Military Review

410 years ago began the heroic defense of Smolensk

410 years ago, on 26 of September 1609 of the year, the heroic defense of Smolensk began. Brave Smolensk fought to the complete exhaustion of defensive capabilities and the almost complete death of the garrison and the population of the city.

Defense of Smolensk. Artist V. Kireev

The 20 month-long defense of Smolensk was of great political and strategic importance. From the second half of the 1610 of the year, the Smolensk garrison turned out to be the main force that organizedly and openly fought against the interventionists, which was of great moral importance to Russia. In addition, the city for two years distracted the main forces of the Polish invaders, showing an example of the struggle of the rest of the country.

Polish intervention

The Polish-Lithuanian feudal lords, with the active participation of the Jesuits and with the support of the Polish king Sigismund III, took advantage of the situation of the Time of Troubles in the Russian Empire and began the intervention. Initially, during the impostors of False Dmitry I and False Dmitry II, Polish robbers - pans and gentry "walked" on Russian soil. Various Lisovsky, Ruzhinsky, Makhovetsky, Sapieha, Vishnevetsky, etc. Their main interest was profit. Which did not stop to cover the passion for gold with loud patriotic and religious slogans. For them, a weak ruler in Moscow was beneficial, who would not interfere with robbing, and even give gifts, lands for help.

Polish nobles and magnates, like the king, sought to colonize Russia, at least its western part, and to catholicize the people, subjugating the Russians to the throne of the pope. In this situation, the king and the Polish elite received a huge jackpot - all Russian wealth, land, Russian - slaves-servants of the Polish feudal lords. But at the same time, the interests of the magnates and the king diverged. The pans sought to ensure that all the benefits of the occupation went to them only, and the royal power not only did not increase at the expense of the Russian lands, but, on the contrary, weakened even more. Accordingly, Sigismund saw in the Russian Empire his personal estate, in which it would be possible to rule without the intervention of the Polish Sejm, where the nobility, which was driven by magnates, ruled. That is, both the king and the magnates were all for a religious union (absorption) with Russia, but the magnates were for a state union, and the king was for a personal one. In 1606 - 1607 years. part of the gentry launched a war against the king, which delayed the royal army's invasion of Russia in the Time of Troubles for almost three years.

Before the invasion of Rus by the royal army, the Polish-Lithuanian gentry constituted the professional, well-armed core of the army of the second impostor. False Dmitry II was to implement a church union, subjugate the Russian state to the Roman throne and Poland, and transfer the Russian capital closer to the western border. Also provide the highest and most important state posts to Catholics, Uniates and supporters of the union from the Russian nobility.

In June 1608, the troops of False Dmitry II camped at Tushin. From here, the forces of the impostor controlled the Smolensk and Tverskaya roads, approaches to Moscow from the north-west. The government of Vasily Shuisky had a large army in Moscow. Therefore, the Tushins could not storm the city. In turn, Shuisky was afraid to go on the offensive because of the unreliability of part of the governor and the boyars, the lack of combat-ready troops and their moral instability. Many boyars and nobles several times moved from camp to camp. In Tushino there was its own “king”, government, treasury, governing bodies (orders), army. Some cities and lands subordinated to Moscow, handed over people, supplies and money there, while others - to the “Tushino thief”.

At the end of July 1608, the embassy of the Shuisky government managed to conclude a truce with Sigismund III for the 3 of the year and 11 of the month. The Polish government was obliged to withdraw all Polish troops from the borders of the Russian Empire, and the Shuisky government freed Polish lords, both prisoners and those detained after the murder of False Dmitry I. However, most of those released, including the Mniszek family, along with Marina (wife of False Dmitry I), were “Intercepted” on the way to Poland and ended up in the Tushino camp. Reinforcements from the Commonwealth continued to arrive to False Dmitry II. So at the end of August a large detachment of Jan Sapieha arrived in Tushino. By the fall of 1608, the Poles totaled about 16 thousand horsemen in the Tushino camp, and all over Russia up to 40 thousand, and even more allied Cossacks.

