Military Review

Combat aircraft. Fallen Swallow Ki-61

31
As promised not so long ago, today we will talk about a unique Japanese aircraft, the Kawasaki Ki-61 Hien fighter.




The name translates as "Flying Swallow", and this is the first Japanese army fighter created after the outbreak of war. The Hien was unique to Japan, as it was the only production fighter to use a liquid-cooled engine.

Many directly call Ki-61 the Japanese "Messerschmitt", but in reality with the Bf.109 it is only related to the engine. Yes, the German aircraft was like a standard, but differences in production technologies of the two countries nullified the possible similarity of the two machines.



“Swallow” Ki-61 actually became a “swan” for “Kawasaki”, who sang his song according to the company's ambitions. And a kind of monument of faith "Kawasaki" in a fighter with an in-line liquid-cooled engine. And with a rebuke, a reminder that the Japanese engineers could not bring this engine to mind.

But one cannot take away the fact that not a single Kawasaki aircraft has been built for such a long time and in as many modifications as the Ki-61.



It all began in the 1937 year, when Kawasaki greatly lost its position as a manufacturer of aircraft. The dashing guys from Nakajima were stronger. And it was necessary to do something.

I must say that the new director of the Blom and Foss company, Dr. Vogt, the former chief designer of Kawasaki, provided great help to Kawasaki. It is sometimes useful to have such friends. So, through the efforts of Dr. Vogt, the Japanese got at their disposal the DB-601A engine from Daimler-Benz and a friendly permit for licensed production.

The agreement was signed in 1939 at the very end, and in February 1940 the army headquarters aviation issued "Kawasaki" contracts for the heavy interceptor Ki-60 and light fighter Ki-61 with German engines. The war in Europe by that time was already in full swing and the successes of the Germans reached Japan.

With the interceptor Ki-60 did not work, the plane was very heavy and did not arouse interest among the army pilots. But with the Ki-61 it did. It was designed as a lightweight fighter to replace the Ki-43 Hayabusa fighter. Ki-61 was heavier and faster, was more powerful armed, although it lost Ki-43 in maneuverability.



By July 1941 of the year, Kawasaki launched DB.601A into production under the name Kawasaki Ha-40. The prototype Ki-61-01 with this engine was ready in December 1941, and a few days later Japan entered World War II.

At the beginning of the 1942 year, the prototype reached a maximum speed of 587 km / h during testing. The Kawasaki were pleased with the results and began to release a test series.

True, enthusiasm decreased somewhat after a series of accidents and disasters. Several prototypes were lost, including the Kawasaki Kataoka chief pilot. The causes of the problems were identified, the Ha-40 engine was to blame, which, unlike the German original, turned out to be extremely capricious and not very reliable.

However, tests conducted with Japanese scrupulousness showed that the Ki-61 was in almost all respects better than the Ki-43-II, Ki-44, the trophy American P-40E and even the Messerschmitt Bf.109 E-2. Such conclusions were made on the basis of numerous training battles at the Kagamigahar Army Test Center.

As a result, in August 1942, the aircraft was adopted by the Kawasaki Type 3 Model I “Hien” or Ki-61-I.



But by this time the enemy was aware of the appearance of a new fighter among the Japanese. Back in April of 1942, during a test flight, test pilot Umikawa of a test flight suddenly came across a group of B-25 bombers. It was a group of captain Doolittle who made the first combat raid on Japan.

Umikawa chased the bombers, but was forced to stop the chase due to lack of fuel. But the crews of American aircraft were able to consider an unusual for Japan "skinny" fighter, very similar to the Messerschmitt.

For a long time, Americans believed that the Japanese Air Force was armed with either purchased in Germany, or produced under the license "Messerschmitts", which should be expected in other parts of the Pacific Ocean.

In general, given the reputation that the Messerschmitts deserved by 1942, this did not add optimism to the Americans.



But in fact, Ki-61 met with American aircraft in battle only a year later. But this year, changes in the Pacific theater of operations will not happen in favor of the Japanese, and Ki-61 will be one of the last hopes to counter these changes.

