Military Review

Combat aircraft. Night fighters

63
The review will be very difficult. It seems to me that night fighters are the strangest category of aircraft of the time.




It’s worth starting with the fact that over the course of the war one night fighter was purposefully created and launched in a series. Purposefully - this means that it was created just like a night fighter, and nothing else. All the rest of his colleagues are rework products.

Advanced and connoisseurs have already realized that we are talking about the "Black Widow" P-61, the aircraft is very difficult in appearance and in content.

But it was already told about it in due time, so we will leave the “Widow” to stand aside (as a joke, after all, I fought), and we will do comparisons in the series “OVM”. And do not put Ne.219 here, it was not created as a "night lamp".

We start right with the night aviation Luftwaffe. It was Germany’s nightlights that fought the most fierce battles. And from the very beginning of the war, because day pilots very quickly explained to the British, who had begun to bomb German cities, who was the master in the sky. Just as the British quite normally won the Battle of Britain. The parity has developed by 1940.

In general, the British realized that turning German cities into dust, coupled with the population, was a little more convenient at night. If only because you can easily navigate the stars, and if you lost your way, you could drop bombs on the first town that came across. The Germans, for the sake of justice, we note, acted in exactly the same way.

Combat aircraft. Night fighters


The Luftwaffe night fighter aircraft was much smaller than the daytime one, but Kammhuber somehow managed to usurp and adapt all the technical achievements in the field of radio electronics, radar, guidance systems and friend-or-friend recognition systems.

By the way, many understanding people believe that the level of training of the night-night pilots was so high that nothing was shining for the “victorious” people like Hartman. It was the real elite of the Luftwaffe. Moreover, personal mastery did not play a special role here, more important was working in a team with a locator operator, guidance stations on the ground and aircraft in a group.

Well, plus almost "blind" flights in the night sky, and even with combat episodes.

You can probably not say what the locators of that time were, and how accurate they were.


Radar "Würzburg-Giant"


Nevertheless, all this progressive electronics as it could cope with the tasks for air defense along with anti-aircraft batteries and fields of searchlights and ... required night fighters!

What the Germans could accomplish can be called a small technological feat, because they coped with the release of night fighters.

So, what properties should have had a normal night fighter?

1. Speed. Even to the detriment of maneuverability, because a night fighter is unlikely to fight with colleagues. But to catch up with the bombers - yes.
2. Range / duration of flight.
3. Maximum protection ahead of the fire of bomber shooters.
4. Minimal rear hemisphere protection.
5. Space for placing tracking equipment.

In general, officially the first night fighter, according to the documents, was the Arado-68, but this completely obsolete biplane with weapons from two machine guns was suitable exclusively for training, nothing more.

So the first one was

Messerschmitt Bf.110


He had a more or less decent speed, sufficient to catch up with "Blenheim" or "Wheatley", had sufficient weapons, but with the discovery of 110 it was all sad. And only in 1942, in the 110 modification G, did they finally install the Liechtenstein radar and add a third crew member - the radar operator.



In general, the Messerschmitt designers did a great job from the C-1, C-2 and C-4 modifications, because in the G-4 / R-3 modification this was already a very serious opponent.



Model C had a crew of 2 people, flew at 510 km / h on 5 000 m, the ceiling was 9600 m, the offensive armament consisted of two 20-mm guns and four 7,92-mm machine guns.

Model G had a crew of 3 people, a speed at an altitude of 550 km / h, a ceiling of 11 000 m, a range of about 1000 km, offensive armament of the 2 gun 30-mm and two guns 20-mm. And radar, which increased the chances of detecting the enemy.



Realizing that a twin-engine aircraft with a locator is what we need, the Germans parted in earnest. And there were night fighters, converted from bombers.

Junkers Ju-88C-2


The first night "Junkers" redid, not very much straining. The nose was made all-metal, the nose compartment was separated from the pilot’s by the 11-mm armor plate, which served not so much as a defense, but as a support for mounting weapons. Well, they placed one 20-mm gun and three 7,92-mm machine guns in the nose.



The aircraft could still take up to 500 kg of bombs into the front bomb bay, but instead of bombs, an additional fuel tank was placed in the rear compartment.

In general, it turned out to be somewhat weaker in armsthan the Bf.110, but the converted bomber could fly a much greater distance. Plus, for the aircraft, field exhaust arrestor kits were produced, making the Ju-88C-2 very difficult to detect.


By the way, cunning Germans almost immediately began to paint glazing on their nose just in case, so that the crews of enemy aircraft would take them for a regular bomber.

The maximum speed of the Ju-88C-2 was 488 km / h at an altitude of 5300 meters, the practical ceiling is 9900 meters, and the flight range is 1980 km.

