Military Review

1812-th: to see Moscow and die

65

The French near Kaluga. There is no turning back


12 failures by Napoleon Bonaparte. Napoleon's stay in the throne was clearly prolonged. No historian disputes this. As no one disputes the erroneous calculation of the French emperor to conclude peace with Alexander I. One can say as much as you like that circumstances this time turned out to be stronger than Napoleon. But, despite the fact that the Napoleonic troops were almost forced to leave the old Russian capital, it was still the army of victors.



This is not an escape from Moscow, but only the return of Napoleon from Petrovsky Castle to the Kremlin


95 of thousands of experienced warriors who had a good rest and pretty much lived in Moscow, received not only awards, but also solid reinforcements, marched in the direction of Kaluga for the next victories. Napoleon was also able to firmly cheat on his soldiers, who learned about the defeat suffered by Marshal Murat on the Chernishna River.

The Neapolitan king, whom Napoleon himself constantly kept saying that the world was about to be made, clearly overestimated the friendliness of the Cossacks, who had more than once entered into battle, and in negotiations with the French patrols. The old sly Bennigsen, not paying attention to all the bans of Kutuzov, set Murat a real trap, and if he received support from the main forces, everything could end in the defeat of the French avant-garde.


But this is an escape that the emperor considered the beginning of a new offensive


Napoleon left Moscow on the morning of October 19, with the guard and headquarters, after five weeks of voluntary imprisonment in a city that was almost completely burned down. The city, which in other conditions could contain more than 100-thousandth mass of invaders until next spring. Together with Napoleonic soldiers and officers, many wounded and thousands of civilians left Moscow, General Marbo counted more than 40 thousand wagons in the wagon train.

Most of them were filled not with provisions and ammunition, but with looted goods. It’s scary to imagine if each of Napoleon’s soldiers could use the emperor’s permission to take two carts with him from Russia. The army tried to advance in several columns, but sometimes stretched, according to the testimony of French eyewitnesses, a dozen leagues - more than fifty kilometers.

And yet Napoleon is advancing again. And he begins to act, as in an offensive - he hides his retreat along the old Kaluga tract, tries to misinform Kutuzov, knowing his unwillingness to fight again. Napoleon spreads rumors that he wants to attack the left flank of the Russian positions near Tarutino, hoping that Kutuzov will immediately "move" to the east. The Russians are standing still, but Napoleon has already decided to turn onto the new Kaluga road near the village of Troitsky.

Crossroads of Fate


The circumstances of the radical change during the Patriotic War of 1812 were studied in great detail, including on the web pages of the Military Review (A radical turning point during the Patriotic War: the battle of Maloyaroslavets 12 (24) October 1812 years). Here we will try to figure out why a tactical victory turned out to be such a serious strategic defeat for the French.

The middle of October of the 1812 year, south of Moscow, is warm and sunny. Ahead of the French emperor is Maloyaroslavets, from where you can continue to move to Kaluga, or immediately turn to Medyn. In any case, the ultimate goal of the campaign is Smolensk, where huge stocks of food, fodder and ammunition are concentrated, with which it is quite possible to winter. Continuing to consider himself a winner.

Napoleon lags behind Marshal Mortier, who either failed or was fortunate enough not to blow up the Kremlin, and on the old Smolensk road he still holds the eighth corps of Junot, duke d'Abrantes, whose wife, even a famous memoirist, understands that he in vain expects from the emperor a marshal's baton for Borodino. The responsibilities of the rear guard are assumed by the third corps, Marshal Ney, who will then repel all the Russian attacks on the French rear until his complete extermination.


"The Battle of Maloyaroslavets", a picture of a modern artist


And the Russians are already withdrawing from the perfectly fortified camp near Tarutin, since not only the commander-in-chief Kutuzov, but everyone understands that releasing the French just like that is worse than losing in an open battle. In addition, and many contemporaries have attested to this, the Most Serene Prince, who recently received the rank of Field Marshal, was quite obviously jealous of Bennigsen for his success on the Chernishna River. His Grace Prince Kutuzov was now not averse to fighting Napoleon, who no longer had any advantages over the Russian army.

General Dokhturov, whose sixth corps this time played the role of either an avant-garde or a flank cover, literally followed the traces of Napoleon’s main forces, being able to quietly go around them and occupy the crossroads at Maloyaroslavets on October 23. Kutuzov a day later withdrew the main forces of the army to positions in about one passage to the south - in the vicinity of Afanasyev and the Linen Factory, which belonged to the notorious family of Goncharovs, Pushkin's future relatives.

