Military Review

“We will die, but not surrender!” The battle for Petropavlovsk

26
165 years ago there was a battle for Petropavlovsk. On 1 and 5 of September 1854, Russian soldiers and sailors repelled two assaults of superior forces of the combined Anglo-French squadron with a marine corps aboard.


“We will die, but not surrender!” The battle for Petropavlovsk

Defense of Petropavlovsk. Painting by A.P. Bogolyubov


The general situation in the Far East


Britain built a global empire. Therefore, the northern part of the Pacific Ocean and the Far East also entered into her sphere of interests. But in order to achieve complete dominance in the Asia-Pacific region, it was necessary to defeat the Russian empire. The Russians owned a significant part of the Far East, Kamchatka and Russian America.

Unfortunately, Europocentrism prevailed in St. Petersburg. Almost all of Russia's attention and forces were concentrated on European affairs. The development of the eastern regions was mainly due to asceticism, the personal contribution of a number of researchers, industrialists and statesmen. Dozens of years of peace were not used for the development of the Russian Far East, its active settlement, the creation of industrial potential there, strong military bases that could protect our possessions and create the potential for further expansion. So, at this time, the Russians had every opportunity to expand their sphere of influence in the Asia-Pacific region (America, Korea, etc.).

It is not surprising that the Eastern (Crimean) war was a serious challenge for the Russian Empire. There was a threat of losing part of the eastern possessions. The British tried to push the Russians inside the continent. In 1840 - 1842 years. the British easily defeated China in the First Opium War. Huge Chinese civilization became the semi-colony of the West. Now, according to England, the time has come to “put in place” the Russians, to throw them out of the Far East. Russian Pacific possessions were threatened. Already on the eve of the war, the British were conducting reconnaissance. English ships came to Petropavlovsk.

The most far-sighted Russian figures saw this threat. In 1847, Count Nikolai Muravyov was appointed Governor-General of Eastern Siberia. He drew attention to the growing threat of an attack by foreigners, primarily the British, in the Amur Region and Kamchatka. Muravyov (Muravyov-Amursky) played an outstanding role in the development of the Far East. The count added the mouth of the Amur to the empire, and on his initiative they created new settlements. At his request, Nicholas I allowed to produce troops on Amur. In the spring of 1854, the first rafting of troops took place, a year later the second. Together with the troops, the first settlers arrived. This was done literally at the last moment. The Russian presence in the Far East was strengthened.

In 1848, Muravyov decided to strengthen the defense of Petropavlovsk. In the summer of 1849, the Governor-General on the Irtysh transport arrived at the Peter and Paul Port. Muravyov inspected the area and outlined places for the construction of new batteries. He proposed to put batteries on the Signal Cape, on the Peter and Paul Spit and near Lake Kultushnogo. In a letter to the Minister of Internal Affairs Perovsky, Muravyov noted that the Avacha Bay needs to be strengthened, since even a weak enemy fleet can capture it.


Rear Admiral Vasily Stepanovich Zavoyko. Source: https://ru.wikipedia.org


Zavoiko. Defense preparation


Muravyov appointed the new governor of Kamchatka. They became an energetic manager, Major General Vasily Zavoyko. He had experience in the Black Sea and Baltic. navy, bravely fought in the Navarino naval battle. In the 1830s he made two round-the-world voyages on the Amur transport from Kronshtadt to Kamchatka and the ship of the Russian-American company (RAC) Nikolay from Kronshtadt to Russian America. He served in the RAC, was the head of the Okhotsk trading post, in the 1840s Zavoiko examined the entire eastern coast of the Sea of ​​Okhotsk and the Shangar Islands, arranged the port of Ayan.

