Military Review

Calories for the Third Reich

38

Bakke Plan


Herbert Ernst Bakke - one of the little-known war criminals of the Third Reich, who managed to avoid well-deserved punishment. Obergruppenfuhrer SS hanged himself in early April 1947 in the cell of Nuremberg prison, without waiting for extradition to the Soviet Union. This person (incidentally, a native of Batumi) has been holding the high post of Reich Minister of Agriculture and Food since 1942, responsible for the cannibalistic policy of killing millions of people by starvation. He even had attempts on scientific activity - in the mid-20-s he wrote a dissertation entitled Die Russische Getreidewirtschaftals Grundlage der Land- und Volkswirtschaft Russlands, in which he described in detail grain growing in the USSR. Since then, Herbert has been breathing very unevenly towards fertile Ukraine. In many ways, his work (which, by the way, he did not defend) became the handbook of the invaders in assessing the agricultural resources of the Soviet Union in the early 40's.


Calories for the Third Reich

Herbert Ernst Bakke


There was another document called the "12 Commandments of Bakke" (dated 1 June 1941 years) and was intended for German officials working in the eastern lands. You can find the following expressions in it:
Quick solutions are required of you (the wrong solution is better than none).
Russians always want to be the mass that they rule. The entry of the Germans will also affect them. Then their wish will be fulfilled: "Come and rule us."
Poverty, hunger and unpretentiousness - the lot of Russian people for many centuries. His stomach will digest everything, and therefore no false compassion. Do not try to approach it with the German standard of living as a measure and change the Russian way of life.


One of the main provisions of the Bakke Plan was the seizure of food from the conquered territories in volumes exceeding the needs of the indigenous population. In territories controlled by the Germans, food standards, for example, for Jews, amounted to only 184 units in terms of calories. Poles received about 700 calories, and the German population received more than 2600 calories. This scheme very well reflected the practical approach of the Germans to clean up living space - controlled hunger simultaneously fed the German population and killed millions in the East.

In the previous part stories we touched on the problem of forced import of labor for the needs of the Third Reich, which, of course, needed to be fed somehow. In the book “The Price of Destruction,” Adam Tuz points to some contradictions between the ideological dogmas of the destruction of the Slavs with the Jews and, at the same time, an acute shortage of labor. According to the same book, in terms of calorie imports, the situation at first also did not differ in particular consistency and logic. Already in June 1941, Reisbank issued a report in which it proved with mathematical precision that Germany would have nothing to profit from in the spacious agricultural fields of Ukraine. In those days, both labor productivity on collective farms and the general technological level of Soviet agriculture lagged noticeably behind European. According to Reisbank estimates, the Germans would have had to spend several years on modernization, which was then an inadmissible luxury.


A poster calling for the harvest ...



And this poster recalls the threat of the death penalty for abandoning agricultural work


In the 1940-1941 year, the Germans in their country were able to collect 24 million tons of grain, and this was 3,5 million tons less than a year earlier. Together with stocks and imports in Germany at that time there were almost 34 million tons of grain. The management had to use reserves and reduce the number of pigs, which led to a reduction in the supply of meat to the population by the end of the 1942 year. And then Goering, with his order on the delivery of labor from the eastern territories - the Third Reich, as mentioned earlier, lacked workers. Bakke, already aware that Ukraine’s grain reserves were too exaggerated, protested. Like, there’s nothing to feed, we don’t even have enough food for prisoners of war, and here there are also ostarbeiters. To which Goering replied:
“We’ll introduce koshatin and horsemeat into the diet of workers from the East.”


