The massacre as the formation of a class of submarines

You know, and at the end of the 19 - the beginning of the 20 centuries, more than one novel was written about what the world war will be like. Yes, they were somewhat fantastic, but the authors tried to foresee in them what would begin. More precisely, what began after some 10 years.




I do not mean treatises on strategy and tactics, but semi-fantastic novels. He flipped through several, Tuckman, Julie and Junger, and realized that people at the beginning of the last century had absolutely no idea of ​​the nightmare that would occur on the battlefields.

Everything turned out to be wrong. Cavalry lost to machine guns, infantry generally turned out to be consumables in games with artillery and gases, giants zeppelins, bringing death to cities, lost to rattle biplanes made of boards and ropes. Even Tanks, which no one knew at all, did not turn out to be something so imbalanced.

But no one even in a terrible unscientific fantasy could imagine what would happen at sea. It was precisely on the seas of battles, not on the fields, that progress hinged conservatism to the maximum.

You can talk a lot about the battles of the First World War, many are still discussing Jutland, the last (and, in principle, the first) large-scale battle of the giants, but now we will not talk about it.

The events that I want to talk about and reason about were not as epic as Jutland, but in my opinion they had such an impact on military technology that, perhaps, not much of the military stories.



It's about ... a battle to call it a language does not turn. The battle is Dogger Bank, this is Jutland, this is when two parties are at war. Dealing damage to each other and so on.



And we will talk about beating. Perhaps this word is most suitable.

It all happened on September 22 1914 of the year in the North Sea, 18 miles off the coast of Holland. The event, the essence of which was not only the humiliation of Britain as a sea power, although this was the place to be, because in an hour Britain lost more personnel than during the Battle of Trafalgar, but also the birth of a new class of military vehicles.

Everyone already understood that this was about submarines and the massacre that was arranged by Otto Veddigen with the crew of his U-9.

Three armored cruisers, “Hog”, “Kressi” and “Abukir”, could not oppose the German submarine and simply drowned as a result of a very well-aimed shooting of the German crew.


Cressy. The whole series was named after him.


Submarines. Although at that time it would be correct to call them diving, since under the water they could be very little in time.

There is something in any submarine ... Probably, the understanding that today it can sink, and come up tomorrow for a thousand kilometers. Or not to surface, which also happens.

But if we are talking about the First World War, then TE submarines - it was something. The real weapon suicide bombers, well aware that if anything - salvation does not wait. The aviators piloting strange tarakhtelki, at least had primitive, but parachutes. The submariners had nothing, until the invention of the scuba gear there were still 50 years left.

So at the start of World War I, the submarines were toys. Expensive and dangerous, because the technology of that time - you yourself understand, this is something. No normal diesel engines, no batteries, no air regeneration systems - nothing.

Accordingly, the attitude towards them was such to itself ... Marine penal battalion. If you behave badly (very badly), we will send it to the “kerosene”.

Prior to WWI, in previous wars, submarines did not show themselves at all. In the Russo-Japanese War, neither Russian nor Japanese submarines did anything at all. Therefore, their effective as weapons was considered insignificant.

The British thought about the same. "Vile and damn not English weapons" - such was the opinion of one of the British admirals.

The Germans looked at the submarines in exactly the same way. Moreover, the great von Tirpitz himself did not want to finance the construction of these ships, which he considered completely useless. And, in general, Germany entered the war, having fleet 28 submarines. The British had twice as many - 59.

What was a submarine of that time?

In general, they developed by leaps and bounds.


U-1 submarine


Judge for yourself: U1 had a displacement of 238 tons above water and 283 tons underwater, length - 42,3 meters, width - 3,75, draft - 3,17. Two petrol engines for surface movement in 400 hp and two electric motors for movement under water.

The boat could develop the speed of the 10,8 node under water and the 8,7 node under water and dive as many as 30 meters. The power reserve was 1500 miles, which is generally very good, but the armament is rather weak: one bow torpedo tube and three torpedoes. But then they did not know how to reload a torpedo tube in an underwater position. The hero of our story was the first to do this.

Artillery? Machine guns? Well, still, the beginning of the century in the yard ... There was nothing.

But this is 1904 year. But let's look at the boat of the hero of our story, Weddigen, U-9. Six years later, the boat was already somewhat larger.



U9 joined the fleet with the following parameters: displacement - 493 (surface) / 611 (submarine) tons, length - 57,38 meters, width - 6,00, draft - 3,15, immersion depth - 50 meters, speed - 14,2 / 8,1 knots, cruising range - 3000 miles.

Gasoline engines were replaced by two Korting kerosene engines (on the surface) and two electric motors under water.

But the armament was quite: 4 torpedo tubes with ammunition 6 torpedoes and deck gun (retractable) caliber 105 millimeters. According to the staff list, the crew consisted of 35 people.



Well, the crews were preparing from the heart. Survivors later wrote about this in memoirs.

