Military Review

Armor of the "sunset era". Vienna imperial arsenal

72
“There is something about which they say:“ look, this is new ”; but that was already in the centuries before us. ”
Ecclesiastes 1: 10



Military museums of Europe. We continue to explore the collections weapons and armor that are exhibited in Vienna arsenal, and today we have in turn the knightly armor of the "sunset era". What does it mean? It’s just that over time, as it happens very often, the very idea of ​​protecting a person from all types of known weapons has gradually become obsolete. So, already no armor could protect their owner from the stone cannonball. Armor began to pierce the arrows of crossbows and bullets of pistols and muskets. Yes, their creators achieved perfection in them, managed to cover literally every piece of their body with armor, and yet even such perfection did not guarantee against serious injuries and death. Knights, even kings, also perished in tournaments, where, it would seem, everything was done to ensure the safety of those fighting. Another important factor was the price! The time has long passed when the armament of a knight cost 30 cows: 15 - the armament and armor itself, and 15 for a war horse. Now, only the serial field armor of mercenaries-latniks had such a value, and the cost of armor for kings and dukes exceeded ... the cost of a small town! But the armor was also influenced by fashion, so a lot of it was required. They needed to be given to their children, grandchildren and nephews, to be given to the kings of neighboring countries, to order prestige for the sake of no one saying: “But this monarch is impoverished, goes to the tournament twice in the same armor!” And what was to be done? The easiest way is to abandon the armor in general, which was subsequently done.


"Eagle Set" by Ferdinand II of Tyrol



And here it is ... a figure of Ferdinand II of Tyrol himself, in the tournament armor from the Eagle Headset in the scale of 1: 12 (150 mm). A set of parts for the manufacture of this armor was released by Imai (Japan) and Imex (USA) in the first half of the 80 of the twentieth century. An interesting feature of these knightly figures is that their legs and arms are made movable, that is, you can give them poses of their own free will. The leadership of the Vienna Armory, where this headset is located, praised the quality of their manufacture and reproduction of the details of the armor. Then a few more sets appeared, but subsequently their release was for some reason discontinued. I painted the figure not quite right, but then even with paints we had problems, and I did not see the original


Archduke Ferdinand II (1529-1595), in the armor of the Eagle Headset. Depicted in the so-called "Bohemian hat", a headdress made of felt and silver wire. On the table to his right is a helmet with an open visor; next to him are gauntlets and a purple belt. The portrait according to the style of painting was attributed to the artist Francesco Terzio (circa 1523 - 1591 gg.) And dated approximately 1566 / 67 year, but, most likely, was painted earlier than this time. The fact is that it does not have a chain of the Order of the Golden Fleece, which the Archduke received on 28 of March 1557 of the year, which means that the picture was created before this date

But first, some way out to reduce weapons costs was found in the creation of armored headsets. And in the XVI century, in order to satisfy all the requirements of numerous varieties of the tournament, just such headsets were created in the form of sets of parts that could be combined among themselves so that each time their owners received seemingly new armor. There was clearly a modular layout principle, so widely used today in modern weapons. So this find is far from our days. All this was already in the past, only at that time the modularity of the design was used not in weapons, but in armor.


One of the armor of the Eagle Headset by Ferdinand II of Tyrol.


Following the fashion of such headsets and at the same time being quite practical, Emperor Ferdinand I in 1546 ordered for his second son, Archduke Ferdinand II of Tyrol, a suit of armor consisting of 87 individual parts.

This is the largest collection that has survived to this day, and, thanks to its early description in the inventory book of Archduke Ferdinand, it is certainly the best documented. The basic unit of the modular design was the so-called “field armor”, that is, plate knight armor used in field battle. Combining with it various additional details, you can get twelve different armor for equestrian and foot combat. For example, armor for foot combat was distinguished by its curly “bell skirt”.

This headset was made in a typical for that time and quite simple design, and without elaborate details, but with excellent finishes. It was made by Jörg Seusenhofer and the engraver Hans Perhammer from Innsbruck. The set is decorated with images of gilded eagles - which were the heraldic symbols of Austria and therefore was called the “Eagle set” in honor of its characteristic decoration. The price of this pompous set was correspondingly very high and amounted to a huge amount of 1258 gold florins, twelve times the annual salary of a high court official, and in addition, 463 florin was spent on its gilding.


Armor of the eight-year-old Hungarian king Ludwig II.


