Military Review

People’s commander. To the 100 anniversary of the death of Vasily Chapaev

100 years ago, on 5 of September, 1919 of the year, the commander Vasily Ivanovich Chapaev died. The legend and hero of the Civil War, the people's commander, a self-taught who moved to high command posts thanks to his natural talent.

People’s commander. To the 100 anniversary of the death of Vasily Chapaev

Youth. Before the war

Vasily Ivanovich was born on January 28 (February 9) of 1887 of the year in the village of Budaika in the Cheboksary volost of the Kazan province in a peasant family. The family was large - nine children (four died early). Father was a carpenter. In 1897, in search of a better share, the Chapaevs (Chepayevs) family moved from Cheboksary to more prosperous places in the lower Volga region, in the village of Balakovo in the Samara province.

Because of the need to work, Vasily graduated from only two classes of the parish school. He helped his father, was in the service of a merchant, learned to sell, but the merchant did not leave him. As a result, he mastered the carpentry, worked with his father. In search of work, they wandered throughout the Volga. As Chapaev himself later said, he became an exemplary carpenter.

In autumn, 1908 was drafted into the army, sent to Kiev. But already in the spring of 1909, he was laid off. Obviously due to illness. He married the daughter of the priest Pelage. Before the war, he had three children - Alexander, Claudius and Arkady. All of them have become worthy people. Alexander became an artilleryman, went through the Great Patriotic War, and completed it as commander of an artillery brigade. After the war, he continued his military service and completed it as deputy commander of artillery in the Moscow District. Arkady became a pilot, died in 1939 as a result of a fighter accident. Claudia was a collector of materials about her father, collected a huge archive.

Feldfebel V.I. Chapaev with his wife. 1916

War and revolution

With the outbreak of World War II, Vasily Ivanovich was called up for service and sent to a reserve regiment. He came to the front at the beginning of 1915, since he was considered an experienced soldier, he was enrolled in the regimental training team, which trained non-commissioned officers. Chapaev fought in the 326-th Belgorai Infantry Regiment of the 82-th Infantry Division of the 9-th Army of the South-Western Front in Volyn and in Galicia. He took part in the battle for Przemysl, in positional battles in Galicia, in 1916, in the Brusilovsky breakthrough. He reached the rank of sergeant major, was wounded and shell-shocked several times, showed himself to be a skilled and brave soldier, was marked by three St. George crosses and the St. George medal.

After another wound, in the spring of 1917, Vasily Chapaev was sent to the 90-th reserve infantry regiment in Saratov. There he became part of the shock detachment, they were created by the Provisional Government in the conditions of the complete decomposition of the army. In the summer of 1917, Chapaev was transferred to the 138-th reserve regiment in the city of Nikolaevsk (now Pugachev in the Saratov region). Politically, Vasily first joined the Saratov anarchists, but then moved on to the Bolsheviks. In September, he joined the RSDLP (b). In his regiment, Chapaev continued to maintain discipline, did not allow to plunder regimental property, had influence on the soldiers and proved to be a good organizer.

After the October Revolution, Vasily Ivanovich, with the support of soldiers, became commander of the 138 Regiment. As a result, he became the main military support of the Bolsheviks of the Nikolaev district of the Samara province. In December 1917, Chapaev was elected the county commissioner of internal affairs, and in January 1918, he was elected military commissar. Commissar Chapaev struggled with the actions of peasants and Cossacks, which were most often organized by the Social Revolutionaries. He also took part in the organization of the county Red Guard, and on the basis of the 138-th regiment the 1-th Nikolaev regiment was formed. Then the formation of the 2-th Nikolaev regiment began.

V. I. Chapaev in the group of the Red Guard command staff

The beginning of the Civil War

In March 1918, the Ural Cossacks revolted. The Soviets were dissolved, the Bolsheviks were arrested. The Saratov Council demanded that the Cossack army government restore the Soviets and expel all "Cadets" from Uralsk. The Cossacks refused. The Army of the Saratov Council was moved along Uralsk along the railway - it was based on the 1 and 2 th Nikolaev regiments (detachments) under the command of Demidkin and Chapaev. From the beginning, the offensive was successful - the Reds overturned the Cossacks and were in 70 versts from Uralsk. But then the Cossacks, using good knowledge of the area and the superiority of the cavalry, blocked the Red Guards in the vicinity of Shipovo station, cutting them off from Saratov. After stubborn battles, the Reds were able to break through the encirclement and retreat to the border of the region. Then the front stabilized.

In May 1918, the Czechoslovak Corps began their speech, it was supported by detachments of officers, "cadets" - liberals, February democrats, who were unhappy that they had been ousted from power. The fighting between the Saratov Red and Ural White Cossacks resumed. In June, the Eastern Front was formed, headed by Muravyov, and it included units of the Saratov Council. The 1-th and 2-th Mykolayiv were combined into a brigade (about 3 thousand fighters) led by Vasily Chapaev. The Nikolaev brigade again launched an offensive along the Saratov-Uralsk railway. In stubborn battles, the Chapaevites advanced to Shipovo station, but then they were again thrown back to their original positions. The Socialist-Revolutionary rebellion and the betrayal of Commander Muravyov complicated the situation.

In July 1918, the situation in the Volga region was critical. Czechoslovakians and Komuch’s troops captured Syzran, Ufa, Bugulma and Simbirsk. The Nikolaev district became a key knot of resistance. The Nikolaev brigade and detachments of the Red Guard prevented the combined forces of Komuch with the Ural Cossacks and the movement down the Volga. The Nikolaev brigade will be reorganized into a division of five infantry and horse regiments. In early August, the task was completed. The division was headed by the commissar of the Balakovo district S.P. Zakharov. Chapaev commanded the 1th brigade. The Nikolaev division, which was part of the 4 Army, fought with the Khvalynsky Comuch group under the command of Colonel Makhin. The fights were with varying success. 20 August Czechs were able to take Nikolaevsk. Chapaev counterattacked and was able to cut off Czech legionnaires from Komuch’s troops. Czechoslovakians retreated; on 23 of August, the Chapaevites liberated the city. At a meeting in honor of the liberation of the city, Chapaev proposed renaming Nikolaevsk to Pugachev. This idea was supported. Heavy fights with Czechs and whites continued.