But in Germany, as well as in Great Britain, France and Russia, they were convinced that the fate of a future war at sea would be decided by huge armored ships armed with long-range artillery of the highest caliber possible.

In principle, this is how it started, but then the time has come for what? That's right, in Britain they decided to block Germany and lock up its "High Seas Fleet" in the bases.

This was done using proven means, that is, with the help of all the same dreadnought / battleships and other ships like battlecruisers and destroyers. The British sailors had experience of such operations, so they were able to organize the blockade very qualitatively. So that no German ship could slip unnoticed.

A ship, but we're talking about boats ... Diving ...

So this blockade did not concern submarines at all. And, looking a little ahead, I will say that in the Second World War German submariners gave the British a very strong headache with their actions. And already Britain was on the verge of a complete blockade.

But in the First World War, the goal of German submariners was not primarily the British merchant fleet, but the military. The blockade had to be lifted.

It so happened that one of the units of the British ships blocking the Dutch coast was made up of five large armored cruisers of the Kressi type.

The massacre as the formation of a class of submarines


On the one hand, the blockade is energy-intensive and requires a lot of ships. On the other hand, do not write off the weather. Light cruisers and destroyers, of course, are more suitable for such tasks, but the trouble is - great excitement nullified the entire effectiveness of these ships.

Because of this, heavy, but seaworthy Cressi irons could be on patrol in any weather, unlike destroyers. It is clear that in the British Admiralty there were no illusions about the fate of the battleships, if they happened to meet new German ships. Everything was clear and understandable here.

The group even earned the nickname "live bait squadron". And it was supposed to catch the ships of the Hohseeflot. And then already collapse on them with all the ships of the main forces.

But these ships were certainly not “whipping boys” either. We look at the characteristics.

Type "Cressi". They were built not so long ago, in the interval from 1898 to 1902 years. Displacement 12 000 tons, slightly less battleships, but that’s a bit.

Length - 143,9 meters, width - 21,2, draft - 7,6. Two steam engines (30 boilers) developed power in 21 thousand horsepower and speed up to 21 knot.

Armament: 2 guns of the caliber 233 mm, 12 x 152 mm, 14 x 76 mm, 18 x 37 mm. Plus 2 torpedo tubes. The thickness of the armor belt is 152 millimeters. The team consisted of 760 people.

In general, such a five could perplex anyone, with the possible exception of guys like Von der Tann and his comrades.

So what happened next?

And then a storm began in the patrolled sector. And the British destroyers were forced to leave their heavy cruisers and go to base.

In general, it was believed in theory that under such excitement, submarines cannot work, and a short and high wave will interfere. Nevertheless, the cruisers had to walk at variable speeds with a speed of at least 12 nodes.

But two things happened at once. The first - the British neglected one and the other rule. And they walked along the sector in a direct course at a speed of 8 nodes. Coal, apparently, was cherished. The second - Veddigen did not know that with such excitement his boat could not attack enemy ships. Because he went to sea.

True, the U-9 also got excited. The boat went astray and miraculously did not run aground due to a broken gyrocompass. But on 22 of September 1914 of the year the sea calmed down, and the weather was very good.

Having noticed smokes on the horizon, on the U-9 they shut off the engines and plunged to periscope depth. Soon, the Germans saw and identified three British cruisers, marching at intervals of two miles. Having calculated the course, speed and probability of deviation, Weddigen fired the first torpedo with 500 meters, one might say, point blank. After 31 a second, the boat shook: a torpedo hit the target.



It was an Abukir. The team, "missed" the torpedo, considered that the ship was the victim of an unknown minefield. The cruiser began to roll to the starboard side. When the roll reached 20 degrees, an attempt was made to straighten the ship, flooding the opposite compartments, which did not help, but only accelerated the death.

“Hog”, in accordance with the instructions, went to the “Abukir”, stalled in two cable and lowered the boats. When the boats rolled off the side, two torpedoes crashed into a stopped cruiser, and from the left side a submarine suddenly flew to the surface of the sea.

While the Abukir understood what had happened and fought for survivability, Veddigen managed to reload the torpedo tube and went around the Abukir under water. And he was in two cable from the "Hog." U-9 fired two torpedoes and began to go into the depths and work out the engines back. But this maneuver was not enough, and the boat, with its nose up, went up. They did not know how to compensate for the weight of torpedoes.

But Weddigen was really a cool commander and was able to level the boat, forcing free crew members to run inside, using people as moving ballast. Even in a modern submarine, this will be another exercise, but in a submarine of the beginning of the last century ...

In general, everything went a little out of plan, and it turned out that the roll was leveled, but the boat was on the surface. According to the law of meanness, some three hundred meters from the Hog. Yes, the cruiser, stocked with two torpedoes, was drowning, but it was a British cruiser. With British sailors on board.