The famous master of armor manufacturing, the “platner,” was Konrad Zeusenhofer, who lived and worked in Innsbruck. Emperor Maximilian I (1493-1519) in the 1504 year entrusted him with the management of the local weapons workshop, which he was in charge of until his death in the 1517 year. Seusenhofer was at the head of a huge company that produced both serial and precious armor for representative purposes. To polish the armor, a drive from a special water mill on the Sill River was used. For serial used stamping. In 1514, Emperor Maximilian I ordered from Seusenhofer armor for the eight-year-old Hungarian king Ludwig II, and the occasion for the gift was the wedding of Louis with Maria, the granddaughter of Maximilian, in 1515. Such holidays were often used just to show off in armor. These armors are mentioned in the oldest documents, starting from the 1581 of the year, as belonging to the collection of Archduke Ferdinand II. It is interesting that, although at that time the “Maximilian” armor had not yet gone out of fashion, the emperor did not consider it possible to order them as a gift, but limited himself to ordinary smooth armor.


In July 1511, Maximilian I ordered the master Hans Rabeiler in Innsbruck for his grandson Karl (future emperor Charles V (1500 - 1558 gg.)) New fashionable armor. But it so happened that ... the boy managed to grow out of them until the end of work. As a result, they remained incomplete. And it turned out to be very valuable for historians. On an unpolished surface, every blow of the hammer, every trace of painstaking work, is visible. The armor was only finished in the 1514 year, but by the time, of course, he was already late. This is a typical “suit armor” imitating the clothes of that time. There is no visor on the helmet, as well as a spear mount on the right side of the chest, although it is possible that it was not provided for initially. And although the armor was incomplete, it was still stored in the arsenal of Innsbruck and was included in his inventory of the 1583 of the year


But this completely unusual armor with a pleated skirt, Emperor Maximilian I ordered Konrad Zeusenhofer in the 1512 year. Moreover, these armors were not intended for anyone, but for his twelve-year-old grandson, Duke Albert of Prussia. The master tried to make a Dutch men's suit in metal in metal, part of which was just such a folded skirt. Therefore, such armor is called costume. The question arises, but how did the rider in such armor mount his horse, because the skirt should have interfered with it? But very simple! For riding on a skirt, front and rear cutouts were provided, which were closed with the corresponding details of the skirt, mounted on hooks. When they needed pages or squires, they were removed and ... taken separately, and when the owner of the armor got off the horse, they immediately mounted them in place. Such armor, in theory, was intended for a foot fight in the arena. And by the way, no matter how a boy dressed in such armor would refuse to fight another boy of the same age about his age and ... the corresponding situation ?!

Armor of the "sunset era". Vienna imperial arsenal

The same armor, side view



Since Maximilian I didn’t succeed with the present for young Karl, he decided to order one more armor for him, already Konrad Zeusenhofer, and so that they would make it as soon as possible. A man’s suit from Holland with a pleated skirt, the so-called “Schaube” with sewn fabric overlays, was again chosen as a model here. To imitate them, gilded silver stripes with emblems of the Order of the Golden Fleece and St. Andrew's Cross were made on metal. The armor was decorated with mobile and gilding in the style of the Augsburg master Daniel Hopfer

Simultaneously with the armor for this boy, Maximilian I ordered two more armor with pleated skirts for his English ally Henry VIII. One helmet has survived from one of them (Tower of London, Inv. No: IV.22).


Wilhelm von Roggendorf's unusual armor, made by the gunsmith Helmschmidt, also belongs to the “costume armor”. The master reproduced in metal the traditional clothes of Germanic landsknechts


Of course, “costume armor” could not but surprise. But still they were too pretentious. Meanwhile, almost simultaneously with them, the gunsmiths found other ways to amuse the nobility with a sense of their own significance. However, this is the next time.

To be continued ...
Author:
Articles from this series:
One day at the imperial arsenal in Vienna
Naval Historical Museum of Venice. Excursion to the “Ship Hall”
Mistress Museum of the Lady of the Mediterranean
Many, many "iron guys." One day at the Army Museum in Paris
72 comments
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  1. polpot
    polpot 26 September 2019 07: 11
    +5
    Thanks for the article and wonderful illustrations.
  2. Albatroz
    Albatroz 26 September 2019 07: 21
    +4
    Cool, you can’t say anything ...
    Still, what magic does such armor have on man, regardless of age.
    You look, you read - and you’re bastard
  3. Edward Vashchenko
    Edward Vashchenko 26 September 2019 07: 25
    +4
    Excellent article, thank you!
    Vyacheslav Olegovich, I thought, but in your cycle there will be no story about children's armor, seems to me an interesting topic?
  4. kalibr
    26 September 2019 08: 05
    +3
    Quote: Eduard Vaschenko
    and in your cycle there will be no story about children's armor, does it seem to me an interesting topic?