Thus, the Polish-Lithuanian feudal lords had an entire army in the Russian state. The Polish command tried to solve two main problems: 1) to extend the power of the Tushino "Tsar" to the richest regions of the Russian land, which had a formal reason for their robbery; 2) create a full-fledged blockade of Moscow in order to cut it off from other cities, interrupt the arrival of reinforcements and the supply of food, which led to the fall of the Russian capital. Therefore, the detachments of the Polish-Lithuanian gentry, the "thieves' Cossacks" were sent from Tushin to the south, east and north of Moscow, forcing the population of cities to "kiss the cross to the thief", that is, swear an oath to False Dmitry II. Resistance at this time they almost did not meet. Many cities "kissed the cross from tears with tears." But some cities like Rostov and Kolomna resisted. As a result, by the end of the year, a significant part of the Russian land fell under the control of the “thief”. But it was a short-term success. The predatory actions of Polish robbers and other "thieves" very quickly provoked a response from the Russian people, which everywhere began to resist and organize independently, putting forward experienced and decisive leaders. Local zemstvo self-government, created under Ivan the Terrible, played a huge role in creating militias and eliminating the Time of Troubles in the country.

The Tushins failed to solve the second strategic task - to completely block Moscow. Khmelevsky’s detachment, which was supposed to take Kolomna and cut Moscow off from the Ryazan region, was defeated by the Kolomna people and Pozharsky’s detachment. Sapieha’s detachment besieged the Trinity-Sergius Monastery (at that time it was a powerful fortress), through which Moscow’s communications with the north went. The Lisovsky detachment came up to the same place. Here the Poles got stuck in a siege of the monastery until January 1610 and were never able to take it (The ruin of the Russian land. Heroic defense of the Trinity Monastery of St. Sergius).

Expanding the scale of the people's war. Success of Skopin-Shuisky

Meanwhile, resistance to the Poles and their "thieves" intensified, who levied taxes on cities and villages, and most often simply plundered the people. The impostor's social base has declined. The upsurge of the national liberation struggle began. The successful defense of Rostov and Kolomna, the heroic defense of the Trinity-Sergius Monastery became an example for others. Posad-peasant population, service people of the North and the Upper Volga region were the first to repel the onslaught of “thieves”. At the same time, the Volga region rose against the Tushins and Poles. Nizhny Novgorod didn’t let the Tushins in, the Galician militia fought off Kostroma, a hard fight went over Yaroslavl, where the Poles created a base for themselves. The people's war led to the dispersal of the forces of the Polish-Lithuanian feudal lords, who, solving a lot of tactical tasks, could not concentrate on strategic ones.

In the meantime, the Shuisky government decided to lean against Sweden, which was the enemy of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and repeatedly offered assistance in the fight against the Poles in the fight against Tushins. It is clear that the help was not free - the Swedes wanted to chop off the north-western regions from Russia with Pskov, Novgorod, Karelia, etc. Apart from the monetary payment. At the beginning of 1609 in Vyborg, a Russian-Swedish military alliance was concluded against the Commonwealth. Sweden provided several thousand mercenaries to Moscow for a set fee (there were few Swedes themselves, mostly fighters from Western Europe). In response, the Shuisky government refused claims to Livonia and ceded the Swedes to the city of Korel with the county. The Russian-Swedish army led by Skopin-Shuisky and Delagardi in May 1609 came out of Novgorod with the goal of liberating Moscow. In the current strategic situation, when Skopin’s troops advanced from the north and the scale of the people's war weakened the Tushino camp, the Tushins tried to take Moscow before the approach of ratification of Skopin-Shuisky. In the battles on the Khodynsky field on 5 and 25 on July 1609, the Tushins were defeated. The defeat at Khodynka, the approach of Skopin’s troops and the invasion of the Polish army led by the king (many Polish troops were recalled to the royal army), predetermined the collapse of the Tushino camp.