Therefore, it is not surprising that with the Hog, which remained on an even keel, fired on the boat. After a while, the boat went under water. The British were sure that she sank. But the same law of meanness worked, and not a single shell hit the target. It’s just that the Germans were still able to fill the ballast tanks and go to the depths.

“Abukir” had already rolled over and sank by that time, and “Hog” sank almost immediately. On the U-9, the electric batteries were almost exhausted, there was nothing to breathe, but Veddigen and his team, entering into a rage, decided to attack the last cruiser.

Turning stern to the target, the Germans fired two torpedoes from a distance all the same 2 cable from their rear tubes. That is, again point blank. But at Kressi they already realized that they were dealing with a submarine, and yet they spotted a trail of torpedoes. The cruiser tried to dodge, and one torpedo even passed, but the second hit the starboard side. The damage was not fatal, the ship remained on an even keel, and its guns opened fire at the place where the boat was supposedly located. And with the same success as the Hog.

And Veddigen still had another torpedo and a mountain of adrenaline not spent. The Germans reloaded the torpedo tubes for the second time during the battle, which in itself was either a feat or an achievement. At a ten-meter depth, the U-9 walked around the Kressy, climbed to the periscope depth and hit the cruiser with the last torpedo.

And that is all. Being a good commander, Weddigen did not wait for the return of the British destroyers, but with maximum speed pulled towards the base.

In this ... battle? Rather, in this battle, Britain lost 1459 sailors, which is almost three times more than in the Battle of Trafalgar.

The funny thing is that Weddigen thought he was attacking the Birmingham class light cruisers. When they arrived at the base, the submariners learned that they had sent three heavy armored cruisers with a displacement of 36 000 tons to the bottom.

When September X-NUMX U-23 arrived in Wilhelmshaven, all of Germany already knew what had happened. Otto Veddigen was awarded the Iron Crosses of the first and second classes, and the entire crew - Iron Crosses of the second class.

In Britain, the loss of three large warships caused a shock. The Admiralty, always reluctant to believe the obvious facts, insisted that several submarines took part in the attack. And even when the details of the battle became known, the Lords of the Admiralty stubbornly refused to recognize the skill of the German submariners.

The general opinion was expressed by the commander of the British submarine fleet, Roger Keyes:
"In the first months of the war, sinking surface ships with submarines was no more difficult than hunting ambush hand-held elephants tied to trees."


However, the main result of the U-9 battle was not the sinking of three large cruisers, but a grandiose demonstration of the capabilities of the submarine fleet.

Many later said that cruisers of the Kressi type were obsolete, it was not difficult to sink them, but forgive me, you might think that sonars were not standing on the latest dreadnoughts or destroyers of that time, and even new ships were completely defenseless against submarines.

As for Germany, the victory of U-9 gave it a powerful impetus to the development of the submarine fleet. The country rushed to build submarines. Until the end of the war, the Germans put into operation the 375 submarines of seven different types.

In general, after the battle of Jutland and the subsequent complete blockade of German bases by ships of the British fleet, submarines became the only effective weapon for waging war at sea.

During World War I, British shipping from the attacks of German submarines lost ships with a total carrying capacity of 6 million 692 thousand tons.

In total, in the 1914-1918 years, German submarines destroyed 5 708 ships with a carrying capacity of 11 million 18 thousand tons.

Plus, it is impossible to take into account how many ships died on the mines set by submarines.

During this time, the German submarine fleet lost 202 submarines, 515 officers and 4894 sailors. Killed every third submariner in Germany.

However, another new class of warships was born, which went through two world wars and many local wars. And today, submarines are considered one of the most effective types of weapons.

It’s funny, but once nobody believed in “kerosene” ...
Ctrl Enter

Noticed a mistake Highlight text and press. Ctrl + Enter

67 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. Amurets 1 October 2019 06: 27 New
    • 14
    • 1
    +13
    Submarines. Although at that time it would be correct to call them diving, since under the water they could be very little in time.
    Submarines remained diving until the creation of a nuclear power plant in the USA and the USSR. Prior to this, they tried to increase the submarine's presence under water by creating air-independent power plants of a traditional type.
    So this blockade did not concern submarines at all. And, looking a little ahead, I will say that in the Second World War German submariners gave the British a very strong headache with their actions. And already Britain was on the verge of a complete blockade.
    And in WWI too. In fact, the Germans completely destroyed the British merchant fleet. "By mid-1918, the British fleet had prevailed over submarines, and although the security of transports with US troops distracted a significant part of the British
    naval forces, the convoy system yielded brilliant results. But the losses incurred
    the British nation, and the enormous expenses she had to go to save her
    allies (in particular, guarantees of their orders in America), will affect a few
    generations and are the main cause of difficulties that people experienced after
    winning the war. Herbert Wilson. Battleships in battle "
  2. Mountain shooter 1 October 2019 07: 23 New
    • 16
    • 2
    +14
    Unfamiliar episode. Thanks to the author. Good article and good humor. laughing
    1. DimerVladimer 1 October 2019 09: 30 New
      • 17
      • 1
      +16
      Quote: Mountain Shooter
      Unfamiliar episode. Thanks to the author. Good article and good humor. laughing


      Are you kidding me? This is the most famous episode of the WWII naval war!
      Also, tell Prin’s raid to the base of the British fleet of Scappa Flow in 1939, you don’t know - yes, these are legends of the submarine!
      1. Mountain shooter 1 October 2019 09: 56 New
        • 7
        • 0
        +7
        Quote: DimerVladimer
        Are you kidding me? This is the most famous episode of the WWII naval war!

