Military Review

Combat aircraft. Wooden slap for the Luftwaffe

55
History just magical, you cannot call it a miraculous transformation of a miracle into a monster. But in reality, for Germany, Mosquito became a headache, which they could not neutralize.




But it all began very, very sadly.

In the middle of the 30-s, when the tension was growing by leaps and bounds, the company “De Havilland” began work on a certain project, which turned out to be implemented exactly by the 1938 year. That is, Europe was already shared by those who could afford it, and before the start of World War II there was nothing left. But this was not yet known, but the essence of the matter was completely different.

Most interestingly, there was no need at all for the development of De Havilland. On paper. The UK had as many as four twin-engine bombers, theoretically covering absolutely the entire niche in the Royal Air Force. Blenheim, Wheatley, Wellington and Hampden.

Here you can throw stones at this four as many as you like (especially at Wheatley and Hampden), but they were. Proven, able to perform tasks (or not very capable). But all-metal bombers in Britain were.

And here Sir Geoffrey De Havilland rushes about with a project of some kind of wooden structure (fi, the last century), and even with motors from Rolls-Royce. Motors undeclared and very slurred. It was then that the Merlin diamond sparkled with all its facets, and in the beginning they were very tormented with it.

Combat aircraft. Wooden slap for the Luftwaffe

Sir Jeffrey De Havilland


Plus, Sir Jeffrey constantly pressed the brains of defense officials, arguing that in the event of a war, duralumin in a belligerent country at 100% would become scarce, and the woodworking industry, on the contrary, would be unloaded. The veracity of Sir De Havilland's calculations was confirmed very soon.

As well as the fact that of the aforementioned four only Wellington turned out to be more or less a combat aircraft. The rest, sadly to say, turned out to be outright flying junk. This was especially shown by the Japanese, having cut out all the Blenheim in Southeast Asia in just a month.

All in all, war for the British bomber aviation to put it mildly, not really. And then there is Sir Jeffrey with his piece of wood ...

But Jeffrey De Havilland was a very gifted man. And in the 1938 year he built the DH.95 "Flamingo".



“Flamingo”, however, was all-metal. The machine was designed to carry 12-17 passengers and had a flight range of more than 2000 km, and the maximum speed was 390 km / h.

Well, Sir Geoffrey, just in case (well, almost by accident) instructed to carry out approximate calculations for remaking the liner into a bomber. Actually, did the Germans do this easily and naturally in general, why did the British worse?

Redid. With 1000 kg of bombs, an aircraft could fly 2400 km at an average speed of 350 km / h. Plus 5 machine guns for defense. In general, it turned out to be Albermal, which, although it went into the series, turned out to be probably the worst British bomber.



Sir Jeffrey continued with the tenacity of a woodpecker to hollow the idea of ​​a high-speed wooden bomber. Moreover, his plans got a new round thanks to the work on Albermal, and De Havilland decided to completely get rid of airborne defensive weapons in favor of speed.

By the way, besides saving weight, it was voiced ... saving people! Machine guns can protect the bomber from fighters, but anti-aircraft artillery - here they are powerless. Meanwhile, the development of anti-aircraft guns hinted that there would be no easy walk. And here is a direct calculation: the loss of two people of the crew of such a bomber or 6-7 people of the crew of a four-engine bomber.

Meanwhile, facilitated by the removal of defensive rifle installations and their shooters, the bomber will become more high-altitude, high-speed and maneuverable, which will allow him to easily evade both fighter attacks and enemy anti-aircraft fire.

Of course, De Havilland’s calculations could only be confirmed by practice. That is war.



And she did not keep herself waiting. And when the German air defense in the person of anti-aircraft batteries and fighters slightly thinned out the formation of British bomber aircraft, here in the military department they seriously considered the proposal of De Heaviland. Well, the Messerschmitts turned out to be too fast.

At the end of 1939, De Havilland introduced three new solid wood unarmed bomber projects: two with Merlin engines and another with the latest Griffins.

According to calculations, the maximum speed of any of the options with a load of 454 kg of bombs exceeded 640 km / h. In fact, the only fighter that could oppose something to De Havilland's plane in terms of speed, oddly enough, in 1940 was the Soviet MiG-1. The rest is doubtful.

In the end, it worked. And the prototype aircraft went into construction with two Rolls-Royce Merlin RM3SM engines with 1280 horsepower. at an altitude of 3700 m and 1215 hp at an altitude of 6150 m.