Zavoiko took active measures to develop Kamchatka and its defense. The Okhotsk artisan company and the Peter and Paul company were united in the 46th naval crew. The Okhotsk Naval School, which became the Petropavlovsk Naval School, is being transferred to Petropavlovsk. At the Nizhnekamchatka shipyard they are building the Anadyr schooner, the Kamchadal and Aleut bots. The city has grown significantly: if in the Peter and Paul Port in 1848 there were only 370 inhabitants, then in 1854 there were already 1 594. Prior to the war, several dozen different new buildings were built in Petropavlovsk, port facilities were reconstructed.

At the end of May 1854, Petropavlovsk was notified of the beginning of the war. Zavoyko expressed readiness to “fight to the last drop of blood”. However, the port had weak defensive capabilities for the crane: the garrison was only 231 people with several old cannons. The governor requested reinforcements and guns, and began to prepare batteries in the hope of the guns coming soon. Rifle and fire units were formed from volunteers. Fortunately for the defenders of the city, unexpected reinforcements arrived in July. Having completed the voyage, the 58-gun frigate "Aurora" went under the command of Captain-Lieutenant Ivan Nikolaevich Izylmetiev. The frigate was sent to strengthen Vice Admiral Putyatin’s Pacific Squadron. Due to scurvy, which hit most of the crew, and a shortage of drinking water, the ship entered the Peter and Paul Port. Upon learning of the threat of attack, Izilmetyev agreed to stay in Petropavlovsk.

The arrival of the frigate significantly increased the defense of the port: part of the crew was transferred ashore and created a reserve of the garrison, half of the guns were removed for coastal batteries. Also on 24 of July (5 of August) of 1854 of the year the long-awaited reinforcements arrived in Petropavlovsk: military transport Dvina. The ship brought 350 soldiers of the Siberian Line Battalion under the command of Captain A.P. Arbuzov, 2 two-pound bomb guns and 14 36-pound guns. The military engineer Lieutenant Konstantin Mrovinsky also arrived. He led the construction of coastal fortifications. Thus, the Peter and Paul Garrison grew to 1 thousand people (one third on ships, one third on coastal fortifications and a part in reserve). Taking into account dozens of volunteers, the garrison numbered over 1 thousand soldiers.

Almost the entire population of the city and its environs participated in the preparation of the defense - about 1600 people. The construction of seven batteries was carried out around the clock for almost two months. People prepared the sites for the guns, removed guns and ammunition from the ships, dragged and installed them. The ships were anchored on the left sides to the exit from the harbor, the guns from the right sides were removed for coastal batteries. The harbor entrance was closed with floating barriers (booms). Batteries protected the horseshoe port. On the left side, on the rocks of Cape Signal there was a battery number 1 (“Signal”): 64 man, 2 mortars and 3 6-pound guns under the command of Lieutenant Gavrilov. She protected the entrance to the internal raid. Also on the left flank, on the isthmus between the Signal Hill and Nikolskaya Hill, was the battery number 3 (“Isthmus”): 51 people and 5 24-pound guns. At the northern end of the Nikolskaya Sopka, on the very shore, a battery No. 7 was built to repel a possible enemy landing from the rear. There were 49 people here with 5 24-pound guns. Another battery was built on the fold of an imaginary horseshoe near Kultushnoe Lake: battery number 6 ("Lake"), 34 man, 6 6-pound guns, 4 18-pound guns. She kept a catwalk at the defile and the road between Nikolskaya Sopka and Kultushny Lake, in case the enemy could capture the battery number 7. Then came the port battery No. 5, which did not have a garrison and did not participate in the battle (several small 3-pound guns); 2 battery (“Cat”): 127 man, 9 36-pound guns, one 24-pound gun; Battery No. 4 (“Graveyard”): 24 man and 3 24-pound guns.



Battle. First assault


16 (28) On August 1854, an enemy squadron led by Rear Admirals David Price and Auguste Febvrier-Despouant appeared at Petropavlovsk. Its structure included: the British 52-gun frigate "President", 44-gun frigate "Pike", the "Virago" steamer armed with 6 bombing guns; French 60-gun frigate "Fort", 32-gun frigate "Eurydice", 18-gun brig "Obligado". The personnel of the squadron totaled 2,7 thousand people (2,2 thousand people - crews of ships, 500 people - marines). The squadron was armed with over 210 guns.