In Maloyaroslavets itself, Dokhturov left only a Cossack detour, than in the evening of the same 23 number and took advantage of the French infantry from the Delson division, who immediately captured the city. However, already at night, the Russians, learning that the French decided not to stay in the city, but moved to the banks of the Puddles, decisively attacked them over the bridge over the river. Dokhturov immediately placed artillery batteries along the crests of the hills to cover approaches to the important crossing.

1812-th: to see Moscow and die

General Delzon in the battle of Maloyaroslavets


Until the real general battle of the two armies, the case at Maloyaroslavets never came. But the whole first half of the day on October 24 passed in fierce battles for the city. The fresh Pinot division came to the aid of the French, before that it had not taken part in the battles at all, and then the whole corps of Yevgeny Bogarne got involved. Dokhturov supported the seventh corps of Raevsky, the vanguard of the army of Kutuzov, who was approaching from the southeast.

The city passed from hand to hand several times (it is believed that eight), and in the end the French remained in it. It is just this fact that allows many researchers to talk about the next “Victoria Bonaparte”. But the Russians left the dominant heights behind them and continued to keep the strategic bridge at gunpoint. The battle, however, did not drag on - everything was decided by noon, and cost the opposing sides at 7 thousands of dead and wounded.



The Russian commander made the decision to retreat much later, when the subordinates of Colonel Tolya chose a defensive position closer to Kaluga, and, according to contemporaries, much better than Borodinsky. However, by then Napoleon did not plan to continue his offensive.

And chance, god inventor ...


So why didn’t Napoleon once again decide to launch an offensive against Kutuzov? Many in this regard are inclined to overestimate the episode that happened the very next day after the battle of Maloyaroslavets. On the morning of October 25, the emperor, accompanied by a small retinue and two squadrons of guards rangers, decided to conduct reconnaissance on the southern shore of the Puddles. He was very worried by the fact that the only crossing could be destroyed in just half an hour by the concentrated fire of Russian guns.

When Napoleon decided to jump close to one of the copses, trying to make out Kutuzov’s batteries, a group of Cossacks unexpectedly flew out with characteristic lava, rushing straight to the emperor. General Rapp and the escort managed to recapture the Cossacks, but one of them managed to break through at a distance of no more than twenty to thirty steps from the emperor.

Surrounding Napoleon (up to the marshals) had to snatch sabers. They managed to kill the Cossacks, as well as several others, but they were also killed in the ranks of the convoy. And not only - in the heat of battle, one of the horse grenadiers mistook one of the staff officers forced to dismount as a Cossack and seriously wounded him with a saber. It is known that after this incident, Napoleon constantly carried with him an incense with poison, for fear of being captured.

However, it was hardly influenced by this episode that Napoleon decided not to go to Kaluga. Incidentally, he did not move to Smolensk and through Medyn, apparently not wanting to leave Kutuzov’s army hanging over his left flank. Still, in this particular case, it is more important that Napoleon did not understand whether the Russians left their positions south of Maloyaroslavets or are still waiting for his advance. Apparently, Kutuzov once again managed to “outwit” Bonaparte.

Although, most likely, the emperor, even before speaking from Moscow, was internally ready to retreat along the Old Smolensk road. This is evidenced, first of all, by the numerous activities undertaken by Marshal Bertier and the Napoleonic headquarters to prepare the proven route. However, Napoleon really did not want to miss the chance to leave the winner.


"Napoleon's Dream, or What's Next", artist E. De Ponce, 1894


It’s not even a city, it’s Gorodnya


Napoleon gathers in Gorodnya, a small settlement near Maloyaroslavets, a military council, somewhat reminiscent of the famous council at Fili. Here, the opinions of those present were equally divided: the hot Murat was ready with the cavalry and the guard to almost storm Kaluga, but the emperor ordered the retreat. “We have already done quite well for fame. The time has come to think only about saving the remaining army. ”

For all the great commander’s penchant for pathos, he, as we see, had to admit that he could remain completely without an army. Whatever it was, but after Berezina, Napoleon still had something to revive with - it was not by chance that we devoted a number of essays to this of his abilities. But after all, the ability of the Russians to bring the matter to an end must also be striking. Despite the provinces defeated by the invaders, not taking into account human losses comparable with the French.


“In Gorodnya. To break through or retreat? ”The painting by V. Vereshchagin could not but inspire the authors of numerous variations on the theme of the military council at Fili


The circumstances of Napoleon’s exit from Moscow, and the subsequent turn onto the old Smolensk road, were perhaps best summed up by one of the most respected researchers of the Napoleonic Wars, David Chandler.