In early September, Chapaev began to act as commander of the Nikolaev division, instead of the retired Zakharov. At this time, the Ural Cossacks, who raided the rear of the 4 Red Army, intensified their actions. The Czechs and the People’s Army of Comuch were advancing on Volsk and Balakovo. An uprising began in Volsk. As a result, the Volsk red division was between two fires and was defeated, its command was lost. In this critical situation, Chapaev carried out an additional mobilization in Nikolaev-Pugachev, knocked out reserves from the command of the 4 Army and went on a counterattack. On 8 of September, the Nikolaev division defeated the whites, went behind the forces of Komuch. After fierce battles, Komuch’s troops were defeated. Volsk and Khvalynsk were recaptured. Chapaevts captured large trophies.

During the Syzran-Samara operation, which began on 14 of September 1918, the Nikolaev division advanced on Samara. She was again led by Zakharov. On September 20, the train of the head of the Trotsky Revolutionary Military Council arrived at the location of the division. It was decided to form the 2-th Nikolaev division headed by Chapaev. She had to act in the Ural direction, protecting the flank of the Eastern Front. The new division included Chapaev’s relatives of the 1 and 2 regiments, who learned the names of Razin and Pugachev.

In October 1918, the Chapaevites fought hard battles with the Ural Cossacks, who received reinforcements from the Orenburg Cossacks. Belokazaki could not directly resist the onslaught of the infantry regiments of the Reds, however, they compensated for this by the maneuverable actions of first-class cavalry. They constantly maneuvered, attacked either in the forehead, or from the flanks and rear, intercepted communications, and disrupted supply. Chapaev constantly asked for reinforcements, weapon, equipment and ammunition. He proposed to move to Nikolaev, to replenish the division, to regroup. And the command posed impossible offensive tasks. In late October, Chapaev arbitrarily took the troops back. He announced that his regiments had successfully left the encirclement. A scandal erupted. The commander of the 4 Army Khvesin proposed to remove Chapaev from command and bring him to trial. The high command was against it.

In battles with Cossacks, white and Czech legionnaires, Vasily Ivanovich proved himself to be a skilled and brave commander, whom the soldiers respect and love, an excellent tactician who correctly assessed the situation and made the right decisions. He was still courageous, personally led the troops in the attack. He was independent, took the initiative, even violated the orders of the higher command, if he considered them erroneous. It was a voivode from nature.

The commander of the 1th Nikolaev division S.P. Zakharov and the commander of the 2th Nikolaev division V.I. Chapaev, 1918

Eastern front

In November 1918, Vasily Ivanovich was sent to the newly created Academy of the General Staff of the Red Army in Moscow. By this time, Chapaev had only primary education and did not even finish the course of the parish school. Therefore, it was very difficult for him to study complex and special military disciplines. At the same time, the division commander had to undergo a program of infantry command courses. In addition, the teaching staff was significantly updated, and some new teachers did not want and could not enter the position of a part of poorly educated students. Chapaev did not work out at the academy and he recalled this experience with irritation: “We are not learned at the academies ... It’s also peasant with us ... We didn’t wear uniforms, and without them, thank God, not everyone such a strategy will be. ” However, he acknowledged that the academy is a "great cause." Some teachers recalled that Vasily Chapaev had good inclinations. As a result, the red division commander arbitrarily returned to the front to "beat the White Guards."

After visiting his native places, Chapaev met with Frunze. They liked each other. Chapaev treated Red Napoleon with great respect. At the suggestion of Frunze in February 1919, he began to command the Alexander-Gaisky group, which opposed the Ural Cossacks. Furunze from Ivanovo-Voznesensk Dmitry Furmanov (future biographer of the hero of the Civil War) was appointed the commissioner of the formation. They sometimes quarreled because of the ardor of the division commander, but in the end became friends.

According to Frunze’s plan, the Chapaev’s group was supposed to advance in the area of ​​Kazachya Talovka and the village of Slomikhinskaya with further access to Lbischensk, and the Kutyakov’s group continued to attack Lbischensk from Uralsk. The March operation was successful: the White Cossacks were defeated and retreated to the Urals, many surrendered, recognized the Soviet regime and were sent home. At this time, Chapaev had to make more efforts to maintain order and discipline in the troops in which the decomposition began (robbery, drunkenness, etc.). I had to arrest even part of the command staff.

The further advance of the troops of Chapaev and Kutyakov to the south was prevented by the onset of thaw and the floods of the steppe rivers. Frunze, commander of the Southern Group of the Eastern Front, recalled Chapaev to Samara. At the end of March, Chapaev headed the 25 rifle division - the former 1 I Nikolaev division, reinforced by the Ivanovo-Voznesensky and International regiments, artillery and an air squad (later, an armored squad was also included in the division). At this time, the Russian army of Kolchak began the "Flight to the Volga" - the spring offensive. On the southern flank, the Ural Cossacks became more active and blocked Uralsk. However, it got stuck in a siege of its "capital". Orenburg Cossacks besieged Orenburg.

In the Ufa direction the 5-I Red Army was defeated. The Red Eastern Front was broken, the Western army of Khanzhin was torn to the Volga. Hyde's Siberian army advanced in the Vyatka direction. A new wave of peasant uprisings began in the rear of the Reds. Therefore, the powerful 25 I division of Chapaev (9 regiments) became one of the main strike forces of Frunze and acted against the main forces of the Kolchak army. The Chapaevites participated in the Buguruslan, Belebey and Ufa operations, which culminated in the failure of the Kolchak offensive. Chapaevtsy successfully made rounds, intercepted messages of the White Guards, smashed their rear. Successful maneuvering tactics became a feature of the 25 division. Even opponents singled out Chapaev and noted his commanding abilities. Chapaev’s division became one of the best on the Eastern Front, Frunze’s punch fist. Chapaev loved his fighters, they paid him the same. In many ways, he was a national ataman, but at the same time possessing military talent, huge passionarity, with which he infected others.

A major success of the Chapaev’s division was to force the Belaya River in the Krasnoyarsk region in early June 1919, which came as a surprise to the White Command. The Whites sent reinforcements here, but during the fierce battle, the Reds defeated the enemy. It was here that the White Guards launched the famous “psychic attack”. During this battle, Frunze was shell-shocked, and Chapaev was wounded in the head, but continued to lead his units. On the evening of July 9, the Chapaevites broke into Ufa and liberated the city. Having started Chapaev and brigade commander Kutyakov, Frunze was presented for awarding with the Orders of the Red Banner, and the regiments of the division with honorary Revolutionary Red Banners.

