Military Review

Scientists have made a discovery that allows you to create a "thermoelectric" form

81
The “Let's Talk About Science” column comes out on Saturday morning — let’s stretch the brain. And this warm-up will be associated with a discussion of the discovery, which was made by a group of scientists from the University of North Carolina (USA), the US National Laboratory of Energy ORNL, Ohio State University and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. This very combination of scientists' workplaces suggests that, in the wake of the US-China confrontation, scientific cooperation between these countries continues, and very actively - even with the involvement of government agencies.


Scientists have made a discovery that allows you to create a "thermoelectric" form

In the laboratory


What discovery are we talking about?

Scientists report that they were able to identify the conversion of thermal energy into electrical energy at the level of microparticles in paramagnetic materials. In physics, paramagnets are called strong magnetic substances that are magnetized in an external field in the direction of this field.

From a publication in Science Advances:

Local thermal perturbations of spins in a solid can convert heat to energy even in paramagnetic material - where spins, as always thought, do not correlate long enough to lead to such an effect.

Researchers from the USA and China called the effect “thermoEMF of paramagnon resistance”, where the difference in temperature due to the behavior of microparticles leads to the appearance of electric voltage.

How do scientists themselves suggest using this discovery?


According to them, such an option for the emergence of thermoEMF (electromotive force) will allow the use of automobile exhaust gases to generate electricity. We are also talking about the creation of special “smart” clothes and military uniforms, where the power supply of elements can be carried out with the help of heat created by the human body. They are trying to implement such technologies (in terms of creating a "smart" form) now, but with a new discovery, work on creating a "thermoelectric" form can go much faster.

The discovery itself was made on a substance such as manganese telluride (MnTe), where the generation of electricity due to temperature fluctuations turned out to be many times stronger than in the case when such generation is carried out by electronic charges.

University of Ohio Aerospace Engineering Professor Joseph Hereman:
Prior to this work, it was believed that the resistance of magnons can exist only in magnetically ordered materials, and not in paramagnets.

As often happens, the military has already turned its attention to the discovery of scientists. First of all, we are talking about interest in terms of creating a "thermoelectric form", when the heat of the human body will allow you to create sufficient electrical voltage.
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  1. Svarog
    Svarog 14 September 2019 09: 05
    -1
    As often happens, the military has already turned its attention to the discovery of scientists. First of all, we are talking about interest in terms of creating a "thermoelectric form", when the heat of the human body will allow you to create sufficient electrical voltage.

    Cool of course .. well done. Damn, again I can not resist .. That's about the American, English, Chinese and others .. scientists are constantly hearing something open .. do we have scientists? Or have everyone moved there already?
    1. Cat man null
      Cat man null 14 September 2019 09: 32
      +3
      Quote: Svarog
      Damn, again I can not resist ..

      ... not to poke a little laughing

      Quote: Svarog
      ... about American, English, Chinese and others .. scientists are constantly hearing something being discovered .. do we have scientists?

      Well, okay. From the whole article, you only realized that "foreign scientists have discovered." The article urges you to "stretch your brains", not language, buddy wink

      Quote: Article
      ... thermal perturbations of spins in a solid can transform heat into energy even in paramagnetic material - where spins, as always thought, do not correlate long enough ...

      Quote: A & B Strugatsky, The Tale of the Troika
      The rotor of the field, like a divergence, grades itself along the back and there, inside, draws ...

      Inspired request
      1. Shurik70
        Shurik70 14 September 2019 17: 47
        0
        In other words, did they improve the thermocouple? Or not improved, but "re-opened"?
    2. Yura
      Yura 14 September 2019 10: 49
      +2
      Svarog, you will never see what you do not want to see. Why do you hate your country so much? Probably for the fact that you are in it? Imagine, and what others, daily observe this in their own country?
      Quote: Svarog
      Damn, again I can not resist .. That's about the American, English, Chinese and others .. scientists are constantly hearing something open .. do we have scientists? Or have everyone moved there already?
    3. Rwmos
      Rwmos 14 September 2019 15: 56
      +2
      There is no practical application, a classic example of confirmation of the phrase "science is a way to satisfy the curiosity of individual individuals at the expense of the state." Stupid spending of funds so that in 20-30 years it would be possible to charge 1 finger battery by burning a full tank ... True, what for in the car is a finger battery - "science is not yet in the know."
      But this is a breakthrough in science! Not like a closed-cycle nuclear power plant, i.e. in fact non-waste. So Svarogam need to treat not only vision but also hearing
      1. My doctor
        My doctor 14 September 2019 22: 48
        -1
        Quote: RWMos
        a classic example of confirming the phrase "science is a way to satisfy the curiosity of individual individuals at the expense of the state"

        Denial of the role of science in the life of both individual individuals and the state, the correct position
    4. dolfi1
      dolfi1 14 September 2019 22: 18
      0
      Read Hi-News.ru, pleasantly surprised
    5. 4UMA
      4UMA 15 September 2019 02: 40
      0
      Our managers are effective, what for us scientists? Ha funny you however)
  2. Kontrik
    Kontrik 14 September 2019 09: 07
    -1
    The “Let's Talk About Science” column comes out on Saturday morning — let’s stretch the brain.