“After a slow and cautious approach, he won a battle that didn’t decide anything, only to then choose the worst road for the further movement of the army, when he had an open and better road. The combination of this strange for him slowness, indecision and excessive caution doomed his army to gradual death as well as a large defeat on the battlefield. "



Sometimes only old maps help to understand what kind of “hook” Napoleon Kutuzov forced to make, who seems to have lost the battle near Maloyaroslavets


However, one can argue with Chandler, especially, sorry for the repetition as to how “open and better” the road through Medyn was. Not only did the French themselves not even think of preparing her for a retreat, they were immediately awaited by the extremely severe persecution of Kutuzov from the rear, in contrast to the “soft” version that the Russian commander-in-chief then chose in reality.

But there is no doubt that, along this path, the persecution would be accompanied by continuous raids by Cossacks and partisans, as well as the whole range of problems that the French faced on their way to Berezina. Many of these problems led to colossal losses in the Russian army as well. However, it is worth recalling that in those days, at wars such as in the 1812 year, it was generally considered almost the norm when combat losses were referred to non-combat (mainly from diseases) as 1 to 2, if not worse.
Author:
Articles from this series:
Russians have the right not to consider Borodino a defeat
Napoleon in Russia. The pursuit of fear
1812-th: our climate and our winter fought for us?
65 comments
Ad

Subscribe to our Telegram channel, regularly additional information about the special operation in Ukraine, a large amount of information, videos, something that does not fall on the site: https://t.me/topwar_official

Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. midshipman
    midshipman 5 October 2019 06: 20
    +8
    Dear Alexey, I liked your article. Thank.
    My ancestors participated in this war, but in the ranks of the army of P.H. Wittgenstein.
    Miloradovich commanded the vanguard of troops near Kutuzov during the retreat of Napoleon. And you did not say a word about him. And thanks to my instructions in St. Petersburg, in the end, a monument was erected in 2015.
    1. Proxima
      Proxima 5 October 2019 12: 14
      +4
      The Russian commander made the decision to retreat much later, when the subordinates of Colonel Tolya chose a defensive position closer to Kaluga, and, according to contemporaries, much better than Borodinsky. (from text) Here is the answer to the question why Napoleon’s “victory” in Maloyaroslavets turned out to be pyrrhic. Bonorart knew this very well and therefore turned onto the devastated Smolensk road, moreover, he made for this monstrous hook. fellow And we know very well that for a retreating army, each kilometer traveled is worth its weight in gold! The undisputed strategic victory of Kutuzov! hi
  2. Olgovich
    Olgovich 5 October 2019 06: 38
    0
    After a slow and cautious approach, he won a battle that didn’t solve anything, only to then choose the worst road for the further movement of the army, when he had an open and better road.

    Only the road back to Borovsk remained open.

    the battle near Maloyaroslavets showed who was the true winner near Borodino: Kutuzov and the Russian army were ready for the second Borodino and were not afraid of him.
    Napoleon was afraid and avoided him, preferring to turn back .....


    Monument in Maloyaroslavets dedicated to the battle, with a description of the battles. Destroyed during the years of power, struggling with the memory of Russia ..
    1. bubalik
      bubalik 5 October 2019 09: 19
      +6
      Destroyed during the years of power, struggling with the memory of Russia ..
      ,,, restored in 2011.
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 5 October 2019 09: 28
        0
        Quote: bubalik
        restored in 2011

        As in the Borodino field, it was restored, along with the blown up grave of Bagration at its base ..

        But, alas, the coffin is empty, because Prince’s bones are scattered and destroyed by the explosion .....
    2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 5 October 2019 11: 15
      +15
      Olegovich, with all due respect, phobias about the bloody country of the Soviet Union, red barbarians, etc. tiring! Especially if you remember what “Yours” did, the pious, noble and well-disposed White Guards and white whales in my hometown!
      By the way, they burned, shot from guns and blew up churches - all without exception (under the Pugachevschina, Belochekhi, Belogvardeytsy and Soviet power) is possible - these processes are connected with something other than popular memory! Well and the last - the pedestal to the monument to Tsar the Liberator together with Ilyich was demolished already in 1994 and definitely not the communist pests, however, just as they burned idols on Orlovaya Mountain, they were not schismatics, but a platoon of the Tobolsk regiment from the Klinova fortress during the reign of Peter III.
      I am not a supporter of Christ bakers and not their opponent, I am something in between, but aware that everything from a mosaic of great shame to no less great victories is the story of my Fatherland!
      By the way, during the time of Svyatoslav who fought under the scarlet "cherished" banners! Someone is definitely not a communist! Though? I'm coming to you !!!? Looks like Makhnovshchina! laughing
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 5 October 2019 11: 26
        +4
        Bravo, Vlad !!! good
        1. Hantengri
          Hantengri 5 October 2019 19: 53
          0
          Quote: 3x3zsave
          Bravo, Vlad !!!