The invasion of the Polish king

An agreement between the Shuisky government and Sweden, the enemy of Poland, gave King Sigismund a formal reason for a war with Russia. Sigismund himself decided to start a war, without resorting to the Sejm. Polish laws allowed the king to wage war on his own if no additional taxes were introduced. For the invasion, the Polish high command outlined the Smolensk direction, although the hetman Zholkevsky suggested the king move through Seversky land. The first strategic target was Smolensk, which closed the way to Moscow. The Polish command hoped to quickly seize the Smolensk fortress and, during a further offensive, strengthen its army with the Polish-gentry detachments of the decaying Tushino camp, and take Moscow.

However, all these rainbow plans were destroyed by the fierce resistance of the Smolyan. In addition, the Polish king was unable to assemble a large army. They planned to gather up to 30 thousand soldiers, but they recruited only about 12 thousand people. At the same time, the Poles had little infantry and artillery (all 30 guns) to storm or besiege such a strong fortress as Smolensk. They hoped for change. The military council decided not to wait for the arrival of all forces and to begin the offensive until winter came. On September 9 (19), breaking the ceasefire, without declaring war, Polish troops crossed the border, and September 13 (23) occupied Krasny, from where Sigismund sent a letter to Moscow. The Polish king wrote that he enters the borders of the Russian kingdom as a deliverer from troubles and bloodshed, allegedly at the call of the Russian people, and most of all is happy about the preservation of the Orthodox faith. It is clear that they did not believe him. Sigismund also sent the governor of Smolensk to Mikhail Shein a demand for surrender. The Russian governor didn’t answer anything to the proposal of the Poles, but declared to the Pole who had come to him that if he came up with such a proposal for the second time, they would give him drink the Dnieper’s water ”(that is, drown).

On September 16 (26), Lithuanian troops came to Smolensk under the command of Leo Sapieha, and on September 19 (29) the main forces of Sigismund III approached. At the end of September, about 10 thousand Cossacks, an indefinite number of Lithuanian Tatars, joined the army of Sigismund. That is, Sigismund had a lot of cavalry to quickly go to Moscow, but there was little infantry and artillery (they didn’t take heavy siege artillery at all) to go on an assault or conduct a proper siege.

410 years ago began the heroic defense of Smolensk

Siege of Smolensk in 1609 — 1611

The beginning of the defense of the Smolensk fortress

The Polish command greatly underestimated the enemy. Although the garrison of Smolensk did not exceed 5 thousand people (while the most combat-ready forces, archers and nobles, left Smolensk to help Skopin), he had high morale and relied on powerful fortifications. Smolensk fortress was built in 1586 1602 years. under the guidance of the famous builder of Russian fortresses of the city master Fedor Kon). The total length of the fortress wall reached 6,5 km, height - 13 – 19 m, width - 5 – 6 m. A powerful foundation was laid with a width of up to 6,5 m and a depth of more than 4 m, which complicated the enemy’s mine attack. The wall had 38 towers, including 9 gateways. The height of the towers reached 21 m, and the Frolovskaya tower near the Dnieper - 33 m. “Rumors” were prepared outside the fortress wall for timely detection of enemy mine work. There were about 170 guns in the armament of the fortress, they were installed in the embrasures of the "plantar battle", "middle battle", "another middle battle" and in the "upper battle" (between the battlements of the wall). The fortress had good supplies of spare guns and a hand gun weapons and ammunition. There was food in the warehouses, but it was not enough for a long siege.

Smolensk governor Mikhail Borisovich Shein was a brave, determined and experienced commander. Already in July, Shein began to receive information that the enemy was preparing an offensive and took a number of measures to strengthen the defense of the fortress. Work was carried out to prepare the fortress for defense, gathering affluent people (peasants) from the nobles and children of the boyars to strengthen the garrison. Shein divided the entire garrison into siege (about 2 thousand people) and march (about 3,5 thousand people) groups. The siege group was divided into 38 units (according to the number of towers) of approximately 50 warriors in each unit who defended their tower and a section of the wall with it. The sortie group made up a general reserve, which was of great importance for the defense of so much great fortress. During the defense of Smolensk, the garrison was constantly replenished from the population of the city, the number of which historians determine in 40 – 80 thousand people, including the inhabitants of the posad, who were burned when the enemy approached.