        I'm not kidding. I am not a sailor, but an artilleryman. recourse
        1. DimerVladimer 1 October 2019 10: 14 New
          • 17
          • 1
          +16
          Quote: Mountain Shooter
          I'm not kidding. I am not a sailor, but an artilleryman.


          And I'm not a sailor :) but a militarist.
  3. rocket757 1 October 2019 07: 38 New
    • 10
    • 0
    +10
    It is clear that they were not used to looking for a prophet in their own country!
    A new type of weapon is approved after such high-profile victories, and even then not always ... the military environment, command, is very inert, rests on its traditions, habits so that there is no way to move it!
    And then it turns out, who did not have time, he was late ... and this can be very big losses!
  4. andrewkor 1 October 2019 07: 58 New
    • 11
    • 0
    +11
    I recalled the attack of U-47 on October 14, 1939 at the Scara Flow and the sinking of the Royal Oak battleship. Also a very daring operation!
    1. Lexus 1 October 2019 20: 52 New
      • 2
      • 1
      +1
      In my opinion, the action of German submarines in the Canadian St. Lawrence River was the height of insolence.
      1. Alf
        Alf 1 October 2019 21: 24 New
        • 2
        • 0
        +2
        Quote: lexus
        In my opinion, the action of German submarines in the Canadian St. Lawrence River was the height of insolence.

        In a nutshell? I have not heard.
        1. Lexus 1 October 2019 23: 08 New
          • 7
          • 1
          +6
          In World War II, cargo flow to the Gulf of the same name went through the St. Lawrence River and further to the Atlantic from industrial centers located on the Great Lakes (Chicago, Detroit, Buffalo, etc.). German submarines operating off the east coast of the United States and Canada penetrated the bay and then entered the mouth of the river. There were several such episodes in the summer of 1942, then the "shop" was covered. There will be time, read.
          In Russian:
          https://flot.com/publications/books/shelf/blaire/24.htm
          In English:
          https://uboat.net/articles/?article=29
          https://www.veterans.gc.ca/public/pages/publications/system-pdfs/battlegulf_eng.pdf
          1. Alf
            Alf 2 October 2019 19: 01 New
            • 2
            • 0
            +2
            Quote: lexus
            There will be time, read.

            Thank you, I knew that German submariners were impudent, but to such an extent ..
            1. Lexus 2 October 2019 19: 28 New
              • 2
              • 0
              +2
              That area of ​​the Atlantic has some of the highest tides in the world. Because of this, a zone of mixing salt and fresh water is formed over a long stretch at the mouth of the river and the bay, which, as it turned out, adversely affects the capabilities of sonar. This was used by the Germans. Later, the number of US-Canadian anti-submarine patrols simply increased and they began to “meet” U-bots before entering the bay. hi
  5. infantryman2020 1 October 2019 08: 13 New
    • 15
    • 0
    +15
    The article is interesting and effective in presentation style, the author is well done.
    But there are friendly comments:
    - in the description of the attack the paragraphs are mixed up;
    - In WWI, the use of parachutes from airplanes was vanishingly small, so pilots are also suicide bombers.
    1. Narak-zempo 1 October 2019 08: 35 New
      • 7
      • 0
      +7
      Yes.
      I remember the film "Ases in the Sky" - there was a parachute at the observer on a balloon, but the pilots were not given out.
      It was believed that any normal person, having a parachute, could not stand it and would jump out without entering into battle.
      1. Antares 1 October 2019 09: 38 New
        • 8
        • 0
        +8
        Quote: Narak-zempo
        It was believed that any normal person, having a parachute, could not stand it and would jump out without entering into battle.

        looked at the cost of the airplane and not on the value of life and the cost of training the pilot.
        Therefore, they did not include a parachute.
        But when the loin came, it became clear that the money can be obtained, the airplane can be bought / made - and trouble with the pilots. You can’t make them pies, you can’t make them and print them.
        as usual, they begin to appreciate only when trouble is with it.
  6. Dooplet11 1 October 2019 08: 42 New
    • 7
    • 0
    +7
    But if we are talking about the First World War, then TE submarines - it was something. The real weapon of suicide bombers, who understand perfectly well that if anything, salvation is not to be expected. The aviators piloting strange tarakhtelki, at least had primitive, but parachutes. The submariners had nothing, until the invention of the scuba gear there were still 50 years left.