The Westerners conducted reconnaissance with the help of the steamboat Virago and found that the surprise attack did not work, that the Russians had coastal batteries and two ships. This seriously complicated the situation. The Anglo-French squadron did not have the ability to break through a strong defense. In particular, the British ships were armed mainly short-barrel carronades, poorly adapted to deal with coastal fortifications. In addition, the Anglo-French squadron missed the opportunity to intercept the Aurora and the Dvina, the appearance of which greatly strengthened the defense of Petropavlovsk. This greatly depressed the allies, who were preparing for an “easy walk” to capture the Russian port, which was almost not protected.


Steamer "Virago"


On 18 (30) on August 1854, allied ships entered Avacha Bay and fired several shots, the Russians answered. Soon, the Allies stopped shooting, that was all over. The Russian garrison expected that the next day the enemy would launch a decisive attack, but it did not follow. It was the unexpected death of the British commander - Rear Admiral Price (he was an experienced and brave commander who went from a young man to the commander of the Pacific squadron). Indeed, in the evening of 30 on August evening, the Allied command held a meeting and adopted an attack plan: the destruction of the 1 and 4 batteries by ship fire, entry into the harbor and the suppression of the 2 battery, Russian ships, and the landing for the capture of the city. On August 31, the Allied fleet began to move, but then suddenly stopped and returned to its original position. The English admiral died under mysterious circumstances. According to the official version - due to a mistake in handling the gun (shot himself). This mysterious death was a kind of omen for the entire western squadron.

The command was led by French Rear Admiral Despoint (de Pointe). He did not change the plan of the offensive. After the first hitch, the allied squadron moved to Petropavlovsk and carried out reconnaissance in battle. The Allies fired on batteries No. 1 and 2). The shootout ended in the evening. In the morning of August 20 (September 1) of the 1854 of the year, the western squadron launched a decisive assault. The British and the French frigate Fort fired on advanced batteries (No. 1, 4 and 2), the French fired on the No. 3 battery, trying to divert attention to themselves. Also, the French ships Obligado and Evredika fired from across the Nikolskaya Sopka, trying to get into Russian ships.

The strongest blow came in the “Signal” battery, where the Russian commander Zavoyko himself was. Fire fell on it near 80 guns (three left sides). Western ships, despite stubborn resistance, were able to suppress batteries No. 1 and 4. The guns had to be left, the platforms were bombarded, the machines were killed. The commander of the fourth battery, midshipman Popov, led his men to battery No. 2. Thus, the allies solved the first problem - they shot down the "external castle". However, they could not crush the 2 battery and cause damage to the Aurora and the Dvina.

Then the allies landed an assault force (600 people) at battery number 4. However, almost immediately their enthusiasm went out. The British fired on the shore of their French allies (the so-called "friendly fire"). Russian ships opened fire on the French paratroopers. By order of Zavoyko a counterattack was organized. The sailors of the reserve and volunteers went into battle. There were about 130 fighters in the squad. They were led by midshipmen Fesun, Mikhailov, Popov and lieutenant Gubarev. Russians went bayonet. However, the French did not accept the battle, although they had significant numerical superiority, boarded boats and fled to their ships. A whole battalion fled in front of the national company.

Meanwhile, the “Cat” battery under the command of Lieutenant Dmitry Maksutov continued to engage in battle with enemy ships. The battle lasted until 6 hours of the evening. The Westerners could not suppress Maksutov’s battery. On this battle ended. The Anglo-French squadron returned to its position at the entrance to the bay. The Russians repelled the first attack.

The Russians expected that the next day, the enemy who destroyed the advanced batteries would undoubtedly attack again. Zavoiko visited the Aurora and told the sailors that now it’s worth waiting for a decisive attack on the frigate, which is on its way to the port. The Russian sailors answered as one: “We will die, but not surrender!”