Head of the 25th Infantry Division V. I. Chapaev and Commissioner of the Division D. A. Furmanov among the commanders and political workers of the division. June 1919

Again in the Ural direction. Death

As a result of the defeat of the main forces of Kolchakites in the Ufa direction, the Red High Command decided to transfer part of the forces of the Eastern Front to defend Petrograd and the Southern Front. And the 25-I division was again directed to the southern flank in order to turn the tide in the fight against the Ural Army. Chapaev led a special group, which included the 25 Division and the Special Brigade (two infantry and one cavalry regiment, two artillery divisions). In total, under the leadership of Chapaev there were now 11 rifle and two cavalry regiments, 6 artillery divisions (the whole corps).

On July 4, the offensive began with the goal of releasing Uralsk, where the red garrison continued to defend. The Belokazaki had no chance of stopping Chapaev’s powerful strike group, although they tried to resist. In the battles of 5 - 11 of July, the Ural army was defeated and began to withdraw to Lbischensk. 11 July Chapaev broke through to Uralsk liberated the city from a long blockade. The further advance of the Chapaev group, due to the stretched communications, the lack of a stable rear, heat and the destruction by the Cossacks of wells and enemy raids, slowed down. On August 9, Chapaev’s division was occupied by Lbischensk. The Belokazaki retreated further down the Urals.

Chapaev’s troops, having torn off from the rear, had great supply problems, were located in the Lbischensk area. The headquarters of the 25 division, like other division agencies, was located in Lbischensk. The main forces of the division were located in 40-70 km from the city. The command of the White Cossack Ural Army decided to undertake a raid on the enemy rear, to attack Lbischensk. A combined detachment from the 2th Division of Colonel Sladkov and the 6th Division of General Borodin, who led this group, was sent on a campaign. Only about 1200-2000 people. Cossacks, knowing the terrain perfectly, were able to quietly go out to the city and on September 5 of 1919 attacked it. The rear guards and peasant monitors could not provide strong resistance. Hundreds of people were killed and captured. Chapaev’s headquarters destroyed. The red commander himself gathered a small detachment and tried to organize resistance. He was wounded and died. According to one version - during a shootout, according to another - crossing the Urals.

Vasily Ivanovich Chapaev lived a short (32 of the year), but a bright life. Thanks to Furmanov’s book (published in 1923) and Vasiliev’s famous film “Chapaev” (1934), he forever became one of the most famous heroes of the Civil War and even became a part of folklore.

Monument V.I. Chapaev in Cheboksary. Architect V.I. Morozov, sculptor P.A. Balandin. Opened in 1960. Sources of photos:;
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  1. Aerodrome
    Aerodrome 5 September 2019 05: 45 New
    100 years ago, on 5 of September, 1919 of the year, the commander Vasily Ivanovich Chapaev died. The legend and hero of the Civil War, the people's commander, a self-taught who moved to high command posts thanks to his natural talent.
    1. Avior
      Avior 5 September 2019 08: 42 New
      Petka is a very real person - Peter Isaev, the orderly Chapaev.

      But Anka, a machine gunner, an image invented, although there was a prototype for the episode with a machine gun
      1. 3vs
        3vs 5 September 2019 10: 54 New
        But Anka, a machine gunner, an image invented, although there was a prototype for the episode with a machine gun

        Yes, Anke the machine gunner Anna Furmanova's wife gave her name.
        And the prototype was called Maria Popova.
        The story of the article is also interesting:
        The true story of Anki the machine gunner

        Read, interesting!
      2. vladcub
        vladcub 5 September 2019 15: 31 New
        Back in 1997, Petka's sisters were alive. They were shown on TV.
        Regarding the Arch, this is more of a collective image, although some believe that “Anka” is Maria Popova (author of the song: “Hero walked around the Urals”) and she did not refute it
  2. Amateur
    Amateur 5 September 2019 06: 09 New
    And Vasily Ivanovich became a favorite hero of his favorite jokes. love
    1. andrewkor
      andrewkor 5 September 2019 08: 46 New
      Typically, the jokes, for the most part, are positive, not spiteful.
      1. Amateur
        Amateur 5 September 2019 08: 48 New
        You are absolutely right! Therefore, I wrote: the people's favorite. "
    2. EvilLion
      EvilLion 12 September 2019 08: 08 New
      In theory - this is the highest degree of national recognition. Well, a series of quests in the 90-2000-s. It is a pity the 2008 crisis killed her and on the 9-th part, everything died out.
  3. Olgovich
    Olgovich 5 September 2019 06: 20 New
    В March 1918 Ural Cossacks revolted.

    No, the Ural Cossacks did not recognize the October Revolution of the first year of the VOR, since October 26 1917
    Nachdiv Chapaev and brigade commander Kutyakov Frunze were presented to the award of the Red Banner.
    Chapaev died. According to one version - during a shootout, according to another - crossing the Urals.
    He escaped a very possible bullet in 1937-38, like the same brigade commander Kutyakov ....
    1. Moore
      Moore 5 September 2019 06: 52 New
      Quote: Olgovich
      He escaped a very possible bullet in 1937-38, like the same brigade commander Kutyakov ....

      If I had been hobbled with an under-Bonapartist Tukhachevsky - perhaps. But hardly. Would become the third in the pair Budyonny / Voroshilov.
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 5 September 2019 08: 39 New
        Quote: Moore
        If I had been hobbled with an under-Bonapartist Tukhachevsky - perhaps. But hardly.

        Very possible. It was not for nothing that I mentioned the brigade commander KUTYAKOV (this is Chapaev’s best friend, his associate, and after Chapaev, the commander of the Chapaev’s division).

        He, like Chapaev, fought precisely under the leadership of Tukhachevsky, in whose conspiracy he allegedly participated in the 1930s. For which he was shot.

        Another friend of his, fought there, the commander of the famous so-called. "Iron Division" - Gayko GAI.
        The same fate, even worse: arrested on July 3, 1935. Charged with “creating a fascist military organization in the Red Army”. .When transporting from Moscow to the Yaroslavl political isolator on October 22, 1935 was running (they did not trust their authority ?!), having jumped out of the train car on the move, he was injured in the fall and a few days later was captured by the NKVD officers who were looking for him ..