    Eh, Roman, Roman! Love you to bend for a red word! Pilots began to use parachutes for salvation only from the end of 1916. And before that, the pilots were the same death row as the submariners.
  7. Alex013 1 October 2019 08: 47 New
    • 6
    • 0
    +6
    "Killed every third submariner in Germany." Otto Veddigen did not escape this fate ...

    Thanks for the article, interesting and very readable!
  8. DimerVladimer 1 October 2019 09: 21 New
    • 3
    • 1
    +2
    But these ships were definitely not “boys to fight”.


    Really? So - for an appetizer to a linear cruiser with a speed of 24-26 knots.
  9. DimerVladimer 1 October 2019 09: 38 New
    • 6
    • 0
    +6
    Until January 1916, German submariners sent 225 English ships to the bottom in the north and 54 in the Mediterranean Sea, losing only 17 boats of different displacement.
    1. 27091965 1 October 2019 12: 23 New
      • 3
      • 0
      +3
      Quote: DimerVladimer
      Until January 1916, German submariners sent 225 English ships to the bottom to the bottom


      Honestly, the data provided by H. Wilson raise some doubts, the fact is that the same data on the sunken in the north, submarines, ships of Denmark, Norway, Sweden and the Netherlands as of March 1916 are 136 units. In total, this is 361 ships, not many more than a year and a half. If this is true, then the result is impressive.
      1. Saxahorse 1 October 2019 22: 16 New
        • 5
        • 0
        +5
        Quote: 27091965i
        In total, this is 361 ships, not many more than a year and a half. If this is true, then the result is impressive.

        There is a question what exactly at that moment the submariners themselves considered the courts. I won’t name the source straight away, but it was remembered that for the first time the submariners were pirating right off the coast of their opponents, stoking everything with guns, from longboats with a sail, inclusive. It was the tonnage that began to be considered somewhat later.
        1. 27091965 2 October 2019 09: 14 New
          • 3
          • 0
          +3
          Quote: Saxahorse
          There is a question what exactly at that moment the submariners themselves considered the courts.


          The data are taken from the report, there is no detailed indication in it, all sunk vessels and sailboats are included in it. Below is a page from this report.
      2. DimerVladimer 2 October 2019 08: 38 New
        • 2
        • 0
        +2
        Given the fact that it was still a limited submarine warfare - quite comparable figures.
        Civilian vessels have not yet been attacked from underwater position - it was necessary to emerge, inspect, offer to leave the ship, shoot from a gun or subversive charges, less often torpedoes.
        This is also the reason for the loss of submarines from rams, artillery shelling, landings, for those reasons - there were no depth charges, so the losses are relatively small.
        Wilson’s numbers are most likely not accurate, since the loss communiqué is voluntary. The archives of the Kaiser fleet were inaccessible to the winners - here I completely agree with you.
  10. Antares 1 October 2019 09: 41 New
    • 7
    • 1
    +6
    the episode is colorfully painted in Ships and Battles (especially this message is Abukir, Hog..tonut, Abukir, Hog-drowning ... and then everything fell silent and the British decided it was all over)
    The formation of the submarine went on the same principle as all the new items
    Did not believe in a gunshot-on you, get a sign
    Did not believe in armadillos - keep a sign.
    They didn’t believe in aviation - keep it and keep it, keep it bigger
    They also did not believe in submarines. Nothing - they unloaded to the unbelievers in full.
  11. Forcecom 1 October 2019 10: 21 New
    • 6
    • 0
    +6
    PMV.
    There is a cargo ship, a German submarine goes on the attack, a new, terrible weapon, the captain calls a boatswain and says "so they say a torpedo is fired on us, distract the team so that there is no panic."
    The boatswain gathers the entire team on deck.
    - I bet my manhood will break the deck.
    - Oh well, boatswain, you’re a breach.
    - Come on.
    So he gets, swings, BOOM, the torpedo hits the ship, the ship sinks, a sailor swims up to the boatswain holding on to the fragment:
    - You are a fool a boatswain, and your jokes are stupid.

    Alternative ending
    The boatswain pulls out, swings, BOOM, the ship sinks, the captain swims up to the boatswain holding on to the fragment:
    - Fool you are a boatswain, a torpedo passed by.
  12. Glory1974 1 October 2019 11: 06 New
    • 8
    • 0
    +8
    Those submarines - it was something. The real weapon of suicide bombers, who understand perfectly well that if anything, salvation is not to be expected.

    When Nicholas 2 was asked what salaries to set for submariners, he said: “Let them set what they themselves want. Anyway, they’ll drown themselves.” As a result, salaries were set to the maximum.
  13. 27091965 1 October 2019 11: 15 New
    • 2
    • 0
    +2
    The British thought about the same. "Vile and damn not English weapons" - such was the opinion of one of the British admirals.