Source: https://dic.academic.ru


The second assault and evacuation


The Allies hesitated, until 24 of August (5 of September) of 1854, they repaired the damage on the ships and prepared for a new assault. The Anglo-French command adopted a new attack plan: now the main blow fell on batteries No. 3 and 7. Here the most powerful ships fired - the “President” and “Fort”, the steamboat “Virago”. Other ships defiantly attacked, as before, batteries No. 1 and 4 (they were restored by the Russians). Here the allies imitated the first assault, showing that the plan of attack was the same. Later, the frigates Pike and Eurydice joined the main forces.

Thus, the Allied squadron had here at first 118 guns, and then 194, against 10 Russian guns. So, five guns of the “Isthmusic” battery under the command of Lieutenant Alexander Maksutov (he was mortally wounded in this battle) fought a deadly duel with the 60-gun frigate “Fort”. The salvo of each side of the French frigate was equal to 30 guns. As Midshipman Fesun recalled, the entire isthmus is completely torn, there was no arshin of land where the core would not have got. At the same time, the Russian gunners in the beginning successfully answered: the enemy frigate received serious damage. After a three-hour battle, the enemy ships crushed the Russian batteries. The guns were damaged, half of the battery garrisons were interrupted, the remaining gunners were forced to withdraw. After the battle, the battery No. 3 was called "Deadly", as it was poorly covered by parapet and its garrison suffered heavy losses.

The Anglo-French squadron landed two landings: the first at battery number 3 - about 250 people, and the second at battery number 7 - 700 paratroopers. The Westerners planned to climb the Nikolskaya Sopka and immediately seize the port. Part of the force was allocated to capture battery No. 6, then to attack the city from the side of Kultushnoe lake. However, the “Ozernaya” battery No. 6 with several shots fired buckshot drove off the enemy. The Anglo-French landing party retreated to Nikolskaya Sopka, from where it was going to attack the city. About 1 thousand people were concentrated here. The Russian commander Zavoyko did not wait for an enemy strike, gathered all possible forces and answered with a furious counterattack. The Russian detachment consisted of about 350 people (soldiers, sailors and townspeople), advancing in several separate parties and up the hill.

Russian groups of 30-40 fighters led by Lieutenant Angudinov, Midshipman Mikhailov, Lieutenant Gubarev and other commanders rose to heights under enemy fire. Russian soldiers performed another miracle. The Westerners did not survive the Russian bayonet battle and fled. Moreover, as Fesun recalled, the flight "is the most erratic, and driven by some special panic fear." Part of the British and French ran to a cliff that overlooked the sea, jumped from great heights and crippled. It was not possible to support the landing with naval fire. The Russians occupied the heights and fired at the retreating enemy. As a result, the remnants of the landing escaped to the ships. At the same time, the Allies showed great courage in the removal of their dead and wounded.

Thus, the second assault ended in complete failure for the Allies, despite the initial success - the suppression of batteries No. 3 and 7, and a brilliant victory for the Russians. Anglo-French forces could not use superiority in artillery and manpower. Russian morale compensated for the lack of strength and brought victory to the heroic Peter and Paul garrison. In this battle, the Allies lost about 400 people killed, 150 wounded and 4 prisoners. Russian losses - 34 person. For all the time of the battle, the Russians lost over 100 people, the losses of the allies are unknown.

After a two-day lull, the allied squadron, not daring to continue the battle, retreated. The news of this victory reached the capital four months later and became a "ray of light" that broke through the dark clouds of failures on the main front in Crimea. At the same time, it was obvious that the Allies would gather a more powerful squadron and return to Petropavlovsk. There were no opportunities to strengthen the port's defenses. Therefore, Zavoiko was ordered to liquidate the city and move to the Amur. The city was dismantled literally on a log, some of the things were loaded onto ships (the frigate Aurora, a corvette, three transports and a boat), and some were hidden. The evacuation took place in May 1855 literally under the nose of the Anglo-French fleet. On May 8 (20), 1855, the Anglo-French fleet (9 English and 5 French ships) entered Avacha Bay. But the place was now uninhabitable and the allies were gone. And Zavoiko's squadron successfully climbed up the Amur and in two months built a new port city of Nikolaevsk.