It's funny, but Bakke was not too lazy and counted - cats in Germany are not enough for such purposes, and horsemeat is already used by the Germans for food. I probably forgot to mention that the total use of cats for food threatens the Third Reich also with an invasion of rodents with all the ensuing consequences. Be that as it may, the arguments of Bakke were not heard, and the imported ostarbeiters were forced to eke out a half-starved existence. So, in December 1941, during a week, workers engaged in hard labor received 16,5 kg of turnip, 2,6 kg of ersatz bread, 3 kg of potato, 250 g of substandard meat (most often horse meat), 130 g of fat, 150 g of yeast, 70 g of sugar and a little more 2 liters of skim milk. Erzats bread was baked mainly from bran, sugar production wastes, as well as straw and leaves. In addition to the fact that this, of course, was not enough to replenish strength, such a diet also permanently disabled the digestive system. Although on paper everything was beautiful - 2500 calories per day. Worst of all, even this meager diet in the vast majority of cases did not reach either prisoners of war or ostarbeiters.

German body fat


In the spring of 1942, something unprecedented happened - the Ministry of Food reduced food standards for the civilian population of Germany. This was an inevitable exit before the influx of foreign labor and a decrease in total food supplies in the Reich. Adam Ace in the book gives the results of research by German nutritionists - working burghers have stopped increasing body fat. And this was akin to the loss of a strategic resource base for warfare. In industries such as mining, the German leadership expected a drop in labor productivity as a result. It would seem that the situation should be corrected by the working hands of prisoners of war and ostarbeiters attracted from abroad. But they were dying of hunger, and it was possible to increase their allowance only at the expense of the native Germans. In turn, the Germans spoke out very unambiguously on this subject - SD everywhere recorded waves of dissatisfaction with both the decline in diet and the heyday of the black market. This situation has already been overcome once by the leadership of the Third Reich during the implementation of the T4 or Aktion Tiergartenstraße 4 program. Peaceful Germans then almost took to the streets when they learned that demented and inferior compatriots were secretly killed in hospitals. After that, T4 quickly turned around and focused on the “more acceptable” holocaust for the population.




Propaganda photographs illustrating tolerable living conditions of migrant workers. In fairness, it is worth noting that by 1943, the nutritional standards of workers from the eastern territories really changed for the better


So in this situation, no one planned to redistribute food between the indigenous and the visitors. As a result, many military-industrial companies complained that they almost every day at the machine tools, Ukrainians fall into hungry fainting. At the same time, many found the strength to organize hunger riots and actions of insubordination. So, in Unterturkheim at the famous Daimler-Benz plant in mid-1942, the Ostarbeiters refused to go to work until they were improved in nutrition. The leaders of the plant sent the most important rebels to a concentration camp, but immediately wrote to the very top with a request to still increase the proportion of carbohydrates in the diet. Fritz Sauckel himself, authorized by the labor force in the Third Reich, lost his temper News. He completed his work on the import of slave power, but there was nothing to feed them. Rich and fertile Ukraine was ruled by the Germans, and in Germany workers (albeit ostarbeiters) died of starvation.
“I will find ways and opportunities to get grain and meat from Ukraine, even if I have to put all European Jews in a live conveyor belt in order to deliver boxes of food from Ukraine”
,
- he was afraid of his subordinates.

Sauckel did not manage to get enough food from Ukraine, nor to put Jews in the conveyor belt. Already in 1942, on the initiative of Herbert Bakke, the Wehrmacht was seriously cut off in food supplies, forcing them to independently seek food for themselves in the occupied lands. The consequences of this, we are well aware. The next victim was Poland, which until that time was receiving allowance from the Reich - all fertile lands were alienated in favor of Germany. Now, from the occupied country, they demanded the supply of grain and meat already to Germany, which caused the death of many hundreds of thousands of residents and, above all, Jews in the ghetto. Pumping out everything possible from its eastern neighbors, the Germans, like a mantra, repeated Goering's words:
“We’ll have to come to terms with all the consequences, because before the German population begins to starve, others will pay for it.”


