hastily withdrawn from the limited contingent of Soviet troops and has since been rather cool about the combat use of the machine.
    And replaced by KamAZ.
    1. Sether
      Sether 11 October 2019 14: 50
      0
      But does KAMAZ have a different lineup? or does it explode differently on mines?
      1. pv1005
        pv1005 12 October 2019 19: 11
        0
        So for that and the conversation.
  8. Lopatov
    Lopatov 10 October 2019 22: 08
    +2
    initially on a lightweight version of the GAZ-66B

    It seems that the point is not in weight, but in the height of the car. Because a convertible.

    1. Doliva63
      Doliva63 11 October 2019 19: 09
      0
      Quote: Spade
      initially on a lightweight version of the GAZ-66B

      It seems that the point is not in weight, but in the height of the car. Because a convertible.


      Photo not from "Sahara"?
      1. Lopatov
        Lopatov 11 October 2019 20: 33
        0
        Quote: Doliva63
        Photo not from "Sahara"?

        I have no idea. Kindly provided by Google Images, somehow did not pay attention to the source.
  9. Doliva63
    Doliva63 11 October 2019 08: 54
    +1
    On the pictures I did not see or did not recognize "Fantomas" - a bus, of which there were many in the army.
    1. Evgeny Fedorov
      11 October 2019 09: 04
      +1
      Here it is, however, very rusty.
  10. bandabas
    bandabas 11 October 2019 10: 09
    0
    "Shishiga" is a thing. A generation that can't even ride "thorns!" dedicated!
  11. Sether
    Sether 11 October 2019 14: 54
    0
    It is interesting to look at the results of tests and comparisons of ZIL 131 and Gas 34 and understand what motivated their choice.
  12. phair
    phair 12 October 2019 05: 10
    0
    Swapping a pound in all units, and in the headlights too ... Unimog +++
  13. dmmyak40
    dmmyak40 14 October 2019 22: 29
    0
    Quote: sabakina
    I remember that I had to put the engine on the "Kuban" .... Where was the trouble! "....

    We called "Kuban" a "bug carrier" ... wassat
  14. sh3roman
    sh3roman 18 October 2019 20: 39
    0
    Well, why didn’t they do it in the union, tore it off, bought a diesel license for 100-150 hp I remember talking in the 90 years with a driver on the Gdrovskaya IF, the consumption of solariums was 14 liters, but in general we are of course Achilles heel engine building.
  15. dgonni
    dgonni 20 October 2019 16: 24
    0
    The deployment of the AP-2 just needs to be seen! Especially in the mid-80s during exercises. When a team of doctors can get it but can’t deliver it. And then tearfully asking for exhibiting an awl, the medical one asks to pack in the packaging what they pulled out! The idea is good, but the preparation of all these devices was too tough for the Aesculapius! However, like PARMs with a turn of all the equipment, there were a lot of problems.
    P.S. In general, I had the opinion that it was created and done with a good heart and a competent statement of the problem. But in the second tier, units could normally deploy. I’m even afraid to imagine what would happen if the enemy attacked.
    P.S. 2. Literate ensigns had fun having money while reducing the USSR Armed Forces on these complexes! For a warmed tent, into which you can easily cram a wedding in Ukraine, cost money. In Modlavia too! And they wandered around the villages for a long time bringing all the joys to the owners. Then the tarp and lining died, the racks went to metal, in some cases to scaffolding and other household jokes, and in fact died as a class. Although seeing Amer towns in the same Iraq or Syria, we see the same approach. Easy bvstrosborny skeleton, mobile power. No need to quit. Sorry!