Monument to the "Deadly" battery of Maksutov on Nikolskaya Sopka
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  1. rocket757
    rocket757 4 September 2019 06: 56
    +13
    "Tell me Uncle is not for nothing ...
    Yes there were fighting fights, but they say what else !!!
    It is not for nothing that ALL RUSSIA remembers .... !!!!
    And here it is necessary to KNOW and REMEMBER all glorious history of OUR STATE !!!
    By the way, not only to US, but to everyone yapping from behind a mound, this is simply vital knowledge !!! They don’t want to learn history from textbooks, as a reminder, on the battlefield, it turns out really bloody!
    And - di - Yo - you .......
    1. Siberia 75
      Siberia 75 4 September 2019 16: 42
      +6
      A little-known page in our history. I studied back in the USSR, but in those history textbooks this event, in my opinion, was not given attention. As a teenager myself, I learned about this heroic defense from the book "On the seas on the waves", just dedicated to such little-known historical events.
      1. rocket757
        rocket757 4 September 2019 17: 44
        +5
        Quote: Siberia 75
        Little known page of our history

        It was noted as an event ..... They didn’t really distort history, they just didn’t like to remember that before the Soviet regime, under tsarism, there were talented military leaders! Well, they served tsarism ........
        Although the names of the greatest had to be called to "service" as a symbol of our great history!
        Now they carry this, about our Soviet history, the hair stands on end and I want many, very many to bring to the frontal place and .......
        1. Siberia 75
          Siberia 75 4 September 2019 18: 01
          +4
          Quote: rocket757
          Now they carry this, about our Soviet history, the hair stands on end and I want many, very many to bring to the frontal place and ....

          Don't go on banned laughing
      2. axiles100682
        axiles100682 23 September 2019 20: 56
        0
        Perhaps you simply forgot it. But in Soviet textbooks these events were described, albeit in brief. Not as much as the defense of Sevastopol but nevertheless. Soviet textbooks on the history of the Russian state were still more objective, although there was a lot of negativity to the tsarist regime, especially to the years of the sunset of the empire, but Soviet schoolchildren tried to instill the glory of Russian weapons with examples of Russian imperial history.
  2. 210ox
    210ox 4 September 2019 07: 01
    +11
    Thanks to the author for the article. The battles of that same "Zero" world, taking place in the Baltic, Solovki and the Pacific Ocean, were poorly covered in our country. In any case, it was like that before ..
    1. Paranoid50
      Paranoid50 6 September 2019 01: 43
      0
      Quote: 210ox
      The battles of that same "Zero" world, taking place in the Baltic, Solovki and the Pacific Ocean, were poorly covered in our country. In any case, it was like that before ..

      Apparently, because they were not so large-scale than the Defense of Sevastopol. Although, in all three cases, the aggressor nevertheless ogreb and merged. yes Moreover, in the case of Kronstadt, it seems like "nothing special", just think - the capital of the empire was for the enemy at the distance of a cannon shot. Roughly the same in the events of the Patriotic War of 1812, when Borodino simply pushed aside the critical victories of the Russian Army on the eve of a general battle. But, after all, if it were not for Wittgeinstein, with his corps slamming the French near Polotsk and Klyastitsy, then the foe would have a free road - again, to the capital of the empire, St. Petersburg.
  3. tlauicol
    tlauicol 4 September 2019 07: 06
    +2
    a feeling that they have sprayed their strength very much. why not focus them on 3, 1, 4 or 7, 1, 4 and put the ships closer to the exit? Terrain conditions did not allow? Strong guns were pushed into the depths, and on the Signal 6-tifuntofki they were put to slaughter. Heavy guns would have prevented the British from approaching their little dogs at all, and so it came down to the landing.
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 4 September 2019 16: 29
      +1
      Quote: Tlauicol
      Strong guns were pushed into the depths, and on the Signal 6-tifuntofki they were put to slaughter.