          Support. hi
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 5 October 2019 19: 57
            +2
            Duc, Ely-Pali! However, "his anger prevails for days," I mean Olgovich.
      2. Olgovich
        Olgovich 5 October 2019 12: 13
        -11
        Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
        Olegovich, with all due respect, phobias about the bloody country of the Soviet Union, red barbarians, etc. tire!

        Of course, the list of their crimes to destroy the memory of Russia is so large that it is impossible even to simply comprehend it, what to tire of ..
        Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
        Especially if you remember what “Yours” did, the pious, noble and well-disposed White Guards and white whales in my hometown!

        Melgunov to help you about the "piety" of the Reds. By the way, BEFORE the thief, there was practically nothing comparable to what became AFTER her.
        Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
        By the way, they burned, shot from guns and blew up churches - all without exception (under the Belochekhi, the White Guards) is possible - these processes are associated with something other than folk memory!

        The list, please, of the TENS of thousands of MONUMENTS of Russia blown up by them, as done by the barbarians (as you rightly noted).
        Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
        perhaps - these processes are connected with something other than folk memory!

        belay
        Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
        Well, the last - the pedestal to the monument to Tsar the Liberator, along with Ilyich, was demolished in 1994

        And?
        Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
        I am not a supporter of the Christ bakers and not their opponent, I am something in between, but aware that everything from a mosaic of great shame to no less great victories - this is the story of my fatherland!

        All true.

        Therefore, 50% of the monuments and buildings of Mosk. Destroyed during several years. Kremlin, blown up by the Kostroma Kremlin (other tens of thousands of cadets), as well as burial and plundered by barbarians tombs of Pozharsky, Minin, Nakhimov, Kornilov, Istomin, Lazarev, Dokhturov, Radetsky, heroes of OV 1812, PMV, the fallen and burned Vasetsov frescoes and icons , Kramskoy, etc.,: everything that made up the Memory and Glory of the Russian people and destroyed to turn it into a nameless IvanMentioned in appropriate cases and described.
        . As, for example, a monument in Maloyaroslavets-STRICTLY Topic articles!

        In order to KNOW the barbarians-WAS NOT SUCCESSFUL to them, in spite of all efforts, to turn the Russian man into Ivan, who does not remember the relationship.

        Best regards hi
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 5 October 2019 13: 40
          +10
          Olegovich, so by the way Peter the Great, remelted the most ancient weapons of the Kremlin and other fortresses and fortresses!
          Tse barbarian? In principle, without noticing the sins in the destruction of the memory and historical monuments of the lord Romanovs and others like them, including the submission of the Holy Synod, and before it the Metropolitans and Patriarchs, you traditionally defame the Soviet Union! And what should I do when my ancestors fought for both white and red!
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 5 October 2019 17: 42
            -3
            Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
            Olegovich, so by the way Peter the Great, remelted the most ancient weapons of the Kremlin and other fortresses and fortresses!

            Dear Vladislav, these are ... monuments?
            Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
            In principle, without noticing the sins in the destruction of the memory and historical monuments of the lord Romanovs and others like them, including the submission of the Holy Synod, and before it the Metropolitans and Patriarchs, you traditionally defame the Soviet Union!

            List the TEN THOUSAND monuments destroyed by them within 10-15 years, ONCE AGAIN I suggest!

            It is simply impossible to defame oneself, just as the barbarians themselves have defiled themselves. Only a thousandth part of the deed has been transferred to you, although even one blown up tomb of Bagration is enough to be horrified.

            And so, about this, keep quiet? Silence about the blown up Pozharsky temple, laid in honor of the liberation of Moscow, keep silence about the unique cathedrals of Suzdal, Vladimir and St. Petersburg. disassembled in ... baths? In order not to tire anyone? No, especially since so many do not even suspect about these crimes.

            I recommend you the collections of Prokudin-Gorsky: many of the masterpieces captured there only remained there. Bitterly...

            And do not call the DESTRUCTION the usual course of LIFE, say, of the Kremlin, during centurieswhen gradually the OLD buildings were rebuilt / replaced: the Kremlin lived like any living organism.
            Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
            And what should I do when my ancestors fought for both white and red!

