Military Review

The origins of the mountain police

18
Mountain police. The time of birth of the mountain police is almost impossible to determine, because throughout stories The accession of the Caucasus to Russia periodically appeared and disappeared irregular military formations allied to the Russian troops and completely falling under the characteristics of the mountain police. These were detachments of Ossetians and Kabardians, various militia units, formations of various Georgian princes, etc. In addition, do not forget the famous "team of hunters", often consisting of immigrants from the Caucasus, who left their native village for a variety of reasons. By the way, one of such "hunting" detachments was commanded by the great Russian poet Mikhail Lermontov.




The foundation of the prison of Terka as the source of allied mountain units


The approximate time for registration of military cooperation in the framework of interaction between the regular Russian army and irregular military units of the peoples of the Caucasus is the 16 century. It was in the 16 century that, by decree of Tsar Ivan the Terrible, who had entered into allied relations with the Kabardian and Circassian princes, not only service people were sent to the North Caucasus, but also Cossacks with their families, who later laid the foundation for the Terek Cossacks. In the 1567 year, the Terek prison was founded at the mouth of the Sunzha River. Later, this fortification, repeatedly transferred, will grow into a large fortified city of Terki.

The famous Ottoman traveler and historian Evliya ебelebi described the city of Terki as follows:
“This is the largest and most remote port on the border of Dagestan and the kingdom of Moscow. All Moscow merchants leave ships here and head for Dagestan, Georgia and Iran. ”


It was in this city with an extremely variegated ethnic composition that the first mountain units consisting of a variety of people appeared. There were runaway highlanders and seekers of military glory. Their number at first did not exceed a couple of hundred fighters. In addition, most often these units performed intelligence and diplomatic functions, as owned many languages ​​of the Caucasus. Also, these mountain formations were often used to restore law and order, because to solve the heated conflict between the Armenian and Kabardian merchants, the Russian Cossack or Sagittarius because of the language barriers was not possible.

The origins of the mountain police

Graters on the map


Soon, the Terek city began to grow in all sorts of settlements, in which representatives of one or another ethnic group lived compactly. There appeared a Tatar settlement, Cherkasy and even Okotskaya, inhabited by Chechens-Akins. Law enforcement in these settlements was a prototype of the mountain police. Of particular note is the Newly Baptized settlement, in which the highlanders who converted to Orthodoxy lived. Later, the mountain inhabitants of this settlement often joined the Kizlyar Tersky army.


Temryuk Idarovich, an ally of John the Terrible and the ancestor of Sunchalei Cherkassky


In addition, if there was a need to protect the city from the enemy, no matter who he was, each settlement put up an equestrian detachment, which was part of the combined irregular military formation, i.e. upon the fact of the mountain police. In the 1603 year, the command over this detachment was entrusted to Prince Sunchaly Kanklychevich Cherkassky from Kabarda, who in the same year, Tsar Boris Godunov allowed to settle in Terki. Until the end of his life, Sunchaly Cherkassky, like his cavalry, was faithful to Russia and bowed many Kabardian princes towards Moscow.

The thorny path of development


Further, the practice of involving local residents in law enforcement, reconnaissance, building diplomatic bridges and, finally, participating directly in hostilities began to expand. This was dictated by a number of factors. So, despite the low combat effectiveness of some mountain units, the very fact of their existence reduced the number of guns in the enemy camp. Also, the mountain police were a political aid, demonstrating the degree of trust to the local population, as well as contributing to the formation of state thinking among new subjects. Now they were not some kind of appendage to the earth, but citizens of the great kingdom, and later the empire.

However, the training and discipline of many mountain units, especially at the beginning of their formation, to put it mildly, left much to be desired. Many Russian military men were very skeptical and even contemptuous of such detachments; therefore, they did not rush to implement the decisions of the capital, as they considered political. The quality of human material also suffered. Caucasian fugitives were often expelled from their own village for crimes, someone robbed, someone was a blood thief or just a killer. However, the formation of the mountain police became an urgent need.