When the army is victorious, things usually go quietly. But when the army loses, panic sets in and it is far from always possible to adequately respond to the situation. We have often witnessed historical events when the command simply begins to throw everything that can be tucked into the battle.

This happened with the debut of the Ki-61, whose crews threw them into a meat grinder in New Guinea. It is worth recalling that the Ki-61 in terms of aerobatics was fundamentally different from the usual Ki-43. They were faster, but not so maneuverable, which affected the training of pilots.

Units armed with Ki-61 fought in the Solomon Islands, in New Guinea, defended transport convoys going to New Britain, New Ireland.



The first Ki-61-Ia model deployed in New Guinea at the end of the 1943 year was joined by new Ki-61-Ib fighters with armament from four 12,7-mm machine guns.

The war on the islands, where the Swallows carried the main combat load on their wings, revealed another problem, the problem of servicing and repairing aircraft.

Japanese aviation could not boast of a large number of really trained technicians. For the bulk, accustomed to air-cooled engines, the Na-40 engine was still that puzzle.

Failures of the hydraulic system, leaks of pipes and radiators, engine breakdowns caused the already not very reliable Na-40 to simply plane the planes to the ground.

Potentially magnificent fighter was too unreliable. A huge number of immobilized and useless "Swallows" accumulated in the jungle around the airfields in New Guinea. Spare parts were in short supply and often mechanics from several aircraft assembled one that could fly into the air.



In addition, very often spare parts did not come, because the ships transporting them became a victim of American submariners or pilots.

Plus a huge stretch of the theater of operations. For example, a plane that crashed in New Guinea could only be overhauled in the Philippines, in Manila, where it had to be sent by ship, almost 1000 kilometers away.

Despite many problems, the “Swallow” enjoyed both the hatred of the mechanics (well-deserved) and the love of the pilots.



Yes, the plane was not as maneuverable as the Ki-43, but by Japanese standards it was almost a flying tank, with well-designed tanks, an armored back for the pilot, and a German-style armored head.

Still, being considered heavy and awkward by Japanese standards, the Ki-61 outperformed all American aircraft until the arrival of the latest F6F Hellcat and P-51 Mustang.

P-40 and P-39 definitely lost Ki-61 both vertically and horizontally. And in a disadvantageous situation, the Ki-61 pilot could always get out of combat in a dive. Only in the battles with the twin-engine P-38 this technique did not pass, but in the battles with the Lightning the Ki-61 pilot did not need this, since the advantage in maneuverability was more than sufficient. Armored Ki-61 pilots were generally more aggressive than their Ki-43 counterparts.

On 30 December 1943, the allies at the former Japanese airfield of Cape Gloucester captured the first practically intact Ki-61. The Americans quickly flew around the Japanese fighter, noted that the Ki-61 or "Tony" according to the American naming system was pleasant in piloting, quite energetic, easy to operate. It was also noted that it is difficult for the Japanese to keep the aircraft in technically sound condition.



During the battles in New Guinea, several attempts were made to increase the effectiveness of the Ki-61, which clearly lacked firepower. To combat strong and tenacious American bombers, machine-gun weapons were obviously not enough.

Japanese industry was not able to meet the requirements of the army to organize the production of aircraft guns. But here, representatives of the army aviation themselves “helped” themselves, who did not want to put “99 Type” sea guns on their planes. Bullshit, of course, but there were such things in that Japan.

The Germans rescued, sending on board a submarine in Japan 800 guns MG-151.

I had to strengthen the wings of the Ki-61-I for the installation of German guns, which had significant recoil force. When installing the MG-151 gun, they had to be turned on their side to fit in the relatively thin Ki-61 wing, covering the protruding parts of the breech with small fairings on the lower surface of the wing.

By June 1944, all German guns had been used and 388 Ki-61 fighters were equipped with Mauser products.

An attempt was made to further strengthen the armament by replacing the 12,7-mm wing machine guns with the No.155 cannons in the 30 mm caliber. So the Ki-61-I-Kai-d model appeared in a small series, but the production did not last long, it turned out that the return of the 30-mm guns simply destroys the wing.



