Military Review

1939. This city is called Lviv, not Lemberg

53

Not aggression, but necessary defense


Today, even professional historians prefer not to recall that in September 1939, even the most stubborn anti-communist Winston Churchill did not protest against the Liberation Campaign of the Red Army in ex-eastern Poland. Moreover, Soviet and Polish troops actually jointly defended Lviv from German units!


1939. This city is called Lviv, not Lemberg


Such precedents for a joint struggle against the Nazis were, of course, rare, although the common enemy, as you know, unites. Now no one remembers that Poland and the USSR even before the start of not only the Liberation Campaign, but also the German invasion, nevertheless discussed the question of how the Red Army should enter the war, if it comes to it.

It was planned that Poland would have to provide corridors for the passage of red troops to the front line, including through the territory of the Vilno district and in the vicinity of Lviv. It is clear that after the pact that the USSR and Germany managed to conclude, the issue of the “pass” was removed by itself. It is also clear that no one would have given any orders from the very top to fight against the Germans to either the Poles or the Soviet troops.

However, the largest joint military operation, which is slightly lower, was successfully carried out near the walls of Lviv by failed allies. The Russians fought side by side with the Poles, already knowing that the authorities of the Pansky Poland did not just emigrate to Romania, but they themselves had already “written off” Lviv and its environs to the zone of Soviet military-political responsibility.



Nevertheless, already in September 1939 in the former eastern Poland, the leadership of the German Reich planned to create a whole series of puppet "states". It was about independent Galicia and Volhynia, and even some Transcarpathian Slavic autonomy. Moreover, the calculation in the traditionally controversial region was clearly made for their expansion during the future war with the USSR.

It seems that one can rightfully agree with the assessment of the Belarusian president Alexander Lukashenko of the events of eighty years ago. He expressed it ten years ago, on 17 of September 2009:
“On 17 of September 1939, the Red Army launched a campaign of liberation, the purpose of which was to protect the Belarusian and Ukrainian population left to their fate in Poland under German invasion and the outbreak of World War II. This not only strengthened the security of the USSR, but also became an important contribution to the struggle against fascist aggression. "


Since then, the position of Belarus, despite all the somersaults of the current political situation, has not changed at all. But one cannot help but recall that the point of view of the British Prime Minister Churchill, expressed as early as the beginning of December 1939, was much more specific:
“Russia pursues a cold policy of protecting its own interests. Therefore, to protect Russia from the Nazi threat, it was clearly necessary for the Russian armies to stand on the line that arose. ”




Regarding the concrete real British actions in September 1939, Churchill noted:
“... On September 4, the British Air Force (10 bombers) raided Kiel, in which half of our planes were lost, had no results. ... Then they confined themselves to scattering leaflets calling for German morality. The repeated requests by the Poles for specific military assistance remained unanswered, and in some cases they were simply misinformed. ”




Drawing borders


The active actions taken by the USSR on 17 of September were also due to the fact that, as it became known, on 12 of September 1939, at a meeting in Hitler's train, short-term and medium-term prospects for Poland were discussed. It was also about the fate of the Ukrainian population and, in general, about a new line of German-Soviet contact.

It was noted that on the border with the USSR, with the expectation of an inevitable future conflict with this power, it is necessary to create a loyal Reich "laying state": first Ukraine (in the beginning on the territory of ex-Polish Galicia and Volhynia), and then "Polish" "Quasi-state. Along with the implementation of these projects, Germany planned to strengthen its dependence on Germany, not only Lithuania, but also two neighboring Baltic states - Latvia and Estonia.

Moreover, it was clearly recognized that Lviv will be a political stronghold in the phased implementation of these plans through, first of all, the OUN (see, for example, "Martin Broszat's Nationalsozialistische Polenpolitik 1939 — 1945", Stuttgart, 1961). Obviously, such projects, due to geography, directly concerned the security and integrity of the USSR.