There was a little trick in the design, simply impossible for designers from other countries. The design of a three-layer upholstery of the wing and fuselage was applied, which made it possible to radically reduce the number of reinforcing stringers, frames and ribs.

The upper and lower layers of the casing were made of plywood, and the middle layer was made of light balsa with spruce power spacers. Balsa is the lightest tree growing in South America (Tur Heyerdahl built his Kon-Tiki raft from it), and spruce is Canadian black spruce, whose viscous and resilient wood has long been used in marine business.

Everything was glued under pressure with formaldehyde glue, the skin of the machine was easily putty and sanded before painting, after which it was glued with a cloth. Since there were practically no seams, hence the excellent aerodynamic qualities.



It happened, and in March 1940, the Ministry of Aviation signed a contract with De Havilland to build 50 reconnaissance bombers. However, force majeure circumstances intervened in the form of problems in North Africa and Northern Europe and the deafening plunge of Dunkirk.

All of Britain's efforts focused on the production of Hurricane and Spitfire fighters, and the Wellington, Wheatley and Blenheim bombers.

"Mosquito" also came under the distribution. De Havilland actually performed a miracle by persuading Minister Beaverbrook not to stop the Mosquito production. In return, Sir Jeffrey promised to simplify the design of the aircraft so that nothing could interfere with the construction of the first stage aircraft, plus De Havilland, as a kind of compensation, promised to organize the repair of Hurricane aircraft and Merlin engines by the company.

November 25 1940 of the year was the birthday of Mosquito. It was on this day that the chief pilot of the company, Jeffrey De Havilland, Jr. (all three sons of Sir Jeffrey worked as test pilots for their aircraft, two died during the test) took the plane into the air for 30 minutes.


Jeffrey De Havilland Jr.


On February 19 on February 1941, the aircraft was handed over to state tests at the Boscomb Down flight research center. At first, the plane was rather frivolous, the small wooden structure did not cause respect. But when it became clear that the Mosquito was flying faster than the Spitfire (approximately at 30 km / h), the ratio changed dramatically.

During tests in Boscombe Down, the maximum true flight speed of 624 km / h was recorded at an altitude of 6600 m with a flight weight of 7612 kg.



On July 23 1942 in one of the flights, an aircraft equipped with Merlin-61 engines developed a top speed of 695 km / h at an altitude of 5100 m. In October 1942, the same aircraft with even more advanced Merlin-77 engines managed to reach the highest absolute Mosquito indicator - 703 km / h at an altitude of 8800 m. Conventional production vehicles flew, of course, a little slower, and yet the B.IX main production bomber on factory tests carried out in March-April of 1943 demonstrated speed 680 km / h at an altitude of 7900 m. Its power plant consisted of two x Merlin-72 engines with 1650 horsepower Faster than the "nine" at that time did not fly any serial fighter in the world.

In general, Mosquito can safely be called the first British multi-purpose aircraft.



"Mosquito" worked as a "clean" bombers, heavy fighters, reconnaissance, were involved to provide night flights of four-engine bombers.

Mosquito interfered with enemy radars, led large groups of aircraft on targets, and marked targets with colored landmark-signal bombs. In fact, combined the functions of reconnaissance aircraft and electronic warfare.

Naturally, Mosquito came in handy in the royal navy. They quite normally tracked the enemy’s submarines and “treated” them with depth charges.

The Mosquito nose locator actually registered.

But the start of the Mosquito military path as a bomber, contrary to popular belief, can hardly be considered successful. Despite the astonishing speed, the planes were still shot down by anti-aircraft artillery. In the first months of combat use, one loss averaged on 9 sorties.



But there were also pleasant moments. It turned out that the FW-190 at low altitude could not catch up with Mosquito. It should be emphasized that in all cases, German aircraft did not have an advantage in altitude. When the Germans attacked with an advantage in height, the British pilots had a very difficult time. Four FW-190A guns turned a wooden structure into sawdust.

An interesting fact: the very existence of a new bomber in Britain was hidden not only from the enemy, but also from its public. In the summer of 1942, only vague information about a certain “miracle plane” leaked to the press.