Soon, the document, according to which the Caucasian princes accepted citizenship of the Russian Empire, included a clause that provided for the mandatory formation of national irregular units to assist Russian troops. In the 1765 year in Mozdok, a mountain team was formed of two hundred highland fighters. And already in the 1786 year, Empress Catherine II ordered to create an army of mountain residents by recruiting with an appropriate salary for the service. As a result, several hundred horsemen were formed, both for local service and for overseas campaigns.

At the same time, detachments of the Ingush (300 fighters) and Ossetian (500 fighters) mountain police were formed to guard the Georgian Military Highway. Moreover, the Caucasian governorate was allowed, if necessary, to attract more fighters from the local population to the created Ossetian-Ingush police forces.

The capture of the Poti fortress of Fash-Kale became a special impulse to a serious perception of the mountain police. As you know, when trying to remove the siege from their fortress, the Ottomans landed a large landing in the Poti area. The mountain police of the Gurians, Megrelians and Abkhazians came to the aid of the Russian troops of General Orbeliani. Contrary to the established stereotype of low training and combat readiness of the mountain units, the Gurians, Abkhazians and Mingrelians distinguished themselves in the battle of Poti. It became clear that the mountain police, with competent motivation and personnel selection, could become a significant military force in the Caucasus, while it would be the military force of the Russian Empire.

In the 1810 year, the commandant of the Vladikavkaz fortress concluded an agreement with the Ingush population, according to which the Ingush pledged to oppose the hostile groups of Karabulaks, Chechens and others to invade Russian lands, rob the population and rob the caravans. Also, the Ingush were to call up to a thousand soldiers at the call of the Russian troops. They were supposed to keep for the campaign, as well as a share of the trophies.

Count Paskevich and his mountain police


In the 30-s of the 19-th century, the initiative to form the mountain units was already made personally by the governor in the Caucasus, Ivan Fedorovich Paskevich. It was under him that full-fledged police detachments were created, including the Caucasian Horse and Mountain Regiment. These units distinguished themselves in the Transcaucasian campaigns and during the Polish campaign. On 2 on June 1835, Emperor Nicholas I signed a decree on the formation of two regiments. One was to be composed of Muslims, Armenians and other residents of Transcaucasia, and was called Muslim, and the other of the Circassians, Kabardians, Chechens, Kumyks and other highlanders will be called the Caucasian-Mountain.



Paskevich believed in the idea of ​​forming full-fledged mountain units that at the same time in the 1835 year, while in the capital, he personally reported to the emperor about the need to equip the Life Guards of the Caucasus-Gorsky half squadron with people of the Caucasus-Gorsky regiment who had served for some time in the army . And also allow these warriors tested in battles the possibility of transferring a convoy to His Majesty's own. This will be a critical and consistent political step.



However, far from all attempts to integrate the Highlanders into the military system of the Russian Empire ended in positive results. For example, the very same Count Paskevich on 14 on February 1831 of the year 500, during the appointment of Daniel-bey as the ruler of the Ilisuy Sultanate, set the condition according to which the new ruler was obliged to put up horsemen for 3000 for military operations outside the borders of the khanate. Inside the khanate itself, from the raids, Daniel was obliged to form a mountain militia in XNUMX warriors. Soon the beck was granted the rank of captain.

But Danil-bek repaid betrayal for his trust. In the 1844 year, during the next round of the Caucasian war, namely at the peak of Shamil’s power, the ruler of the sultanate crossed over into the enemy’s camp. Daniel swore allegiance to Shamil. Thus, the units of the Ilisu militia, in fact, joined the rebel imam. True, at the first battle, the former ruler of the Sultanate and his police detachments were defeated. At the same time, the resourceful Daniil later managed to run back to the Russians again, even with the return of military ranks.