Residents of Lviv, the Soviet "occupation" is clearly not upset


Regarding Lviv, the situation, according to Soviet and Polish documents of that period, developed as follows: around 6: 30 in the morning of 19 September, the commander of the Polish garrison in Lvov, Colonel of the General Staff, arrived at the commander of the 24 brigade, Colonel P. Fomchenkov (his headquarters at the eastern outskirts of Lviv) B. Rakovsky, with him two colonels and three majors.

The brigade commander proposed to surrender the city of Lviv to Soviet troops. The chief of staff of the garrison asked to wait, as he should receive an order from above. All this was given 2 hours. The commander of the 24th brigade (ltbr) also demanded that Tankslocated in the city and on the outskirts, continued to remain in their places. But, in view of the data of Soviet military intelligence, he allowed the Poles to occupy points in the city to observe the German positions, which were half-ring adjacent to the city.

Such a decision by Fomchenkov was one hundred percent justified. For already in 8: 30. on the same day, the Germans, who came to Lvov on the 16 of September, unexpectedly launched an attack on the city districts occupied not only by Polish, but also by Soviet troops. By that time, it was the latter that controlled already up to 70% of its territory. The Polish troops took the battle, and the Soviet tanks and armored vehicles of the 24 ltbr reconnaissance battalion were first between the warring parties.

By order of the brigade command, agreed with Moscow, Soviet tankmen opened fire on the Germans, joining the Poles. By the evening of September 19, the German attack was repelled. The losses of the 24 Brigade were two armored vehicles and one tank, three were killed and four people were injured. In addition, on the battlefield at the location of the brigade there were two German tanks wrecked by the Poles.



Similar excesses of a smaller scale were in the Grodno region, near the town of Kolomyia in southern Galicia west of Lutsk. After that, the Polish troops there, who repelled the German attacks together with the Soviet units, were captured by the Red Army (south of the neighboring Romanian Kolomyia - and Romanian). Although the German military insisted on their transfer to German captivity.

It is possible that the events mentioned, especially in Lviv, were a deliberate German provocation in order to seize the whole of Galicia and, possibly, even then start a war with the USSR. Obviously, they were no longer afraid of a stab in the back from France and England in Berlin.

It is noteworthy that it was in its Lviv region that there were large oil reserves, on the basis of which local oil refining worked, which clearly attracted the Germans. But to prevent the German invasion, which, by the way, contradicted the notorious Ribbentrop-Molotov pact, Soviet and Polish troops were able to work together.
Author:
Articles from this series:
Warsaw, 17 of September 1939: in the morning a note, in the evening - an escape
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  1. Rwmos
    Rwmos 29 September 2019 05: 14
    -1
    Once the Saxon slaves were flogged at the stable - it must be repeated. To the Przeprashems and their CATTLE (IMMEDIATELY - that's what they called zapadentsev) - it’s tight
    1. Comrade
      Comrade 29 September 2019 05: 28
      +8
      Repeated requests by the Poles for specific military assistance remained unanswered