    A good heading for Russia, especially on Saturday morning, and even about the American, how smart they are, etc.
    Is this specially done to annoy us in Russia?
    Either the US soldiers fired from a mortar, turning their backs on him, then this .. negative
    Where is the news about Russia?
    1. Svarog
      Svarog 14 September 2019 09: 10
      +2
      Quote: Kontrik
      Is this specially done to annoy us in Russia?

      Meehan, and who are you angry with at American scientists or at the fact that you don’t hear anything from ours?
      1. Kontrik
        Kontrik 14 September 2019 09: 45
        +3
        Quote: Svarog
        Quote: Kontrik
        Is this specially done to annoy us in Russia?

        Meehan, and who are you angry with at American scientists or at the fact that you don’t hear anything from ours?

        Good question Swagor wink I am angry that our achievements and developments are hushed up. angry Here I look at the United States and Israel in favor .. And you wave to them .. Yesterday I looked at night someone kicked 10 minuses hehe heh And they did not drive me into the skull, the gut is weak (you hope you didn’t participate in this?)))
        I worry about our youth, they’re coming to the military’s patriotic site .. And here oh wei goes, as in the rest. And what do they think? hi
        1. Svarog
          Svarog 14 September 2019 09: 51
          +2
          Quote: Kontrik
          Then I look at the United States and Israel in favor .. And you wave it

          Is that how I wave it?
          Quote: Kontrik
          Yesterday I watched at night someone kicked 10 minuses hehe heh And they didn’t drive them into the skulls, the gut is weak (I hope you didn’t participate in this?)))

          No, Meehan, I didn’t participate, I try not to minus anyone .. I’m working on the fact that I never minus anyone at all .. until it works out sometimes I still have to .. in my opinion, you really start to "drown" laughing
          I worry about our youth, they’re coming to the military’s patriotic site .. And here oh wei goes, as in the rest. And what do they think?

          So we are all worried here .. only someone who sees all the stupidity of power supports it, and someone directly says that it is stupidity. What do you think is more correct?
        2. region58
          region58 15 September 2019 20: 04
          +1
          Quote: Kontrik
          I am angry that our achievements and developments are hushed up.

          How is it hushed up? We all know... bully
    2. Mordvin 3
      Mordvin 3 14 September 2019 09: 19
      0
      Quote: Kontrik
      Where is the news about Russia?

      Do we need it? As I read it in the AIF, they invented our chassis for cars, they roll one and a half times better than ordinary ones. The Chinese wanted to buy for 100 million, the Japs were interested. And our Russian Railways said, "Build, and we'll see." And the lining said: "We will not do it until there is a guaranteed order from Russian Railways."
      1. Svarog
        Svarog 14 September 2019 09: 34
        +2
        Quote: Mordvin 3
        And we need it?

        Here recently, a comment was that our scientists learned how to make gas out of rubbish and the cost of it is 40 kopecks. per liter .. So this development did not interest anyone in Russia, and it seems like they bought it in the West for crazy money. Personally, before reading the VO, I never heard of such a development, although the news of science is always a priority .. So I just can’t understand, either our discoveries are few or silent about them? But given that in the end they sell everything there, in Russia nobody needs anything ..
        1. Mordvin 3
          Mordvin 3 14 September 2019 09: 38
          0
          Quote: Svarog
          Our scientists learned how to make gas out of rubbish and the cost of its 40 cop. per liter ..

          Oh, think! Tesla’s FBI agents did a good job. Here's a fool, he encroached on the holy. Nicola, I mean.
        2. Kontrik
          Kontrik 14 September 2019 09: 51
          -1
          Quote: Svarog
          So I can’t understand, either our discoveries are few, or they are silent about them?

          On some sites (there are less and less of them) there is such a heading "Achievements of Russia" is very interesting and in the photo everything is so grammatical .. But somehow they are very much minus "tovaischi" hehe
          And this leads to all sorts of thoughts "Who is to blame and what to do ..?"
        3. The popuas
          The popuas 14 September 2019 09: 54
          0
          About six months ago, the news was our young scientists invented an additive for gasoline I don’t remember exactly, but something about 100g per ton is added saving engine resource by 40%; consumption of about 60% even GDP showed he praised them lol the order came only from Sweden to this additive yes Interestingly they (scientists) live !?
        4. Vol4ara
          Vol4ara 14 September 2019 09: 58
          +2
          Quote: Svarog
          Quote: Mordvin 3
          And we need it?

          Here recently, a comment was that our scientists learned how to make gas out of rubbish and the cost of it is 40 kopecks. per liter .. So this development did not interest anyone in Russia, and it seems like they bought it in the West for crazy money. Personally, before reading the VO, I never heard of such a development, although the news of science is always a priority .. So I just can’t understand, either our discoveries are few or silent about them? But given that in the end they sell everything there, in Russia nobody needs anything ..