It is not surprising that the siege from the very beginning went unsuccessfully. Six Smolensk brave men on a boat in broad daylight crossed the Dnieper and made their way to the royal camp, grabbed the royal banner and safely returned to the city. The Polish Military Council, after studying the defense of the city, came to the conclusion that the existing forces and means did not take the fortress. Getman Zholkevsky proposed a completely reasonable solution - to leave the detachment for the sake of siege and with the main forces go to Moscow. However, Sigismund did not dare to leave behind a strong Russian fortress. It was decided to attempt an unexpected assault: quickly break into the fortress, destroying the Kopytetsk and Abraham gates with firecrackers (subversive shells). However, Shein envisioned such a scenario; wooden log houses filled with earth and stones were erected at the gate outside. Between the gates and the log cabins there was a small passage through which only one rider could pass. These log houses protected the gates from mines and shelling of enemy artillery. Therefore, the evening storm of 24 on September 1609 failed.

Polish artillery and musketeers tried to distract the Russians with their shooting. The best horse banners and infantry companies were preparing for a breakthrough. Mine with trumpeters (they should have given a signal that the path is clear), moved to the gate. Shlyakhtich Novodvorsky was able to get to the Abraham gate with a narrow passage, attached firecrackers to the gate, and the explosion broke them out. However, there were no trumpeters during the gentry, and no signal was given for the assault. The commanders of the infantry and cavalry assigned for the assault believed that the mines did not destroy the gate, since the blast had not been followed by an established pipe signal. Russian soldiers lit torches on the tower and on the wall. The lit enemy was a good target for the gunners who opened fire. The Polish infantry and cavalry, bearing losses, retreated from the gate. After this assault, the Russians strengthened their defenses: they set up palisades near the log cabins and placed strong guards in order to prevent an enemy attack.

The siege and fall of Smolensk

Polish troops began a regular siege, began shelling the fortress and mine work. However, light artillery could not harm powerful walls and towers. They sent for siege artillery to Riga. Taking into account the bad roads, the time of year (thaw, then winter), and the heavy weight of the guns, heavy artillery was delivered only in the summer of 1610. As a result, fire superiority was on the side of the defenders. The garrison of Smolensk successfully fired at the enemy. Mine work to blow up walls or towers also failed. They learned about the enemy’s works with the help of “rumors”; peasants and merchants who made their way into the city also spoke about the places of digging. The defenders launched a successful countermine work. As a result, Smolensk miners won the underground war. In addition, the garrison made successful sorties, in particular, they extracted firewood and water from the Dnieper. An active guerrilla war unfolded behind enemy lines. The siege dragged on for a long time.

The city held on. However, hopes for help were not realized. The talented commander Skopin-Shuisky, who was supposed to lead the army for a campaign near Smolensk, was poisoned in Moscow. His death was a disaster for Tsar Vasily. An army of Russians and Swedes was led by the mediocre Dmitry Shuisky. As a result, in June 1610, the hetman Zholkevsky defeated our army near Klushino with lesser forces and without artillery (Klushinskaya catastrophe of the Russian army) Shuisky ruined greed and stupidity. Foreign mercenaries demanded a salary before the battle, they were refused, although there was money. The greedy prince decided to wait to pay less after the battle (not to pay for the dead). Zholkevsky did not skimp and outbid the mercenaries, they went over to the side of the Poles. A smaller part of the mercenaries - the Swedes, went north. The Russian commander himself fled.