        Two years in prison. December 11, 1937 during the campaign of mass "purges" in the Red Army was shot.
        Could envy Chapaev.

        1. the finish
          the finish 5 September 2019 11: 06 New
          Guy along with Baghramyan participated in the WWI in the battles against the Turks.
        2. vladcub
          vladcub 5 September 2019 15: 54 New
          Olgovich, it’s hard to say about the fate of V. I. Chapaev: in my opinion, Chapaev had “graters” with Tukhachevsky. And M Tukhachevsky tried to group around himself those who unconditionally believe him, and therefore so on. Purely psychologically: V. I.varyadli would have worked out with Tukhachevsky, but Kutyakov and Gai were close to Chapaev.
        3. EvilLion
          EvilLion 12 September 2019 08: 12 New
          The plot of Tukhachevsky was uncovered in the first half of the 37 year. If you arrested before, then obviously not for that. I don’t see anything impossible in the creation of various evil organizations, especially when there are ardent professional left-wing revolutionaries, they overthrew one power, and there will be the next.
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 12 September 2019 09: 54 New
            Quote: EvilLion
            If arrested earlier, then obviously not for that


            Being arrested on May 22, arriving in Moscow on the 24th, first questioned on the 25th, and today, May 26, I declare that I acknowledge the existence of an anti-Soviet conspiracy and that I was at the head of it.

            I undertake to independently present to the investigation everything concerning the conspiracy, without concealing any of its participants, not a single fact or document.

            The basis of the plot dates back to 1932. Participated in it: Feldman, Alafuzov, Primakov, Putna and others, which I will show in detail later.


            26. 5. 37.
      2. 210ox
        210ox 5 September 2019 15: 10 New
        I don’t think ... Not a slime. I always had my opinion and followed it.
      3. The comment was deleted.
    2. your1970
      your1970 5 September 2019 12: 29 New
      From Ozinok to Uralsk 115 km, Shipovo is approximately in the middle. The Chapaevites almost every day went to work along the iron to unlock Uralsk. Usually they occupied Shipovo, after which the Cossacks gathered in a heap and knocked Chapaevtsev from Shipov. They rolled back to Ozinki and soon everything repeated. ...

      Z.Y. By the way, in Ozinki, at Chapaev’s station, 6 carriages of cartridges were stolen from the station. They sent him from Saratov, they came to Ozinki, where they went, it’s unknown ...
      Chapaev complained so much about cartridge hunger ...

      I won’t be surprised if they drove cartridges to the Cossacks in Shipovo.
      At least one division commander, Sapozhkov, was a swindler - stole part of the division in the Aleksandrovo-Gaysky steppes and became a simple robber of local pastoralists. Without any political slogans, just a gang ...
      For which they subsequently plopped
      1. Yaik Cossack
        Yaik Cossack 6 September 2019 01: 27 New
        Always surprised by the tendency to rollicking idle fiction. Although, it seems - take and read. At least about Sapozhkova.
        1. Yaik Cossack
          Yaik Cossack 6 September 2019 01: 31 New
          Sapozhkov was no less a major organizer of the Soviet troops. Under his command, the red forces held the besieged Uralsk. And in 1920, he rebelled against the policy of war communism.
          1. Yaik Cossack
            Yaik Cossack 6 September 2019 01: 34 New
            Calling Sapozhkov a “rogue” is completely dishonorable.
            By the way, Chepaev (that is how his last name was written) was noticeably distinguished by robberies and the decomposition of its parts. There are enough documents about this
            1. your1970
              your1970 6 September 2019 08: 17 New
              personally You:
              Quote: Yaitsky Cossack
              And he rebelled in 1920 against the policy of war communism.
              -aga .... after which he retired towards Algay and took up .... no, not the overthrow of Soviet power!
              He just sat in the steppe and began to rob the cattle breeders there ... all in a row .. and the poor and rich ..
              It was the cattle breeders there who passed it
              Quote: Yaitsky Cossack
              Violent fantasy. I would like to know about the sources of this information. About herds, about unstable replenishment, etc.
              - 2 brochures of the 1920s, a school museum, stories of veterans, school trips to battlefields, boys and relatives in Shipovo ....
              Me (all of a sudden repeat !!!) from Ozinok.....
              Father-in-law lives in Solyanka - the one famous for where the bridge was built. The neighbor was a chapaevets. He, when he was old in the 90s, told me that it’s scary to cut people with a saber only for the first 2-3 fights, then you get used to it. He was some sort of small cavalry commander, was awarded with a personalized weapon, presented to our school museum. In the late 70s she was transferred from the museum somewhere
              In Shipovo, with boys, they climbed trenches and positions. There were many bayonets, they had 2 checkers and a rifle in their stashes. Artillery shells were used on the farm.
              And now I regularly work in Algay and Novouzensk. He walked around the mill in Algay (where the Red Army defended the defense for several days from the Cossacks), but the truth didn’t get inside
              Quote: Yaitsky Cossack
              about unstable replenishment
              - to any Civil -mobilized replenishment will be unstable. They are reluctant to fight ... That is why they only shot ideological ideals who voluntarily went to the Red / White Army.
              And the mobilized were put into operation ...
              Decimation arose not because Trotsky was crazy and a flayer - but because there were no other ways to increase resilience at that time

              Z.Y. generally approach in the Civil Wars from the perspective of normal interstate wars is wrong. Units are anecdotal in number (division of 2-3 thousand,army White advancing in Uralsk - 15 thousand), there is no front, there is no rear, the population does not treat everyone (everyone robs it) ...
              By the way, about the bridge in Solyanka - the steppe we are treeless, in general, the whole tree is imported, carried from afar. Home adobe (a mixture of clay, straw and a small amount of offal). Structurally, the logs were used as queens, thin boards were laid on top of them, covered with reed mats on top. Everything was coated with a thick layer of clay - the thicker the better. The village of Solyanka was very rich, judging by the "Lists of populated areas" and "Vedomosti" even a telegraph operator ( !!!) there was also a pharmacy. So, for the construction of the bridge Chapaev’s demand was put forward - to provide the material in a day. Naturally, no one gave the material, there was no superfluous material. Then the soldiers blew up several men. It didn’t help ...
              After that, the roofs were dismantled (uterus and boards were taken) in several dozen houses.
              They took everything from the rich, but they also revealed it from the poor. The father-in-law says that the old Chapaev did not like Solyanka, they did not like it much.