But in 1945, the sunset of the "swallows" began. Mustangs appeared. And here it is worth giving an example when, in one of the last air battles for the Philippines 11 on January 1945, two American P-51 pilots performing reconnaissance flights met a Japanese naval bomber G4M converted into a transport that was accompanied by twelve (!) Ki-61 fighters .

Not only did the American pilots attack the superior enemy together in the best traditions of the Soviet colleagues, they shot down nine Ki-61 and the transport bomber accompanied by them.



On board this G4M were Japanese staff officers fleetwho were evacuated from the Philippines ...

This shows how the level of training of Japanese pilots has fallen after the catastrophic losses in New Guinea, Leyte and the Philippines.

The last battle, in which Ki-61 took part, was the battle for Japan.

These aircraft used a variety of weapons variations. Somewhere, the "Swallows" were deprived of machine guns in order to lighten the aircraft as much as possible and get to the B-29 flying at an altitude of 9 km. Other units added additional 20-mm Ho.5 guns, bringing the Ki-61 armament to 2x20-mm synchronous guns in the fuselage, a couple more in the wings and 2x12,7-mm machine guns in the wings. Sometimes machine guns were dismantled.

In general, field alterations of who was what.

The whole point was that before the B-29, which began to terrorize the Japanese islands from an altitude of 9 km, of all Japanese fighters, only Swallows could normally get and attack. In this regard, the Ki-61 was the only single-seat fighter that could not only climb to a height above 9000 m, but also maintain combat effectiveness there without the risk of falling into a tailspin.

But even for him it was necessary to lighten the plane as much as possible, often by removing most of the weapons from the fighter. This put Ki-61 pilots at an even more disadvantageous position in trying to attack the machine-gunned bomber on their nearly disarmed fighters.

Or they used this technique: in order to maintain firepower, the Ki-61 took off with a pair of hanging tanks, but with an almost empty main one. Upon entering the attack, the PTBs were reset, facilitating the aircraft, but in the main tank of fuel there was only one attack.



Many of the pilots were recent graduates of flight schools, which they graduated with only a few hours of combat flight training. This was a necessary measure due to the extreme shortage of fuel in Japan. Hence the complete inability to at least do something with the B-29, but then it’s known that there were rams.

In general, it came to complete stupidity: the pilots began to disarm their aircraft in order to improve flight performance. By 1945, “special attacks” had become the usual way of resisting both aircraft and ships.

It is worth mentioning that during the war, the Kawasaki company worked on the 2 and 3 modifications of the Ki-61. It was planned to install a new, more powerful Na-140 engine, but in 1944 the year was not up to it, fortunately, there were enough problems with the predecessor, Na-40.

So Ki-61 fought the whole war in its original form, only weapons changed. From 2 x 7,7-mm and 2 x 12,7-mm machine guns to 4 x 20-mm guns.



The Swallow received further development in the Ki-5 Type 100 fighter project, but that's another story. And the career of Ki-61, ended in China after the end of World War II.

A number of captured Ki-61s fell into the army of Mao Jie Dong and quite normally participated in battles with the army of Chiang Kai-shek, with Japanese pilots sitting at the controls. But over time, the Ki-61 was replaced by more modern Mustangs and La-11.

Thus ended the career of the first Japanese army fighter with a liquid-cooled engine.

The plane was not bad, probably this is the best that could be created by the hands of Japanese engineers. In many sources it is for some reason called either a copy of Bf.109, or a copy of the Italian MC.202, but still it was a Japanese plane. Which, alas, did not reach the originals at all, which were attributed to him.

If the Kawasaki engineers could not only copy the DV601A, but also modernize it as the Germans did, the output could be a completely different plane.

But, as you know, history does not know the subjunctive mood. And Ki-61 remained in history as a largely advanced, but not brought to mind plane.



LTX Ki-61-II

Wingspan, m: 12,00
Length, m: 9,16
Height, m: 3,70
Wing area, м2: 20,00
Weight, kg
- empty aircraft: 2 840
- normal takeoff: 3 780
- Maximum takeoff: 3 825

Engine: 1 x Kawasaki Ha-140 x 1500 hp
Maximum speed km / h: 610
Cruising speed, km / h: 450
Practical range, km 1 600
Combat range, km: 1 100
Maximum rate of climb, m / min: 835
Practical ceiling, m: 11 000
Crew, prs: 1
Armament: two synchronous 20-mm guns Ho-5 and two 12,7-mm wing machine guns. 2 bombs 250 kg.