Klushinskaya catastrophe led to the fall of the Shuysky government. One city after another began to kiss the cross to Prince Wladyslaw. A Tushinsky thief returned to Moscow. The boyars realized that the situation had changed radically, and overthrew Vasily Shuisky. He was forcibly comprehended as a monk, and together with his brothers Dmitry and Ivan, they were handed over to the Poles as hostages. The Boyar Duma created its own government (“seven-boyars”) and called the Poles to Moscow. Zholkevsky drove the Tushinsky thief, who soon died. The boyar government proposed that Sigismund be imprisoned in Moscow as king of prince Vladislav, who was to accept Orthodoxy. The negotiations that went near Smolensk came to a standstill. The king did not agree to the transition of his son to Orthodoxy and did not want to let him go to Moscow with a small retinue. Meanwhile, dissatisfaction with "seven-boyars" was ripening in Moscow. Therefore, the boyars went on a direct betrayal and in September 1610, the Polish troops were sent to Moscow. Vladislav formally became the Russian Tsar.

In the summer of 1610, siege artillery arrived at Smolensk. On July 18, siege weapons breached the tower at Kopytensky Gate. On July 19 and 24, the Poles tried to storm the fortress, but were repelled. The most stubborn was the assault on 11 in August, the attackers suffered heavy losses, but were also repelled.

As a result, more than 20 months Smolensk bravely defended themselves, fettered the main forces of the Polish army. Hunger and epidemics mowed down most of the city. Several thousand people remained in Smolensk, 200 fighters in the garrison. In fact, the garrison could only watch the wall, there were no reserves. Nevertheless, the Smolensk did not think about surrender. But the Poles did not know that things were so bad in Smolensk, and you could win with one strong assault from several directions. The city managed to take only treason. One of the boyar sons ran to the Poles and indicated a weak spot in the defense. The Poles put several batteries on this site. After several days of shelling, the wall collapsed. On the night of June 3, 1611, the Poles stormed from four directions. The Smolensk fiercely fought, but there were too few to stop the enemy. The city was on fire. The last defenders locked themselves in the cathedral church of the Virgin. When enemies burst into the cathedral and began to cut men and grab women, the posadsky man Andrei Belyanitsyn took a candle and climbed into the basement, where he kept a supply of gunpowder. The explosion was powerful, many people died.

The wounded governor Shein was captured, brutally tortured. After interrogation, they sent him to the Commonwealth, where he was kept in prison. The capture of Smolensk turned Sigismund's head. He dissolved the army and went to Warsaw, where he made a triumph for himself following the example of the ancient Roman emperors. However, he was clearly in a hurry. Russia has not yet surrendered, but just started the war.

Thus, the long heroic defense of Smolensk, the death of most of its garrison and residents, was not in vain. The fortress distracted the main forces of the enemy. The Polish king did not dare to send an army to Moscow, while Smolensk was in the rear. The Smolensk garrison, defending itself to the last man, expressed the will of the whole Russian people.