Daniel beck


At the same time, the recruitment of the local population in the ranks of the mountain police continued to grow. This was facilitated by the small number of empire troops in the Caucasus, as well as the threat from Persia and the Ottoman Port. In addition, the latter factors served as a good incentive for the highlanders themselves, most of whom did not at all perceive the Persians and Turks for some fraternal peoples. For many residents of the Caucasus, both Turks and Persians were strangers, often demonstrating their arrogance.

To be continued ...
Author:
18 comments
Ad

Subscribe to our Telegram channel, regularly additional information about the special operation in Ukraine, a large amount of information, videos, something that does not fall on the site: https://t.me/topwar_official

Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. Undecim
    Undecim 20 September 2019 07: 07
    +3
    Soon the beck was granted the rank of captain.
    But Danil-bek repaid betrayal for his trust. In 1844, during the next round of the Caucasian war, namely at the peak of the power of Shamil, the ruler of the sultanate crossed over into the enemy camp.

    In 1844, Daniyal-bek was already a major general with the right to wear the uniform of the Life Guards of the Grodno Hussar Regiment, but he also demanded from the tsar "the highest certificate of ownership", without having received which he went to Shamil, from whom he received the characteristic of a "bad warrior, but a good advisor. "
    In 1853, he was part of the delegation of Shamil to the Turkish Sultan and urged the Sultan to start the war against Russia as soon as possible.
    And in 1859, in view of complete hopelessness, he surrendered to Prince Baryatinsky, received the highest forgiveness, title and all orders back. True, the sultanate was not returned. Therefore, the offended Bek went to live in Turkey.
    Today it is considered the national hero of Azeibardzhan, a fighter against the expansion of the Russian Empire in the Caucasus.
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 20 September 2019 15: 56
      +2
      "the offended bek went to live in Turkey" to complain about the Russians there: they returned my toys, and squeezed my land "?
  2. bandabas
    bandabas 20 September 2019 07: 27
    +2
    Deja vu. All repeats. Once again we step on a rake.
  3. gorenina91
    gorenina91 20 September 2019 08: 28
    +1
    - Personally, I don’t believe in any mountain police ... - not in her commitment to the rule of law and in the very effectiveness of her actions in putting this order in place and establishing any kind of justice in general ...
    -Where and when and how this "mountain militia" showed itself positively ... -Once the Turks, or rather the OI widely used the so-called "bashi-bazouks" for all kinds of repressions against Christians ... -This rabble "proved" itself very well in robberies, violence, massacres against the civilian Christian population ... -But against a real armed enemy, these bashi-bazouks were simply nothing ...
    -Here and this mountain militia could be used for "pompous imperial convoys"; fake parades; and, in extreme cases ... - to carry out punitive actions against poorly armed and disorganized "popular action" ...
    - But to rob, insidiously lie in wait for someone and seize, take away by force, steal something (flocks of sheep, herd of horses, etc.) or steal - that was her main "valor" ...
    -And no "Paskevichs" with their "Manilov projects" would ever put things in order in this region ...
    -Who then put things in order in that region ???
    -The Cossacks brought order ...- Tersky, Kuban, Don and so on ... -Here with them, the situation changed drastically ... -And by the end of the 19th century, all kinds of mountain bandits in the region could not make a sound ... - they cut each other, stole from each other, robbed each other, but still sat in their mountain villages and impoverished huts ...
    -It is enough to read the chronology and history of those years about this region ...
    -It is well described even in thin literature and shown in thin films ...- Yes, even in the same "Quiet Don" by M. Sholokhov ... -With "those" Cossacks, all the bandit "regional evil" sat quietly and did not even think attack and commit gangster antics ... -T.k. their rhinestones would be overtaken by the inevitable merciless death penalty ...
    -Well, and then ...- Well, now ...- Alas ...
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 20 September 2019 15: 27
      +1
      Regarding the "mountain militia" in the 40's of the 19th century, 2 hundreds of Dagestan militia, with the support of the Cossacks, up to 400 people in total, blocked the road to 4000 thousand Shamil's soldiers
    2. Warrior2015
      Warrior2015 21 September 2019 23: 08
      0
      Quote: gorenina91
      -Who then put things in order in that region ???
      - The Cossacks put things in order ...- Tersky, Kuban, Don and so on ... -That's the situation changed drastically ... -And by the end of the 19 century, all sorts of mountain bandits could not make a noise in that region ...