          I’m afraid that this technology was invented long before your birth ... And you live in Russia, you still do not understand that the cost of 40 kopecks is not a guarantee that it will not cost 55 rubles at a gas station
          1. Mordvin 3
            Mordvin 3 14 September 2019 10: 10
            0
            Quote: Vol4ara
            the cost price in 40 cop is not a guarantee that it will not cost 55p at a gas station

            Oh, but somehow my neighbor was pouring gas in buckets. Yes, and I ... I buried full gas tanks on 180 liters.
            1. AU Ivanov.
              AU Ivanov. 14 September 2019 10: 57
              0
              He stole gasoline, you mean?
              1. Mordvin 3
                Mordvin 3 14 September 2019 11: 04
                +1
                Quote: AS Ivanov.
                He stole gasoline, you mean?

                No. Cars with full tanks sometimes came to overhaul. And where to put them? Carried to the back street. Then they poured it.
        5. Vadim237
          Vadim237 14 September 2019 10: 22
          +3
          Almost no one is interested in Russian developments - that's why they are silent about them.
          Russian scientists have found a new reaction, which allowed to obtain a substance that effectively suppresses influenza viruses, human immunodeficiency (HIV), herpes simplex (HSV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV).

          The opening was made by specialists from the Skoltech Center for Energy Sciences and Technologies and the Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, together with colleagues from other Russian and foreign research centers.

          “We synthesized highly effective inhibitors (suppressors) of dangerous viral infections, such as HIV, various types of flu, herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus,” said Olga Kraevaya, the author of the study.

          The chemical reaction found allowed us to obtain a series of previously inaccessible water-soluble derivatives of fullerenes (carbon form) with high antiviral activity.

          “The unique“ reversed Arbuzov reaction ”we discovered allows us to fine-tune the antiviral properties of the new compounds,” added Kraevaya.

          According to scientists, the results open up great opportunities for creating “true” antiviral drugs, which will help fight infections that today are not treatable.
          1. Vadim237
            Vadim237 14 September 2019 10: 26
            +2
            In materials science "Specialists of the laboratory of physics of high-strength crystals of the SPTI TSU, within the framework of a joint grant from the Russian Science Foundation and the German Research Community (DFG), were able to create an innovative alloy with shape memory.

            As the agency "MIR" writes, the development will be very promising in the aviation and space spheres, as well as in robotics and the automotive industry. It is noteworthy that the employees of the SPTI were the first to create single crystals of alloys based on the iron-nickel-cobalt-aluminum compound. In this case, the fifth element is replaceable, and it can be niobium or titanium.

            Such material in its properties is superior to titanium nickelide, which is used to create thermal sensors, implants, medical equipment, drives and other structures. In contrast, iron-based alloys recover better after deformation, said Anna Eftifeyeva, graduate student of the Faculty of Physics, engineer of the high-strength crystal physics laboratory.

            It should be noted that iron-based alloys are characterized by high strength. This aspect is extremely important for devices that have to withstand enormous loads. As a rule, this applies to the engineering and aerospace industries. The advantages of the novelty include lower manufacturing costs in comparison with titanium nickelide, added the head of the laboratory, Professor Yuri Chumlyakov. "
            1. Vadim237
              Vadim237 14 September 2019 10: 29
              +2
              About manufacturing in aircraft engine building "Scientists of the St. Petersburg State Maritime Technical University (SPbGMTU) and NUST MISIS" for the first time in the world, using the method of layer-by-layer build-up - additive technologies - have created a large-size aircraft engine unit. reduced the time of its production, the press service of the RF Ministry of Education and Science reported on Friday.
              1. Vadim237
                Vadim237 14 September 2019 10: 32
                +2
                About neuroelectronics "Scientists at Petrozavodsk State University (PetrSU) have proposed new circuits of neuromorphic devices, which are built on the principle of the interaction of neurons in a living organism. In the future, this development can be used to create modern neuroelectronics and neurointerfaces, the press service of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation reported on Thursday.

                A neuron is an electrically excitable cell, which is a unit of the nervous system. It is designed to receive, process, store, transmit and display information. Neurons are found not only in the brain, where they form the central nervous system, but also in all organs, muscles and ligaments on the surface of the skin.

                “Scientists of PetrSU have proposed original schemes of neuromorphic devices. The results of the work are relevant for modern neuroelectronics, are of practical importance for introducing well-known neurodynamic models into circuitry and creating neural interfaces, ”the message said.

                It is noted that the work of scientists at PetrSU is based on the system of equations of FitzHugh-Nagumo and FitzHugh-Rinzel. So, in the early 1960s, the American biophysicist Richard FitzHugh, and a year later, the Japanese electrical engineer Gene Nagumo, offered a simple description of the main features of neuron dynamics. The FitzHugh-Nagumo model has two main variables that describe the ability of a nerve cell to generate electrical impulses. However, this model has drawbacks - it cannot describe the formation of complex changes in such impulses.

                Therefore, in 1987, the American scientist John Rinzel modified the FitzHugh-Nagumo system and added another variable to it that slowly changes in time. As a result of these transformations, it became possible to study such a specific reaction of neurons as the generation and propagation of impulses. In their work, physicists at PetrSU showed how it is possible to create equivalent circuits of the FitzHugh-Nagumo and FitzHugh-Rinzel equations systems, which significantly expands the base of electronic components on the basis of which neuromorphic circuits can be created.