              Z.Z.Z. legally and in fact, he is Chepaev. "Chapaev" he became in the film. This is true.
              1. Yaik Cossack
                Yaik Cossack 6 September 2019 17: 29 New
                And I'm from Uralsk, although I have been living there for a long time. I have been working on this topic in the 30 archives for years. I saw documents with his painting, he wrote his name as Chapaev.

                Chepaev and Sapozhkov are absolutely identical in the social plan as field peasant commanders close to Makhnovism. Sapozhkov even more intelligent and moderate.
                It was for lawlessness that for the first time in the 1918 year, Chepaev was removed and removed from him from the formed regiments, since there was a threat of rebellion. They all robbed, carried out unauthorized requisition and mobilization, carried out executions even in the rear of the red. They smashed the organs of Soviet power and planted their stooges.
                On Chepaev there was a massacre in Semenovka, a terrible regime with the shooting of hostages in Nikolaevsk, and mass terror against the Cossacks.
                1. Yaik Cossack
                  Yaik Cossack 7 September 2019 00: 05 New
                  Almost a fellow countryman is my plus. I visited Ozinki many times.
    3. Yaik Cossack
      Yaik Cossack 7 September 2019 00: 11 New
      I think that Chepaev would not live to see 1937. If he had not risen like Sapozhkov (which is very likely), then due to his restraint he would have thundered much earlier. And he was dead dead in the Soviets was much more useful - it was possible to sculpt any cult without prejudice. Kutyakov was a loyal Chepaevite, after Lbischensk heroically saved the main forces of the division, and in military terms he was much more literate and talented - and even this did not save him from the Soviet bullet.
      1. your1970
        your1970 8 September 2019 19: 39 New
        It is quite possible that he would have started to turn the fortunes. And they could have shot him completely. The civilian civilian does not fit well with the regular army ...
        The fact that everything was requisitioned is 200% true.
        At least twice after departure from Shipovo, the Chapaevtsy instead of Ozinok went to Melovoye and Ovchinnikov, where rich cattle-farmers lived.
        Ovchinnikov even participated in a meeting with Nikolai 2 when he was in the Volga region ..

        On the other hand, the Ural Cossacks are also that thing from a gun ...
        1. Yaik Cossack
          Yaik Cossack 8 September 2019 20: 19 New
          The Ovchinnikovs are probably the richest Ural Cossacks. They had a farm with an exemplary economy, bought land outside the military territory and built everything. In Zavolzhye there were many large successful farms that were then called “economies”
          1. your1970
            your1970 8 September 2019 22: 16 New
            a friend had correspondence with Ovchinnikov’s great-grandson - he lives in Germany, even sent a photo to him against the background of the estate. The landowner was the foremost, he had a malting plant in Ozinki, and it was rumored that it was from him that Ozinki became a station-smeared station belay that fat is taken out of the factory
  4. 210ox
    210ox 5 September 2019 06: 32 New
    I always respected bright personalities .. But usually these people do not live long. I think that if Vasily Ivanovich had survived that war, he would not have served for a long time ..
  5. Evil echo
    Evil echo 5 September 2019 06: 46 New
    Vasily Ivanovich is our everything !!! Few people from those distant times enjoy popular love for such a long period of time.
  6. The comment was deleted.
    1. KVU-NSVD
      KVU-NSVD 5 September 2019 09: 29 New
      Quote: Chestnut1
      the best gift for him is to write the truth about his life and his death. As it was, in fact, and not the politicized garbage that is given out for his life, as, for example, with 28 Panfilov’s, is rubbish similar in scale to the rubbish about Vasily Ivanovich Chapaev.

      So grab and write your version. What is in the way? It’s hard to come up with a better audience than VO.
  7. Sneaky Urus
    Sneaky Urus 5 September 2019 07: 58 New
    A couple of comments on a good article. The Ural Cossacks are not equal to the Orenburg Cossacks.
    What sources confirm the "psychic attack"? The film "Chapaev" does not offer.
  8. bubalik
    bubalik 5 September 2019 08: 21 New
    Monument V.I. Chapaev in Cheboksary.

    ,,, a monument in Samara.
    1. bubalik
      bubalik 5 September 2019 10: 22 New
      ,,, an interesting fact, initially on the monument was an inscription - Chеshare

      The village of Ivaschenkovo ​​was renamed Trotsk in December 1918 and since 01.11.1927 it received the status of a city. In the 1930 year, the city was renamed to CHepaevsk, in 1934 (after the release of the film "Chapaev") the name was changed to Chapaevsk. fellow
  9. Ros 56
    Ros 56 5 September 2019 08: 48 New
    And why is there no photo of the monument to Chapaev in Uralsk on the forecourt, or are the Kazakhs embarrassed?
  10. 1970mk
    1970mk 5 September 2019 08: 56 New
    Chapaev was very lucky that he was killed by whites. Otherwise, he would be shot or killed by the commissars. It was too independent. An example of Shchers is indicative - the Hero is a song ..... but in fact he was killed by a revolver bullet in the back of the head.
    1. bober1982
      bober1982 5 September 2019 09: 07 New
      Vasily Ivanovich did not go into politics; the commissars had no need to kill him, unlike Shchors, on whom the Trotskyists took up arms.
      1. Oleg (Kharkov)
        Oleg (Kharkov) 27 September 2019 22: 23 New
        Quote: bober1982
        Vasily Ivanovich did not go into politics

        in 1937 many Soviet commanders were far from politics. not everyone helped.
    2. Oleg (Kharkov)
      Oleg (Kharkov) 27 September 2019 22: 20 New
      Quote: 1970mk
      .a in fact killed by a revolver bullet in the back of the head.