      The Soviet Union offered them help, they refused, counting on the British.
      So, for what they fought, they ran into something.
      1. kaperazbh5
        kaperazbh5 29 September 2019 05: 42
        -31
        The Soviet Union did not offer help. The Soviet Union, EMNIP, on September 7 handed a note to the Polish ambassador, in which he confronted Poland with the fact ....
        1. 210ox
          210ox 29 September 2019 06: 18
          +24
          A year before, he suggested letting the Red Army troops into Czechoslovakia .. However, the ambassadors did not want to .. And what happened to them, further fussing? The state’s security question is a priority.
          1. kaperazbh5
            kaperazbh5 29 September 2019 06: 26
            +7
            Helping a neighboring state and the security of its own state are different concepts. The Soviet government made decisions solely in the interests of its country. And it is right.
            1. Basil50
              Basil50 29 September 2019 10: 19
              +5
              Please note that no one doubts the right of the Poles to seize territories, what is in the past, what is in the future.
              It is a pity that the bike attributed to Schelenberg about the seizure of the German town of Gleivice has become sort of like * a medical fact *. For some reason, it is not considered how the Poles prepared in 1939 for the capture of Germany with the subsequent assimilation of Germans into Poles.
              Poles seized territories at every opportunity, and today they demand recognition of them * primordially Polish * although the Poles lost everything as a result of their own aggression. My question is, why do neighbors' answers drive the Poles into a frenzy of hatred? Especially to RUSSIA and RUSSIAN? Maybe from the fact that they were not destroyed for the atrocities that they did and the Poles were assured of the forgiveness of their own villain in the future?
              1. Greg Miller
                Greg Miller 29 September 2019 11: 49
                +4
                Poland is a strange entity that, when it appears on the political map of the world, begins to have territorial claims immediately against ALL neighboring states ...
        2. Ural-4320
          Ural-4320 29 September 2019 11: 22
          +4
          The EMNIP was handed the note on September 17, the day the government and Romania fled. Here the article was about these events.
      2. svp67
        svp67 30 September 2019 05: 52
        0
        Quote: Comrade
        The Soviet Union offered them help, they refused, counting on the British.
        So, for what they fought, they ran into something.

        To be honest, in many respects it seems that someone in England and France, at that time and in that situation, had an opinion about the possibility of an armed conflict between Germany and the USSR, with the development of a full-fledged war. Therefore, they were not in a hurry to move their divisions to the Germans and send convoys with the help of Poland.
  2. kaperazbh5
    kaperazbh5 29 September 2019 05: 36
    -7
    '' Soviet and Polish troops actually jointly defended Lviv from German units! '' and the next sentence in the text '' Such precedents of a joint struggle against the Nazis were, of course, rare '' In my opinion, mutually exclusive concepts what
    1. user1212
      user1212 29 September 2019 06: 27
      +6
      Quote: kaperazbh5
      In my opinion, mutually exclusive concepts

      I see nothing mutually exclusive here. Poles fought on both sides of WWII. Despite the fact that Poland is on the list of victorious countries, among the prisoners of war in the USSR, there were 60280 Poles. In total, about 44 thousand Poles were called up to the German army until the end of 500
  3. Andrei Nikolaevich
    Andrei Nikolaevich 29 September 2019 05: 38
    -6
    Lviv is the capital of eastern Kresa. Where is historical justice?
    Ukraine- tse Evropa! :-) I really hope that Euro-Ukraine will throw off the dirty, acquisitive past in the new Euro-European family. :-)
    1. Rwmos
      Rwmos 29 September 2019 06: 04
      +4
      And Germany is a Slavic land. It's time to mark it back. And Lyakhov too - in passing
      1. Doliva63
        Doliva63 29 September 2019 17: 16
        0
        Quote: RWMos
        And Germany is a Slavic land.

        Well, not all, but the East and along the Baltic coast - for sure! drinks
  4. Amurets
    Amurets 29 September 2019 05: 47
    +5
    It is noteworthy that it was in its Lviv region that there were large oil reserves, on the basis of which local oil refining worked, which clearly attracted the Germans. But to prevent the German invasion, which, by the way, contradicted the notorious Ribbentrop-Molotov pact, Soviet and Polish troops were able to work together.
    That was what was interesting for the Germans in Predkapatya, that there is oil and gas as raw materials for the German petrochemical industry. "PRE-CARPATHIAN OIL AND GAS-BEARING REGION - located within the Lvov, Ivano-Frankivsk and Chernivtsi regions of the Ukrainian SSR, in the forest zone of the foothills of the Carpathians (map).
    The area is 20,8 thousand km2. One of the oldest oil and gas producing regions in the country. The first deposits (Borislavskoye and Bytkovskoye) were discovered in the 19th century, firstly, deposits of ozokerite were developed, and from 1860 - oil. The first gas field was discovered in 1920. Production centers - years. Ivano-Frankivsk, Dashava, Borislav, Sambor, Drohobych "
    http://www.mining-enc.ru/p/predkarpatskaya-neftegazonosnaya-oblast
  5. kaperazbh5
    kaperazbh5 29 September 2019 06: 38
    +2
    Quote: user1212
    Quote: kaperazbh5
    In my opinion, mutually exclusive concepts