    Stupid people are stupid in different ways! Smart ... smart equally. Increasingly, I find confirmation of this statement. And then again, now you confirm it ... Well, of course, it will be, well, how about ... As soon as I saw their armor there, and in Vienna there are a lot of them, I immediately ordered my granddaughter to shoot them ... So the material will be getting ready. There will be photos of ours, will be from Arsenal funds to give maximum information. Even from the Ambras castle there will be that are not on display now!
    1. Edward Vashchenko
      Edward Vashchenko 26 September 2019 08: 37
      +3
      Mutually. hi
      If you need photo material, I will gladly send it!
      1. kalibr
        26 September 2019 13: 29
        +3
        Thank! It's always nice to be helped.
  5. kalibr
    26 September 2019 08: 07
    +4
    Albatroz (manfred)Totally agree with you. And once you are among them, you experience very strange feelings. What were two women with me, and they ... were fascinated.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 26 September 2019 11: 30
      +4
      In this case, the main thing is to prepare companions! Whatever happens, as described by JK Jerome: "The most exciting thing about a picnic is washing dishes."
  6. sivuch
    sivuch 26 September 2019 08: 54
    +3
    In 1514, Emperor Maximilian I ordered from Seusenhofer armor for the eight-year-old Hungarian king Ludwig II, and the occasion for the gift was the wedding of Louis with Maria, the granddaughter of Maximilian
    ---------------------------
    So what was the name of the Hungarian king - Ludwig, Louis or still Lajos? As I understand it, this is who died at Mohach
    1. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master 26 September 2019 10: 22
      +4
      Quote: sivuch
      Since, after all, the name of the Hungarian king was Ludwig, Louis or still Lajos

      And it depends on who called. smile
      Mom probably called him Louis, Pope - Ludwig, Pope - Louis, and subjects - Laioche. smile
      The question is eternal - Jean Santer, John Lackland or John Landless, Richard Cordellon or Richard the Lionheart, Guillaume Betard or William the Conqueror ...
      Quote: sivuch
      died at Mohach

      It seems that same ...
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 26 September 2019 11: 03
        +3
        I recalled Eustache of Boulogne.
        "Where does the guy get the Hungarian sadness?" laughing
        1. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master 26 September 2019 13: 32
          +4
          Quote: 3x3zsave
          I remembered Eustache of Boulogne

          He is Eustace. laughing
          If Count Eustache, aka Eustace, corresponded with Emperor Alexei Komnenos (which is quite possible), then their correspondence would have looked like "Eustace to Alex" laughing
          In general, a good company then, in 1066, gathered William. Or Guillaume. Ugh, you don’t know what to call now. laughing Such a solid company. The children who fought at Hastings almost in full force then went on the first crusade to liberate Jerusalem. Godfried Yustasovich (Geoffroy Yevstakhievich) became the "Defender of the Holy Sepulcher" and the ruler of Jerusalem, and his brother Balduin Yustasovich (Boduen Yevstakhievich laughing ) took the title of King of Jerusalem ...
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 26 September 2019 13: 40
            +2
            "Wasp and Billy were here" (inscription on a boulder near Hastings) laughing
          2. Hantengri
            Hantengri 26 September 2019 20: 59
            +1
            Quote: Trilobite Master
            In general, a good company then, in 1066, gathered William. Or Guillaume. Ugh, you don’t know what to call now.

            You can easily, in a modern way - William. laughing
      2. kalibr
        26 September 2019 13: 33
        +4
        Quote: Trilobite Master
        The question is eternal - Jean Santer, John Lackland or John Landless, Richard Cordellon or Richard the Lionheart, Guillaume Betard or William the Conqueror ...