    Not all admirals in England thought so. In 1911, a book was published on the role of submarines in a future war, in which admirals and officers of the British Navy took part.

    So at the start of World War I, the submarines were toys.


    Not a big excerpt from this edition;

    ".......Now, when many millions were spent on this type of ships, hundreds of officers and thousands of sailors. trained for service in submarines. The only possible conclusion is that the submarine in the next big naval war will live up to the high expectations of naval officers and experts who played an important role in adding submarines to the fleets of the world...... "1911

    The result of the use of submarines really exceeded all expectations.
  14. Jürgen friesen 1 October 2019 11: 37 New
    • 5
    • 0
    +5
    In Germany, they still brag about Hog and U-9 - every two to three months they turn a documentary on a zombie.
  15. Egorov Oleg 1 October 2019 12: 07 New
    • 5
    • 0
    +5
    In the sixth photo, the submarine of the II A series does not have any relation to the First World War, nor does it have any relation.
    1. beeper 1 October 2019 13: 19 New
      • 3
      • 0
      +3
      Yes it is! yes Also visually "cut", he was going to write. Moreover, the photo of the "authentic" U-9 Otto Weddigen has already been given above and the silhouettes of these submarines are different.
      Apparently the inscription "U-9" on the nose of the "deuce", in the area of ​​the "network cutter", respected Author "beguiled" ?! winked
      1. Egorov Oleg 24 October 2019 22: 41 New
        • 0
        • 0
        0
        No, I didn’t beguiled, there was a U-9, II series boat, built in 1936.
    2. DimerVladimer 2 October 2019 08: 51 New
      • 5
      • 0
      +5
      Quote: Egorov Oleg
      In the sixth photo, the submarine of the II A series does not have any relation to the First World War, nor does it have any relation.


      That's right, we will return the historical correspondence of the photo of the famous boat!
  16. Proctologist 1 October 2019 12: 08 New
    • 0
    • 0
    0
    Thank you Roman! Surprisingly, I recently read this story, previously unknown to me, on another resource. Then he even googled the fate of Veddigen.

    I think we walk similar paths on the Internet, this is not a coincidence yes
  17. Proctologist 1 October 2019 12: 09 New
    • 7
    • 0
    +7
    Quote: glory1974
    When Nicholas II was asked
    well, this is a famous military genius, an architect of victories.
  18. BAI
    BAI 1 October 2019 12: 59 New
    • 5
    • 0
    +5
    Accordingly, the attitude towards them was such to itself ... Marine penal battalion. If you behave badly (very badly), we will send it to the “kerosene”.

    And where did the author get this statement?
    We look:
    5. The commander of the submarine in the rank senior lieutenant: salary - 57 rubles, canteens - 91 rubles, sea 250 rubles. Total 398 rubles.

    And:
    Colonel - regiment commander received 325 rubles a month (100 rubles for a rank and 225 rubles of canteens).

    The junior officer, the commander of the boat, received noticeably more land colonel. Wow penal battalion!
    But the commander of the submarine certainly received less than
    1. The commander of the ship of the 1st rank with the rank of captain of the 1st rank: salary - 90 rubles., Canteens - 166 rubles. sea ​​- 366 rubles. Total 622 rub.
    1. Alexey RA 1 October 2019 18: 29 New
      • 4
      • 0
      +4
      Quote: BAI
      But the commander of the submarine certainly received less than
      1. The commander of the ship of the 1st rank with the rank of captain of the 1st rank: salary - 90 rubles., Canteens - 166 rubles. sea ​​- 366 rubles. Total 622 rub.

      Yeah ... in order to block the monetary allowance of the starling-submariner, you just need to command a ship of the first or second rank and be 1-2 ranks higher. smile
      2. The commander of a ship of the 2nd rank with the rank of captain of the 2nd rank: salary - 75 rubles, canteens - 116 rubles, sea - 270 rubles. Total 461 rubles.

      And it’s precisely to command - for already the senior officer on the first-rank ship in the rank of cautorank receives less starle, the commander of the submarine. And the senior officer on the second-rank ship in the rank of starling receives 1,7 times less than the same starling, the commander of the submarine.
      3. The senior officer of the 1st rank ship with the rank of captain of the 2nd rank or the senior mechanic with the rank of lieutenant colonel: salary - 75 rubles, canteens - 60 rubles, sea - 141 rubles. Total 276 rub.
      4. Senior officer of a ship of the 2nd rank with the rank of senior lieutenant or senior mechanical engineer with the rank of captain: salary - 57 rubles, canteens - 45 rubles, sea - 129 rubles, total 231 rubles.
    2. Alf
      Alf 1 October 2019 21: 28 New
      • 3
      • 0
      +3
      Quote: BAI
      The junior officer, the commander of the boat, received noticeably more land colonel. Wow penal battalion!