Source:
Aranov E. Kawasaki Ki.61 / Ki.100 "Hien" / "Tony".
Author:
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  1. Nycomed
    Nycomed 12 September 2019 18: 23
    +4
    Thanks, interesting! The Ki-100 is the same aircraft, only with a star engine. I read somewhere that this measure was forced because The Americans bombed the factory, which produced licensed DB-601. But, nevertheless, the Ki-100 turned out to be quite good.
  2. 210ox
    210ox 12 September 2019 19: 02
    +11
    Once again proves that courage, honor and all that is nothing in the war. If there is no industrial and economic power.
    1. Nycomed
      Nycomed 12 September 2019 19: 08
      +1
      In modern wars, of course. But in the past historical, and even prehistoric times, it could have been different. Or is it just carefully guarded legends? winked
      1. PilotS37
        PilotS37 15 September 2019 16: 43
        +1
        Quote: Nycomed
        Or is it just carefully guarded legends?

        At all times, the best trained were victorious.
        The Mongols, for example, in the Middle Ages developed a breakthrough technology for using bows: boys from childhood were trained to develop hand power, special bows were made ... As a result, the Moghul detachment fired more arrows per unit of time and shot further than all its opponents.
        Here Genghis Khan conquered half the world.
        But the Arabs, with whom the Mongol bows got, could not do anything with them: they were not able to shoot from them.
        1. Elturisto
          Elturisto 8 November 2019 16: 56
          -2
          Do not engage in nonsense. The centralized training of the Mongols was impossible and unnecessary. The Mongols did not have any exclusive technologies. Read less Nefedov and other underschooling. The Hun and Avar burials (5-7 AD in Panonia (Hungary) provide a large skeletal material with skulls of the Mongol-Buryat and Tungus-Manjurian types.
          The theme of the military dominance of the Mongols, capacious and difficult.
          1. PilotS37
            PilotS37 8 November 2019 18: 21
            0
            Quote: ElTuristo
            Read less Nefedovy and other nonsense

            Which ones to read then? What about you? What did you write about the "military domination of the Mongols"?
            Or is it - blah blah blah next? ..
            1. Elturisto
              Elturisto 9 November 2019 12: 23
              -2
              You do not have the Internet? Military domination, a consequence of the Mongolian economic system. I’m not going to teach you. Look for yourself. Just pointed out a worthless chatterbox inventing different theories. Critical analysis of information is the only way to knowledge. KUn will be very useful to you. "Races Europe ".
              1. PilotS37
                PilotS37 9 November 2019 23: 09
                0
                I clearly indicated who I consider a worthy specialist in a particular field. From you, in return, I receive non-binding blah-blah-blah that you are the smartest and most knowledgeable here, and I and others like me "are doing nonsense" and "reading all sorts of half-educated people."
                Another such post - and I will complain to the moderators (it is strange that they still ignore your antics).
                1. Elturisto
                  Elturisto 10 November 2019 20: 45
                  -1
                  Who have you pointed out? I don’t remember this. I didn’t take any responsibilities on myself. I never claimed anywhere that I was the most intelligent or knowledgeable. I gave you very practical advice that will help you in a particular situation. I justified my position quite logically. If you broadcast a lie, this is nonsense ... and this is to say the least ... I generally spit where you will complain there.
                  1. PilotS37
                    PilotS37 10 November 2019 20: 49
                    0
                    Quote: ElTuristo
                    I took no responsibilities.

                    I already understood that.
                  2. PilotS37
                    PilotS37 10 November 2019 20: 55
                    0
                    Quote: ElTuristo
                    I have never claimed anywhere that I am the most intelligent or knowledgeable.