        Ahead ...
  7. Engineer
    Engineer 26 September 2019 11: 27
    +3
    In general, there is nothing unambiguous in history.
    We are all used to thinking of tournaments as something courteous for people of honor. And here in Vienna I see such a picture in the legend of armor (taken formally from the tournament book of Emperor Maximilian)

    As you can see, one of the fighters on the TOURNAMENT performs a very dirty trick - knocks the opponent’s supporting leg with a blow to the knee. Judging by the crown and plume, it is most likely the emperor himself.
    No comments)
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 26 September 2019 11: 44
      +3
      What courtesy? As for me, it is a great illustration of a "fix match".
    2. Undecim
      Undecim 26 September 2019 12: 32
      +6
      taken formidably from the tournament book of Emperor Maximilian
      Yes, this is one of the illustrations from Freydal - an allegorical presentation of the life path of Maximilian I.
      There are no dirty tricks here, this is an illustration showing the technique of working with a war hammer.
      In martial arts there are no dirty tricks, unlike refined sports versions, because in martial arts a place is played on the podium, and in applied - life.
      1. Engineer
        Engineer 26 September 2019 12: 53
        +3
        I can not agree.
        Freydal is a tournament book, not a fencing book. And tournaments in the Middle Ages, the farther the more precisely the largely refined regulated enterprise with rules reminiscent of sports. In our yard the end of the 15th beg. 16th century. The division with a real battle has already gone far. Until the appearance of special armor, as indicated in the articles of Vyacheslav. In addition to demonstrating strength and skill, nobility, even ostentatious, was also valued. Cases come to mind when the knights did not strike the enemy if, for example, the shoulder straps of his shoulder burst. They signaled the heralds (I don’t remember the exact rank of the referees) and they stopped the battle, allowing the opponent to fix the equipment. This is offhand.
        The reception in the picture is dirty, if for a contest. I could be wrong, but blows, for example, in the back were clearly prohibited. If memory fails.
        1. Undecim
          Undecim 26 September 2019 13: 07
          +3
          This is not just Turnierbuch. I wrote above that this is the life story of the young Emperor Maximilian I, an allegory in the form of a tournament book. Moreover, this is a love story for a noble woman, Maria of Burgundy. The book was created with the personal participation of Maximilian.
          There, by definition, there could be no scenes that at least did not correspond to the chivalrous code of the time.
          1. Engineer
            Engineer 26 September 2019 13: 17
            +3
            Well then there’s nothing to argue about)
            The message of my first post was that in the Middle Ages the interpretation of "dirty" / "not dirty" was very peculiar.
          2. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 26 September 2019 13: 23
            +3
            That's interesting, can someone explain to me why the rival Maximillian has different sabatons?
            And so, Viktor Nikolayevich, in order to substitute himself in a duel for impact-crushing in such a way, the professional should try.
            1. Engineer
              Engineer 26 September 2019 13: 40
              +4
              In defense of the hapless fighter from the book of Freudal.
              There is a historical description of a duel on axes (poles) in the 15th century between a French knight (Lalanel or something like that) with one English squire. The Englishman struck, but the opponent went sideways with a U-turn. Unlucky squire buried visor in the sand. The Frenchman won without delivering a single blow. Although the squire had real combat experience in at least one war with the Scots.
              Not a reenactor, but I can assume from boxing that the emperor's rival delivered a "long" blow at the limit of reach and fell with a weight on the front leg. The opponent took advantage of this. Probably hit the knee ahead of time and hurt / Distracted. And then flew into the "jug"

              About Sabatons I remembered that then in Vienna, I also paid attention, but now I forgot). Very interesting, but no thoughts recourse
              1. Engineer
                Engineer 26 September 2019 19: 27
                +2
                Damn again with his holey head. It’s necessary to fix it. Sam got lost and took others away)
                The fight was between Jacques de Lalen and Thomas Qu. The Englishman really buried his visor in the sand, but before that, the opponents exchanged a series of blows. So there was no victory without a blow.
                There was a victory with one (?) Blow in a similar style
                https://willscommonplacebook.blogspot.com/search?q=portuguese
                La Roque in a duel with Rumaindres went back, the enemy fell to his knee and was finally incapacitated after the blow. The Portuguese was let down by the "Bullish" style attack
            2. Undecim
              Undecim 26 September 2019 14: 46
              +1
              It is difficult to give some kind of unambiguous interpretation to different sabatons. Moreover, this is the only engraving in Freydal with different sabatons. On all the others, the enemy of Maximilian is symmetrical.