The latest creation of the Junkers from the 88 model was the modification of the Ju.88 G. The aircraft received new engines that accelerated it to an altitude of up to 640 km / h and allowed to raise a rather impressive battery:

Forward: four MG-151 / 20 guns with 200 shells per barrel.
At an angle to the horizon up: two MG-151 / 20 guns with 200 shells per barrel.
Back on the mobile unit: MG-131 machine gun with 500 cartridges.



In general, Ju.88 turned out to be a very good heavy fighter. The range from the bomber allowed the planes to meet the British far from the guarded objects and successfully hit British and American bombers. Although the Americans stopped flying at night at the end of the war, their British allies continued the practice of night raids.



The last time the massive use of the Junkers night fighters took place on the night of March 4 1945 as part of the Gisella operation, when the 142 Ju.88G-1 and G-6 seized an armada of bombers over the sea and staged a formidable battle in the air. Despite the fact that the British radars detected the Junkers approach and the British managed to raise Mosquito fighters, the Germans shot down the 35 four-engine Lancaster at the cost of 30 of their aircraft.

Dornier Do-17Z-7


With Dornier, everything was similar to Junkers. Actually, why not? The same opaque nose fairing, the same supporting armor plate with weapons mounted on it, the same 20 mm gun and three 7,92-mm machine guns. And the possibility of carrying bombs also remained, only in Dornier, unlike Ju.88, the bombs were left in the rear compartment, and the fuel tank was placed in the front.





The crew of the fighter consisted of 3 people: a pilot, a radio operator-gunner and a flight engineer, who in the future is a radar operator. Until they set up the radar, the main responsibility of the flight engineer was to conditionally control the engines and ... change gun stores.

The maximum speed of the Do-17Z was 410 km / h, the cruising speed of 300 km / h. Practical range 1160 km, practical ceiling 8200 meters.

Born at the same time as the Junkers fighter, the Dornier plane actually lost the competition and by the 1942 year had been removed from the night squadrons.

But this does not mean that Dornier dropped their hands. No, another bomber began to redo there: Do-217.

Dornier Do-217J


Work on the conversion of the Do 217-2 into a night fighter began in March 1941. The new aircraft received the designation Do 217J. It differed from the bomber only in an opaque pointed nose cone, inside which were four 20-mm MG-FF guns and four 7,92-mm MG.17 machine guns. Defensive armament consisted of two 13-mm MG 131 machine guns, one of which was at the top in the electromechanical turret, and the other at the bottom in the usual bomber redan.





The aircraft, like its predecessor Do-17, retained bomb holders for eight 50-kg SC 50 bombs in the rear of the fuselage, in the front also placed a fuel tank for 1160 liters.

It immediately became clear that the plane was completely unsuccessful. Do 217J was so overloaded that its maximum speed was 85 km / h lower than that of the "source", Do.217Е bomber, and amounted to only 430 km / h.

Moreover, the fighter did not have an advantage in speed over the British heavy bombers. True, in a dense combat formation, English pilots never flew at maximum speed.

Since at the beginning of the war night fighters did not yet have an airborne radar and aircraft within the framework of the general air defense system, they were aimed at the target by commands from the ground. Accordingly, the slow-moving fighter simply often did not have time to take a position for the attack.

It is not surprising that most of the Do.217J-1 night fighters by the end of the 1942 year were in training units.

With the advent of the efficient FuG 202 "Lichtenstein" B / C radar, the following modification of the Do.217J-2 night fighter arose.



It differed from its predecessor in the absence of an unnecessary bomb bay and the appearance of an airborne radar inside the aircraft.

It is clear that the flaws remained the same. The Do.217J-2 was still the heaviest Luftwaffe night fighter and was notable for its low speed and poor maneuverability.



But this was somewhat offset by the presence of an airborne radar, which allowed the pilot to independently detect the enemy’s aircraft and prepare in advance for an attack.

The maximum speed of Do.217J-2 was 465 km / h, practical ceiling 9000 m, practical range 2100 km.

It is worth noting another attempt to remake the Dornier bomber. This is Do-215. Actually, this is the same Do-17, but with DB-601 engines. Yes, with them the plane flew better than the original 17, but also did not show outstanding results, and therefore was released in a scanty series.

Heinkel He.219


It’s a paradox, but this wonderful machine was created like anything, but not like a night fighter. It is noticed that in those days it was a frequent occurrence when alterations led to remarkable results. Here is the "Eagle Owl" - the best example of this, because it was developed as a scout, torpedo bomber, high-speed bomber, in general, as a universal aircraft.