Defense of Smolensk from the Poles. Artist B. A. Chorikov

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  1. Vend
    Vend 26 September 2019 15: 45
    Smolensk is a heroic city. His story is full of exploits. Batu failed to take Smolensk. This city did not pay a way-tribute to the Horde. And 1812 year and 1941. Hero City!
    1. neri73-r
      neri73-r 26 September 2019 16: 27
      Yes, our ancestors had fire, we need not to shame them and teach children! Especially because a good person is not a synonym for a rich person, and jesters are not the elite and color of a nation.
    2. Michman
      Michman 27 September 2019 00: 04
      The phoenix bird on the coat of arms is proof of this. The city 3 times disappeared from the face of the earth and rose from ruins and ashes. WHEN AUTUMN BRONZE SUNSET, LIGHTS SKY AND ON THE BACKGROUND .... IS SMOLENSK AS A GOOD SOLDIER. A LIVING EXAMPLE OF RUSSIA'S IMMORTALITY !!! my native and beloved city. I miss you in the Far East.
    3. 210ox
      210ox 27 September 2019 06: 01
      "And if you want to become stronger in spirit, stay at the Smolensk wall .." Words from the song. He studied at school 6 (at the Nikolsky gate) .. Then the wall had not yet been restored, the guys tried to climb up the bricks ... Yes Anatoly, You are right, Key City. From Russia.
  2. AK1972
    AK1972 26 September 2019 16: 35
    Samsonov's articles can always be recognized by the abundance of typos and oil-oil, like: "predatory actions of robbers" or "large stocks of spare guns". Alexander, carefully read the text before publication.
  3. Pravodel
    Pravodel 26 September 2019 16: 38
    An example to all our liberals and traitors of Russia, what traitors of the Russian people and Russia can do.
    Dead, but living in the memory of the people of Smolensk, show us living now how to love and protect our homeland, Russia from enemies and not only external ones.
  4. Ratmir_Ryazan
    Ratmir_Ryazan 26 September 2019 17: 04
    The honor and glory of the Russian wars and militias defending Smolensk will be eternal, as well as the shame of the Moscow boyars who surrendered the country and people.
  5. Astra wild
    Astra wild 26 September 2019 17: 47
    Our history is rich in examples of courage and courage. But unfortunately we forgot or almost forgot many glorious pages of our history.
    For example: most of us either did not know at all or almost did not know about such a page in the history of Smolensk. And the defense of the Trinity-Sergius Lavra and many, many similar cases.
  6. Astra wild
    Astra wild 26 September 2019 17: 51
    The author, but you don’t know how the fate of Shein and that traitor came about?
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 26 September 2019 19: 04
      Dear Astra, I could not pass by your request, although not the Author, and Melekho was too lazy to independently print the fate of Shein, so I am throwing an excerpt from Wiki!
      The leader of the defense of Smolensk from the Polish-Lithuanian troops (1609-1611). He was held in Polish captivity (1611-1619), returned to the Russian state after the exchange of prisoners as a result of the Deulinsky truce. In the 1620s, he was the closest associate of Patriarch Filaret, the father of Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich. Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Army in the Smolensk War of 1632-1634. He was executed by state decree in Moscow on Red Square in April 1634 on charges of unsuccessful development of the siege of Smolensk.
      The son of nothing near Boris Shein (? - 1579). Great-grandfather of the first Russian generalissimo Alexei Shein (1662-1700).

      Sufficiently significant and fatal role of Smolensk, in the fate of our hero!
      Regards, Kote!
      1. Astra wild
        Astra wild 26 September 2019 19: 24
        Kotya, thank you for the comment. Perhaps you explain how this could happen: Filaret's closest associate, the army commander, and then executed for treason. Perhaps he was made a scapegoat?
        At a history lesson, they spoke about the general commander of Pavlova ZOV. Recently I read Martirosyan, the site comments and .... head spin
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 26 September 2019 19: 50
          Dear Astra, believe me, the person is still that “beast”, and the authorities are dizzy equally “to both honest people and vile ones”!
    2. Michman
      Michman 27 September 2019 00: 05
      All the same, Shein was executed by conspiracy 10 years later. If my memory serves me right.
  7. tihonmarine
    tihonmarine 26 September 2019 18: 32
    The Polish king wrote that he enters the borders of the Russian kingdom as a deliverer from troubles and bloodshed, allegedly at the call of the Russian people, and is most glad about the preservation of the Orthodox faith.
    All the conquerors promised to save the Russian people from troubles, from despots and almost from Satan. We went through all this and more than once, the very first and most powerful invasion was not Mongol-Tatar, but Polish-Lithuanian in 1608. The country was on the verge of destruction, just like in 1941, but thanks to the will of the Russian people, the enemy was driven out and destroyed. I lived in the Smolensk region and we had the village of Voshkino, the estate of the Counts Potocki, the descendants of the very Potocki who stormed Smolensk. The Smolensk land has not forgotten the Polish deliverance from the "yoke" and periodically takes revenge on them for the dirty tricks in 1812, and in 1914, and during the Civil War. First of all, we should be offended and make claims, but not the Poles, who waged a war in 1608 to destroy the Russian state.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 26 September 2019 19: 48
      . We all went through this and more than once, the very first and most powerful invasion was not Mongol-Tatar, but Polish-Lithuanian in 1608.