    I see nothing mutually exclusive here. Poles fought on both sides of WWII. Despite the fact that Poland is on the list of victorious countries, among the prisoners of war in the USSR, there were 60280 Poles. In total, about 44 thousand Poles were called up to the German army until the end of 500

    So I do not argue. The same applies to the French and Americans, and many more to whom.
  6. KERMET
    KERMET 29 September 2019 06: 43
    +2
    But to prevent the German invasion, which, incidentally, contradicted the notorious Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact

    Well, and at what point is there a contradiction?
    There is no word at all in the pact itself, but in the notorious secret protocols that the Soviet side did not recognize .... Then the question is - what kind of agreements are these if they are violated already next month?
  7. Umalta
    Umalta 29 September 2019 07: 57
    0
    Only one thing is clear today Poland itself chose the role of a rug at the doorstep to Europe, by the way part of the Poles, unfortunately I suppose that the smaller one understands this, but can’t do anything.
    1. Strashila
      Strashila 29 September 2019 08: 45
      0
      “Only one thing is clear nowadays Poland itself has chosen the role of a rug at the doorstep to Europe,” but not only do they wipe their feet on the rug, but also all sorts of “allies” throw up poop on the rug.
  8. anjey
    anjey 29 September 2019 08: 13
    +2
    Interesting facts in the article about the joint defense of Lviv by the Soviet-Polish troops ..
    1. The comment was deleted.
  9. anjey
    anjey 29 September 2019 08: 20
    +1
    The Poles and the brand were released, so Ivana and the Yaneks fought shoulder to shoulder against the Germans back in 1939. Oh, brothers Slavs ...., on the mark of conflagration over the city, but during the whole war the city was not particularly damaged, almost all the old buildings preserved to this day.
    1. Alex_You
      Alex_You 29 September 2019 13: 15
      0
      Imagine Hamburg, Cologne was bombed in the Stone Age and almost all the old buildings are "preserved".
      1. anjey
        anjey 29 September 2019 13: 41
        0
        Lviv wasn’t bombed like that, but Dresden and Berlin, there is little left of the 18th century ...
  10. Strashila
    Strashila 29 September 2019 08: 43
    +2
    Noteworthy facts indicate that, if not the Polish ambition, World War II could be crushed in the bud. It is significant that in these events the Pact did not play any role; if necessary, the Germans were already beaten in the 39th.
    1. Alex_You
      Alex_You 29 September 2019 13: 17
      -4
      If Stalin had said to Hitler, "No problem," then he would not have unleashed a war.
      1. Strashila
        Strashila 29 September 2019 13: 33
        0
        No, this clearly would not have happened. There is a term to buy a border, when the territory bordering on the enemy is used, while the state remains of the "neutral" type. In modern times, this has been widely used in Yugoslavia, Iraq, Libya by NATO countries. This is widely used by Israel using Lebanese airspace against Syria. The Germans needed passages to their enclaves through the territory of Poland, the Poles refused the request of the Germans, and received a war. Germany needed contact with the USSR to wage war. The events of the war between the USSR and Finland showed that the Western countries did not have global contradictions, therefore they acted as a united front against the USSR and the Germans, French, British, and the existence of hostilities between them in this matter was forgotten.