      The difference, of course, is big, but the colonel had a "somewhat" great chance of surviving to the end of the war.
      1. Saxahorse 1 October 2019 22: 29 New
        • 3
        • 0
        +3
        Quote: Alf
        The difference, of course, is big, but the colonel had a "somewhat" great chance of surviving to the end of the war.

        Not a fact, not a fact. Of course, some submariner lieutenants drowned with their boat, but only a few. But the infantry, the junior command staff of the Republic of Ingushetia, was knocked out one by one, and three times, if you count all those who were hastily made into officers already in the war.

        Well, if you look higher with a rank, then it is certainly the opposite. Few of the caperanges took part in the battle, but the infantry colonels were noticeably battered.
        1. Alf
          Alf 1 October 2019 22: 33 New
          • 4
          • 0
          +4
          Quote: Saxahorse
          Quote: Alf
          The difference, of course, is big, but the colonel had a "somewhat" great chance of surviving to the end of the war.

          Not a fact, not a fact. Of course, some submariner lieutenants drowned with their boat, but only a few. But the infantry, the junior command staff of the Republic of Ingushetia, was knocked out one by one, and three times, if you count all those who were hastily made into officers already in the war.

          Well, if you look higher with a rank, then it is certainly the opposite. Few of the caperanges took part in the battle, but the infantry colonels were noticeably battered.

          It is truth too. Although, if the divers and drowned, then all without exception.
  19. ser56 1 October 2019 13: 44 New
    • 1
    • 0
    +1
    Not bad, the photos are generally wonderful!
    But still the British had a caliber of 234 mm request
  20. Catfish 1 October 2019 16: 24 New
    • 12
    • 0
    +12
    The submariners had nothing, until the invention of the scuba gear there were still 50 years left.


    Fifty years did not have to wait, soon “Oxygen” appeared - apparatuses with a closed breathing cycle such as our IDA - 57, or rather our idashka was made like Western apparatuses, and they began to use them long before the Second World War.

    The whole irony of fate is that the Veddigen U - 29 boat was sunk; the ship was sunk during the whole war without firing a shot. I mean the father of the entire world dreadnought fleet, the battleship Dreadnought. And he sank the boat with a banal ram. And the irony is that the latest ultra-modern weapons were destroyed by a technique that has been used at sea since the Battle of Salamis.

    Thanks to the novel for the material and separately for the style of presentation. hi
    1. ser56 1 October 2019 17: 43 New
      • 2
      • 0
      +2
      Quote: Sea Cat
      And the irony is

      that the Dreadnought was built without a ram ... bully
      1. Catfish 1 October 2019 18: 06 New
        • 4
        • 0
        +4
        That's for sure, but how many submarines do you need ... request
    2. Alf
      Alf 1 October 2019 21: 31 New
      • 4
      • 0
      +4
      Quote: Sea Cat
      And the irony is that the latest ultra-modern weapons were destroyed by a technique that has been used at sea since the Battle of Salamis.

      After the battle at Lissa, all cruisers and armadillos began to equip rams, but there were no more rams, but it was worth building a ship without a ram, so he applied this method of drowning. However, the irony ...
      1. Saxahorse 1 October 2019 22: 38 New
        • 4
        • 0
        +4
        Quote: Alf
        it was worth building a ship without a battering ram, so he applied this method of drowning. However, the irony ...

        It is worth noting that the British battleships, by ramming, sank much more of their boats than the enemy.
        1. Alf
          Alf 1 October 2019 22: 49 New
          • 4
          • 0
          +4
          Quote: Saxahorse
          It is worth noting that the British battleships, by ramming, sank much more of their boats than the enemy.

          Beat your own so that strangers are afraid.
  21. Wizard_57 1 October 2019 16: 59 New
    • 4
    • 0
    +4
    The last photo has nothing to do with the events described. These are the last seconds of HMS "Invincible" in the battle of Jutland.
    1. Alexey RA 1 October 2019 18: 14 New
      • 2
      • 0
      +2
      Well, yes, the three-legged mast, as it were, hints that the ship depicted is LC or LCR. smile
    2. Catfish 1 October 2019 22: 03 New
      • 2
      • 0
      +2
      You're right. It's just that the photo is very "impressionable", therefore, most likely, they inserted it into the article.
  22. Ryaruav 1 October 2019 17: 41 New
    • 2
    • 0
    +2
    this is where the author found 105 mm on y-9
  23. Region-25.rus 1 October 2019 18: 17 New
    • 3
    • 0
    +3
    in fact, a trim is formed near a boat with a torpedo salvo (bow or stern) soldier
    1. Alf
      Alf 1 October 2019 21: 33 New
      • 2
      • 0
      +2
      Quote: Region-25.rus
      in fact, a trim is formed near a boat with a torpedo salvo (bow or stern) soldier

      Well, yes, it was because of the trim that the L-55 was drowned in the Gulf of Finland. As they say, jumped out, get it.
  24. Revolver 1 October 2019 19: 47 New
    • 7
    • 0
    +7
    The whole thing was that those who were admirals at the beginning of the twentieth century formed like sailors in the days of a wooden sailing fleet, with a steam engine at best as an auxiliary mover in an unfavorable wind.
    For example, Admiral Birilev, Minister of Marine under Nicholas II. The admiral’s idea of ​​scuba diving perfectly characterizes the following case: the admiral’s unwavering hand drew on the requirements of the head of the submarine detachment to allocate 24 French spark plugs to the engine: “Two pounds of official stearin is enough.”
  25. Aviator_ 1 October 2019 20: 43 New
    • 4
    • 0
    +4
    The aviators piloting strange tarakhtelki, at least had primitive, but parachutes.