              Moreover, Gothic sabatons with long socks were not used at all in foot duels. The only logical explanation I can put forward is the artist’s mistake.
              As for - to substitute ... If in the duel one of the opponents did not end up in the end, then he would win more hardy. Perhaps the enemy on the left after the attack hesitated, did not respond in time to the enemy’s counterattack, and did not manage to break the distance or take a defensive position.
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 26 September 2019 15: 19
                +1
                I then analyzed the picture and rehearsed a bit (based on my own, small reconstruction experiments)
                1. Maximilian raised his left leg. It is extremely difficult to knock out the opponent’s left foot from this position.
                2. The location of the limbs of the affected knight suggests that he slipped.
                1. Engineer
                  Engineer 26 September 2019 15: 42
                  +2
                  Slipped - quite possibly. In the end, it's just a picture and everything on it can be very arbitrary.
                  About "knocks out". When I saw the following analogy came to my mind:
                  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kcerBvftLHc
                  That is, not "sambist" hooking, but a sort of attack - "stepping" on the knee - a much more traumatic technique. Watch the video, especially at 0:33, Jones even lifts the heel of his hind foot like our Max the Emperor. True, Jones stays on the "back leg" all the time, and our hero clearly combines the attack with the transfer of weight to the front leg.
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 26 September 2019 17: 53
                    +1
                    Thanks, Denis, I looked. The analogy is interesting, but let's not forget that in this case, the opponents have a long enough weapon in their hands, in which Jones' crown becomes a very dangerous technique for the user himself.
                    1. Engineer
                      Engineer 26 September 2019 19: 28
                      +1
                      Undoubtedly. It’s dangerous, but the fact of an attack with a foot in the knee is obvious to me.
    3. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master 26 September 2019 14: 06
      +4
      Quote: Engineer
      performs a very dirty reception

      Why did you decide that it was "dirty"?
      It seems to me that you approach the assessment of this action from the point of view of modern morality, which was completely not characteristic of the people of that time, and knowledge of the rules of today's martial arts, about which in the 16th century. did not suspect. If a blow by a buckler in the head is a perfectly acceptable technique, why should knocking out of the supporting leg be condemned? What principle of chivalry does such a blow contradict? Boxing, where kicks and punches below the belt are forbidden, was invented much later. smile
      Personally, I draw a conclusion from this illustration that is absolutely opposite to that which you made - this is not a sneaky blow, but absolutely correct, which can only be encouraged and praised.
      Quote: Engineer
      I could be wrong, but blows, for example, in the back were clearly prohibited.

      I think you are mistaken.
      Perhaps there was a certain moral (I emphasize) barrier for a knight to unexpectedly attack the knight from behind. But if in a course, for example, shallower, one of the opponents was behind the other, nothing, no moral or "legal" rules prevented him from striking a blow. Well, in a duel there was no such problem at all - if one of the participants is stupid enough to turn his back on his opponent, then what to do with him - to kiss his cheated ass? Himself will be guilty. smile
      In any case, I did not come across any materials about the prohibitions of kicks, including kicks, or kicks from behind. There is information about the special conditions of the match, stipulating, for example, the number of strokes or other nuances. But, as far as I know, there were no general rules with such prohibitions.
      1. Engineer
        Engineer 26 September 2019 14: 26
        +1
        "Dirty" by modern standards. Precisely dirty, because it deliberately injures or maims the enemy. Once again, my message was that the then regulated duels still allowed this. The fact that this was prohibited by the then rules, I did not say. He just expressed bewilderment how this practice was combined with the courtly atmosphere and the limitations of the tournament.
        The tournament of that time (15-16 centuries) is in many respects an analogue of modern martial arts with restrictions.
        1. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master 26 September 2019 15: 30
          +4
          Quote: Engineer
          "Dirty" by modern standards.

          Clear. From the point of view of modern morality. You are somewhat bewildered by the fact that the rules of tournament battles of the late Middle Ages correspond to modern morality only partially. How if you start reading the Latin alphabet, and end with "e, u, z" smile
          If a modern martial artist cripples or, moreover, kills an opponent, the reaction of the public will be mixed - from hatred (killer!) To pity for him, they say how hard it is for him now, he is worried. If in the XVI century. one knight with a mighty blow would send an opponent to the house of the disabled or the other world, the reaction of the audience would be one - well done, keep it up!
          Broke someone's leg - handsome! He cut the helmet together with the head - generally a hero. Did it twice or three times - "the idol of millions." laughing
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 26 September 2019 15: 45
            +3
            Michael, in my opinion you are slightly bent over with expression hi In the end, your opponent does not claim that the holy Slavic heroes bent over all the masters of the West, who are being fueled by world oil-fatigue laughing
            1. Trilobite Master
              Trilobite Master 26 September 2019 17: 18
              +3
              Quote: 3x3zsave
              slightly bend with expression