Heinkel’s designers created a truly advanced machine, with real “excesses” like a pressurized crew cabin, a nose wheel, catapults and remotely controlled defensive weapons. Therefore, in fact, the plane did not go into production until Kammhuber took up it and offered to remake it into a night fighter.



In 1940, Kammhuber submitted to the Luftwaffe command (read Goering) a memorandum in which he substantiated the creation of a more powerful fighter than the Messerschmitts armed with. Kammhuber noted that Bf.110, effectively opposing the Wheatley, the Hampden and Wellington, are unlikely to cope with the new English bombers, Stirling, Halifax and Manchester, as soon as they appear in sufficient numbers.

It was very difficult to “push” Ne.219 even for testing, but when during 10 days of test flights in Holland Ne.219 shot down 26 British bombers, moreover, 6 Mosquito, which were previously considered invulnerable.



He.219 proved to be easy to maintain, as from the very beginning easy access to all units was provided. In the field, even large units were easily replaced, and six fighter jets were generally assembled from spare units by maintenance personnel.

Unfortunately for the Germans, Heinkel was unable to build He.219 in sufficient quantities. In total, 268 machines of all modifications were built, which is clearly not enough. And the car was pretty decent in all respects.



Maximum speed 665 km / h, practical range 2000 km, practical ceiling 10300 m. Armament: 6 guns (2 x 30 mm + 4 x 20 mm or 6 x 20 mm) and 1 machine gun 13 mm.

Messerschmitt Me-262B


What Me.262 is, we recently dismantled the whole world, so it remains to add only that as a "night light" they also tried to use it. Even with installed radar. However, it immediately became clear that the pilot was not able to pilot, shoot and stare at the screen of the radar. This is not modern youth for you.



So the first full-fledged interceptor team, the команда Stamp team ’, was armed with the Me.262A-1 and was aimed at by targets from the ground.

Later, full-fledged Me.262В reactive interceptors appeared, in which instead of the rear tanks (their absence was compensated by the outboard tanks), by extending the 78 cm cabin, they organized a place for the gunner-operator.



Electronic weapons consisted of a FuG 218 Neptune radar and a FuG 350 ZC Naxos direction finder. Established weapons consisted of two 30-mm guns.



Until the end of the war, the Germans managed to create only one night interceptor air group on Me.262-1 / U-1, respectively, we are not talking about any significant achievements.

And ending with a review of German night fighters, it is worth mentioning another "eagle owl", but from another company.

Fw.189 Behelfsnachtjoger


In general, it turned out that there were two “owls” on different fronts: Ne.219 and FW.189.



We are considering a special night fighter developed by Focke-Wulf Flugzeugbau AG to perform a highly specialized task on the Eastern Front. I emphasize - ONE task.

The task was at least some intelligible confrontation with the armada of Po-2 “sewing machines”, which actually created chaos at night on the front line of the German defense, and the headquarters received regular greetings.

The use of the Ju.88С and Bf.110G night fighters, which were then in service, proved to be ineffective. And the Messerschmitt, and even more so, the Junkers did not have sufficient maneuverability at low altitudes, at which Po-2 was usually used. In addition, both aircraft had too high a speed for this. The Germans even tried to use the already mentioned Arado-68 biplanes, but nothing good came of it either.

And then they decided to use the "frame". Moreover, by the summer of 1944, the aircraft became impossible to use. 189 th won such tender "love" from the entire Soviet army that knocking him down despite the cover was a matter of honor and further respect.

So from the beginning of the 1944, the serial FW.189А-1 began to be equipped with the FuG.212C-1 Liechtenstein radar with a conventional antenna group in the bow of the crew’s nacelle, which excluded the possibility of placing any effective fighter weapons there.

To conduct air combat, the upper pivot mount with the 7,92-mm machine gun MG.15 or the coaxial 7,92-mm machine gun MG.81Z was dismantled, and instead a rigidly mounted 20-mm MG.151 / 20 gun was installed.

Sometimes even the 20-mm gun was considered too powerful a weapon to deal with the Po-2 plywood-percale biplanes, and its analogue MG.151 / 15 with the 15-mm caliber was installed on the Filin. To ensure blackout, exhaust flame filters were mounted on the exhaust pipes of the engines.

At these three improvements, the conversion of the reconnaissance aircraft into a night fighter ended. The aircraft was named FW.189 Behelfsnachtjoger - "Auxiliary Night Fighter."

Thus, about 50 aircraft were converted. There were no documented successes in their work, I would suggest that they were near-zero, because it was impossible to locate the M-11 motor in space with the locator of that time. And there were no more metal parts there.