      2. Mikhail Zhukov
        Mikhail Zhukov 30 September 2019 07: 49
        +3
        If in Munich they said no to Hitler, then there would be no war. If Poland had missed the Red Army to defend Czechoslovakia in 38, and hadn’t taken it herself, together with Germany, to pull the territory of her neighbor, then there would have been no war. And at 39 it was too late to say no
      3. Wolga
        Wolga 30 September 2019 19: 11
        -1
        Throwing feces on the fan is not counted! negative The bastard ...
  11. Roman77
    Roman77 29 September 2019 08: 55
    +2
    Good article. But we seem to be looking for excuses for someone. We came then to take our !!!! So with the Crimea!
  12. Rostislav
    Rostislav 29 September 2019 08: 58
    +3
    Little-known page of history, thanks to the author.
  13. steelmaker
    steelmaker 29 September 2019 09: 56
    +7
    Stalin is an outstanding politician! He needs monuments to be erected on all squares, and not all centers to build.
  14. Thunderbolt
    Thunderbolt 29 September 2019 11: 05
    +3
    It is noteworthy that in the 44th the Home Army held the "Tempest" action. Its idea was to attack the retreating German rearguards before the arrival of the Red Army. So this is how it was then specifically in Lviv --- the city was taken from the north and south by our two tank armies. They had not enough infantry for street fighting. And then the Army of Craiova, which came out of the underground. So we had to storm the German strongholds together and then clean up the city blocks. And when the fighting subsided, the Poles began to hang their flags on their houses in order to meet the Soviets as owners. But the Soviet military administration explained to them "whose Lvov" and had to take off the red-white flags. And then the Red Army moved on to Berlin. But that is another story.
    And in the photo a joint patrol of the Craiova Army and our valiant Red Army.
  15. Undecim
    Undecim 29 September 2019 11: 54
    +2
    Not aggression, but necessary defense
    The authors have a correct beginning, but the continuation is incomprehensible. Instead of, as follows from the subtitle, arguably substantiating that the actions of the USSR leadership in 1939 took an absolutely pragmatic position, it could not act differently at that time, given the current international situation, and these actions do not need any additional justifications , the authors begin to invent some unprecedented historical events about the "major joint military operation" and "joint struggle against the Nazis" in 1939. At the same time, despite the references to Soviet and Polish documents (unnamed), the course of events as presented by the authors does not correspond to reality and looks like some kind of clumsy attempts to justify.
    First, the Germans did not reach Lviv on 16, but on September 11, and by the time the units of the Red Army approached, the Poles had successfully beaten off all German attempts to capture the city for a week. The capture of Lviv by the German command attached great propaganda significance.
    The course of events in September 1939 is described in great detail in the first issue of the "Military-Historical Journal" for 1959, in an article by F.I. Golikov, who commanded the 6th Army, which occupied the territory of the present Lviv and Ternopil regions.
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 29 September 2019 11: 56
      +1
      A few fragments of the article.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 29 September 2019 11: 57
        +1