              The Lord is with you, Anton. Just now, in the goldreer's space of the hoplophilic world (Opinions, a series of articles about collective farmers versus racketeers), I really unloaded myself. I don't want to offend anyone here, especially such a thoughtful and adequate opponent as Engineer (Denis) proved to be. And the expression, just for imagery, especially since there is quite a bit of it here.
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 26 September 2019 17: 46
                +3
                in the Goldreer space of the hoplophile world
                "Spaghetti Eastern", in my opinion, has nothing to do with the then reality.
                1. Trilobite Master
                  Trilobite Master 26 September 2019 18: 41
                  +3
                  Quote: 3x3zsave
                  "Spaghetti Eastern"

                  The wet dreams of the infantile romantic idealist - the most harmful and dangerous kind of public figure, to which the author of this cycle probably wants to include himself. It is from such people that, over time, the most notorious scoundrels turn out: life beats them more painfully than others, and they, having broken, begin to take revenge on her "senselessly and mercilessly", placing themselves outside of morality and rules.
                  Clever and sober cynics I like more. smile
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 26 September 2019 19: 06
                    +1
                    Clever and sober cynics I like more.
                    Richard Platangenet vs Philip-Augustus Cupping? laughing
                    1. Trilobite Master
                      Trilobite Master 26 September 2019 20: 08
                      +3
                      If you look for an example of a pragmatic king, I’m rather rather Philip IV the Beautiful or Louis XI. Although, of course, these sovereigns had different tasks, they both successfully solved them. Philip Augustus was still not quite a stranger to the romantic flora.
                      1. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 26 September 2019 20: 35
                        +2
                        Philip the Beautiful, in my opinion, is too greedy for the pragmatist.
          2. Engineer
            Engineer 26 September 2019 16: 01
            +2
            If in the XVI century. one knight with a mighty blow would send an opponent to the house of the disabled or the other world, the reaction of the audience would be one - well done, keep it up!

            16th century? Precisely at a tournament, not a "duel of honor"? Judging by what I've read, probably not.
            http://willscommonplacebook.blogspot.com/search/label/Medieval%20Combat?updated-max=2012-02-26T20:13:00-05:00&max-results=20&start=60&by-date=false
            Read a lot here. Information is scattered in different topics, but it is fiction for those who like to find the information, and not argue wink
            1. Trilobite Master
              Trilobite Master 26 September 2019 17: 11
              +2
              I will see your link. I will try to provide my sources.
  8. kalibr
    26 September 2019 13: 31
    +3
    Quote: sivuch
    So what was the name of the Hungarian king - Ludwig, Louis or still Lajos? As I understand it, this is who died at Mohach

    Yes, the question ... And what was the name of William the Conqueror, who is Guillaume Bastard and William the Conqueror, or even William ...
  9. kalibr
    26 September 2019 13: 38
    +2
    Quote: 3x3zsave
    In this matter, the main thing is to prepare companions!

    And feed! Before going there, we had lunch nearby at the Rosenberger self-service restaurant, and the peaceful went to the museum. By the way, I recommend it to everyone conveniently that only a plate is paid for in diameter, and how much you stuffed in there is not. All sorts of chicken legs, Viennese sausages are also paid separately ... and if you take Rosenberger coffee, you get a branded mug as a gift!
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 26 September 2019 14: 10
      +1
      About 4 years ago I took a sweetheart to a retrospective show "Das Boot". I must say that the administration of the c / t "Aurora" adheres to the traditions of the oldest cinema in the country and does not bother with air conditioning, so by the end of the film (almost 4 hours) all viewers had the opportunity to feel like "bearded boys".
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 26 September 2019 14: 51
        +2
        Hi, hello. hi Just four years ago? I saw this film at the very beginning of the nineties and is already recorded on cassette. I remember that I phoned my friend from the headquarters of the Navy, and, unexpectedly, it turned out that no one had seen this film there yet. So my whim in half an hour rushed to me and, taking the cassette, arranged a massive screening of the film at my headquarters for all l / s. And the next day I received a present from a grateful audience in the form of a liter of good cognac, which my friend and I finished off that evening while discussing the picture. I want to note that our naval sailors really liked the film, they did not find any flaws there, but they were very sorry that we could not make a single "travel" film about our submariners.
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 26 September 2019 15: 05
          +3
          Once again, Konstantin, this is the Aurora cinema, the oldest cinema in the country. They maintain a reputation. In addition, they participate in all kinds of informal projects and international programs, such as "Theater on the Big Screen"
  10. Catfish
    Catfish 26 September 2019 14: 41
    +3
    Vyacheslav another thank you gran! good