Another plus in the karma of a small airplane, which forced to admit to being equal to real bombers. You must admit that it’s one thing to develop a night fighter for the sake of the huge Lancaster, and quite another to do at least something with Po-2.

This ends the first part of the story. It would be possible to add Ta-154 from Fokke-Wulf to this company, but the whole история This aircraft was more than sad, and it was released in quantities of less than 50 pieces. But the main thing - the plane could not provide decent resistance to the British fighters.



But in general, despite some general mess and a lack of understanding of the essence of the problem, the Germans did a tremendous job of creating and producing night fighters. In particular, "Junkers" and "Heinkel." Another question is that the small number of night-lights failed to prevent the British from making night raids on Germany. Well, what happened after the 1944 year, everyone already knows. The need for night fighters virtually disappeared.

In the next part, we will talk about those who fought on the other side of the front, and then we will deal with comparisons and identifying the best.
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  1. Sergey M. Karasev
    Sergey M. Karasev 7 September 2019 06: 37
    +2
    Didn't Me-310, -410 have any nightly modifications?
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. motorized rifle
      motorized rifle 7 September 2019 14: 17
      +1

      There were night modifications and they were the best night lights in the Luftwaffe, here is a photo from the book of S. Ivanov »Messershmitt Me 210/410. An interesting surname for the squadron commander.
      1. motorized rifle
        motorized rifle 7 September 2019 14: 18
        +1
        Sorry, here is the caption for the photo:
        Ober-lieutenant Abramchik (center) against the backdrop of his Me-410B-1 (U5 + FE), France, February 1944. Abramchik commanded the 14th staffel in KG-2. The bottom of the aircraft is painted black to reduce visibility in night flights.
        1. mark1
          mark1 7 September 2019 14: 53
          +1
          Interesting - Abramchik and the Lufwaffe. Probably had to prove that- "... the abram is not real! ..."
          1. DimanC
            DimanC 7 September 2019 19: 50
            +1
            Perhaps in the best traditions of Goering, who himself decided "who has who" ...
          2. unknown
            unknown 7 September 2019 20: 05
            -1
            What to prove?
            More than 300000 "Jews" fought in the armed forces of the Reich.
            Yes, and a significant part of the top of the Reich, including Aloizych himself, carried "Jewish" blood.
            After the war, already in the Federal Republic of Germany, a study was carried out, which revealed that among those who regarded themselves as "Jews" there are more blondes and blue-eyed people than among "true Aryans".
            And if we take into account that in ancient languages ​​the meaning of the words "Jew" and "Aryan" is the same, and often, their pronunciation does not differ, and the words "Jew" and "European" are actually only variants of pronunciation ..., then understand the meaning real bacchanalia in the Third Reich is very difficult.
            Moreover, there is such a Jewish interpretation of WWII: it is a war between Ashkenazi and safards.
            1. iouris
              iouris 7 September 2019 23: 06
              0
              Quote: ignoto
              there is such a Jewish interpretation of WWII: it is a war between Ashkenazi and safards.

              It is obvious. Consequence: when the pans are fighting ...
            2. martin-159
              martin-159 8 September 2019 14: 55
              +1
              That is, the Holocaust, is it self-destruction?
              1. Alf
                Alf 8 September 2019 20: 50
                +2
                Quote: martin-159
                That is, the Holocaust, is it self-destruction?

                No. Just THOSE Who Decided are untouchable, and that they destroyed their inferior co-religionists, they did not care.
            3. Pavel57
              Pavel57 9 September 2019 12: 11
              +1
              And who won?))
  2. Amurets
    Amurets 7 September 2019 07: 31
    +2
    Quote: Sergey Mikhailovich Karasev
    Didn't Me-310, -410 have any nightly modifications?

    I looked through the disk on aviation, the encyclopedia and did not find about night modifications of these aircraft.
    https://topwar.ru/14836-tyazhelye-dvuhmotornye-istrebiteli-messershmitt-bf210-i-bf410.html
  3. serg.shishkov2015
    serg.shishkov2015 7 September 2019 09: 20
    +7
    first saw * Widow * in 1988, her model fell for a fifth-year student, my obshchagovsky * grandfather *, argued with him for a long time about the make of this aircraft. he claimed that it was FV-189- we just didn’t know then others * Ram *! I said that the German * Frame * looks very different, I myself had the P-61 model appeared in 1997 and not only the name was indicated on the box, but also a brief TTX was given in the assembly instructions. This is now good- dialed a request- and all the information!
    1. Fitter65
      Fitter65 7 September 2019 11: 34
      +9
      Quote: serg.shishkov2015
      first saw * Widow * in 1988,