                “Nowadays, many scientific groups are engaged in neural interfaces, among which the well-known firm Neuralink Ilona Mask, where they promote the idea of ​​directly implanting thin conductive filaments near a neuron, this makes it possible to both take a signal and apply it to a neuron. The schemes developed by the authors of the article can be used for such impacts ”
        6. Egor53
          Egor53 14 September 2019 11: 50
          0
          There is a well-developed technology for processing plastic bottles (polyethylene and polypropylene) into diesel fuel. The process is catalytic (the catalyst is cheap) and runs at a temperature of 400-450 degrees Celsius. From 1 kg. plastic waste turns 1 liter of diesel fuel. The cost of the process is determined by the cost of sorting the garbage.
          Gasoline is not received from the garbage.
          1. Cat man null
            Cat man null 14 September 2019 12: 06
            +1
            Quote: Egor53
            Do not get gas from garbage

            Now they will tell you that plastic is also rubbish.

            Quote: Svarog
            ... our scientists learned from gasoline to do gas ...

            The specifics of the audience, understand request
          2. Maki Avellevich
            Maki Avellevich 14 September 2019 12: 43
            0
            You get porridge from an ax.
        7. region58
          region58 15 September 2019 19: 18
          0
          Quote: Svarog
          Our scientists have learned how to make gas from garbage

          Quote: Egor53
          There is a well-developed technology for recycling plastic bottles

          Not only scientists. More precisely, we have many scientists, all sorts and different ...

          In Syria, this method is also used.
      2. carstorm 11
        carstorm 11 14 September 2019 10: 02
        +3
        you must be able to sell your product and promote it. Railways should be engaged in experiments with what joy? if those who created the product require an order, then let their marketing director be killed on the wall for a complete zero. promotion of a new product is the main aspect of his skills in this area. Russian Railways as a potential customer has nothing to do with it.
    3. Svarog
      Svarog 14 September 2019 10: 12
      +2
      Quote: Kontrik
      Good rubric for Russia,

      A heading is generally excellent, I appeal to the administration of VO, please make a heading on scientific development in all areas, it will be absolutely gorgeous! Who support + me and Meehan laughing
    4. The comment was deleted.
      1. Vadim237
        Vadim237 14 September 2019 10: 54
        -1
        Just do not dump any garbage from the Internet - about self-immolators and other morons.
        1. The comment was deleted.
          1. Vadim237
            Vadim237 14 September 2019 11: 05
            0
            Just articles of this format - they don’t carry any meaning, especially about the behavior of crazy people. You are just a bright consumer of such infomusor - causing only negativity and stupidity.
      2. AU Ivanov.
        AU Ivanov. 14 September 2019 12: 28
        +1
        Trash flies see only shit. And do not be lazy to look for him.
  3. Avior
    Avior 14 September 2019 09: 10
    +4
    From the discovery at the particle level to the creation of the form, there is a great distance, and it is not yet known whether such a form is practicable or almost everything will remain at the level of laboratory experiments in the foreseeable future
    But the journalists have already planned everything.
    1. thinker
      thinker 14 September 2019 11: 03
      +3
      Give the emf to the journalists, but they forgot about the thermo. And what is she like?
      having thermoelectric figure of merit ZT> 1 at T> ~ 900 K,

      And this is 626.85 gr. Celsius, so with clothes somehow it’s not going to work out very well. yes
  4. Amateur
    Amateur 14 September 2019 09: 10
    +6
    Some kind of antediluvian tester. A sine wave on an oscilloscope is usually used for all kinds of sightseers.
    Or the figure of Lissajous. It proves much stronger that "the guys are engaged in science"
    1. region58
      region58 15 September 2019 19: 44
      +2
      Quote: Amateur
      Some kind of antediluvian tester.

      They missed the word ... It was necessary to write "in an amateur laboratory" - the limited area and the Chinese hot air gun 858d are immediately evident. Although the devices are not bad for a home laboratory.
  5. Felix
    Felix 14 September 2019 09: 36
    +3
    If I understood correctly, the form will take away the heat of the body of a person dressed in it, and convert it to electricity.
    Then the question is, what will happen to this body if it happens in a 40-degree frost, if this clothing does not preserve, but, on the contrary, take heat?
    1. armata_armata
      armata_armata 14 September 2019 12: 18
      0
      Damn it with the form, imagine a computer in which the efficiency of the processors is less than 1% and everything goes to heat, and here at least 50-70% can be achieved
      1. Cat man null
        Cat man null 14 September 2019 12: 23
        +1
        Quote: armata_armata
        Processor efficiency less than 1%

        Please tell us - how did you calculate the "processor efficiency"? And what is it all about, at the same time?
        1. armata_armata
          armata_armata 14 September 2019 12: 35
          +1
          Please tell us - how did you calculate the "processor efficiency"? And what is it all about, at the same time?