      Dear Irina, you probably overestimate the Cossacks. Cossacks and highlanders have coexisted for centuries, and in general, a system of raids and counter-raids existed. I will say more - one of the reasons for the outbreak of the First Caucasian War was that the Cossacks and peasant migrants began to LOSE to the Caucasian mountain peoples, which increased the onslaught on the lowland areas.

      The situation, as always, was resolved by the regular army and the system of professional management - it was the "Paskevichs" with their "Manilov projects" who put things in order in this region. Apparently you are very far from the realities of the Caucasus, and especially the First Caucasian War, but I, for my part, can say that (even without taking into account me personally and the events of recent decades in the Caucasus) that my ancestors participated in it, and being guided from Central and Northern Russia there.

      Quote: gorenina91
      Under "those" Cossacks, all the bandit "regional evil" sat quietly and did not even think of attacking and committing bandit tricks.

      You are VERY deeply mistaken. Unfortunately, the problem of the Caucasian and terrorism, and simply the heightened crime situation, has not gone anywhere. Yes, by the end of the 19th century, the table was calmer, but then again, even in the Russian Empire, everything grew, and continued for almost the entire 20th century (except for the period, perhaps, the 60s-70s) ... Remember, Comrade Dzhugashvilli, at least some other Bolsheviks - "expropriators" of Caucasian origin ... who were they? bandits-raiders of Caucasian origin in the Russian Empire, even half a century after the end of the Caucasian War ...

      But in what you are right - there is no sense in the modern mummers of the Cossacks, if only to disperse some girls of shocking nudity with whips - wow ...
      1. gorenina91
        gorenina91 22 September 2019 04: 09
        0
        -Yes, nothing like that ... -The first Caucasian war was so long and unsuccessful that the king there really didn’t want to win ... -This is like the American war in Vietnam., Where the Americans did everything not to win. ..
        -So here too ... -As soon as the radical general Yermolov began to gradually clear these,
        supposedly "proud and warlike" non-peaceful Caucasus .., then he was immediately "recalled" from this non-peaceful Caucasus ...
        -Obviously, the tsar needed a constantly smoldering and stinking (sorry) "hot spot", where it was possible to periodically send in batches the unbelted "golden youth" .... -Well, how else could you cope with them ...
        -After the Masonic conspiracy of the Decembrists, it was quite an "acceptable solution" ... -There are all these "Lermontovs", "Delvigs", and "Martynovs", including so on ... and were "sent there" ... It was there that they could draw "their extreme" in full measure .., and not rage with fat and not arrange all their capricious mischiefs for the tsar, the consequences of which their high-ranking rich relatives later tried to settle ... -The tsar simply did not need these majors ...- In Russia, there was only one harm from them ...- And there was a whole generation of these majors ...- and most of them tried to make a military career, i.e. were officers ...- And what was to do with them ???
        -And in the Caucasus they were at least good for something ... -But these majors then created a heroic areola of their activities in the Caucasus ... -And at the same time they sang, supposedly. "the courage of the mountaineers" and so on ... - They could not narrate that they had to deal with the poor, who are at the "primitive stage of development", the poorest and absolutely not attractive peoples with a small-scale lifestyle ...
        -If these majors were then sent to the reindeer herders, then they would have to sing the reindeer herders too ...
        -Well, that's how it lasted for decades ...
        -And the common people, who have already accumulated in large numbers in that region and began to organize themselves in large numbers and transform into Cossacks and join the ranks and life of the existing Cossack population ... -finally, all this was tired and he took the initiative to force everyone these mountaineers to the world ...- And the Cossacks themselves created a very formidable force ...
        -In essence, in the Cossack districts there was democratic self-government with centralized subordination to the tsar ...
        -And well-armed, professionally trained military, well-organized ... and most importantly, representing the support and reliable protection of the Christian world ... -the Cossacks themselves began to pose a threat to all this criminal rabble ... -We acted on our own and did not ask for help with the king ...
        -That is why the "brave mountaineers" and fiercely hated the Cossacks ... -And when the power of the Bolsheviks began to be established, then all the Chechens, Ingush, Dagestanis, etc. ...- immediately supported the Bolsheviks (seeing the Bolsheviks as opponents of the Cossacks, as such) and went over to the side of the Bolsheviks (although these mountaineers absolutely did not give a damn about the ideas of building a socialist society) ... so that later the Bolsheviks would be betrayed during the Second World War ...
        1. Warrior2015
          Warrior2015 23 September 2019 20: 15
          0
          Quote: gorenina91
          The First Caucasian War was so long and unsuccessful that in fact the tsar did not want to win there ... -This is like the American war in Vietnam., Where the Americans did everything not to win
          The thesis is controversial. Initially, the goals to conquer the Caucasus, even for the most part, were not set, they did not see the point. As a result, it turned out that there would be no surrounding lands and no quiet communications until all mountain societies, without exception, were conquered.