The grievances within the original German territories were most feared by the Bonds of the Third Reich. And here, probably, we come to the main point of the whole fascist ideology - it finally brought tangible material benefits to the population. No matter how vile it may sound, if it were not for the targeted extermination of Jews and Slavs as potential consumers, German citizens already in the middle of the 1942 year felt an acute shortage of calories. And it is not known how all this would end in the end. And the Germans, meanwhile, were incredibly lucky - in the autumn of the 1942 of the year they harvested a good crop, brought in a lot of “imported” products and finally increased food standards. The fat layer of the burgher began to grow again ...
Author:
Photos used:
foto-history.livejournal.com
Articles from this series:
Muscles for the Third Reich
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  1. The comment was deleted.
  2. Ali Kokand
    Ali Kokand 19 September 2019 06: 02
    +6
    Earlier, in Soviet times, there was no information about such facts, in all films and literature the Germans ate well. And here it turns out not so. A person, depending on physical activity and condition, requires from 3000 to 5000 calories per day. One gram of protein 4'1 cal, carbohydrates 4,5-4,7 cal, fat 9 cal. Carbohydrates 50% of the diet, fats and proteins on average 25%. If you do not compensate for the loss of at least 70%, the body will self-destruct. The cynicism with which civilians and prisoners of war were destroyed from malnutrition, the Germans still amazes. Cannibals would have been more merciful.
    1. Basil50
      Basil50 19 September 2019 07: 47
      +4
      In the midst of perestroika and after, under Yeltsin, cultural figures appeared on television who, with all their eloquence, convinced us all of the * Messianism * of the Germans. We then shot films about the fact that if there were any atrocities, then only from the RED ARMY. Where are the evil KRASNO ARMEYS, OFFICERS, and other POLITRUK with SMERSHIVETS ......... uuuuuuuu ....... what they did
      I still remember the writer’s speech about how the evil KRASNO ARMEYS tried to destroy the old people's home, where the old women lived, and how the SS men rescued these same old women together with the adjutant of some SOVIET MARSHAL. I also remember the story on television about how the evil RED ARMENIANS jammed fish with grenades and forced the German boy to catch it from the water. I remember a lot of things ......
      And after all, these figures did not disappear anywhere, they only flicker less frequently on television, and they have not taken away their ranks and money, they continue to teach students and participate in cultural events.
      1. Reptiloid
        Reptiloid 19 September 2019 09: 23
        +3
        That would be to learn about the names of those speakers on TV. Somehow they are right now! If something like that was on TV ---- I have not seen. And it would be interesting to know now. The elders hid all this from me at the beginning of 90x. But about the series, both Brazilian and others ------ knew
    2. parma
      parma 19 September 2019 10: 26
      0
      Quote: Ali Kokand
      Earlier, in Soviet times, there was no information about such facts, in all films and literature the Germans ate well. And here it turns out not so. A person, depending on physical activity and condition, requires from 3000 to 5000 calories per day. One gram of protein 4'1 cal, carbohydrates 4,5-4,7 cal, fat 9 cal. Carbohydrates 50% of the diet, fats and proteins on average 25%. If you do not compensate for the loss of at least 70%, the body will self-destruct. The cynicism with which civilians and prisoners of war were destroyed from malnutrition, the Germans still amazes. Cannibals would have been more merciful.

      Even in WWI, Germany was faced with hunger, and even during WWII the Germans didn’t deliver stew from overseas, it was hard ... But this does not justify them ....
  3. Olgovich
    Olgovich 19 September 2019 06: 20
    +1
    interesting aspect of the war.
    The Germans did not draw conclusions from WWI when 800 thousand people died of hunger ...
    1. 210ox
      210ox 19 September 2019 06: 35
      +5
      “No matter how disgusting it may sound, if it were not for the purposeful extermination of Jews and Slavs as potential consumers, German citizens already in the middle of 1942 felt an acute shortage of calories. And it is not known how it would have ended in the end. Meanwhile, the Germans were incredibly lucky. - in the fall of 1942, they reaped a good harvest, brought in a lot of "imported" products and finally increased food norms. The burgher's fat layer began to grow again ... "No, they made the" correct conclusion "... And they began to rob and kill ..
    2. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 19 September 2019 12: 35
      +5
      Quote: Olgovich
      interesting aspect of the war.
      The Germans did not draw conclusions from WWI when 800 thousand people died of hunger ...