      In 1987, in Detsky Mir in Moscow, passing from Novosibirsk to Stargard-Szczecinsky, I bought myself this device, albeit in a Finnish box, therefore I did not guess about that for the plane. And by that time I had a "real" FW-189 frame in his collection, since he served in the SGV, and the Poles, in model terms, with the West were pretty good. But I bought another "American" frame F-82 "Twin Mustang" in Iskitim, but also in Detsky Mir. and also in a Finnish box, and even with decals, um ... Whoever was engaged in modeling during the times of the union will understand me what it means to buy a model in a Finnish box, and even with decals ... fellow
      1. serg.shishkov2015
        serg.shishkov2015 7 September 2019 12: 58
        0
        F-82 and me too! only then he was without a name! In the USSR, especially in recent years, to buy ANY model, for happiness! This is passion! and for me, and a way to find out about the plane, if there is no way to read about it! in 1991 in Arzamas, the Fokker D-21 model came across to me in a small shop among various rubbish !, with decals, but without an indication of how to place them correctly, I did it on skis, and after 15 years I painted it white
        1. Fitter65
          Fitter65 7 September 2019 16: 04
          +1
          Quote: serg.shishkov2015
          F-82 and me too!

          In 95 I moved from the 72nd to the 48th, and from the year 2000, purely to the Eastern Front and Soviet reagents. Now the same twin mustang can be taken by the same widow, even at 1:32, and there is no longer that desire. The machines are honestly quite interesting both in the history of creation and in design, and simply as an aircraft type it is interesting, although what is the story of the R-61's upper tower ...
          1. serg.shishkov2015
            serg.shishkov2015 8 September 2019 05: 57
            0
            Now you can find EVERYTHING !!! even the Finnish self-propelled guns VT-42! but ..... life and thoughts about something else became different ..... yes, and my postal work with the stand is not physiologically compatible — in peak shifts of several tons, it turns out to be unloaded, sorted and loaded, the fine motor skills of the hands are impaired ,, ,Alas...
            1. Fitter65
              Fitter65 8 September 2019 06: 09
              +2
              Quote: serg.shishkov2015
              the postal work with the stand is not physiologically compatible — in peak shifts of several tons, it turns out in total for unloading, sorting and loading, the fine motor skills of the hands are impaired, alas.

              I understand that my wife worked as a postman for years, spat and left. Not only is the work really hellish, but also the payment is ridiculous, and the saddest thing is that branches of shops have begun to make from the post office, here you have cereals and canned food, and "rags". If they didn’t sell what they brought, they could also cut the premium, and when they promised that for not sold but expired sweets, they would compensate from their salary, then she waved her hand.
              1. serg.shishkov2015
                serg.shishkov2015 8 September 2019 06: 18
                0
                I’ve been on the parcel post for 11 years, one isn’t, so 1,5 bets, but they don’t pay for Diveevo! and we do it
        2. Alf
          Alf 7 September 2019 18: 59
          0
          Quote: serg.shishkov2015
          In the USSR, especially in recent years, to buy ANY model, for happiness!

          On the one hand, you are right. On the other hand, almost every city had its own model market, where you could buy or get, if not all, then almost everything.
          1. Fitter65
            Fitter65 8 September 2019 03: 03
            0
            Quote: Alf
            Quote: serg.shishkov2015
            In the USSR, especially in recent years, to buy ANY model, for happiness!

            On the one hand, you are right. On the other hand, almost every city had its own model market, where you could buy or get, if not all, then almost everything.

            in the late 80s and early 90s, to buy something western was a problem, in Moscow or Novosib it was easier, though the prices were ... I remember in the 90s the Hasegav F-15 on the 72nd scale for 125 rubles on Birch in Novosibirsk took. True, from 1992 to 95 (switched to the 48th), I almost updated my entire collection. Instead of Novo and the Kyrgyz Republic, there were models from Italeri, Airfix, Fujimi, Hasegawa. In 95 I switched to 48, there really were some problems, just at 48 in our city there were only two models. Chinese variations of the F-16 are all from the same Hasegawa, and the most terrible copy of the Monogram F-4v. then the Machbox Fury, a decked version of Saber, appeared, and then Tamiya from Novosibirsk went. And already in 2000 I decided to limit my Wishlist, almost now I can find any model without problems, with rare exceptions, for example, I’m waiting for IL-28 from VOVSAT at 48m.
            1. Alf
              Alf 8 September 2019 20: 37
              0
              Quote: Fitter65
              in the late 80s and early 90s, something western to acquire was a problem,