          Quote: gorenina91
          As soon as the radical general Yermolov began to gradually clear these,
          supposedly "proud and warlike" non-peaceful Caucasus .., then he was immediately "recalled" from this non-peaceful Caucasus ...
          Another stamp. Do you, with Ermolov’s cover, know to say that? Just Ermolov was quite peaceful and not particularly aggressive commander. Read, for example, about other Caucasian commanders that were not mentioned in Soviet times because of their German surnames. For example, about von Zasse, or Freytag, or Fezi.

          Quote: gorenina91
          Obviously, the tsar needed a constantly smoldering and stinking (sorry) "hot spot", where it was possible to periodically send out in batches the unbelted "golden youth" .... -Well, how else could you cope with them ...
          It’s funny who they wanted was sent to Siberia, to mines or to a settlement. The Caucasus was no more than one of the service regions.

          Quote: gorenina91
          All these "Lermontovs", "Delvigs", and "Martynovs", including so on ... and were "sent there" ... -That is where they could draw "their extreme" in full measure .., and not to rage with fat and not to arrange for the tsar all sorts of capricious mischief., the consequences of which later their high-ranking rich relatives tried to settle ... -The tsar simply did not need these majors ...- In Russia there was only one harm from them ...
          Funny so - from Lermontov Russia was one harm? We recently had a whole series of articles here from a friend of the East Wind, read, you'll learn a lot.

          Now about the majors. There was a whole Petersburg of such majors, and they could receive awards and ranks under patronage in the same way - as now there were 20.000 circulation, and now there are already 60.000 circulation of medals "Participant of hostilities in the SAR". Despite the fact that we actually fight very little there - and a bunch of different parquet colonels receive these medals when they arrive in Khmeimim for a week or two.

          Quote: gorenina91
          And at the same time they sang, supposedly. "the courage of the mountaineers" and so on ... - They could not narrate that they had to deal with the poor, who are at the "primitive stage of development", the poorest and absolutely not attractive peoples with a small-scale lifestyle ...
          -If these majors were then sent to the reindeer herders, then they would have to sing the reindeer herders too ...
          Yes, but no one said that the Caucasian highlanders are bad warriors, most likely all sources say that it is very difficult to deal with them, especially in a guerrilla war.

          And, by the way, did such reindeer herders then - are the Chukchi called, didn’t they hear about the Russian war with them?

          Quote: gorenina91
          . -Finally all this was tired and he took the initiative to force all these mountaineers to peace ...- And the Cossacks themselves created a very formidable force ...
          Once again, read my words thoughtfully - the Cossacks and "muzhiks" who moved to the Ciscaucasian plains, at the beginning of the 19th century, began to lose the raid war to the growing mountaineers. What kind of initiative "from below" are we talking about?