      The Germans just made conclusions - and decided that it was impossible to allow a protracted war, that victory should be won quickly. The Reich has no other options in a total war - the supply of food from outside will be crushed by a blockade (as it was in the WWII), and its own harvest during total mobilization will be less than the numbers in peacetime.
      The 1941 campaign of the year was also planned to be fleeting - before the cold. And after that - a partial demobilization and return of workers to agriculture. But something went wrong, and the Reich again got involved in a long war on two fronts. With a predictable result.
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 20 September 2019 09: 06
        -1
        Quote: Alexey RA
        The Germans just did findings - and they decided that it was impossible to allow a protracted war, we must win quickly. The Reich has no other options in a total war - the supply of food from outside will be crushed by a blockade (as it was in the WWII), and its own harvest during total mobilization will be less than the numbers in peacetime.
        The 1941 campaign of the year was also planned to be fleeting - before the cold. And after that - a partial demobilization and return of workers to agriculture. But something went wrong, and the Reich again got involved in a long war on two fronts. FROM predictable result.


        1. The result also showed that the conclusions were made Wrong.
        2. The 1914 campaign was planned no less fleeting than the 1941 campaign.
        1. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 20 September 2019 14: 27
          0
          Quote: Olgovich
          1. The result also showed that the conclusions were made Wrong.

          But there were no other options. Well, except do not fight at all - but this is clearly not for the postversal Reich. smile
          Quote: Olgovich
          2. The 1914 campaign was planned no less fleeting than the 1941 campaign.

          Duc ... I'm in the know - You will return home before the leaves fall from the trees.

          But in 1939, the Reich clearly decided: Now we have taken into account the mistakes of the past - and we will definitely win!
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 21 September 2019 06: 49
            +1
            Quote: Alexey RA
            But in 1939, the Reich clearly decided: Now we have taken into account the mistakes of the past - and we will definitely win!

            We decided. but -NOT taken into account, yet ....
          2. strannik1985
            strannik1985 21 September 2019 08: 44
            0
            In 1941 wink
            Before 1939, Hitler followed the policy leading to a conflict with the USSR, England, France and the USA, it was completely satisfied, in August-September there was a failure, but to change, it was too late, the intervention of the allies nullified all the results of the 30 policy. The difference was not in the Germans, but in their opponents, they did not want to fight on their own until it was too late.
  4. polpot
    polpot 19 September 2019 06: 47
    +5
    Thanks for the article, very interesting, we look forward to continuing to 1945 year
  5. kalibr
    kalibr 19 September 2019 07: 17
    -1
    Quote: Ali Kokand
    Earlier in Soviet times, facts such as that were not information, in all films and literature the Germans ate well.