            Know and remember everyone. This is a tragedy. And also remember and know what we have lost.
            To appreciate the rest and not to forget the lessons .. IMHO.
            1. Hantengri
              Hantengri 5 October 2019 19: 37
              +9
              Quote: Olgovich
              It is simply impossible to defame oneself, just as the barbarians themselves have defiled themselves.

              Olgovich, are you sure that you destroyed the monuments, all the "TENS OF THOUSANDS", namely the "barbarians from the leadership" (very educated people, by the way)? And not illiterate descendants of serfs demolished everything that, in their opinion, was connected with the memory of the master so "beloved" by them? These, it is unlikely that they knew who they were: Pozharsky, Minin, Nakhimov, Kornilov, Istomin, Lazarev, Dokhturov, Radetsky, and they hardly heard about Bagration and Kutuzov either, due to the lack of not only education, but also, often, elementary ability to read and write.
              1. Olgovich
                Olgovich 6 October 2019 06: 59
                +1
                Quote: HanTengri
                Olgovich,

                Have you already apologized for the obscene language and insulting my grandfathers of Finnish and WWII veterans? No?

                In this case, spare me from communicating with you.
          2. Hantengri
            Hantengri 5 October 2019 19: 55
            +3
            Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
            And what should I do when my ancestors fought for both white and red!

            Similarly. And then all together against fascism.
          3. Sunstorm
            Sunstorm 5 October 2019 22: 43
            +1
            Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
            the most ancient weapons of the Kremlin and other fortresses and fortresses!

            guns ... they are guns, right? Are you comparing cannons to graves? People whom I suspect and you personally consider heroes ... And yes, Peter 1 is a barbarian, remember the fate of one of the three cathedrals of St. Sophia on the lands of "Kievan Rus", I'm talking about the Polotsk cathedral. Do I need you to look for the source or are you able to find it yourself?
            1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 October 2019 06: 45
              +1
              Quote: Sunstorm

              guns ... they are guns, right? Are you comparing cannons to graves? People whom I suspect and you personally consider heroes ... And yes, Peter 1 is a barbarian, remember the fate of one of the three cathedrals of St. Sophia on the lands of "Kievan Rus", I'm talking about the Polotsk cathedral. Do I need you to look for the source or are you able to find it yourself?

              You grab the tail of a particular! My thought was about something else, all the rulers of our Fatherland were both destroyers and creators! At the time of your “Peter the Barbarian”, temples were not only destroyed, but also built. For example, the cathedral in Tobolsk!
              By the way, "Peter the Ghoul" bequeathed a lot to keep, and his descendants from the Romanovs house screwed up !!! For example, the same Elephant (symbol of Gangut). But again this is particular, my message is different - the story of a capricious lady and sweet to descendants is rare! So you need to take it in a comprehensive manner, with all the pros and cons, and most importantly with respect and love!
              Regards, Kote!
              1. Sunstorm
                Sunstorm 7 October 2019 16: 34
                +1
                Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
                My thought was about something else, all the rulers of our Fatherland were both destroyers and creators!