      we don’t know why such a magnitude as Sverdlov died, and you are talking about Shchers ...
  11. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 5 September 2019 11: 02 New
    Thanks for the detailed story.
    Chapaev really was a talented commander.
    Interestingly, his division was mechanized: it had cars, armored cars and even two airplanes for aerial reconnaissance.
    1. Moskovit
      Moskovit 5 September 2019 11: 32 New
      Yes, in the film they made a fool of him with potatoes. And in life, because of injuries, he hardly rode a horse and preferred a car. In conditions of maneuver war, I discerned the future significance of mechanization and the importance of air reconnaissance. I also read that he had excellent communication. Therefore, the story of the death of his headquarters directly indicates betrayal. However, the death of this outstanding commander could not stop the Red Army on the road to victory.
      1. vladcub
        vladcub 5 September 2019 16: 45 New
        Furmanov also hints about betrayal when he wrote that for some reason the cadets removed the guards
    2. vladcub
      vladcub 5 September 2019 16: 37 New
      For that time, 25 SD was a big force, and if you multiply by Chapaev’s talent
      1. Yaik Cossack
        Yaik Cossack 6 September 2019 17: 46 New
        And what is talent? Two trips to Uralsk in the summer of 1918 - defeat. Well, yes, he suddenly flew up and defeated the newly formed Comuch’s People’s Army Regiment. Nikolayevsk occupied, as the Czechs left. In November 1918 he was surrounded and defeated by the Cossacks in the Talov operation. He barely took his feet. Including for this they removed from the division and sent to the academy.
        Then - the Slamikhinsky operation of the Algaisky group at the beginning of the 1919. So in the Slamikhinskaya group was screened, the Urals did not seriously defend it.

        The only 2 of success is a counterattack against Khanzhin and Ufa (and this is due precisely to the talent of Frunze and Novitsky).
        Deblokada Uralsk - stupid ram ram blow by superior forces.
        Then throw to the south and - voila, Lbischensky battle. It is not necessary to be a military genius in order to understand that an advance along the Ural valley with an open western steppe flank and the presence of a mobile Cossack cavalry in the enemy will not bring to good. The environment lesson in Talovoy did not go in vain.
        And where is the genius? You do not confuse a film and jokes with reality? The film is really talented, a fantasy on a theme that had nothing with reality and even starred on the Oka.
    3. Yaik Cossack
      Yaik Cossack 6 September 2019 17: 37 New
      It was the same in other divisions. But the 3-4 vehicle for transporting chiefs and armored divisions from 4 armored cars, 2-3 trucks and motorcycles did not make the infantry red division of that state (according to the state of the 3 brigade on the 3 three-battalion infantry regiment) "mechanized". This is ridiculous.
      The value of that wheeled and weakly strong armored vehicles was relative. Machine-gun Austin could only move in the dry season and mainly on the roads. The wet field was already inaccessible to him.
      In the Ural separate army, armored division was opened by them to Lazar Bicherakhov and army armored division. But due to the deterioration of the vehicles, they were not taken to the raid on Lbischensk.
      1. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 6 September 2019 19: 19 New
        Of course, when compared with World War II, mechanization is ... not very.
        But for the Civil War - very, very decent.
        Chapaev also had setbacks. But, again, compared with other commanders
        Red Army, his command looked bold and interesting.
        Therefore, to eliminate Chapaev, the enemy singled out a special
        intelligence and selected detachment.
        1. Yaik Cossack
          Yaik Cossack 6 September 2019 23: 34 New
          The Urals did not have any “special intelligence and detachment”. Conventional combat parts. Hundreds in the regiments have already decreased to 20-40 checkers, so of the two divisions we chose the most equipped and with the best horses. That's all.