                    Then, maybe, refrain from formulations like "you are broadcasting lies", "this is nonsense", "I ... pointed to a worthless chatterbox inventing different theories", "Do not engage in nonsense" ...
                    Or do you think that it is these phrases that characterize a person who is not "the most intelligent" and not "knowledgeable"?
                    1. Elturisto
                      Elturisto 11 November 2019 17: 38
                      -1
                      Once again. Nefedov is a worthless talker - what’s wrong? His theory contradicts elementary facts long accessible to any person. Maybe a normal person spread his theories that contradict the right meaning, obviously not. Therefore, something is wrong with the theorist. Here and completely fresh proof-https: //warspot.ru/15887-vsadnik-so-skorostnoy-dorogi
                      Pay attention to the bow.
                      The purpose of my commentary is to draw attention to the simple fact that most of the so-called historians suffer from mental disabilities, to which there is a large amount of evidence, for example: https: //www.mk.ru/incident/2019/11/09/peterburgskiy- professor-rasskazal-kak-ubil-i-raschlenil-studentku.html.
                      I am taking my leave for the sim. Thank you for your attention.
                      1. PilotS37
                        PilotS37 11 November 2019 23: 05
                        0
                        Quote: ElTuristo
                        A normal person can spread his theories that contradict the righteous meaning, obviously not.

                        Well, you are with us - the Great Arbitrator of Common Sense!
                        Of course...
                        The topic is closed: we have different criteria of "common sense"
                      2. Elturisto
                        Elturisto 12 November 2019 18: 16
                        -1
                        yes it’s clear the words common sense and sense of respect are combined like ... until new meetings ...
  3. Undecim
    Undecim 12 September 2019 19: 54
    +7
    With the interceptor Ki-60 did not work, the plane was very heavy and did not arouse interest among army pilots. But with the Ki-61 it turned out quite well.

    The Ki-61 was largely due to the Ki-60, which first flew in March 1941. The results obtained made it possible to make the necessary changes to the design of the Ki-61, which "got on the wing" in December 1941.
  4. Undecim
    Undecim 12 September 2019 21: 00
    +11
    "... well, then it is known: further there were rams."

    Major Teruhiko Koboyashi. On the fuselage there are marks about six downed "fortresses", including one by a ram.
    The pilots of his sentai made 18 rams, while seven pilots died.
  5. Mik13
    Mik13 12 September 2019 22: 02
    -1
    P-40 and P-39 definitely lost Ki-61 both vertically and horizontally. And in a disadvantageous situation, the Ki-61 pilot could always get out of combat in a dive. Only in the battles with the twin-engine P-38 this technique did not work, but in the battles with the Lightning the Ki-61 pilot did not need this, since the advantage in maneuverability was more than sufficient.

    According to the results of the famous battle over Nish of 7 on November 1944 of the year (866 IAP aerial combat with the Americans (P-38), it was concluded that the P-38 is superior to the Yak-9 in horizontal maneuver, and the Yak-9 is one of the best in these indicators WWII fighters.

    Here is a fragment from a combat report:

    866 IAP HQ BATTLE REPORTING
    Nish, 7.11.1944 of the year, 16.00
    .......
    CONCLUSION: A flying group of LIGHTING planes, obviously, mistakenly attacked a convoy of our troops in connection with the loss of detailed orientation, taking this area as enemy territory.
    In the aerial combat of Yak-9 aircraft with LIGHTING aircraft, the latter showed good horizontal maneuverability, and when conducting air combat on turns, the advantage remained for LIGHTING aircraft, which easily went into the tail of Yak-9 aircraft, which have a significantly larger bend radius than LIGHTING aircraft.
    On a vertical maneuver, the Yak-9 had an advantage over LIGHTING aircraft.