          But it’s very simple, to open the pnp / npn junction of the transistor, energy is required, read the avalanche breakdown, while there is heat loss, consider those that have brought electrical energy into heat and the more it is, the lower the efficiency of the transistor, with a decrease in the technological process and an increase in the density of transistors and their frequency, their efficiency drops to critical values. Therefore, the current efficiency of the current processors is at a minimum level, but the dissipated thermal power is almost 100%
          1. Cat man null
            Cat man null 14 September 2019 13: 03
            0
            Quote: armata_armata
            for current processors, the real efficiency is at a minimum level, but the dissipated thermal power is almost 100%

            And all this, oddly enough, doesn’t give a damn. Because the processor is not your thyristor, where is the thread on an electric locomotive. He, the processor, ahem ... a bit different tasks request

            In general, your approach is really funny, perhaps the first time I meet the processor as a heating device laughing
            1. armata_armata
              armata_armata 14 September 2019 13: 18
              -1
              And all this, oddly enough, doesn’t give a damn. Because the processor is not your thyristor, where is the thread on an electric locomotive. He, the processor, ahem ... a bit different tasks

              As far as I remember, all companies strive to release the most energy-efficient processor, so that the computer consumes as little as possible from the network / battery and at the same time the performance is at the level. And they spend more than one million dollars on such research

              In general, your approach is really funny, perhaps the first time I meet the processor as a heating device

              A similar assessment is indicated by the manufacturer (thermal design power) based on which the appropriate cooling for the processor is selected
              1. Cat man null
                Cat man null 14 September 2019 14: 24
                0
                Quote: armata_armata
                all companies strive to release the most energy-efficient processor, which would ...

                smile

                Quote: armata_armata
                ... the computer consumed as little of the network / battery as possible ...

                Yes, do not give a damn. How much of the network - do not give a damn. Low battery life - put a larger battery yes

                Quote: armata_armata
                ... and at the same time performance was at the level of

                Wooooh ... but this is the most interesting thing ... and you are "efficiency, efficiency" ...

                Quote: armata_armata
                And they spend more than one million dollars on such research

                Two? wink

                Okay, I understand you. Thanks.
                1. Felix
                  Felix 14 September 2019 15: 20
                  0
                  Quote: Cat Man Null
                  Wooooh ... but this is the most interesting thing ... and you are "efficiency, efficiency" ...

                  Well, my friend, I beg you)
                  The trend will not be speed, but energy efficiency - everyone will not care about the number of cores and clock frequencies, and on the packaging they will write "efficiency factor 29,9999%"
          2. region58
            region58 15 September 2019 19: 58
            +1
            Quote: armata_armata
            opening pnp / npn transition

            Field-effect transistors are used almost everywhere: as the name implies, they are controlled by an electric field.
            Quote: armata_armata
            real efficiency

            What is considered useful processor power?
            From the point of view of physics, this is a heater, it eats electricity and generates heat - Efficiency = 100% wassat
            1. armata_armata
              armata_armata 16 September 2019 11: 16
              -3
              Field-effect transistors are used almost everywhere: as the name implies, they are controlled by an electric field.

              good wassat
              PS Well, just fabulous love
              So we write the collector / gate no longer needed in transformers, applying voltage to them is also not necessary, region58 will directly control the transistors by the field hi
              1. region58
                region58 16 September 2019 20: 31
                +1
                Quote: armata_armata
                So let's write

                Let's go in order:
                Quote: armata_armata
                pnp / npn transition

                There are pn junctions (or np) - it doesn’t change the essence, pnp and npn are more complex structures, the most common of them are bipolar transistors (you talked about them).
                Quote: armata_armata
                energy is required to open the pnp / npn junction of the transistor

                Bipolar transistors are controlled by electric current (namely current).
                Quote: armata_armata
                to open the pnp / npn junction of the transistor requires energy read avalanche breakdown

                Rave. If an avalanche breakdown occurs in the bipolar transistor, there is only one option: the transistor is dead. (There are single-junction transistors, but again, it's not about them, and they have a different structure.)
                Quote: armata_armata
                Therefore, current processors

                The currentLong ago, bipolar transistors do not. (There are exceptions, but they are very specific.)
                Quote: armata_armata
                collector / shutter more in transi

                Strange grouped, it would be more logical: the collector - base - emitter, drain - gate - source.
                Quote: armata_armata
                applying voltage to them is also not necessary

                Field-effect transistors are just the same controlled by an electric field that creates an applied electrical voltage (namely voltage). (We won’t talk about built-in and induced channels yet.)
                Something like this. yes You can write down ... If something is not clear, I will explain it with pleasure. hi
                1. armata_armata
                  armata_armata 16 September 2019 21: 09
                  -3
                  Field effect transistors are just the same controlled by an electric field, which creates an applied voltage (namely voltage)

                  Oh, it turns out that something needs to be supplied to the gate, but you directly controlled the transistor through the magnetic field, where we go, let's manage a miracle without a shutter laughing
                  Bipolar transistors are controlled by electric current (namely current)

                  Current is not energy o_O
                  There are pn junctions (or np) - it doesn’t change the essence, pnp and npn are more complex structures, the most common of them are bipolar transistors (you talked about them)

                  npn field-effect transistors not? o_o
                  Rave. If an avalanche breakdown occurs in the bipolar transistor, there is only one option: the transistor is dead.