                I agree with this thought.
                I am not sorry for them) It is insulting for those people who were heroes and were not Kings but Emperors). They essentially fought for their homeland, heroically performed their duty .. and the Bolsheviks took and destroyed their necropolises .. on the basis of ... that they served the tsarist regime ... That's what I can not understand and forgive. Again, an example from Polotsk was a monument to the heroes of 1812 .. so why did the Bolsheviks need to undermine it? (a rhetorical question)
                In general, I do not understand this and do not approve of it. Although I would not call myself a strong believer and this is not a matter of religion for me. But in principle, abuse of graves and remains.
      3. Kronos
        Kronos 5 October 2019 15: 04
        +3
        He has a pathology post about the Russian Empire but cannot but mention the USSR in a negative context
  3. geologist
    geologist 5 October 2019 08: 14
    +6
    Kutuzov lured Napoleon out of the den, like a bear, and met him with a spear. This was already the second emperor, after the Turkish one, who danced to the tune of Mikhail Illarionych. Our commander is a brilliant player on large maps that has not yet been fully understood. They always pay tribute to his subordinates, well deserved, tk. simple actions are more understandable, but the talent of the Russian commander remains, as it were, in the shadows, and "the hardening of the people, Barclay, winter il Russian God"
    1. Sadam
      Sadam 6 October 2019 05: 10
      0
      but I’m always wondering if Napoleon wasn’t stuck in India and met with Suvorov and he wasn’t stuck in Switzerland, it would have been interesting ... Barclay was bracing to the suburbs until the troops began to cove and appointed Kutuzov .... and generally a cool fighter near Borodino - the French celebrate their own)))
      1. 16329
        16329 23 December 2019 19: 39
        -1
        Napoleon has never been to India, for starters
        1. Sadam
          Sadam 24 December 2019 06: 21
          0
          confused with Egypt))) threw the army rushed on the ship ... but Suvorov died by then after the alpine campaigns
  4. bandabas
    bandabas 5 October 2019 08: 21
    +2
    Looting is capable of corrupting any army. And, moreover, the combined "hodgepodge".
    1. Sergey Valov
      Sergey Valov 5 October 2019 09: 59
      0
      It was looting that led to guerilla in Spain.
  5. Sergey Valov
    Sergey Valov 5 October 2019 08: 25
    +3
    “General Marbo counted in the wagon train more than 40 thousand wagons.” - Marbo was not in Moscow, at that time he commanded a cavalry regiment in the Udino corps which acted against Wittgenstein.
    1. podymych
      7 October 2019 11: 18
      0
      I wasn’t, but I can still see it from someone’s words
  6. Albatroz
    Albatroz 5 October 2019 08: 51
    +6
    I read that the bulk of the atrocities in Moscow were not committed by the French at all, but by the Germans and Poles of the Great Army of Napoleon
    1. Sergey Valov
      Sergey Valov 5 October 2019 09: 06
      +3
      It depends on who writes. Human nature is the same, basically everything depends on the will of the leadership.
    2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 5 October 2019 09: 18
      +5
      Dear Albatross, what does it change? These all stiff Bavarians, stubborn Saxons and horny Poles headed by the French "Ampirator" Napoleon Bonaparte came! No wonder the Great Army was also called - the army of peoples and the army of twelve languages ​​!!!
      However, I read with Tolstoy that after the events of “12” the provincial landlords had a fashion for governesses of the “Frenchmen” for their “barchuk”! Thus, when they were published, the sowing of young plants with a “home-based French education” impressed with the linguistic knowledge of their contemporaries. In Moscow, even betting on "what color (nationality) was the" paddling pool "that ruined the" neighbor Vanechka "!
      Regards, Kote!
      P.S. The interchange of culture was so high that Cossack villages such as Paris appeared in the Urals !!!
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 5 October 2019 10: 29
        +3
        And Ferschampenoise. Ngaybak district, Chelyabinsk region.
        1. Korsar4
          Korsar4 5 October 2019 10: 56
          +6
          "Yes, our former master made all men learn Latin. I wish, he says, to think that I was in Ancient Rome" (c).
          1. sidoroff
            sidoroff 5 October 2019 13: 29
            +2
            "He was a great educator! Porol mercilessly!" (C))
        2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 5 October 2019 11: 22
          +2
          Quote: 3x3zsave
          And Ferschampenoise. Ngaybak district, Chelyabinsk region.


          Given Anton, the Nagaybaks are essentially baptized Tatars! That ...... good
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 5 October 2019 12: 37
            +1
            "Moriscos, what a Sepharadi! Burn everyone!" (Isabella I, from unpublished)
          2. Military Builder
            Military Builder 7 October 2019 06: 57
            +1
            I live in these parts, Ferschampenoise and Paris - this is not all, the Orenburg Cossacks immortalized the places of their military glory in the people's memory, there are also Berlin, Varna, Breda (Breda), Leipzig, Chesma, Quarkeno (Quarken), Brent, Åland (Åland )
    3. Olgovich
      Olgovich 5 October 2019 09: 35
      +1
      Quote: Albatroz
      He concluded that the bulk of the atrocities in Moscow were committed not at all by the French, but by the Germans and Poles of Napoleon’s Great Army

      But the French allowed it and they ordered blow up the Kremlin and Novodevichy. WHAT FOR?!
      Evil, petty revenge ....

      And the Germans were THREE armies, a huge number, Poles-12%, the French, LESS than half ....
      1. Sergey Valov
        Sergey Valov 5 October 2019 09: 58
        +3
        You can’t argue about the Kremlin, inexplicable barbarism. And yet, yes, all responsibility for this lies with the French.
        1. saigon
          saigon 6 October 2019 10: 34
          +1
          Well, in the matter of blowing up and robbing the graves of Europe, there are no rivals!
          Remember even Sevastopol bursting there enlightened, highly morally civilized Europioids, the British and Gauls plundered the grave of Nakhimov stealing epaulettes (how can you not grab gold).
          Well, then Buonopatrtiy (the great commander, beauty and pride of the French) took and gave the order to kill the prisoners with whom he himself gave the honest word of the noble European warrior and officer to save his life (well, I'll give Africa and the savages of horseradish the word to restrain him from this) European however.
    4. bubalik
      bubalik 5 October 2019 09: 44
      +8
      the bulk of the atrocities in Moscow