        Read more.
        1. Undecim
          Undecim 29 September 2019 11: 58
          +1

          Read more.
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 29 September 2019 11: 59
            +1

            Read more.
            1. Undecim
              Undecim 29 September 2019 12: 00
              +1

              Read more.
              1. Undecim
                Undecim 29 September 2019 12: 03
                +1

                As we can see, nowhere in the article is there any mention of any "joint operation" and "brotherhood in arms".
                1. naidas
                  naidas 29 September 2019 13: 49
                  0
                  The author used Mikhail Ivanovich Meltyukhov, a Russian historian. Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor. The author of works on the preventive war of Germany against the USSR.
                  Soviet-Polish war. Military-political confrontation 1918-1939
                  1. Undecim
                    Undecim 29 September 2019 14: 31
                    0
                    The author used Mikhail Ivanovich Meltiukhov
                    “Meanwhile, the combined motor detachment of the 2nd Cavalry Corps and the 24th Tank Brigade with 35 bales approached Lvov at about 2.00 on September 19.“ When approaching the city, the Polish artillery opened fire. Overcoming the street barricades, the head reconnaissance battalion [consisting of 6 tanks] reached The first tank was knocked out. The commander of the reconnaissance company, Senior Lieutenant Comrade Chufarov, shot down a gun near the church and set fire to enemy shells with a shot. rifle-machine-gun and revolver fire was opened from the barracks and many houses. Tanks fired on flashes. By 4.30 the fire ceased on both sides. At 4.20:2 am the brigade commander [Colonel PS Fotchenkov], being in a tank in Lvov, received through his a note from the 24nd rank commander, Comrade Gorodovikov, an order: 320th Tank Brigade to stop at Zlochów and await further orders. ”The brigade commander did not know the reasons for such an order. He assumed that instructions were received from above about the cancellation [5.00] of the first order to seize Lvov. At XNUMX the brigade commander gave the order to the reconnaissance battalion, while remaining in the city, to close the exits of the eastern outskirts of Lvov. The rest of the tanks go to the eastern outskirts of Vynnyky (near Lvov).
                    The captain Shurenkov, head of the 2nd unit, contact the Polish headquarters and call the head of the Lviv garrison to negotiate the surrender of the city. At 6.00:19 a.m. on September 6.30, the units took their places and began disarming the Polish troops coming to Lvov for help, and the reconnaissance battalion disarmed the barracks in the city of Lviv itself. At 7.00 two Polish majors arrived to the brigade commander for negotiations. The brigade commander refused to negotiate with them and ordered the garrison commander or chief of staff to appear. At 19:7.40 a.m. on September 2, the colonel and two other majors arrived, with whom negotiations were also not conducted. At 8.30 arrived the chief of staff of the garrison, Colonel of the General Staff [B. Rakovsky] and with him two colonels and three majors. The brigade commander recommended himself as the commander of the tank corps, who surrounded Lviv and offered to surrender the city of Lviv. The chief of staff of the garrison asked to wait, as he is not authorized to do this and must receive an order from above. All this was given XNUMX hours. The brigade commander demanded that tanks located in the city and on the outskirts continue to remain [there] and permission to occupy command posts to monitor the German positions, which were half-ring adjacent to the city. This was agreed. We agreed to mutually exchange communication delegates. At XNUMX the Germans unexpectedly launched an attack on the western and southern outskirts of the city. At the same time, tanks and armored vehicles of the reconnaissance battalion were between two fires (Germans and Poles).
                    The brigade commander sent an armored vehicle to the Germans with a piece of a lower shirt on a stick. Tanks and armored vehicles threw red and white flags, but the fire on them from both sides did not stop, then fire was opened from the armored vehicles and tanks. At the same time, 3 anti-tank guns were killed by the Germans, 2 majors and 1 officer were killed, 9 soldiers were wounded. We had 2 armored vehicles and 1 tank shot down, 3 people were killed and 4 people were injured. ” Soon the fire was ceased, the commander of the 137th regiment [321] of the mountain German division Colonel [von Schliammer] arrived with an armored car, with whom the brigade commander in the German headquarters agreed on controversial issues. We picked up our wounded and driven in, and they were ours.