          Zalepuha about the “special trade and special operations” of the Ural Cossacks was the first to be launched by a young author, Balmasov, when he published his first article in the soldier of fortune magazine, which has now died in Russia. Since Balmasov wanted to have a fee, and the magazine was dedicated to special forces and other special equipment, he caught up with crap on the "special trade". I found data on all hundreds of participants in this raid. So about the "selective squad" - this is a myth.
          1. voyaka uh
            voyaka uh 6 September 2019 23: 38 New
            Leave the words "special", etc. But the essence of this does not change: Chapaeva
            considered a dangerous enemy, and thought out to eliminate it
            and carried out a military operation. Specifically aimed at killing
            division commander, not to defeat the division itself.
            1. Yaik Cossack
              Yaik Cossack 6 September 2019 23: 48 New
              To exit to the rear and defeat the division itself. This is in the memoirs of Colonel Izergin, chief of staff of the 1 th Ural Corps. The fact that Chepaev in Lbischensk was learned only from captured red foragers per day
        2. Yaik Cossack
          Yaik Cossack 6 September 2019 23: 38 New
          Almost all other Red divisions had the same “mechanization”. 10-15 machines on 14 — 17 thousand bayonets - is that really “mechanization”? Real mechanized troops (mechanized infantry, not just tanks) appeared only in the second world war.
          However, if you do not like the basics of military history, then God be with them, live in your world.
        3. Yaik Cossack
          Yaik Cossack 6 September 2019 23: 40 New
          The Cossacks did not single out any “selected squad”. These are Balmasov’s fantasies. We took hundreds from two divisions (in which there were 30-40 drafts) with the best horses
          1. voyaka uh
            voyaka uh 6 September 2019 23: 43 New
            But the task was: to kill Chapaev. Most military operations are aimed at
            the defeat of combat units, and not the elimination of the commander.
            This clearly says that he was regarded as a particularly dangerous opponent.
            1. Yaik Cossack
              Yaik Cossack 6 September 2019 23: 49 New
              No not like this. Explained above
              1. Yaik Cossack
                Yaik Cossack 6 September 2019 23: 52 New
                The Uralians hated Chepayev for terror in the Cossack villages, but they did not overestimate him at all. Due to the fact that whites were inferior in manpower by 2 times and in artillery by three, the only chance was maneuvering
        4. Yaik Cossack
          Yaik Cossack 6 September 2019 23: 45 New
          Nothing decent. According to 5-10 machines on 12-16 thousand bayonets - this is not "mechanization". The real mechanized infantry (on the armored personnel carrier) appeared only by the second world war.
  12. fuxila
    fuxila 5 September 2019 12: 31 New
    The reason Chapaev was expelled from the General Staff Academy was a quarrel with Svechin. According to the memoirs of the future Army General Tyulenev, who studied with Chapaev, the latter did not want to study and only looked for a "weighty excuse" to return to the front, and such an excuse soon turned up.
    "The military history was taught to us by the former tsarist general A. A. Svechin. He knew his subject impeccably, he taught us well. He was one of those military experts who were able to soberly assess the situation in Russia and stood in the service of that real Motherland for which they fought people.
    Once in the class, A. A. Svechin invited Vasily Ivanovich to tell how he had learned a lecture on the famous battle of Cannes, where Hannibal’s troops were defeated by almost twice the strength of the Roman forces, thereby showing the classic example of encircling the enemy and destroying him parts.
    Chapaev began to state his point of view by calling the Romans blind kittens. Svechin could not resist the ironic remark:
    - Probably, Comrade Chapaev, if you were to command the Roman cavalry, today we would talk about the defeat of Hannibal by the Romans.
    Vasily Ivanovich flushed:
    “We have already shown to generals how you should fight!”
    He had in mind the famous raid of his troops in the summer of the eighteenth year. Having fallen under Uralsk in a bag between the White Bohemian and White Cossack units, Chapaev made a daring throw back at Nikolaevsk occupied by the enemy, took the city and thereby prevented two large enemy groups from uniting.
    In short, the scandal broke out in earnest. Chapaev slammed the door. In January 1919, Chapaev left the academy, having been sent to the Eastern Front. I haven’t seen him again. "
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 5 September 2019 13: 02 New
      "Chapaev began to state his point of view by calling the Romans blind kittens" ///
      Chapaev was right in this case. Poor intelligence has been the cause of many defeats (and victories) in battles until the recent past.
      1. vladcub
        vladcub 5 September 2019 16: 41 New
        Everything is needed in war, but intelligence and communications are especially needed.
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 5 September 2019 21: 39 New
          Glory, you forgot the most important thing: "War is war, and lunch is scheduled." smile
          Or as one British colonel said: "Not a step forward, until you know what's wrong with the ration!"
    2. your1970
      your1970 5 September 2019 20: 15 New
      Quote: fuxila
      Having fallen under Uralsk in a bag between the White Bohemian and White Cossack units, Chapaev made a daring throw back at Nikolaevsk occupied by the enemy, took the city and thereby prevented two large enemy groups from uniting.
      - actually he’s in the opposite advancing in 1918 of Nikolaevsk on Uralsk.
      Uralsk was blocked by Cossacks ...
    3. Catfish
      Catfish 5 September 2019 21: 36 New
      This is not the same Svechin, who, along with Triandafilov, became the theoretical father of the idea of ​​"Deep Operation"?
      1. Snoop
        Snoop 11 September 2019 19: 13 New
        No, Svechin developed the theory of strategic defense. Therefore, he was on knives with Tukhachevsky, who was in the camp "on foreign territory and with little blood." Earlier, the People's Commissar of Defense Frunze followed the path of Svechin. It is interesting when Svechin was arrested for the first time, Tukhachevsky immediately made a report on the wrecking activity of Svechin. Then the truth Svechin was released, and the case was closed. I don’t remember exactly, with the help of Voroshilov or Budyonny. In general, one of them influenced.
    4. Yaik Cossack
      Yaik Cossack 6 September 2019 18: 06 New
      Well Chepaev and "showed how to fight." Bragging never brought to good
  13. Lexa-149
    Lexa-149 5 September 2019 13: 31 New
    Heroic personality! You can’t say more.
  14. vladcub
    vladcub 5 September 2019 17: 07 New
    The article is good: everything is on the case, nothing more. That's just the author mentioned one wife of Chapaev Pelage. Somewhere I met information that the first wife of V.I. was, to put it mildly, not an exemplary wife. While he fought, she did not "miss." Learning about this, Chapaev took the children from Pelagia. He remarried, raised the children of a deceased friend
    1. Yaik Cossack
      Yaik Cossack 6 September 2019 18: 05 New
      Chepaev was a bigamist. His daughter Claudius invented a touching story about a friend’s oath in his many creations.
  15. The comment was deleted.
  16. Vadim T.
    Vadim T. 5 September 2019 17: 16 New
    I want to draw the attention of respected members of the forum to this fact. The death of the commander Chapaev occurred under still unclear circumstances. Moreover, it was not just the division commander who died, but a bright, talented and distinctive commander, a true national hero. There were few such commanders who enjoyed great authority among subordinates and enemies at that time - Schors and Parkhomenko could be attributed to them. The fate of these commanders was also tragic: they, like Chapaev, died under rather strange circumstances. Not even the graves have been preserved. Apparently, someone was very much interested in eliminating these military leaders. The question is who exactly?
    1. your1970
      your1970 5 September 2019 20: 39 New
      Quote: Vadim T.
      The death of the commander Chapaev occurred under still unclear circumstances.
      -In fact, everything is known there a long time ago - back in the 20th ...
      Features of the Civil War in the Volga steppes ....
      A sudden attack (at 4 a.m.) on a rather weak garrison + was cut off immediately from the herd of horses + the population is dissatisfied (the population was robbed by all-white and red) + the replenishment of the division was mobilized the other day and was extremely unstable + it was possible to retreat only across the river (it is pointless to run away from the horse on the steppe) + there was booze, much without it ...
      All together led to the fact that Chapaev first retreated to the shore - where they covered the retreat to that shore with a machine gun, then he tied his wounded to the collar (so as not to slip) - but the soldiers who sailed with him were killed, the raft swam with the stream and got stuck in reeds . I won’t be surprised if he died precisely from the fact that he was attached - exhausted and could not get rid of
      The whites did not find him - although they were looking for him. Subsequently, he was found and buried. There are several versions of exactly where he was buried - but I think this is not important - the film heroized his death anyway
      1. Vadim T.
        Vadim T. 6 September 2019 00: 53 New
        I focused on why such a death at all became possible. Yes, anything can happen in a war. But the fact that Chapaev, Schors, Primakov and other generals of the civil war died under circumstances that experienced commanders could not allow in principle is a fact. How, for example, did it turn out that the headquarters of the 25 division remained virtually unprotected, and the nearest units were several hours away from it? Shchors was generally killed by a shot in the back of the head, by one of his own. Then, of course, these commanders were heroized, many monuments were erected, films were made. But the investigation into their death was never completed. So, there were people who did not want the truth to be revealed.
        History, as you know, is repeated twice. The death of the most famous leaders of the Donbass militia: Tolstoy, Bednov, Dremov, Pavlov, Mozgovoy, Zakharchenko - from the same series. And to blame only the DRG for these deaths - at least biased.
      2. Yaik Cossack
        Yaik Cossack 6 September 2019 01: 37 New
        Violent fantasy. I would like to know about the sources of this information. About herds, about unstable replenishment, etc.
    2. Yaik Cossack
      Yaik Cossack 6 September 2019 02: 00 New
      Stupidity and star fever of the very beginning is the main reason.
      And no conspiracy theories. Bypassing the right flank of the group along the Kushum valley was clearly asking for it. The second echelon was too pulled north of Lbischensk. They began to remove parts from the Mikhailov group from the left bank of the Urals and transfer them to the Ural valley, but they were late.