      Eka how bent! No.
      And if objectively.
      The first thing to consider an invasion? Well, or a powerful invasion !!! Comparative categories are quite abstract and vague, especially if we begin to replace the concepts of “yoke” and “invasion”! In fact, if we take the criterion of a “powerful invasion” - “the line behind which there is a real possibility of losing statehood”, then Russia at the dawn of its formation more than once or twice lost its capital, Kiev! Moreover, both from the Hungarians and from the Poles. In both cases during the Civil War. Was it fatal for Russia? I think not, but - this is only from our bell tower, and if the reconquest of Vladimir and Yaroslav would not succeed?
      The next jam occurred during the invasion of Batu Khan! Collapsed almost all the north-eastern and south-western principalities of Russia! The luck of Smolensk, Polotsk and Minsk is not connected with the courage of their inhabitants or with the strength of their walls, but with a banal set of circumstances and the remoteness of these principalities! Moreover, this thesis was proved by the Lithuanian princes.
      Invasions (rati) of khans and temniks of the Mongol-Tatar hordes. For two centuries, they mowed the Vladimir-Suzdal, Ryazan land! Didyunya, Nyuvrey and others echoed through the memory of the people. And only then the Patriotic Wars of 1608-1613, 1812-1814 and 1941-1945 began. The Crimean War stands apart, Russia was humiliated in the course of it, but before the defeat it is still far and what are their similarities and differences! Only that the war of 1608-1613 took place against the backdrop of the Civil War!
      So, the conclusion about primacy and power was made by you far-fetched!
      Regards, Kote!
      1. tihonmarine
        tihonmarine 26 September 2019 20: 39
        Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
        So, the conclusion about primacy and power was made by you far-fetched!
        Regards, Kote!

        Well, if you look at the state, then it was not before Ivan the Third, there were specific principalities and principalities. But by the 1608 year, Russia was a state and not a small one, just like Poland, and with the victory of Poland, no longer different principalities fell under the Poles. but the state. Plus, Orthodoxy would be abolished. Therefore, it was the most serious test for the country and the people.
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 26 September 2019 21: 17
          You raised an interesting point, even two!
          1. The emergence of the Russian state.
          2. Continuity of public education!
          On the first! Textbooks of history, and after it the notorious Unified State Examination speaks about the beginning of the report of the Old Russian State from the moment of capture by the ruler Oleg of Kiev! The decision is conditional, controversial, but supported by official science. Under his great-nephew, Russia was the largest state in Europe. Specific fragmentation of Russia, a natural process and due to the infrastructure features of the feudal system! However, our neighbors Poles, this plague also did not pass!
          Here the main thing is different - a matrix of self-identification of the people and awareness of the continuity of culture! So the princes of Muscovites, in the Finno-Ugric lands far from Kiev, turned out to be more Russian and at the same time more successful, which was assessed by the most strict themis - History!
          So returning to the second problem, we ascertain one banal truth that regardless who we are and where we are, we consider ourselves heirs of that distant and ancient Russia! By the way, initially it’s not even Orthodox!
          So your rejection of the position of the historical memory of the people and their connection with the territory is initially conditional and insignificant, since starting from Svyatoslav, and following the written sources of the Story of the Provisional Years, or where the Russian land came from, “from this time on, Vyatich glade, Slovenian and even drevlyanin , in my heart I considered myself a Russian "!"
          1. tihonmarine
            tihonmarine 26 September 2019 22: 09
            Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
            Textbooks of history, and after it the notorious Unified State Examination speaks about the beginning of the report of the Old Russian State from the moment of capture by the ruler Oleg of Kiev!

            As I saw about the IHE, I'm sorry I studied at the Stalin school. The discussion is closed.
            1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka 27 September 2019 04: 57
              Quote: tihonmarine
              Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
              Textbooks of history, and after it the notorious Unified State Examination speaks about the beginning of the report of the Old Russian State from the moment of capture by the ruler Oleg of Kiev!

              As I saw about the IHE, I'm sorry I studied at the Stalin school. The discussion is closed.