              I appeared on the book market in Samara in 1988. From the presence of firms there, their eyes ran up. Although, of course, prices bite. But Samara, by no means can you name the capital. And then I went to the model shops of Samara as to an exhibition, how many were there ...
          2. serg.shishkov2015
            serg.shishkov2015 8 September 2019 05: 53
            0
            was, but not for the student!
      2. Alf
        Alf 7 September 2019 18: 05
        0
        Quote: Fitter65
        in the finnish box

        And where did you get the idea that the Novo-Vskaya box is Finnish? It was printed in the USSR.
        1. Fitter65
          Fitter65 8 September 2019 02: 18
          0
          Quote: Alf
          And where did you get the idea that the Novo-Vskaya box is Finnish? It was printed in the USSR.

          just in the beginning, some of the boxes that were exported were printed in Finland. From there "Finnish" also went. Especially when the print quality fell, and boxes were printed on low-quality material, then when models came across in beautiful glossy boxes, it was immediately considered that it was Finnish. By the way, an example with a box for the SB. a box with three color options went to the Union, and abroad with four. Option 4 was in the colors of the Luftwaffe. Although such boxes were found in the Soviet Union, they were expensive.
          1. Alf
            Alf 8 September 2019 20: 48
            0
            Quote: Fitter65
            just in the beginning, some of the boxes that were exported were printed in Finland. From there "Finnish" also went.

            Something is doubtful. On the one hand, I believe you, on the other hand there is no evidence of this.
          2. Alf
            Alf 9 September 2019 16: 34
            0
            Quote: Fitter65
            just at the beginning, part of the boxes that went for export were printed in Finland.

            1. Fitter65
              Fitter65 10 September 2019 00: 20
              0
              Here from the seasoned and there was information that Finnish boxes. and it happened with time, and by inertia, the Finnish are so Finnish. Just one of the myths of the Soviet era that took root over time ...
  4. Nycomed
    Nycomed 7 September 2019 10: 51
    +1
    Thank! Literature is all on the shelf. But you WONDERFULLY put together! Thank! yes
  5. Alex013
    Alex013 7 September 2019 11: 16
    +1
    Thanks for the article, interesting. I remembered reading about the Me 110 and its "wrong music".
  6. Undecim
    Undecim 7 September 2019 11: 18
    +6
    And radar, which increased the chances of detecting the enemy.
    If we are talking about night fighters of World War II, I see the point in devoting an article to their equipment, in particular to radar stations. This would be interesting, since at the dawn of the use of radar, working with this equipment, and even in the dynamic conditions of air combat, is not an easy task.

    This is the "screen" of three cathode-ray tubes seen in front of the operator of the Bf 110 G-4 aircraft with the FuG 202 Lichtenstein B / C radar.
    On the left screen, the operator saw the mark of the detected aircraft, the middle one gave the distance to the target, the right one - from which side the target is at the course of the aircraft. Having estimated all these parameters, the operator had to direct the pilot to the target.
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 7 September 2019 11: 24
      +6

      The figure shows the marks that the operator of the FuG 202 Lichtenstein radar saw and on which the aircraft aimed at the target.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 7 September 2019 11: 44
        +6
        With the installation of more advanced FuG 1943 Lichtenstein SN-220 by the end of 2, the operator’s task was somewhat simplified. since it was necessary to work already with two cathode ray tubes.

        Operator's station Bf 110 G-4 with radar FuG 220 Lichtenstein SN-2 (two round screens at the top left).
        1. Undecim
          Undecim 7 September 2019 12: 27
          +6
          After the development in 1943 of the Neptun radar (FuG 216-218), it became possible to use them on single-seat fighters.
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 7 September 2019 12: 39
            +5

            Fw 190 A-5 / R11, equipped with FuG 217 Neptun (Neptune) radar equipment with arrays of three dipole antenna elements vertically mounted back and forth in the cockpit, above and under the wings.
            Modifications Fw 190 A-5 produced 1752 copies. How many were converted to the R11 option could not be found.
            1. Undecim
              Undecim 7 September 2019 12: 54
              +4
              Equipped with radar FuG 217 Neptun and Fw 190 A-6, received the designation Fw 190 A-6 / R11.

              In the photo - Fw 190 A-6 / R11 radar FuG 217 Neptun from 1 / NJGr 10, which was based in 1944 in Le Bourget.
              1. Undecim
                Undecim 7 September 2019 12: 58
                +3

                Cab Fw 190 A-6 / R11 with installed radar FuG 217 Neptun.
                1. Undecim
                  Undecim 7 September 2019 13: 13
                  +4
                  FuG 217 Neptun radar was also installed on the Bf-109G-6, which was also used as a night fighter.