          Quote: gorenina91
          And well-armed, professionally trained military, well-organized ... and most importantly, representing support and reliable protection of the Christian world ... -the Cossacks themselves began to pose a threat to all this criminal rabble ... -We acted on our own and did not ask for help from the king ...
          These relatively well-armed, to put it mildly, relatively militarily trained people - yes, were considered by the highlanders "plain horsemen", but ... they were not at all afraid of them, and loved to get to grips with them. But they feared - in their own words - the highlanders of the professional units of the Russian infantry and huntsmen, especially with powerful artillery.

          Quote: gorenina91
          That is why the "brave highlanders" fiercely hated the Cossacks ... -And when the power of the Bolsheviks began to be established, then all Chechens, Ingush, Dagestanis, etc. ...- immediately supported the Bolsheviks
          Highlanders during the First Caucasian War fiercely hated not only the Cossacks, but most likely all the inhabitants of the plains, and their neighbors too. Such a mentality that you do. But it’s funny - the same Circassians, being its main enemies in the Western Caucasus, did not betray the Russian Empire and during the Civil War firmly opposed the Bolsheviks, and did not organize the genocide of Russian immigrants (unlike Chechens, Ingush and Dagestanis).
          1. gorenina91
            gorenina91 24 September 2019 08: 56
            0
            And, by the way, did such reindeer herders then - are the Chukchi called, didn’t they hear about the Russian war with them?

            - I'll start with the Chukchi ... -I heard a lot about them ... -In spite of all the jokes about the Chukchi ... -the Chukchi are the coolest of the northern peoples ... -The Chukchi always paid tribute to all the neighboring peoples ... -They even constantly got to the Eskimos and from there brought captive slaves ... -Yes, and the Russian detachment was quite professionally cut out during the fighting ...
            -Why did you get this, that I think of the Chukchi differently .. ??? -Hahah ...
            --------------------
            -Let's go back to the "brave highlanders" ...
            Read, for example, about other Caucasian commanders that were not mentioned in Soviet times because of their German surnames. For example, about von Zasse, or Freytag, or Fezi.

            -As for the "Caucasian commanders with German surnames" of the 19th century ... who replaced Ermolov .., this is a very unfortunate example ... -Just these Germans threw all this slobbering ... -began to pay money to the leaders ( ISIS members of that period ... - Hahah); to show softness and pliability towards them and ... and ... these highlanders simply sat on their necks ... -And it was Ermolov who pursued a very tough radical policy and did not spare all these bandits ...- non-peaceful abreks ... -These thugs understood only the language of brutal power ...
            ------------------------------
            -About the majors, did you ... -Do not understand something ... -What about the medals, ranks and patronage ...
            -The majors constantly played tricks, raged with fat, drove in Mercedes on the streets of Moscow and St. Petersburg, knocking down everyone in their path (oh, no ... - then they drove on horseback in carriages ... - but they knocked everyone down in the same way); violated all existing rules; and also created all kinds of circles and communities; wrote seditious "freethinking verses"; even supported the change of the state system in Russia ... -And what was to be done with them ... -the "golden youth" ... -the sons of high-ranking parents who propped up the royal throne ...
            -You can't send them to Siberia (these are not the Decembrists, after all) ... -That's ...- go to the Caucasus and show your "heroism" there ... -Hahah ...
            -------------------------------
            - I honestly don't want to write about the "brave mountaineers" ... - I just don't consider them as such ... - Even today, when fighters from the Caucasus are praised, who win victories in some "hand-to-hand competitions" .. - I am always sick against these Caucasians ... - I just don't consider them a real part of Russia ... - This is IMHO ...
            -------------------------
            - I’ll continue about the Cossacks ... -Yes, in the beginning it was by no means a well-armed and not very organized category of people ... -But, by the end of the 19th century - the beginning of the 20th century ...- it was already very united, well armed and well-trained people ... -It is ...- not armed forces; namely, all the people themselves ... -All life, folklore; clothes ; equipment; songs, dances, etc. ...- everything was subordinated precisely to the military spirit, code and etiquette ...
  4. Olgovich
    Olgovich 20 September 2019 09: 00
    -4
    Russia's clever policy of turning its enemies into its subjects and allies.
    Not always successful. yes, but generally true.
  5. AK1972
    AK1972 20 September 2019 12: 30
    +1
    On June 2, 1835, Emperor Nicholas I signed a decree on the formation of two regiments. One was to consist of Muslims, Armenians, and other residents of Transcaucasia, and was called Muslim