    She brought the pleated skirt on the armor to complete ecstasy with removable front-back details. After all, if the granddaughter was older, in this armor one could not only climb on a horse, but have "private relationships" with the ladies, again without taking off the armor. wink
    M-d ... Different, different thoughts sometimes come into our heads ...
    1. kalibr
      26 September 2019 15: 37
      +2
      You would all marquise .... Ay, ah!
  11. kalibr
    26 September 2019 15: 40
    +2
    Quote: Trilobite Master
    He cut the helmet with his head - in general a hero.

    Yes, in the Heidelberg songbook there is a miniature of how ladies will beat a knight who has chopped off an enemy helmet. And they sprinkled blood!
    1. Engineer
      Engineer 26 September 2019 16: 13
      +1

      It seems like he didn’t chop and whip laughing ... The group competition, "miles", was conducted with STUPID swords. In any case, as a historian, you know that 200 years have passed from the time of the songbook to Maximilian. And tournaments have changed since then wink
      Songbook here
      https://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/cpg848/0060/image
  12. NF68
    NF68 26 September 2019 16: 26
    +1
    Chic "rattles".
  13. kalibr
    26 September 2019 16: 30
    +1
    Quote: Engineer
    It seems like he didn’t chop and whip

    It seems to be chopped and lashes ... There are a lot of pictures!
    1. Engineer
      Engineer 26 September 2019 16: 36
      +1
      Hacked and lashes)
      but it is not clear whether it is a tournament or, say, "God's judgment"

      Can you clarify?
      1. kalibr
        26 September 2019 18: 17
        +2
        There are many pictures ... Many ... And there is where the helmets are cut. But this tournament or fight I can not determine. And here, what to explain? Did people go to God's judgment discharged? Usually in court fights they fought dressed very simply. So also there are pictures with such fights. But there everyone is still intact. But this is a very long time to describe ...
      2. Undecim
        Undecim 26 September 2019 18: 55
        +2
        This is a tournament. The thumbnail description in the library of the University of Heidelberg says: Herr Dietmar der Setzer erschlägt seinen Gegner im Turnier. Dietmar der Setzer is a XNUMXth-century German poet.
        1. kalibr
          26 September 2019 21: 51
          +2
          So I was right!
  14. kalibr
    26 September 2019 16: 35
    +1
    I found a book with pictures of fights ... somehow I will make material on it. So there ... they beat wherever they hit, with a pole in the eye ... fight (by agreement!) In their underpants ... A very interesting book ... So you're right, sir! EVERYTHING WAS, EVERYTHING COULD BE!
    1. Engineer
      Engineer 26 September 2019 16: 44
      +1
      So we have a discussion about Tournaments and it began with a foot component.
      Horse tournaments are extremely dangerous, especially in the Early and Middle Period. Shards of spear, penetrating wounds through poorly fitted armor, palpebral fissures. I know that. In equestrian tournaments and deaths, I myself can upload information. The fundamental difference is a huge element of chance. The second point is the inability of refereeing to intervene after the start of the convergence. Therefore, scoring systems were primarily regulated. We argued about dirt in on foot tournaments
      1. kalibr
        26 September 2019 18: 33
        +1
        Here are the pictures from the book about fights from ... about this somehow later. In general, fun
        ny things are drawn.
  15. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 26 September 2019 18: 07
    +1
    Thanks for the article, Vyacheslav Olegovich!
    I have a question. What was the rightmost "suit" of the Eagle Headset (first illustration) intended for?
  16. kalibr
    26 September 2019 18: 14
    +1
    Interest Ask. This is the so-called three-quarter armor. That is, without leggings below the knees. Yes, there is no cuirass on it. She was taken from other armor headset. The helmet is open - bourguignot. The British also called him dart armor. Heinrich 8 had a similar set. He is on the web can compare.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 26 September 2019 18: 18
      +1
      Thank! And I am a woodpecker, I could have thought of it myself! Confused by the lack of cuirasses.
  17. kalibr
    26 September 2019 18: 32
    +2
    Anton, this always happens because of ... some lack of confidence in their knowledge. You know, but ... suddenly it’s not like that, suddenly there is some kind of "secret knowledge". It goes away with time!
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 26 September 2019 18: 57
      +2
      it always happens
      I know that there will always be a subject who is ready to accuse "ignorance of texture". I recently had a fight with the "noble naval builder" Timokhin.
  18. Engineer
    Engineer 26 September 2019 20: 25
    +2
    There seems to be a discussion about the nature of the foot tournaments. How dirty and bloody were they?
    Here is Michael’s opinion.
    If in the XVI century. one knight with a mighty blow would send an opponent to the house of the disabled or the other world, the reaction of the audience would be one - well done, keep it up!