      ,,, "...we were amazed- writes Count Segur, - meeting on the way, apparently, just killed Russians. It was surprising that each of them had a completely equally broken head and a bloodied brain splattered right there. We knew that there were about two thousand Russian prisoners in front of us and that the Spaniards, Portuguese and Poles led them. Each of us, depending on our character, expressed who our indignation, who approval; others - remained indifferent. In the circle of the emperor, no one showed his impressions. But Kolenkur lost his temper and exclaimed: “This is some inhuman cruelty! So here it is - the notorious civilization that we carried to Russia! What an impression this barbarity will make on the enemy! Do we not leave the Russians many of our wounded prisoners? Our enemy has all the possibilities of the most cruel revenge! ”
    5. bandabas
      bandabas 5 October 2019 10: 07
      +1
      Yes, it doesn’t matter. Come and go. But not all. Most did not return home.
  7. bubalik
    bubalik 5 October 2019 10: 11
    +3
    ,,, captured by the French, especially the officers lived well.
    ,,, the adjutant announced to us that
    on the orders of His Majesty Alexander I, we will immediately receive a salary due to everyone according to the rank, which will continue to be paid to us from the first day of every month from the state treasury. He added at the same time that for the funds we are given to us, we ourselves must take care of the table for ourselves, as well as everything that is necessary for the device in the space allocated to us, which was provided for our use for free, but what if, however, if one of us He wanted to get an apartment in the city, this is freely allowed, of course, on his own account.

    “Finally, I must tell you, gentlemen, that henceforth, according to the intentions of His Majesty, you are captives only by name; no guard will be with you anymore. not a guard; you can walk freely not only in the city, but also in the vicinity for several miles, returning only to spend the night necessarily to your apartment. You can also, after some time, take longer trips, but each time with the permission of the governor and, moreover, exclusively within his province.


    Francois Mercier is a military physician, possibly a senior surgeon in the Headquarters of the 1 Army Corps. In Russia, his memoirs were erroneously published under the name of their publisher J. Roy. Mercier was captured in Vilnius on December 10, left at St. James’s Hospital. December 22 in a convoy of 2-3 thousand prisoners sent through Minsk, Mogilev, Orel, Tambov, Serdobsk, Aktarsk and Kirsanov to Saratov. February 19 1814 was sent from there to Odessa, where August 10 boarded the ship and August 25 landed in Marseille.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 5 October 2019 11: 17
      +3
      However, these Russian scoundrels! They caught up with the enlightened person right up to the border of the "Kirghiz-Kaysat steppes"! Barbarians! What to take from them ?!
      1. bubalik
        bubalik 5 October 2019 11: 27
        +5
        Burn, burn, my candle!
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 5 October 2019 11: 49
          +4
          Now the stars have already been exchanged for candles, and anchar for aloe ... "Eh, the people are frail today" (c)
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 5 October 2019 12: 24
            +3
            "Here is the second star rolled -
            Your shoulder straps "(c).
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 5 October 2019 12: 43
              +3
              These stars in the sky
              Like fish in ponds
              Enough for everyone
              With a vengeance, "
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 5 October 2019 15: 43
                +2
                "Happiness is for everyone, for nothing, and let no one leave offended" (c).
        2. RUSS
          RUSS 5 October 2019 12: 46
          +2
          Quote: bubalik
          Burn, burn, my candle!