    A very wise decision to unite Armenians with Muslims. I imagine the discipline in this army. God forbid to command such a regiment.
  6. Astra wild
    Astra wild 20 September 2019 13: 44
    0
    Daniel back could well change shoes.
  7. Edward Vashchenko
    Edward Vashchenko 20 September 2019 14: 43
    +1
    Mountain police - a term applied to the army of Shamil. The Highlanders actually constituted the army-tribe, since they were at different stages of the tribal system, which is well described in the works of the Russian military and lawyers on the customary law of the Highlanders.
    In general, this "militia", however, as well as the Georgian one, was of little use, such an army was used in skirmishes and raids, ambushes, but of course not in regular war.
  8. vladcub
    vladcub 20 September 2019 15: 32
    0
    The eldest son of Shamil served in the Life Guards of the Caucasian Squadron.
    1. Warrior2015
      Warrior2015 22 September 2019 01: 53
      0
      Quote: vladcub
      The eldest son of Shamil served in the Life Guards of the Caucasian Squadron.

      This unit has a very weak relationship with the mountain police, and was rather a unique analogue of the institution of court hostages adopted in the East, when the sons of the provincial nobility were forcibly sent to the capital, where they were honorary amanats / talis, ensuring the loyalty of their parents to the central government.
      1. vladcub
        vladcub 22 September 2019 18: 53
        +1
        What did not affect the behavior of Shamil. Most likely this squadron was designed to accustom Caucasians to new values ​​so that they understand Russia
  9. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 20 September 2019 16: 09
    +1
    Forgiveness Daniel-bek perceived as Russia's weakness. After the first betrayal, he should be hung on a nearby tree. Only this is respected by wild peoples.
  10. faterdom
    faterdom 20 September 2019 22: 51
    0
    Quote: Aviator_
    Forgiveness Daniel-bek perceived as Russia's weakness. After the first betrayal, he should be hung on a nearby tree. Only this is respected by wild peoples.

    You are very primitive in evaluating complex things. We then did not control the Caucasus, and now, say, to the depths of each dark brain we do not control. And only local authorities and know could swing the situation to us in plus or minus. Therefore, politeness, combined, of course, with obvious impressive force, was simply necessary.
    But this was the miscalculation of the authorities, and the reason for the ghazavat: after the relatively mild initial conquest of the Caucasus, the officials sent there as a civilian administration began, with their usual unreasonable arrogance of being rude, swindle and tear three skins from the local ... Well like at home. And so the rebellion of Shamil received widespread support. This is in addition to the religious factor and the active assistance of Turkey, Great Britain and other EU members.
    In such a situation, any ally from the local nobility had to be valued and pampered, forgiving them the pranks of the early feudal fragmentation in which they were. So, even 600-700 years ago in Europe it was not considered shameful for the baron to change his overlord, even during the course of one war, having fought on opposite sides. So, for example, it was repeatedly during the Hundred Years War.
    To make it clear from the fresh: imagine that, during our Afghan campaign, Ahmad Shah agreed for the rank of lieutenant general and a couple of orders to subordinate his formations to the command of the OKSV in the DRA ... Would it be worth giving? Yes, even the Colonel General, and the accelerators in addition! Well, and there wouldn’t be an alliance - what did they lose from the initial situation?