                  Uncle are you healthy?
                  The avalanche breakdown mechanism is usually realized in the collector junction, since the p-collector is doped relatively weakly. The probability of thermal breakdown in silicon transistors is small due to the low reverse currents of the collector junction. It can be observed only at high temperatures or with very poor heat dissipation.

                  When using a transistor, the emitter junction is rarely at risk of breakdown, although for some applications this possibility should be kept in mind.

                  If something is not clear - I will explain it with pleasure

                  Come on, listening to you is very interesting. wassat

                  Yes, less than a month later, as one clown proved that modern versions of windows are based on dos, the second came, telling about transistors
                  1. region58
                    region58 16 September 2019 22: 20
                    +1
                    Quote: armata_armata
                    Uncle are you healthy?

                    Would you even read what you quote ... fool

                    ... God sent a niece ...
                    PS In your own words: where do we go with
                    Quote: armata_armata
                    pnp / npn transition
                    ?
                    And where did you come from
                    Quote: armata_armata
                    a magnetic field
                    ?
                    Do not rush to answer, otherwise write nonsense again ...
                    1. armata_armata
                      armata_armata 17 September 2019 07: 07
                      -3
                      ... God sent a niece ...

                      Not fabulous hi
                      Rave. If an avalanche breakdown occurs in the bipolar transistor, there is only one option: the transistor is dead.

                      If you limit the collector current, then the avalanche breakdown will be reversible

                      God sent the resident of the yellow house laughing
                      And where did you come from

                      You took, probably from a building with soft walls
                      Do not rush to answer, otherwise write nonsense again ...

                      Dear friend, we have only you
                      No.

                      Clear good
                      CMOS with p drain and source, n gates you are not lol

                      Ps Yes, it seems I am starting to understand why the electronic industry of the Russian Federation is dead, with such personnel good hi
                      1. region58
                        region58 17 September 2019 09: 36
                        +1
                        Quote: armata_armata
                        CMOS

                        Oh how! That is, with pnp / npn bipolar (your words about the collector current?) Abruptly moved to complementary ones. It happens...
                        Just strictly speaking, CMOS is a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor structure, that is, two field-effect transistors. But even if they are considered separately (n-MOS and p-MOS), they remain field-effect transistors.
                        P, s. I suspect that in your head the designations on the schematic diagrams and the manufacturing technology are mixed up, as it is painted in the pictures. I do not exclude that for you it is one and the same. yes
                      2. armata_armata
                        armata_armata 17 September 2019 11: 34
                        -3
                        Oh how! That is, with pnp / npn bipolar (your words about the collector current?) Abruptly moved to complementary

                        I started about bipolar myself, now it turns out I talked about them good
                        Either sclerosis or a disorder is one of two things. wink
                        Well, at least you don’t tell about bipolar avalanche breakdown anymore;)
                        Just strictly speaking, CMOS is a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor structure, that is, two field-effect transistors

                        Just strictly speaking, CMOS is a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor structure, that is, two field-effect transistors. But even if they are considered separately (n-MOS and p-MOS), they remain field-effect transistors.


                        What do you say there is no pnp / npn structure, well, well done though well done))
                        P, s. I suspect that in your head the designations on the schematic diagrams and the manufacturing technology are mixed up, as it is painted in the pictures

                        Dear friend, I don’t need to attribute your properties to me hi
                        Talking to you by the way is pretty fun.
                      3. region58
                        region58 17 September 2019 12: 17
                        +1
                        Quote: armata_armata
                        Now it turns out I talked about them

                        You, you. yes Also, quotes cited the breakdown of the collector junction. yes Have you forgotten? It happens...
                        Quote: armata_armata
                        What do you say there is no pnp / npn structure, well, well done though well done))

                        In! As I wrote: a mishmash from a lack of understanding of the principles of work, designations on concepts and manufacturing techniques.
                        Quote: region58
                        designations on schematic diagrams and manufacturing technology, as it is drawn in pictures
                        .
                        By the way, the "silicon on sapphire" technology, what have they dragged along? Or how, in the particular case of an avalanche transistor, did you decide to distribute this effect to everything in bulk?
                        Quote: armata_armata
                        Talking to you by the way is pretty fun.

                        I will not say that it is mutual. Tedious and uninteresting. Constant distortions on your part ... I will not say anything about politeness - although it is also significant. Typical behavior of a snake in a pan ... Good luck. hi

                        PS By the way, did you find a picture from my filing? wink
                        Once again, good luck. hi
                      4. armata_armata
                        armata_armata 17 September 2019 12: 28
                        -3
                        You, you. yes Also, quotes cited the breakdown of the collector junction.

                        Of course, when one alternatively gifted under the nickname region58, stated that with an avalanche, the breakdown of a bipolar transistor dies wink
                        But then this region58 with something took that I discussed with him exclusively bipolar transistors, as they say - the roof goes slowly, which you show my dear friend winked
                        By the way, the "silicon on sapphire" technology, what have they dragged along? Or how, in the particular case of an avalanche transistor, did you decide to distribute this effect to everything in bulk?