    False Alisher! If you open the newspaper PRAVDA - an organ of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks (Bolsheviks), then from 1941 to 1944 you can read about how poorly the Germans eat, how they starve, eat ersatz margarine and whale meat. And only when the Red Army entered the borders of Germany did it suddenly become clear that the Germans' apartments were bursting with Hungarian salami, French cognac, Norwegian herring and Ukrainian fat ... It was hard to say where the real truth was and where the propaganda was. But the impression of the read is very strange.
    1. Basil50
      Basil50 19 September 2019 07: 56
      +7
      In Germany, the KRASNO ARMEYS stopped to rest in estates or in large houses. Naturally there were a lot of things in the pantries. There are descriptions of manor houses and townsfolk and housing of workers and farm laborers. KRASNOARMEYTSEV was amazed that in the midst of poverty and hunger there were islands of such abundance, up to the delicacies that were not even in demand, but were stored .........
    2. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 19 September 2019 09: 12
      +2
      Quote: kalibr
      ...... Germans' apartments are bursting with Hungarian salami, French cognac, Norwegian herring and Ukrainian fat ... It was hard to say where the real truth was and where the propaganda was. .....
      Probably this and poor nutrition ---- true. Someone turned out to be in abundance
      However, it is known that after the war food was scarce in different countries.
      1. kalibr
        kalibr 19 September 2019 17: 21
        0
        I will never explain to two Dmitriy what I want to say until they themselves read the numbers True wartime from cover to cover. And since this will never happen, my mind is powerless to convey something to them.
        1. Reptiloid
          Reptiloid 19 September 2019 23: 16
          0
          Don't know how about Basil50, I’ve been reading 2 for a long time already.
        2. zenion
          zenion 20 September 2019 15: 49
          +1
          Indeed, it is strange that fleeing the bombing and starvation, people from the cities fled to the village, where they had relatives, or friends. They thought they could run away from the German bureaucracy. What happened in Russia during the civil war began in Germany. A black market appeared and even the Gestapo could not do anything about it. After all, party bonuses were spinning on the market. And they could not be taken with bare hands. Himmler told the Führer and Goebbels was present. There are no Jews, but there is a black market. This is very bad for the Reich at such a time. They fill their pockets again and don’t think about the country. Hitler grabbed his head.
    3. Beringovsky
      Beringovsky 20 September 2019 17: 16
      0
      Vyacheslav, you are a balabol.
      when the Red Army entered Germany, it suddenly became clear that the Germans' apartments were bursting with Hungarian salami, French cognac, Norwegian herring and Ukrainian lard ...

      Well, what kind of French cognac and Ukrainian fat could the Germans have in the winter of 45?
      And they were breaking right laughing
  6. kalibr
    kalibr 19 September 2019 07: 59
    +2
    Quote: Vasily50
    There are descriptions of manor houses and townsfolk and housing of workers and farm laborers. KRASNOARMEYTSEV was amazed that in the midst of poverty and hunger there were islands of such abundance, up to the delicacies that were not even in demand, but were stored .........

    Most likely, yes, but from the text of the newspaper (you can see for yourself) this is not clear. On the contrary, the impression is that ordinary Germans had it. The phrase was "the apartments of the Germans are overwhelmed". Not mansions!
    1. hohol95
      hohol95 19 September 2019 08: 23
      +6
      Houses and apartments were and remain different.
      A house with a working-class population is very different from a house in the apartments of which party functionaries, high-ranking officials and factory bosses live!
      In addition, we should not forget about the black food market - any whim for money and values!
  7. Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku 19 September 2019 09: 51
    +5
    The fat layer of the burgher began to grow again ...

    in many memoirs of our military leaders it appears that under the Nazis, ash from crematoriums of German concentration camps went to the nearest beds .... so that cucumbers grow better. Why would not the fat layer grow from this? No.
    1. tihonmarine
      tihonmarine 19 September 2019 10: 44
      +1
      Quote: Pane Kohanku
      that under the Nazis, ash from the crematoria of German concentration camps went to the nearest beds .... so that cucumbers grew better.

      More from propaganda. You can find out from our employees of the crematorium how much energy is consumed for the operation of such a "enterprise". It's not profitable to let this business go under cucumbers. There is more ash from a simple country stove.
      1. hohol95
        hohol95 19 September 2019 15: 43
        +2
        After sifting the ashes, pieces of gold are not taken out of a simple country stove ...
  8. tihonmarine
    tihonmarine 19 September 2019 10: 40
    +2
    in the mid-20's, he wrote a dissertation entitled Die Russische Getreidewirtschaftals Grundlage der Land- und Volkswirtschaft Russlands, in which he described in detail grain growing in the USSR. Since then, Herbert has been breathing very unevenly towards fertile Ukraine.
    And to this day, Germany, and the whole of Europe, also "breathes unevenly" towards Ukraine, only now the Ukrainians think that they breathe towards them as brothers, but in fact as slaves.
    1. bubalik
      bubalik 19 September 2019 14: 31
      +3
      And until now Germany, and the whole of Europe, is also "breathing unevenly" towards Ukraine,