          Then there were no stars over the Kremlin))
          1. bubalik
            bubalik 5 October 2019 12: 48
            +4
            ,,, Napoleon cats weren’t the same laughing
  8. Ivan Petrov_9
    Ivan Petrov_9 5 October 2019 11: 54
    +1
    Excerpts from a letter from Alexander I to Kutuzov on October 30, which assessed the events of the month of October: “Your incomprehensible inaction after the happy battle in front of Tarutino, which lost the benefits, which it portended and your unnecessary and destructive retreat after the battle near Maloyaroslavets to Goncharovo destroyed everything the advantages of your position, for you had all the convenience to speed up the enemy in his retreat near Vyazma and thereby cut off at least the three corps: Davout, Ney and the Vice King ... Having excellent light cavalry, you didn’t have enough detachments on the Smolensk road to be informed of the enemy’s true movements ... Now with these omissions you put the corps of Count Wittgenstein in obvious danger ... Paying all your attention to this justifiable fear, I remind you that all the misfortunes are from everything happen powerful, will remain on your personal responsibility. I always abide with you. ”
    1. DimanC
      DimanC 5 October 2019 18: 44
      +1
      Alexander thought that Kutuzov would bury Bonaparte in Russia. Kutuzov thought that he would squeeze Bonaparte from Russia with a more or less impressive army, even if he continues to fight in his own country in Europe. As a result, we know, and so ...
      1. Sadam
        Sadam 6 October 2019 05: 19
        0
        how to escape Napoleon managed a troubled story - 30 thousand frostbitten ragged men got to Berezina (150 tons of mahach to Borodino)
        1. Sergey Valov
          Sergey Valov 6 October 2019 18: 39
          +1
          Nothing muddy. Under the gun in the ranks were the best, among whom was a very large percentage of officers. According to our memoir, the retreating guard generally preferred not to touch, fearing the inevitable answer. Berezina, so this is generally a shame for our generals, it was quite possible for the French to slam there. And there were 30 thousand less Frenchmen near Borodino. I am already silent that the sanitary losses of the Russian army were no less than those of the French.
        2. Tavrik
          Tavrik 6 October 2019 20: 26
          0
          In what state did our people get there, if these "30 thousand frostbitten ragamuffins" managed to win something like a victory over ours?
          1. Sergey Valov
            Sergey Valov 6 October 2019 20: 46
            +1
            In the same. And in fact, there were significantly fewer French under arms, and unarmed fugitives who did not take part in the battle, indeed, about 30.
            By the way, the Berezins showed themselves excellent Swiss, having endured a significant part of the battle and suffered heavy losses.
  9. BARKHAN
    BARKHAN 5 October 2019 13: 08
    +3
    Sometimes it’s more pleasant to read comments than an article ... thank you all.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 5 October 2019 20: 35
      +2
      And thank you, for the recognition of our vain thoughts.
  10. Ivan Petrov_9
    Ivan Petrov_9 5 October 2019 22: 20
    +2
    Napoleon left Moscow on the morning of October 19, with the guard and headquarters, after five weeks of voluntary imprisonment in a city almost burnt down ... Together with Napoleonic soldiers and officers, many wounded and thousands of civilians left Moscow ...
    Already on October 3, 4, and 5, carts with wounded, sick, and looted boot from Moscow under the cover of Clapared’s infantry division and General Nansuti’s cavalry detachment moved from Moscow to Smolensk. On October 10, the hospitals in Moscow still contained 2682 wounded servicemen of the Great Army. Soon, many of them were evacuated as part of a large convoy led by General Nansuti and safely reached Prussian hospitals. In Moscow there were only 1000–1200 people who could not be transported ...
    The battle, however, did not drag out - everything was decided by noon, and the opposing sides cost 25 thousand dead and wounded.
    During the battle, the losses of each side reached up to 7 thousand people.
    1. Sergey Valov
      Sergey Valov 6 October 2019 18: 43
      0
      The stay of the French in Moscow, this is that song, along with the fire and robberies there were staged quite professional theatrical productions.
    2. podymych
      7 October 2019 16: 45
      +1
      You are right, of course, there in 25 thousands of everything was fought, but on the machine I gave it out. Correct ...
    3. podymych
      7 October 2019 16: 46
      +1
      You are right, of course, there in 25 thousands of everything was fought, but on the machine I gave it out. Correct ...
    4. The comment was deleted.
    5. podymych
      7 October 2019 21: 01
      0
      For a couple of pluses, become generous?
  11. Doliva63
    Doliva63 6 October 2019 19: 11
    +1
    Quote: 3x3zsave
    And Ferschampenoise. Ngaybak district, Chelyabinsk region.

    Yeah! Each time, passing by, I tried to utter a tongue twister - Nagaybaksky Fershampenuaz, now - easily, without hesitation! laughing drinks
  12. Tavrik
    Tavrik 6 October 2019 20: 18
    +1
    Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
    However, I read with Tolstoy that after the events of the year 12 the provincial landowners had a fashion for governesses of the "Frenchmen" for their "barchuk"! Thus, when they were published, the sowing of young plants with a “home-based French education” impressed with the linguistic knowledge of their contemporaries.

    Such a fashion existed until 1812. Just according to the results of the war, everyone who wants to get moths will get (for free!) A French tutor. The most demanding could choose the French from certain areas. Well, a German could be hired, and many more ... The level of education of badgers was determined by the level of education of tutors. There were a lot of funny cases ...