      The funny thing is that if you take another source, except Aunt Wiki, namely "300 years of the Russian marines, volume I, book 3", then a different composition of battery No. 1 is indicated there - two bomb guns and three 36-lb cannons. And indirectly, the reasons why only 5 guns were installed there.
      It also indicates what guided the defense command in locating the batteries.
      At Signal Cape, which ends in Signal Mountain from the south, they built battery No. 1. In fact, it had to be hollowed out in stone, and therefore it was not possible to achieve the required depth of shelter. Three 36-pound guns and two two-pound bombing guns were installed on the battery. The battery was headed by Lieutenant P.F. Gavrilov. Under his command were 63 lower ranks.

      On the isthmus between the Signal and Nikolskaya mountains, a battery number 3 was installed. For its armament on August 3, five long 24-pound guns were brought from the starboard side of the Aurora frigate. The commander of the battery Zavoyko appointed lieutenant Prince A.P. Maksutova. With his guns, he had 51 lower ranks of the 47th naval crew.

      From the opposite, northern side, Nikolskaya Gora descended to the swampy Kultushnoye Lake. There was a wide road between the lake and the mountain from the shore, which, skirting the base of the mountain, led directly to the city. To protect these approaches, an earthen battery No. 7 was built on the shore. Five short 24-pound guns were brought from the Aurora to equip it. The battery and 49 lower ranks were headed by the captain-lieutenant of "Dvina" V.K. Coral.

      To prevent the enemy from breaking through from the rear on the road to the city, a battery No. 6 with four 18-pound and six 6-pound guns was also installed near the lake. This battery was built in case the battery number 7 fell and was considered the rear. Therefore, its commander, Lieutenant of the Marine Engineers Corps K.Ya. Gesekhus had only 31 people, and even those who were recruited to the cannons for lack of people from the clerks of the naval department, who were "trained to operate them, as well as a gun."

      Along the front, the harbor was separated from the lip by a narrow sandy three hundred meter oblique width of 30–35 meters, barely rising from the water. To this scythe, nicknamed the Cat, the Aurora and the Dvina stood on the port side. Scythe defended their waterline, without interfering with the fire. Thus, the entrance to the raid was protected by 22 Aurora guns loaded with cores, and another five 18-pound short Dvina cannons. A narrow, about 80 meters wide entrance to the harbor between Cat and Signal Hill was blocked by a wooden boom on chains.

      In addition, at the base of the Cat built a powerful battery number 2 of 10 guns Z6-pound "caliber" and one long 24-pound gun from the Aurora. Battery commander Lieutenant Prince D.P. Maksutov and his assistant midshipman V.D. Davydov was led by 127 lower ranks.

      For additional defense of the approaches to the Cat south of Petropavlovsk, a battery No. 4 was built on a hill called Krasny Yar. This battery, located near the city cemetery, could hit enemy ships when maneuvering in front of the Signal Cape, as well as shoot allies from the flank if attempts to break into the harbor. To arm the batteries, three long 24-pound guns were sent from the Aurora with midshipman V.I. Popov and midshipman G.N. Tokarev. On the Red Yar Popov took command of 28 lower ranks.
      1. tlauicol
        tlauicol 4 September 2019 16: 45
        0
        on battery 4, two dozen cannons would have to be installed. Leave carronades and small change in the swamps, and throw all the rest of the forces into the construction of Signal - 14 heavy guns would pierce through and through the ships anchored + crossfire from number 4 and Aurora closer to the entrance. And so they only saluted, they carried out a bold counterattack well. But it would be better not to bring to this, but to send a couple of "guests" to the center of the Earth and adyos!
        1. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 4 September 2019 17: 36
          0
          Quote: Tlauicol
          Leave the carronades and trifle in the swamps, and throw all other forces into the Signal construction - 14 heavy guns would pierce through the ships anchored + crossfire from number 4 and Aurora closer to the entrance.