                    During September 19 and 20, repeated negotiations were held between the command of the 24th light tank brigade, on the one hand, and representatives of the command of the German mountain division, on the other, on the cessation of hostilities and the elimination of conflicts that arose. As a result of the negotiations, normal relations between the contracting parties were finally restored. After that, there were no misunderstandings between the units of the 24th Tank Brigade and the units of the German Mountain Rifle Division. Parts of the German division began to withdraw westward, waging rearguard battles with Polish troops. ” During negotiations, the commander of the artillery of the Ukrainian Front, brigade commander N.D. Yakovlev and the German command, the parties demanded from each other to withdraw troops from the city and not interfere with its assault. By the evening of September 20, German troops were ordered to withdraw from Lviv. Nevertheless, the Wehrmacht command again demanded that the Poles surrender the city no later than 10 hours on September 21: "If you surrender Lviv to us, you will remain in Europe, if you surrender to the Bolsheviks, you will become Asia forever." On the night of September 21, the German units began to move away from Lviv, and their positions were occupied by Soviet troops, preparing for an attack by the city, scheduled for the morning.
                    The plan for the assault on the city was as follows: the 14th cavalry division was to attack the city from the north and northeast, the combined detachment of the 17th rifle corps with the 38th tank brigade - from the east; The 5th Cavalry Division, together with the 10th Tank Brigade, is from the southeast, and the 3rd Cavalry Division is from the south and southwest. Since negotiations with the Polish command did not produce any results, it was decided to attack the city at 9.00:21 on September 17. At the appointed time, Soviet troops moved towards the city, but the Polish command resumed negotiations, and the Soviet units were returned to their original position. At 322 p.m., near the yeast factory on the eastern outskirts of the city, the commander of the Polish garrison, General V. Lyangner, Lieutenant Colonel K. Ryzhinsky, Major Y. Yavich, Captain K. Chikhirin met with the brigade commanders [20] PA. Kurochkin and N.D. Yakovlev, Brigadier Commissar K.V. Krainyukov, colonels Fotchenkov, regimental commissar Makarov and I.A. Serov. In the course of the negotiations, it turned out that the Polish garrison was ready to capitulate, but this should be done in an organized manner. Returning to the city, at about XNUMX p.m. Langner announced at a meeting of the defense command about the decision to surrender the city to the Soviets. Most officers favored ending the fighting.
                    On September 21, the commander of the 6th Army issued an order: “The enemy is holding the last stronghold on its territory - Lvov. The defense of the city is led by a fascist organization. The defense principle is circular, with street barricades and partially mined driveways. The Eastern Group of Forces attacks the enemy at 9.00 22.9.39 with the task of breaking his resistance, forcing them to lay down their arms and surrender, ”but they did not have to execute it. At 8.00:22 on September 24, Lyangner arrived at the headquarters of the 11.00th tank brigade in Vinniki with the proposals for negotiations drawn up the day before. As a result of the last round of negotiations at 8, an agreement was signed on the "transfer of the city of Lvov to the troops of the Soviet Union." According to the 14.00th clause of the agreement, the officers of the Polish troops were guaranteed “personal freedom and the inviolability of their personal property. They are allowed to travel to foreign countries by local authorities together with representatives of the diplomatic authorities of the given state. " At 15.00 the Polish troops began to lay down their arms, and at 2 the formations of the 24nd Soviet cavalry corps on foot, together with the tanks of the 38th, 10th and 23th tank brigades entered the city. In general, the garrison complied with the surrender agreement, only individual groups of officers in several places opened fire from the barricades. With the help of tanks, resistance was quickly suppressed. By the evening of September XNUMX, order was restored in the city and the main forces of Soviet troops were withdrawn to its outskirts. "
                    Meltiukhov Mikhail Ivanovich
                    Soviet-Polish war.
                    Military-political confrontation 1918-1939