      From the side of the Ural separate army - a magnificent plan and implementation. But then, at the second stage - also a gross mistake, which allowed Kutyakov to break away from the main forces of the Urals and start a breakthrough to the north. The approach by the forced march of Kutyakov forced Sladkov's weak detachment to withdraw from the river valley to the west and open the way for the red mites to leave north.
    3. Yaik Cossack
      Yaik Cossack 6 September 2019 18: 03 New
      What is so strange there? There was a consequence, they interrogated the survivors, in particular Boris Tal. There was little information, since most died. The chief of staff of the division hid in the furnace, the Cossack betrayed. But it was clear that Chepaev, Commissar Baturin, the entire personal convoy of the chief and headquarters, the division school, the detachment of the special department, the punitive battalion and other units were destroyed.
  17. Doliva63
    Doliva63 5 September 2019 18: 10 New
    Quote: Sneaky Urus
    A couple of comments on a good article. The Ural Cossacks are not equal to the Orenburg Cossacks.
    What sources confirm the "psychic attack"? The film "Chapaev" does not offer.

    It doesn’t matter if the Orenburg region was part of the 1st military department of the Ural (Yaitsky) Cossack army?
    1. Yaik Cossack
      Yaik Cossack 6 September 2019 01: 35 New
      Stupidity. Never entered.
  18. Doliva63
    Doliva63 5 September 2019 18: 14 New
    Quote: Vadim T.
    I want to draw the attention of respected members of the forum to this fact. The death of the commander Chapaev occurred under still unclear circumstances. Moreover, it was not just the division commander who died, but a bright, talented and distinctive commander, a true national hero. There were few such commanders who enjoyed great authority among subordinates and enemies at that time - Schors and Parkhomenko could be attributed to them. The fate of these commanders was also tragic: they, like Chapaev, died under rather strange circumstances. Not even the graves have been preserved. Apparently, someone was very much interested in eliminating these military leaders. The question is who exactly?

    Add to this the killing of Kotovsky.
  19. Yaik Cossack
    Yaik Cossack 6 September 2019 01: 41 New
    The article is superficial. If the author wanted, for example, he could easily find more reliable data about the Lbischensky battle. And do not write nonsense about 1200-2000 Cossacks at Colonel Timofei Ippolitovich Sladkov. The exact size of the combined detachment and its composition have long been known. But why should the upper hand see the main thing is to crow, and there, though do not dawn
    1. Yaik Cossack
      Yaik Cossack 6 September 2019 01: 45 New
      The composition of the red garrison of Lbischensk is almost exactly known. And these were not peasants peasants predominantly. The memoirs of Colonel Isergin have been published; there are articles by some historians. A lot of documents have been preserved in the archives. However, in vain I try to resist hacking .... nothing will work
  20. Old26
    Old26 6 September 2019 10: 31 New
    Quote: Ros 56
    And why is there no photo of the monument to Chapaev in Uralsk on the forecourt, or are the Kazakhs embarrassed?

    There is no photo and a monument to Chapaev in the city of Lubny, Poltava region, where in the 60s - 70s the 25th motorized rifle division named after Chapaeva. I don’t even know if Svidomo demolished this monument or not. In 2015, there was still, if he believes Google maps
  21. Corsair5912
    Corsair5912 7 September 2019 12: 12 New
    Thanks to popular commanders such as Chepaev, Russia retained its sovereignty, and was not torn apart by the White Guards and their lackeys. Eternal memory to the commander Chapaev!
    1. Yaik Cossack
      Yaik Cossack 8 September 2019 02: 59 New
      There were no divisors then, there were nachdivs)))
      Thanks to such "commanders" as the executioner Chepaev, Russia became embroiled in a fratricidal war and was ultimately torn apart by party leaders and their lackeys, liberals from the sons of party bosses, in 1991 year to shreds.
      In Uralsk, Chepaev had fun at the apartment, firing revolvers at targets from collected icons. In Nikolaevsk, he was personally shot by the 15-year-old schoolboy. In the Stone Village, the Chepaevites chopped down with the sabers all the remaining old Cossacks.
      It is a pity that Chepayev ended on Cossack land, to which he came as a robber and invader, our Cossack bullet.
      Although this was just retribution, it would be better if the NKVD deservedly slapped it later.
      1. Yaik Cossack
        Yaik Cossack 8 September 2019 03: 04 New
        The "people's commander" in Lbischensk showed all his "abilities." When the red foragers who escaped from the Cossacks ran to Lbischensk, the self-confident “commander” did not believe them. There was no guard duty around Lbischensk.
        1. Yaik Cossack
          Yaik Cossack 8 September 2019 03: 08 New
          By the way, according to the story of one eyewitness, a raid participant, Chepayev of the Urals did not swim. He was hacked when he tried to escape from Lbischensk on horseback. Identified by boots
      2. Yaik Cossack
        Yaik Cossack 8 September 2019 03: 48 New
        The Russians must finally realize that one cannot believe in pseudo-class myths. If we want to survive as an ethnic group, then it is time to understand that if Russian kills Russian, then non-Russian wins. At our expense. Whether we want it or not.
        1. place
          place 16 October 2019 13: 47 New
          And then it’s not a fig to write that you are an “egg Cossack”! WRITE SIMPLY - RUSSIAN .....
          Well, what if this Russian turned out to be a thief, a scoundrel and a traitor? Whereas ?
          Just these Cossacks in the Patriotic War - often happened ......

          Unlike Russians, all the nations of the world scoundrels, boors and drunks do not like. Therefore, they live normally. In the United States, everything is one American people. And in China, one Chinese people, although the mass of tribes. But Russians or Ukrainians - drunks, cretins and traitors - as history has shown - even they can easily elect a president. AND HOW - WHOSE ACCOUNT AND WHOM DOES IT HAVE TO PAY?