                        What, dear friend, you yourself said that there are no npn / pnp floor mats, but they turn out to be there, bipolar transistors turn out to not die from an avalanche breakdown guaranteed, as they again stated feel
                        Typical behavior of a snake in a pan

                        Namely, dear friend, if you don’t know the common truths, then you don’t need to get out, it won’t work out;)
                        I will not say that it is mutual. Tedious and uninteresting

                        Of course it’s not interesting, you are rubbish in your face the facts, what interest is there good
                        Good luck

                        And all the best to you, have fun right))
                      5. region58
                        region58 17 September 2019 14: 11
                        +2
                        Quote: armata_armata
                        you yourself said that there are no npn / pnp rugs, but it turns out they are

                        Look closely at the picture. Pay attention to the text "n-type channel is being formed":

                        Where are your pnp and npn?
                        This applies to the type that you have in the picture. For other types it’s even simpler, for example:

                        About the rest that you wrote - you don’t even want to waste time ...
                        You can smile further ...
                      6. Rec
                        Rec 17 September 2019 14: 35
                        +1
                        Quote: region58
                        Look carefully at the drawing.

                        Useless. Do not waste time. He is uneducable. Besides also a boor.
                        Quote: armata_armata
                        Not fabulous
                  2. region58
                    region58 17 September 2019 00: 53
                    0
                    Quote: armata_armata
                    npn field-effect transistors not? o_o

                    No. request If you call IGBT transistors, then this is not true. IGBT (IGBT, in our opinion) is a complex structure, the equivalent circuit consists of at least three different transistors.
                    PS Yes, and they are in no way intended for processors ... yes
                    1. The comment was deleted.
      2. Felix
        Felix 14 September 2019 14: 02
        +1
        Quote: armata_armata
        and then at least up to 50-70% will be able to finish off

        And what, before this discovery, was the mystery of the thermoelectric effect for American scientists? Well, would the processors be glued with Peltier elements or thermocouples? What is the area of ​​the processor with which it is possible to remove heat? 6 centimeters? If we get 50 watts of energy from such an area (just something around this is dissipated by the processor in the form of heat), then we can say that the issue of energy shortage in our civilization can be closed forever - just collect heat from solar radiation, of which per square meter a couple of kilowatts.
        "It's a pity only to live in this wonderful time, neither me, nor ...." (c)
        1. armata_armata
          armata_armata 14 September 2019 16: 54
          0
          And what, before this discovery, was the mystery of the thermoelectric effect for American scientists? Well, would the processors be glued with Peltier elements or thermocouples?

          In which again the efficiency is minimal, in the new development, judging by the fact that
          (First of all, we are talking about interest in terms of creating a "thermoelectric form", when the heat of the human body will allow creating a sufficient electric voltage). Efficiency and operating temperature difference will be at a whole new level
          Peltier or thermocouples? What is the area of ​​the processor with which it is possible to remove heat? 6 centimeters? If you get 50 watts of energy from such an area (just something around this is dissipated by the processor in the form of heat)

          Any, depending on what area the heatsink is on the processor or which heatsink, the heat is removed from the processor using the coolant. Not 50 watts, for the same i9 140-165 watts, for i7 up to 130 watts
          we can say that the issue of energy shortage in our civilization can be closed forever - just collect heat from solar radiation, which per square meter per couple of kilowatts.

          What is needed is not heat, but a temperature difference. It is real to get a similar between a point source of thermal radiation and a cold atmosphere (or vice versa)
          1. Felix
            Felix 14 September 2019 17: 56
            +1
            Quote: armata_armata
            Not 50 watts, for the same i9 140-165 watts, for i7 up to 130 watts

            But this is not the point, but the density and compactness of this heat source. And if dissipating it with a radiator is not a huge problem, then converting it back into energy with some kind of sane profit, in order to compensate for these same heat losses, seems to me unlikely.
            It reminds me of a long-standing dispute with one of my colleagues, who tried to compensate for the loss of conversion in a computer UPS by feeding a charger for the battery of the same UPS from its output.

            Quote: armata_armata
            What is needed is not heat, but a temperature difference.