          Then the Allies, taking advantage of the weakness of the remaining batteries, simply crush the Signal from the flank. Or they land a troop somewhere near Battery No. 3 and storm the Signal from the rear, simultaneously blocking the approach of the defenders' reserves by artillery fire from ships along a narrow part of the isthmus. After taking the Signal route to the harbor, it turns out to be open - there is no "Cat" battery in this variant.
          In addition, the fire sector at the Signal Battery is such that ships entering the harbor quickly find themselves outside the fire sector.
          1. tlauicol
            tlauicol 4 September 2019 17: 57
            0
            her sector is what it was made when the roasted cock pecked, and even 8 batteries at once. Of course, it should shoot west-south. Battery 3 cannot be planted much - a bottleneck, and given the concentration of Russian forces at three points rather than eight, the counterattack will be powerful on both sides + buckshot from our ships point-blank. Although, it would not have come to this - 36 pounds would have shot vessels that had anchored, piercing them through and through.
    2. Irbis
      Irbis 5 September 2019 08: 00
      +2



      The lake was bigger. Where the monument to V.I. Lenin stands, the lake also splashed before. There was a very narrow isthmus between the lake and the hill. True, the Nikolskaya hill itself was somewhat wider. Where is the cemetery yard, if I'm not mistaken now the Naval Museum. This place is sandwiched between two steep hillsides. In fact, that from the side of the lake, that of the Yar, the enemy was forced to go along a rather narrow place. And the city itself was actually just stretched between these two points.

      They said that it seemed as though the remains of the battery had been preserved behind the museum, but I admit I have never been there. In my childhood, they did not let me go to the museum.

      By the way, the Maksutov battery did not stand on a narrow isthmus as in the diagram, but slightly higher. The diagram shows the place where the battery layout is. In the last photo, he is left down the hill.
      1. tlauicol
        tlauicol 5 September 2019 08: 21
        0
        there, after Lenin, it would be necessary to establish carronades and anti-airborne weapons. Meet the landing party with buckshot in a swampy narrowness, without entering into art. duel with ships. At the Kladbischenskaya set 24 24f guns, at Signal 14 36f guns. Those. make seven from seven batteries, and distribute the infantry as well. It will be closed by Nikolskaya and Signal from the enemy, and the troops will be large. And so that the enemy does not roam along the hills a ten-meter-long enough line at the base of Nikolskaya and between the hills, where Maksutov was put to slaughter. This is an hour of work with axes. Internal rokada is shot at point blank range with buckshot from our ships and infantry from two sides. Fire support from the landing will not be here.
        And so the enemy almost with impunity shot the spread fingers of batteries of 3-5 cannons each and landed an assault force. Instead of shooting ships in the south or landing troops in the north, ours themselves were shot in small batches.
        1. Irbis
          Irbis 5 September 2019 08: 32
          0
          Everything is possible, but I somehow read that only the location of two batteries, Maksutov and Yara, was really established. All the others remained in doubt. Long read, still at school. Maybe that has changed during this time.
  4. Gardamir
    Gardamir 4 September 2019 07: 25
    +3
    By the way, this is one of the episodes of the well-known Crimean War. WWII 19th century. The first is Napoleonic. Especially liked
    Unfortunately, Europocentrism prevailed in St. Petersburg. Almost all of Russia's attention and forces were concentrated on European affairs
    Just like now.
  5. Victorio
    Victorio 4 September 2019 08: 48
    0
    thanks for the material, and in the subject there is a link to the pelsh movie https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zh_-twXbTX8&lc=UgyyAWdKMzHg0e04Tw54AaABAg&elc=1
  6. Hunghuz
    Hunghuz 4 September 2019 09: 36
    0
    Heroic page. Offspring as an example.
    Thank you
  7. Alexey RA
    Alexey RA 4 September 2019 11: 41
    0
    The arrival of the frigate significantly increased the defense of the port: part of the crew was transferred ashore and created a reserve of the garrison, half of the guns were removed for coastal batteries.