                    And where is Meltyukhov about the "joint operation"?
                    1. naidas
                      naidas 29 September 2019 15: 09
                      -1
                      Quote: Undecim
                      At 8.30 the Germans unexpectedly launched an attack on the western and southern outskirts of the city. At the same time, tanks and armored vehicles of the reconnaissance battalion were between two fires (Germans and Poles).

                      Quote: Undecim
                      then, armored vehicles and tanks opened fire on the enemy. At the same time, 3 anti-tank guns were killed by the Germans, 2 majors and 1 officer were killed, 9 soldiers were wounded. We had 2 armored vehicles and 1 tank shot down, 3 people were killed and 4 people were injured. ”

                      Question who is your opponent?
                      About the joint operation, your notions, although the author exaggerated speaking about a major operation. Rather, I agree with the author:
                      It is possible that the events mentioned, especially in Lviv, were a deliberate German provocation ...
                      1. KERMET
                        KERMET 29 September 2019 16: 18
                        0
                        And you can find out what could be achieved by this provocation? After all, even a month has not passed since the signing of the pact
                      2. naidas
                        naidas 29 September 2019 17: 26
                        0
                        ask the author what he meant.
                        For me, mistrust, chance, including circumstances and initiative from below.
                        On September 18, 1939, Soviet officials in Berlin showed German officials a map on which Lviv, the oil-producing regions of Western Ukraine — Drohobych and Borislav, as well as the Kolomyia district, which allowed Germany to establish direct rail links with Romania, were designated as related to the German sphere of interests.
                        Vishlev Oleg Viktorovich> Stalin and Hitler. Who cheated whom (page 26)
                      3. KERMET
                        KERMET 29 September 2019 22: 30
                        0
                        Those. On August 23, Ribbentrop (the German government) had no interest in this area at all (if you believe the secret protocols), but less than a month later, how did they appear? What are these "secret protocols" such that everything is put on them with the device?
                      4. naidas
                        naidas 29 September 2019 17: 47
                        0
                        Quote: KERMET
                        And you can find out what could be achieved by this provocation? After all, even a month has not passed since the signing of the pact

                        In Undecim comets, Golikov p79 (at the end) the order of the highest German command, and on p. 80 (2nd paragraph) a proposal to move away from Lviv 30km east.
                      5. KERMET
                        KERMET 29 September 2019 22: 32
                        0
                        The German command put in short the treaties of the German government ...
                      6. Undecim
                        Undecim 29 September 2019 16: 25
                        0
                        About joint operation your notions
                        Decided to shift from a sick head to a healthy one?
                        From the article: "However, the largest joint military operation was successfully carried out near the walls of Lviv by failed allies."
                      7. naidas
                        naidas 29 September 2019 17: 16
                        0
                        Quote: Undecim
                        And where is Meltyukhov about the "joint operation"?

                        Then ask Undecim, the author does not have a term about a joint operation.
                        Quote: naidas
                        although the author exaggerated speaking of a major operation.
  16. Operator
    Operator 29 September 2019 15: 54
    -1
    In Lviv and some other settlements of Western Belarus and Western Ukraine, there were extremely small armed clashes between the Wehrmacht and the Red Army with the participation of Polish military units, mainly in the case of Germans entering the demarcation line according to the protocol to the Soviet-German agreement.

    At the same time, parts of the Red Army took only retaliatory actions, and the German leadership did not plan to get involved in the war with the USSR in September 1939, if only because of the banal exhaustion of ammunition and fuel supplies following the results of the Polish company.

    But the most important thing was that Hitler, from September 1939 to June 1941, consistently implemented his plan to exclude a war on two fronts (according to the experience of the WWII) and to concentrate the economic potential of almost all of Europe in the hands of the Third Reich. Without this, war with the USSR was impossible in the opinion of the entire German leadership.
    1. KERMET
      KERMET 29 September 2019 17: 21
      0
      Quote: Operator
      mainly in the case of Germans entering the demarcation line according to the protocol to the Soviet-German treaty.

      Maybe, in the case of the Germans entering beyond the Curzon line?
      And all this fuss with Lvov just shows that the military units of both sides did not hear about any demarcations according to secret protocols
  17. SEMARGL
    SEMARGL 29 September 2019 17: 52
    -4
    LITTLE HARNESS, WHO SOMETHING YOU WILL BE LUCKY WITH A REGISTRATION IN EUROPE, WITHOUT LEAVING HOME, THE TRUTION MAYBE LONG LONG TIME, OWNERS, FROM YOUR FORMER APARTMENTS AND HOUSES! Take care of lop-eared ears, WOMAN YOU ARE NOT BROTHERS!
  18. 1970mk
    1970mk 17 October 2019 14: 12
    0
    Historians do not remember)))) Will the Author say why historians do not remember that on the Day of the capture of Paris (5 days before the surrender of France) Comrade. Molotov summoned the German ambassador and officially congratulated him on the brilliant actions of German weapons "? And why are modern patriotic historians so silent about what was written in the USSR Press about Germany? For example," ... Hitlerism as an ideology cannot be fought by armed method. ... with Hitlerism you need to negotiate .. "