    Caliber at least partially supported this point of view by posting "bloody" pictures.
    My opinion. In the second half of the 15th and the beginning of the 16th century, hiking tournaments were already quite regulated and already highly refined fun. No approval of deaths. Excessive violence, "dirt", at least in part (by dirt I mean everything that is not directly related to the work of weapons) and deaths were in every possible way limited primarily by the organizers of the tournament. Initially, it was about foot tournaments. Equestrian tournaments, due to understandable features, were inevitably more traumatic.
    Methodology. I think that it is necessary to limit ourselves only to the 15-16 centuries. The dispute was originally about this period. The rest is irrelevant. Although it is possible, after clarifying the positions, it will be interesting to compare with the earlier period. Let me remind you that we are talking only about tournaments. Therefore, the "fight of thirty" is not an indicator. But the 6x6 duel in 1449 between the Burgundians and the Scots at the court of the King of Scotland is quite an example.
    Next, I will distribute my analysis.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 26 September 2019 20: 30
      +1
      Denis, maybe an article?
      1. Engineer
        Engineer 26 September 2019 21: 19
        +2
        Unfortunately, I see that I overestimate memory very often. Writing an article will take a hefty amount of time in the first place. But I do not exclude it. At one time, a draft was ready for the first two articles of the cycle about the daily life of Roman legionnaires 1-3 centuries. But died when a hard drive crashes fool
    2. Engineer
      Engineer 26 September 2019 21: 15
      +2
      Here is an article about the exploits of Jacques de Lalen. The most famous fighter of the 1st half of the 15th century.
      http://www.thearma.org/essays/Lalaing.htm#.XYzgctSLS9K
      These are not quite tournaments in the classical sense. The term Feats of Arms is used in the article.
      But here it’s even doubly interesting, because it shows how the restrictions worked in the conditions when the soldiers fought with NOT blunt weapons. Consider the foot aspect of the fighting.
      Fighters often injure each other, but all wounds are relatively light. Although our guys do not stand on ceremony and quite often mark in the face, often piercing the visor. Only in one case, the fight with the Sicilian de Roussillon was stopped due to the wound of the latter. There are no deaths at all.
      Fight 6x6 Burgundians with Scotlans. Fighters widely use wrestling equipment. The king stops the fight as soon as the Scots begin to obviously lose. No one was seriously injured.
      1x1 fights stopped immediately as the loser fell to the ground.
      Very interesting fight with Claude Pittoy. The soldiers alternately grabbed the enemy polex the right hand and attacked with his holding it in his left hand. Lalen threw the opponent in wrestling, but he fell on him. The judge immediately stopped the fight.
      Fight with Rabutin. It was agreed to lead up to 55 shots, but due to the fierce fight, the judge stopped him at 30
      Fight with Avnsher stopped after disarming the latter
      Very indicative of the battle with Jean Pitua. The fight was stopped after the wounded Jean tried to hit Lalen in the face with a plate glove. Judging by this episode, striking techniques were forbidden.
      So far, I see only confirmation of my thoughts.
      1. kalibr
        26 September 2019 21: 49
        +2
        Very interesting examples!
        1. Engineer
          Engineer 26 September 2019 22: 04
          +1
          The story is more fascinating than any novel
          It all started for me in the years 11-12 after the book fell into the eyes of the authorship of a certain G.Yu. Caesar)). Count Monte Cristo remained unread.
          Then there was Bernal Diaz del Castillo, a reprint of the pre-revolutionary publication and away we go ..
          When today I am poked in the nose with pickles with Druons, I can only laugh. Not because they are bad, but because they are boring).
  19. kalibr
    26 September 2019 21: 48
    +1
    Quote: Engineer
    In the second half of the 15 - beginning of the 16 century, foot tournaments were already quite regulated and already very refined fun.

    What to argue about? That's right ... Look at the foot fighters from the Dresden arsenal ... They were in some article about tournaments ...
  20. Maks1995
    Maks1995 13 November 2019 10: 22
    0
    Cool article. Thank.