      [Center]
      1. tihonmarine
        tihonmarine 19 September 2019 15: 38
        +2
        At the end of the leaflet it says "Long live a peaceful and quiet life!" The Bolsheviks left, the USSR left, but a peaceful life never came.
  9. bubalik
    bubalik 19 September 2019 11: 07
    +2
    Berlin's food supply at the end of the war.





    1. bubalik
      bubalik 19 September 2019 12: 00
      +2
      The Germans see the economy of the occupied territory as an appendage of the German economy. The effort of the German command, at this time, is aimed at collecting the entire crop, transferring the army to supply at the expense of local resources, withdrawing maximum food to Germany ,,,



  10. Operator
    Operator 19 September 2019 11: 15
    -3
    Quote: Pane Kohanku
    ol from the crematoria of German concentration camps went to the nearest beds

    All the dirt paths in Auschwitz are littered with ground ash with white crumbs from the bones of the burned prisoners of a concentration camp - in bone ash there are no nutrients for plants from the word at all.
    1. Foul skeptic
      Foul skeptic 19 September 2019 15: 38
      +4
      in bone ash there are no plant nutrients from the word at all

      All the same as in bone and meat and bone meal, which have always been a good fertilizer due to the content of calcium phosphate and potassium carbonate in them.
      1. Operator
        Operator 19 September 2019 16: 53
        0
        Calcined bone consists of apatite Ca10 (PO4) 6 (OH) 2, which can only be used as a raw material for the production of phosphorus fertilizers, since it itself does not decompose under natural conditions and, therefore, is not absorbed by plants.
  11. kalibr
    kalibr 19 September 2019 17: 18
    0
    That's right, Alexei, but I repeat once again - the newspaper did not delve into such nuances, and since it did not delve into what came to the reader’s mind? What he personally faced the most, right? Few lived in the apartments of Soviet partner functionaries and could not imagine the German, and even more so the factory bosses. What we do not know, we cannot imagine. This is one of the features of the perception of information.
  12. Lexus
    Lexus 19 September 2019 23: 36
    +1
    Erzatz bread, substandard meat, fats, yeast, skim milk ...

    Poverty, hunger and unpretentiousness - the lot of Russian people for many centuries. His stomach will digest everything, and therefore no false compassion. Do not try to approach it with the German standard of living as a measure and change the Russian way of life.

    You read the composition of modern products, Bakke's theses and ... you involuntarily understand where our government gets its inspiration from. That's where the macaroons come from.
  13. kalibr
    kalibr 20 September 2019 07: 57
    -2
    Quote: Reptiloid
    I haven’t read 2 anymore.

    And you are doing it right. There is a lot of sadness in many knowledge!
    1. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 20 September 2019 08: 41
      +1
      Quote: kalibr
      Quote: Reptiloid
      I haven’t read 2 anymore.

      And you are doing it right. There is a lot of sadness in many knowledge!

      Of course, it’s right, especially if they don’t carry knowledge, but gossip, fantasies, slander and the like.
      So or----- laughing lol , as usual, ----- manuals, it is known where !!!!! fellow Until the evening!!!!
  14. kalibr
    kalibr 20 September 2019 16: 01
    0
    Quote: Reptiloid
    training manuals, we know where !!!!!

    And you are even dumber than sometimes it seemed.
    1. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 20 September 2019 20: 27
      0
      Quote: kalibr
      ..... even dumber.
      fellow And on this occasion, I already wrote before that so many worthy comrades said something like this, that I ----- in good company !!!!! hi