    Less than half of the guns were removed from the Aurora - this can be seen at least from the list of coastal batteries' weapons.
    In addition, there is "The journal of military operations, kept on the frigate "Aurora" under the command of Lieutenant Commander Izilmetyev from July 14 to August 28, 1854", which clearly states:
    On August 3, following an order from the port’s chief commander, guns were sent from the starboard side of the Aurora frigate to equip newly built batteries: five long 3-pound caliber batteries, number 24, three long 4-pound caliber batteries, number 24, and battery number 7 five short 24-pound caliber, and to replenish the battery number 2 one long 24-pound caliber, all with accessories.
    Powder was released at different times: 546 cartridges, each weighing 8 pounds; 215 sacks weighing 3,5 pounds each; in powder boxes 61 pounds 30 pounds; only 189 pounds 30 pounds, 530 cores, 70 drew daggers, 464 arshins for the Armenian and 3900 live rifle cartridges.

    That is, the starboard side of the FR lost only 9 guns and 5 carronades (all 24 pounds), which is clearly less than half of the guns.
    Before the battle, the remaining guns on the FR were loaded as follows:
    The frigate was prepared for battle: the guns on the port side were loaded with cores, and the right one with buckshot.
  8. Catfish
    Catfish 4 September 2019 14: 20
    +2
    There is a very good book "Russian flag", unfortunately for many years I cannot remember the author's name. The book describes in detail the defense of Petropavlovsk and the afront that the allies faced during the assault attempt.
    Thanks to the author for raising this topic, which was forgotten by many. hi
  9. Kamchatsky
    Kamchatsky 4 September 2019 16: 34
    +2
    In the city there are a lot of monuments to those events, from childhood I climbed these guns.
  10. Nadir shah
    Nadir shah 4 September 2019 16: 57
    +2
    Quote: 210ox
    Thanks to the author for the article. The battles of that same "Zero" world, taking place in the Baltic, Solovki and the Pacific Ocean, were poorly covered in our country. In any case, it was like that before ..

    world zero, even if this term could be used - a seven-year period between England and Prussia on the one hand and Austria, Russia and France - on the other. Since we are talking about large-scale and constant hostilities, while the Crimean was limited to small and short operations, except for the Crimea itself (and it was already clear that the scale was not the same).
  11. Nadir shah
    Nadir shah 4 September 2019 16: 59
    +2
    Quote: Gardamir
    By the way, this is one of the episodes of the well-known Crimean War. WWII 19th century. The first is Napoleonic. Especially liked
    Unfortunately, Europocentrism prevailed in St. Petersburg. Almost all of Russia's attention and forces were concentrated on European affairs
    Just like now.

    conditional first / zero world, although this term cannot be used here in any way - the seven-year plan, then Napoleon, and the Crimean was a short and non-large-scale war in comparison with the first two, it does not draw on the world.
  12. ydjin
    ydjin 4 September 2019 19: 45
    +1
    Quote: Sea Cat
    There is a very good book "Russian flag", unfortunately for many years I cannot remember the author's name. The book describes in detail the defense of Petropavlovsk and the afront that the allies faced during the assault attempt.
    Thanks to the author for raising this topic, which was forgotten by many. hi

    The author of the book "Russian flag" Borshagovsky A.M.
  13. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 9 September 2019 21: 13
    0
    The article is interesting, but the islands at the mouth of the Amur are not "Shangarskie", but Shantar
  14. Darnichanin
    Darnichanin 10 September 2019 00: 29
    0
    Thank! Great stuff.