                  The previously mentioned 1 / NJGr 10 just had a mixed composition of Bf-109G-6 and Fw 190 A-6 / R11.
            2. Fitter65
              Fitter65 7 September 2019 16: 29
              +4
              Quote: Undecim

              Fw 190 A-5 / R11 equipped with FuG 217 Neptun (Neptune) radar equipment with arrays of three dipole antenna elements

              These are not dipole antennas; they are whip antennas. Similar antennas were used in our experiments with Gneiss-2 radar on the Pe-2 and A-20 Boston.


              1. Undecim
                Undecim 7 September 2019 17: 22
                +1
                I agree with you. Translation costs.
  7. The comment was deleted.
  8. Sahalinets
    Sahalinets 7 September 2019 12: 13
    +3
    I would suggest that they were near-zero, because it was impossible to locate the M-11 motor in space with the locator of that time. And there were no more metal parts there.

    You will not believe it, but the tree also reflects the radio waves. Yes, even the human body reflects birds and even clouds ...
    1. Fitter65
      Fitter65 7 September 2019 16: 38
      +2
      Quote: Sahalinets
      You will not believe it, but the tree also reflects the radio waves. Yes, even the human body reflects birds and even clouds ...

      They won’t believe it, even if you say and document that there was such a weather radar in our country
      Thunderstorm - Airborne Weather Navigation Radar Station (BMNRLS). It was installed on a number of Soviet and Russian transport and passenger aircraft ... The airborne MNRLS “Thunderstorm” provides a radar view of the earth's surface and the detection of hydro-weather and weather formations (thunderstorms, cumulus clouds, etc.) dangerous to the aircraft
      , and in the USA at one time flare from migratory birds (geese) almost provoked the Third World War. but, on the other hand, not everyone could see the radars of the 40s, and even during the Korean War, the Po-2 nightmare of the enemy, despite the presence of more advanced detection systems.
  9. bubalik
    bubalik 7 September 2019 12: 41
    0
    We start right with the Luftwaffe night aviation. It was Germany’s “night lights” that waged the most fierce battles.

    ,,, Nachtjagdgeschwader 1 (NJG 1) night squadron was formed 22 June 1940g.

    Won about 2311 victories, killed about 676 crew members. Messerschmitt Bf 109, Messerschmitt Bf 110, Junkers Ju 88, Heinkel He 219.
    the level of training of the night-night pilots was so high that nothing shone there for the "victorious" like Hartman. It was a real elite

    Heinz-Wolfgang Schnaufer (16 February 1922 year - 15 July 1950 year) .121 air victory at night, mainly against the British four-engine bombers. Schnaufer flew exclusively on the Messerschmitt Bf 110.

    Martin Drews (20 October 1918 - 13 October 2013) 52 victories at night were won most of all against the British four-engine bombers Halifax and Lancaster. Druce flew on the Messerschmitt Bf 110.
    1. Crimean partisan 1974
      Crimean partisan 1974 23 November 2019 22: 17
      +3
      Heinz-Wolfgang Schnaufer (February 16, 1922 - July 15, 1950) .121 aerial ... there is a certain inaccuracy, on his last flight to intercept Henz shot his last Lancaster. but he didn’t submit a request for victory, after WWII the British confirmed that this Lancaster was indeed shot down by Schnaufer. he fell in the lamb, or rather splashed down. the crew was completely saved. so anyway 122
  10. iouris
    iouris 7 September 2019 12: 44
    +1
    This is an instructive story about how the Reich leadership sprayed resources on all sorts of gadgets, instead of concentrating them. In this case, of course, you should pay attention to the highest level of German technology and the technological backlogs created in Germany.
    1. mark1
      mark1 7 September 2019 14: 59
      +1
      The only instructive of this story - without capturing England did not FIG was to attack the USSR
      1. Ryaruav
        Ryaruav 7 September 2019 16: 05
        0
        Yes, but try to capture it. The Luftwaffe at first had no experienced naval pilots.
        1. mark1
          mark1 7 September 2019 17: 17
          0
          Blitzkrieg in the East with a probability of even 80x20 - a gamble, it was not necessary to be distracted from England (having the USA outside the brackets)
          1. IGOR GORDEEV
            IGOR GORDEEV 9 September 2019 11: 32
            0
            Quote: mark1
            Blitzkrieg in the East with a probability of even 80x20 - a gamble, it was not necessary to be distracted from England (having the USA outside the brackets)

            Once again I will say my opinion that Hitler would not have attacked the USSR, not being sure that the so-called "west" would not give him the opportunity to fight in the east.
          2. Pavel57
            Pavel57 9 September 2019 12: 27
            0
            Hess understood this.
            1. mark1
              mark1 9 September 2019 12: 29
              0
              And Stalin understood this, so Hitler greatly surprised him.
        2. Alf
          Alf 7 September 2019 18: 11
          +1
          Quote: Ryaruav
          Yes, but try to capture it. The Luftwaffe at first had no experienced naval pilots.