    Only aeronauts had parachutes, but there were no backpack parachutes in WWI. And on the plane you can take only a knapsack.
    1. Saxahorse 1 October 2019 22: 41 New
      • 5
      • 1
      +4
      Quote: Aviator_
      there were no knapsack parachutes in WWI yet. And on the plane you can take only a knapsack.

      By the way, a very interesting detail! This is often forgotten.
  26. Petrol cutter 1 October 2019 20: 58 New
    • 2
    • 0
    +2
    Interesting, delicious. Thank.
    At one time, I was very closely engaged in submarines in the north of the Russian Federation. So that this topic is fairly close (to a certain extent). Of course, we did not climb into such wilds. Therefore, thanks again to the author for broadening his horizons.
  27. Saxahorse 1 October 2019 22: 43 New
    • 3
    • 0
    +3
    Good article. About German submarines of the First World War in Russian there is little. Neither about the constructions nor about the first operations. But it really was the birth of submarines as a new weapon. Thanks to the author!
    1. beeper 2 October 2019 22: 05 New
      • 0
      • 0
      0
      Quote: Saxahorse
      Good article. About German submarines of the First World War in Russian there is little. Neither about the constructions nor about the first operations. But it really was the birth of submarines as a new weapon. Thanks to the author!

      hi There is a little bit about German submarines of that period, with drawings of appearance and some stories with them, in the issues of the Russian magazine "Modelist-Ship", it was available for free download on the Web right away with all the filing numbers 20-22 of this interesting modeling magazine in its time was released.
  28. Vladimir1155 1 October 2019 23: 40 New
    • 1
    • 0
    +1
    dear Roman wrote everything correctly, at the beginning of the last century, the meaninglessness of large surface ships and the prospects of submarines were obvious
  29. DimerVladimer 2 October 2019 09: 01 New
    • 7
    • 0
    +7

    Die Ankunft von U-9 in Wihelmshaven. Patriotic illustration - meeting U-9 at the naval base Wilhelmshaven.


    U-9 crew led by commander Otto Eduard Weddigen

    U-9 boat and its commander Otto Weddigen
  30. bandabas 2 October 2019 12: 12 New
    • 2
    • 0
    +2
    What's this? An article or, judging by the jargon of "The Captain's Chronicles ...". By the way, Roman, you could tell about the subsequent bitter fate of U-9 and its crew. Why didn’t you?
  31. mik193 2 October 2019 14: 05 New
    • 5
    • 0
    +5
    A head-thinking ship commander costs dozens of cabinet strategists and iksperds.
  32. Doctor Evil 2 October 2019 18: 37 New
    • 3
    • 0
    +3
    It is worth mentioning the Austrian baby U 5, who sank in April 1915 the French armored cruiser Leon Gambetta with a displacement of 12351 tons. 684 crew members were killed, including Rear Admiral Viktor Sene on board.
  33. cat Rusich 3 October 2019 00: 36 New
    • 1
    • 0
    +1
    Jules Verne - "foresaw what would happen at sea." In the second half of the 2th century, Captain Nemo already "drowned" the British fleet (after the "Sipaev Uprising in 19-1857). Educated and graduated, ministers and admirals probably did not read" science fiction novels "
  34. Alien From 9 October 2019 17: 45 New
    • 0
    • 0
    0
    Interesting article. Thanks to the author.
  35. Cyril G ... 9 October 2019 23: 59 New
    • 0
    • 0
    0
    The author with parachutes from the pilots of the eroplanes during the WWII was straining. There were none, from the word at all. pilots began to receive them in the 20s, as I recall. But the crews of balloons and airships got them earlier really
  36. Egorov Oleg 7 December 2019 10: 48 New
    • 0
    • 0
    0
    We are of the fact that Tirpitz did not want to finance the construction of submarines, it is not true, in 1904 Tirpitz stated at a meeting of the Reichstag that the German fleet is closely following the progress made in this area, but considers it still premature to begin practical tests until they are eliminated submarines inherent deficiencies. Unas no money for experimental ships (which official, yes, doesn’t want to participate in the cut). We must provide this luxury to richer nations like France and England. So, Tirpitz did not want to build such boats, such as the Russian Dolphin or the French Pluvizor, at the expense of the treasury.