    / TsAMO RF, f.866 IAP, op.223502, d.3 /

    proof: http://www.vif2ne.org/nvi/forum/archive/63/63597.htm
    1. fighter angel
      fighter angel 14 September 2019 14: 16
      +4
      Mik13
      Michael, this is not so simple.
      After reading you, you might think that the P-38 Lightning turns better than the Yak-9.
      It's a delusion. The documents of the regiment incorrectly indicated the type of our fighters.
      It happened, inaccuracies were present, especially in the midst of hostilities.
      The thing is, Mikhail, that the 866 IAP, which fought the Lightning over Nis, was not armed with Yak-9 fighters, namely the Yak-9 "without a letter."
      And this regiment was armed with machines, the Yak-9T, and the Yak-9D!
      You can find this in the source: V. Savonchik, Brief Chronicle 866 IAP.
      On a horizontal maneuver, the Yak-9 and Yak-9D / Yak-9T are two huge differences.
      Firstly, the Yak-9D is a long-range fighter that takes almost 2 times more fuel than the "clean" Yak-9.
      On take-off, the Yak-9D is definitely heavier and worse bend than a clean Yak-9. It is tucked in, and until at least half of the fuel supply is exhausted, it is heavier and worse in vertical and horizontal maneuverability.
      And the Yak-9T is a heavy fighter with a 37 mm gun. It is a priori worse in terms of maneuverability than the Yak-9, but it is stronger in the airborne second volley.
      And just imagine: the heavy, heavily fueled Soviet Yak-9D and Yak-9T, take off and immediately engage in aerial combat. What indicators of agility do you think they will show? Obviously, not the best, and far from being "reference"!
      Take the P-38.
      The Lightnings had already covered more than half the distance, using up more than half of their fuel. Therefore, the Lightnings were in a better position, and the advantage was on their side. It would seem, BUT! The result of the battle was not in favor of the Americans. According to official data, the Yaks shot down 3 Lightning vehicles, and they themselves lost 2 vehicles downed from the P-38 fire, and another one was shot down by their own anti-aircraft gunners.
      So the conclusions that the horizontal P-38 is better than our Yak-9 are not correct!
      In order to make such comparisons, the machines must be in approximately equal conditions. And then the Americans had a clear advantage, and they could not realize it. This is clearly indicated by the result of the battle.
      In addition, the 866 IAP at that time was in the queue for rearmament. And it is quite possible that the command of the regiment, wishing to quickly replace the worn-out materiel, deliberately wrote this phrase in a report about the alleged superiority of the Lightning on the horizontal. The goal was achieved - the regiment in the shortest possible time was re-equipped with brand new Yak-3 of the Saratov aircraft plant.
      So, Michael, not so simple.
      We must be critical, and analyze any information.
      1. fighter angel
        fighter angel 14 September 2019 14: 34
        +2
        Mik13,
        Michael, for you data on horizontal maneuverability.
        R-38 "Lightning" - horizontal bend - 22.6 sec., With flaps extended - 21.5 sec.
        Yak-9 "clean", no letter - turn time 18 sec.
        Yak-9T - 19.5 - 20 sec.
        If interested, I’m ready to voice the sources.
    2. PilotS37
      PilotS37 15 September 2019 16: 46
      0
      Quote: Mik13
      On a vertical maneuver, the Yak-9 had an advantage over LIGHTING aircraft.