          And why did Germany need sea pilots to capture Britain, if from Dover to the British coast 10 minutes of summer? If it were not for the erroneous order to transfer attacks from airfields to cities, they could have landed, and at that moment the British did not have an army. They might have found people, but all the heavy equipment remained in Dunkirk.
      2. Blue fox
        Blue fox 7 September 2019 21: 20
        0
        Like a boot, I would draw another analogy. Instead of Enlightenment-Peresvetov and other things, replace the BMP-2 in the troops with at least the BMP-3 everywhere and instead of the T-72BZ complete transition to the T-90. For gunners, digital LMS at all levels, for signalmen, encrypted digital communication at all levels, etc. etc. :))
        1. mark1
          mark1 8 September 2019 06: 14
          0
          Yes, that’s how it should be. This is a continuous relatively low-cost process that our state can handle in any period of its new history and in theory should last from the 90s, well, let it be zero. But in our country, as always, they look wider and see better,
        2. Warrior2015
          Warrior2015 23 September 2019 20: 38
          0
          Quote: Blue Fox
          Like a boot, I would draw another analogy. Instead of Enlightenment-Peresvetov and other things, replace the BMP-2 in the troops with at least the BMP-3 everywhere and instead of the T-72BZ complete transition to the T-90. For gunners, digital LMS at all levels, for signalmen, encrypted digital communication at all levels, etc. etc. :))

          Although somewhat off topic, but what a correct comment!
      3. iouris
        iouris 8 September 2019 22: 40
        +1
        Quote: mark1
        without capturing England no FIG was to attack the USSR

        Hitler had no opportunity to "capture England". Hitler was given three years after the attack on the USSR - the time it took to bring the US army to Britain. All this time, a massacre was to take place on the Eastern Front. The accounting department calculated everything accurately. Success in the war with the USSR would theoretically give Hitler some chances. Stalin solved another problem: not to be accused of aggression against Germany. This policy gave him a chance to become a recipient of military and technological assistance from the technically advanced Great Britain and the United States.
  11. Ryaruav
    Ryaruav 7 September 2019 16: 02
    0
    I believe that he-219 and mosquito are the best nightlights of the second world
  12. Alf
    Alf 7 September 2019 19: 03
    0
    By the way, shrage music has shown itself not too well. Firstly, difficulties with aiming, secondly, large dispersion due to shooting against the stream, and, thirdly, it was necessary to fly very close and from below, which was fraught with both the possibility of collision and attracted excessive "attention" of shooters ...
    1. Warrior2015
      Warrior2015 23 September 2019 20: 39
      0
      Quote: Alf
      By the way, the shraga music did not show itself very well.

      Well, actually, many German pilots loved her. Its main plus is the absolute invisibility of its fire (and, accordingly, safety for a night fighter) for the bomber’s crew, until they shot down, they did not understand where they were shooting from.
      1. Alf
        Alf 23 September 2019 21: 11
        0
        Quote: Warrior2015
        Quote: Alf
        By the way, the shraga music did not show itself very well.

        Well, actually, many German pilots loved her. Its main plus is the absolute invisibility of its fire (and, accordingly, safety for a night fighter) for the bomber’s crew, until they shot down, they did not understand where they were shooting from.

        I partially agree. But the accuracy of the shooting left much to be desired, and the inclusion of night Mossi in the convoy straightened the situation.
  13. Saxahorse
    Saxahorse 7 September 2019 22: 39
    -1
    Just a bunch of great photos. Thank!
  14. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 8 September 2019 11: 57
    0
    The British flew to bomb at night, because their bombers could not, like the American Flying Fortress, bomb from a height of 11 km. Above the ceiling of anti-aircraft guns.
    Therefore, there was a distribution: the Americans bombed during the day, the British bombed at night.
    1. Alf
      Alf 8 September 2019 20: 54
      0
      Quote: voyaka uh
      The British flew to bomb at night, because their bombers could not, like the American Flying Fortress, bomb from a height of 11 km. Above the ceiling of anti-aircraft guns.
      Therefore, there was a distribution: the Americans bombed during the day, the British bombed at night.

      Not only. The fact is that the British day raids in the 40-41th years revealed the inability of the British bombers to self-defense. It is difficult to fight off the Messers with a rifle caliber, especially when you consider the small number of firing points on British bomb carriers.
  15. Pavel57
    Pavel57 9 September 2019 12: 03
    0
    The article once again confirmed - an airplane is a platform, in one configuration a bomber, in another interceptor.