              I will disappoint you - this thesis was first substantiated in 1937, as opposed to the theory of the Normanists (who spoke about the beginning of Russian statehood from Rurik) and the theological school (since the adoption of Christianity)! In history textbooks - this point of view was entrenched in the 40s of the last century. In the late USSR, with the filing of Rybakov (the date the state arose), it moved only towards the Nativity of Christ, the apogee (super-duper-Aryans-Slavs)! From the 90s they returned to "Your Stalin School"!
              There is such a discipline, “History of State and Law,” read and discover a lot for yourself!
              The form of government and the form of government do not affect territoriality as a sign! For example, the Principality of Lichtinshtein, however, like our Ryazan! If you do not consider yourself the heir of "Ancient Russia", this does not mean that our ancestor who lived in Novgorod Seversky in the 12th century will agree with you!
          2. Astra wild
            Astra wild 27 September 2019 08: 43
            It is well said, but out of contradiction: "PVL", when it was written, was about 100 years later, and the authors can fantasize as they like, after all, Vyatichi or Krivichi will no longer be able to refute it. I'm not a fan of alternatives, but I can be harmful
    2. Michman
      Michman 27 September 2019 00: 09
      And where, if it’s not a secret, did you live? I come from Glinka. The parents live there, all my relatives are from my mother in Smolensk. And I entered the service in Primorye, and here I stayed for permanent residence.
      1. tihonmarine
        tihonmarine 27 September 2019 08: 20
        Quote: Michman
        And where, if not a secret, did you live? I come from Glinka

        I come from Transbaikalia (father) mother Smolensk region. Znamensky borough Slobodka (where General Efremov is buried), In the 60 years he lived in the Dukhovshchinsky district, then in Krasnoye Bor.
  8. Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka 26 September 2019 18: 54
    I didn’t understand what kind of protection system the Russian hero had in the picture? Instead of umbimbone, there is a chain mail (or plate) sleeve! Or I don’t understand something !!!
    Regards, Kote!
    1. Ptolemy Lag
      Ptolemy Lag 26 September 2019 21: 04
      It is a tarch, a shield with a steel "sleeve" ending in a blade. If you are interested, go to the site of historical miniatures Ek Casting, in the section medieval warriors there is a miniature "Russian warrior with a tarch", there is a more detailed description.
  9. Sergei Novozhilov
    Sergei Novozhilov 26 September 2019 21: 10
    Battle with the Cherkassians at Sermax March 1614. see "Sermaksa - silver filing"
  10. Michman
    Michman 27 September 2019 04: 30
    Proud HERO. The city is the key to Moscow. Ancient Russian city. 1156 years. I am very proud that my homeland is Smolenskaya
  11. Molot1979
    Molot1979 27 September 2019 06: 11
    The reason for Sigismund's departure to Poland was the lack of money. No money - no army. The army dispersed, and the king left. Only Zholkevsky remained in Moscow.
    Plus - not all mercenaries left Shuisky. Some successfully fought and retreated in perfect order
  12. RUSS
    RUSS 27 September 2019 07: 27
    In the photo of the article, the archers in a red uniform, which does not correspond to reality, as a full-dress uniform was worn only on special days - during the main church holidays and during celebrations.

    To carry out everyday duties and in military campaigns, a “wearable dress” was used, which had the same cut as the dress uniform, but made of cheaper cloth in gray, black or brown.
  13. Antares
    Antares 27 September 2019 08: 37
    all who go to Moscow by the shortest path go through Smolensk.
    The shortest path, but you won’t find it difficult
    besides the Poles with fortresses are not very (military hired)
    even though their artillery was always on top
  14. andrew42
    andrew42 27 September 2019 16: 33
    Glorious page of the Russian chronicle! And for children in our time they made a very excellent cartoon - "The Fortress", about the Smolensk boy Sasha and the governor Shein. Who else has not shown it to their children - I strongly recommend it for family viewing.
  15. Sapsan136
    Sapsan136 27 September 2019 17: 42
    Poland has always attacked Russia, and Polish Russophobia is based on the fact that it didn’t work to bring the Russians to their knees ... The Polish Russophobia is envy of the Russians and hatred of their own inferiority!
  16. smart fellow
    smart fellow 2 October 2019 14: 10
    The top betrayed as always. And now the same thing.