      Here! This is the whole point ...
      Hurricane, too, "in the horizon" was spinning well, but where does he want to Spit and Messer!
  6. dauria
    dauria 12 September 2019 22: 16
    +2
    This is not a messer, and not a Yak, too large wing area with almost the same "dry weight". And a huge range in comparison with the German and our Yak. Apparently - a feature of the theater. It is rather similar to the English Spitfire in characteristics.
    1. Dmitry 80
      Dmitry 80 13 September 2019 12: 24
      +1
      By contour is the He-100.
  7. iouris
    iouris 12 September 2019 22: 26
    -4
    "Swallow"? Isn't there any propaganda of Japanese militarism here? Japanese militarism is the younger brother of American imperialism. Japan received not only German, but also American technology. It was Japan, not Germany, who started World War II by attacking China. The second world war ended on September 2 with the surrender of Japan. However, Japanese soldiers continued World War II until 1974, when the last (?) Japanese soldier was caught. The atrocities of the Japanese in the occupied territories are outrageous. The Japanese are especially advanced in the development of biological weapons. Their pincers have been damaging us ever since. How long will Japan be plundering our (?) Resources, getting seafood for free? What did the USSR and the Russian Federation receive from Japan as a result of the Victory won by the armed forces and the people of the USSR, fulfilling the obligations given to the permanent members of the UN Security Council? Where are the reparations and compensation?
    1. Elturisto
      Elturisto 8 November 2019 16: 50
      -1
      Absolutely correct formulation of the question. It should be added that England is to blame for the growth of Japanese militarism.
  8. Amurets
    Amurets 13 September 2019 00: 31
    +4
    “Swallow” Ki-61 actually became a “swan” for “Kawasaki”, who sang his song according to the company's ambitions. And a kind of monument of faith "Kawasaki" in a fighter with an in-line liquid-cooled engine. And with a rebuke, a reminder that the Japanese engineers could not bring this engine to mind.
    The engine is an inverted type, with fuel injection, it is clear that it will be a problem for the technical staff. And the fact that an in-line or a star, liquid-cooled or "air vent", so this war "flared up" in Spain. “While the engines were weak, and the speed of the aircraft was relatively low, the weight of the engine played a significant role. So the I-16 with the Cyclone still outperformed the Bf-109B in Spain. But the denouement was inevitable. step and the I-30 it became already problematic to resist the Messer with the DB-16.
    But not only the increase in power played a role. The aerodynamics of water radiators also made a sharp leap. Water radiators migrated to the tunnels. The tunnels began to sink into the fuselage and wings. The use of ethylene glycol and water under pressure has reduced the area of ​​water radiators by 40-50% (and the weight of the coolant). "Http://www.airpages.ru/mt/mot3.shtml
    1. DimerVladimer
      DimerVladimer 13 September 2019 14: 28
      -1
      Quote: Amurets
      The tunnels began to sink into the fuselage and wings. The use of ethylene glycol and water under pressure has reduced the area of ​​water radiators by 40-50% (and the weight of the coolant). "Http://www.airpages.ru/mt/mot3.shtml

      Absolutely right. Radiators even created a small reactive effect.

      In general, the transition to riveting flush, sealing joints, hatches.
  9. irontom
    irontom 13 September 2019 09: 28
    +2
    Japanese complete division and antagonism of the fleet - the army is a complete madness, considering that the fleet made its DB-601 AE1A "Atsuta 21" by "Aichi", and they did not echo each other, while the naval DB came out more successful and reliable. If my memory serves me, the naval injection system was an original Japanese design.
    Kawasaki brought the motor for about 3 years.
    The article is good, although superficial, in more detail the history and design of the Ki-61, as well as a comparison with Meser and Mackey, are here - https://komandante-07.livejournal.com/125687.html
  10. tinibar
    tinibar 13 September 2019 18: 31
    0
    Undeservedly are not present in the lists of the best fighters of the 2nd World War, the Japanese, ... ... The Yankees, whom they patted so badly, probably tried here! But from what I read about Japanese fighters, I realized that they were wonderful cars, some of the best of that time! And, interestingly, they were united with ours. Soviet aircraft that the difficulties in their creation were similar --- lack of necessary materials, problems with engines, etc. etc ..... But the Japanese also managed, they created excellent planes! I can’t judge for sure that there is no such data, but most likely, in terms of price / quality ratio, the Japanese, along with Soviet aircraft, will be at the top of the list ...
  11. Petrol cutter
    Petrol cutter 15 September 2019 18: 58
    +1
    Thank you comrade author! You open your eyes straight!
    In addition to jokes. I personally thought earlier that I knew everything for WWII aircraft! How wrong I was! ... I do not really know anything about them. I ask you to continue this charitable work, to educate the people who are interested.
  12. TermNachTer
    TermNachTer 13 October 2019 15: 39
    0
    The article is quite interesting. There is only one controversial point - the evacuation of high-ranking naval officers from the Philippines. Nowhere in Japanese sources is this fact noted. And the fact that the naval bomber is covered by army fighters is also very doubtful. If the army team were given such an order. they themselves would have "flunked" this "betty" without waiting for the Americans.
  13. Elturisto
    Elturisto 8 November 2019 17: 01
    -1
    Against the backdrop of Japanese difficulties with V-engines, it is necessary to pay tribute to Soviet cosintructors and workers, who, in conditions of a total lack of resources and labor, were able to provide the Soviet Air Force with M-105 and AM-37 aircraft engines. Glory to the heroes!