            That is the point. When receiving energy, this material will equalize the temperature difference - that is, when it comes to clothes, it will take away heat from the body. That is, the efficiency should depend directly on how quickly the body heat will be given to the atmosphere. (I wonder how this companion will glow in the infrared?) And if at sufficiently comfortable plus temperatures this is even not bad, then in case of a minus overboard how?
  6. KCA
    KCA 14 September 2019 09: 40
    +3
    Tellurium and manganese, after all, are toxic substances, I would not want to go in such a suit, especially since the resistance of the compound to water or high temperature is not indicated
    1. Vadim237
      Vadim237 14 September 2019 10: 35
      -1
      They can be embedded in a silver "fiber" - a composite fabric capable of absorbing heat and generating electricity, although such a material will cost a lot of money.
      1. KCA
        KCA 14 September 2019 10: 44
        0
        Silver is oxidized in air, especially from ozone, and the fiber is thin for the fabric, it’s not a spoon, it will be completely oxidized, then gold threads, well, the price of the form will be like F-35
        1. Vadim237
          Vadim237 14 September 2019 10: 55
          0
          Well, not pure silver is in the alloy.
          1. KCA
            KCA 14 September 2019 11: 04
            0
            Honestly, I don’t know silver alloys with high strength and oxidation resistance, only with copper, probably, there are some special ones with an admixture of rare-earth elements, but the price tag will only grow from this, one suit can be sewn, well, two, but of wide use it will never get
            1. Vadim237
              Vadim237 14 September 2019 11: 08
              0
              Purely for special forces - clothing and equipment will be enough.
  7. abc_alex
    abc_alex 14 September 2019 10: 20
    +1
    Thermoelectric converters have one unpleasant property. They do not convert the "temperature" itself into electricity, but the temperature difference. That is, to operate, they need a temperature difference so that one "end" of the converter is hot and the other cold.
    ... a temperature difference results in voltage ...

    But all physical bodies strive to heat up evenly and the mustache cannot do anything about it.
    Could - the world would have long been dotted with Pelt elements ...
    1. KCA
      KCA 14 September 2019 10: 49
      +2
      So far, even for cooling processors in a computer, Peltier converters are only a sucker’s scam, low efficiency, high price
  8. Azazelo
    Azazelo 14 September 2019 10: 26
    -1
    It always touches when something already long ago discovered and described in several books, the Yankees try to present it as know-how ....
  9. dgonni
    dgonni 14 September 2019 11: 11
    0
    Yeah, science fiction is becoming a reality!
  10. max702
    max702 14 September 2019 11: 51
    +3
    Interesting news .. It turns out that in the process of generating electricity, one of the links can be removed, for example, nuclear power plants do not heat steam that rotates the turbine / generator, but directly certain material that produces electricity as a result of heating. According to the type of stove, it gives a tiny amount of watts when it is burning .. But here, apparently, the efficiency is higher ..

  11. Egor53
    Egor53 14 September 2019 12: 03
    +1
    It is not clear from the article how the described "discovery" differs from the well-known Seebeck effect. In technical application, it does not matter at what level, micro or macro, thermoEMF is generated.
    At the micro level, the temperature difference in the zone of thermoEMF occurrence will be very small, which will lead to a very low efficiency (Efficiency coefficient). The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics applies everywhere.
    In my opinion, this discovery is purely academic in nature. Well, small currents arise in a paramagnet in the presence of temperature differences, so they also arise without any magnetic fields. The magnetic field cannot affect the value of thermopower.
  12. Shahno
    Shahno 14 September 2019 12: 27
    0
    Quote: Svarog
    As often happens, the military has already turned its attention to the discovery of scientists. First of all, we are talking about interest in terms of creating a "thermoelectric form", when the heat of the human body will allow you to create sufficient electrical voltage.

    Cool of course .. well done. Damn, again I can not resist .. That's about the American, English, Chinese and others .. scientists are constantly hearing something open .. do we have scientists? Or have everyone moved there already?

    Yes there is. At our institute 30 percent of Russian speakers. And yours play chess well ...
    In principle, this is not important. In the scientific world there is no such thing as nationalism. If Fizteh created the conditions, and there would be an international ....
    Regarding the problem. Yes, paramagnets are a strong extension of the effect .. On new materials. Not bad.
    1. abc_alex
      abc_alex 14 September 2019 15: 12
      +1
      Quote: Shahno
      paramagnets are a strong expansion of the effect .. On new materials.


      Which will give what?
  13. Puzoter
    Puzoter 14 September 2019 12: 35
    0
    The dubious decision is to extract energy from the heat of the human body. In the cold, a person will simply freeze, and in the heat - on the contrary, it will boil.
  14. Vasyan1971
    Vasyan1971 14 September 2019 20: 15
    0
    The “Let's Talk About Science” column comes out on Saturday morning — let’s stretch the brain.

    Where's the arrow of the oscilloscope? lol
  15. Kaw
    Kaw 14 September 2019 21: 18
    0
    They have been able to convert heat to electricity since its invention. Most power plants do this. Only the efficiency is very low, most of the heat is dissipated in the atmosphere. Now, if this discovery will dramatically increase this efficiency, then it really will be a revolution, the life of mankind will be divided into before and after IMHO.
    They burned a dry turd and got as much energy as your house consumes per day (for example).
    :-)
    1. cat Rusich
      cat Rusich 15 September 2019 01: 29
      0
      KIZYAK - dried KAL (animal excrement), it is not a question to create a heat and power plant operating on "dung", the question is where to get KIZYAK? (on an industrial scale). An example from life - a nomad's yurt is heated with dung. Rat. proposal: insert fans into the CHP pipe, the point is that warm air rises through the pipe to the top and turns the fans, which give electricity (a purely theoretical proposal, who can describe the "controversial" points). You can also place tubes with water in a spiral in a pipe, hot air passing through the pipe will heat the water. The meaning of such proposals is to use 99% of the heat released during the combustion of fuel (even dung). hi