The information was very scarce; the outline of the car was outlined in the most general terms. Moreover, to mislead the Germans, English censorship carefully eliminated all references to the absence of defensive weapons on the bomber version of the aircraft. On the contrary, in all articles the reader was unobtrusively convinced that any Mosquito carries 4 machine guns and 4 guns. This was true, but only with respect to fighter and fighter-bombers.

Success and fame, as well as serious propaganda success brought "Mosquito" the destruction of the Gestapo building in Oslo. The British claimed that more than 12 thousand cases against the Norwegians were burned during the fire.

But the operation itself and its execution was quite: seven bombs fell into the building from twelve dropped, three shot through it and exploded in the basement.

Yes, naturally there were German fighters (all the same FW-190) who managed to knock out one of the Mosquito that fell on the territory of Sweden. The Germans also had losses, in the pursuit race one of the Germans lost control and crashed.

From June 1 to 1943, the Bomber Command officially stopped participating in daytime tactical bombing of enemy territory. In this regard, the functions of Mosquito have changed. The era of nightly harassing German air defense system raids began.

Actually, there was an experience of such actions: on the night of April 21 1943, the nine Mosquito attacked Berlin demonstratively, congratulating the Führer on his birthday.

At the same time, a large group of heavy bombers raided Stettin. The success was complete: the British recorded in the air defense control networks radiograms containing a refusal to allocate additional fighters for the defense of Stettin, since the capital of the Reich itself was attacked.

This tactic of “pulling away” gave good results and subsequently became stereotyped. The Germans for a long time could not find effective countermeasures for her, because it was very difficult to come up with because of the insufficient level of the then technology.



It is a total deception of the German air defense detection system. Several Mosquitoes dumped tapes of aluminum foil of a certain width, which, hanging in the air, disrupted the operation of the radars and virtually eliminated the determination of the scale of the raid.

And so, the small Mosquito group, which interfered, on the radar screens blurred into a huge flare, plausibly simulating an armada of four-engine bombers.

Fighter jets, wasting fuel and motor resources in vain, intercepted nonexistent formations. At the same time, the real “Lancaster” and “Halifax” turned into an ashes a completely different German city.

The best example is an operation carried out on the night of June 22, 1943. The distracting four “Mosquito”, having previously interfered, bombed on Couloni.

Naturally, the interceptors were sent there. Naturally, even the German night fighters armed with the Liechtenstein did not find anyone. Firstly, the Mosquito had already escaped, and secondly, the wooden structure with a minimum of metal (only motors) was very difficult to take to the radars of that time.

At this time, the main forces of the bomber command brought their blow to the enterprises in the city of Mulheim.

Sometimes Mosquito was involved in the mining of water from the air. It was Moskito that was able to block the Kiel port channel with mines. Yes, a small cargo ship was blown up on delivered mines, which received minor damage. But mine took a week, during which the port did not work. The supplies of the German group in Norway and the delivery of alloying materials from Sweden were actually disrupted.

In the fall of 1944, the Me-163 and Me-262 jet interceptors appeared in the sky above Germany. The former were not at all scary because of their short flight range, with the latter it was more difficult. But Swallow could not become a real threat to Mosquito. The point is the maneuverability of aircraft. Yes, the 262 was faster and could completely catch up with Mosquito. But the turbines of the Messerschmitt engines did not possess the necessary flexibility, and the Mosquito easily departed precisely due to maneuver in the horizon.

This is not to say that many of these aircraft were manufactured. In total, 7700 aircraft of all modifications were produced, which in general is not a god knows what indicator.

Mosquito bombers at the European theater of operations performed 26255 sorties. 108 vehicles did not return to their airfields due to German opposition, and 88 was decommissioned due to combat damage.



The only drawback of Mossi, noted by the leadership of the Bomber Command in the final report for the war years, was the fact that “these aircraft have always been too few ...”

We got acquainted in detail with "Mosquito" and in our country. In 1944 — 1945 Using Mosquito, a courier connection was established between the governments of the USSR and Great Britain, and scouts regularly landed at our northern airfields when the Tirpitz was being hunted.

One copy was put at the disposal of the flight test institute (LII) of the NKAP, where the leading pilot N. S. Rybko, test pilots P. Ya. Fedrovi and A. I. Kabanov and the leading engineer V. S. Pankratov carefully studied and circled the plane .



It turned out that in terms of performance characteristics the Moskito was practically equal to the Tu-2 with the difference that the latter had good defensive weapons, and the British aircraft was somewhat faster over the entire altitude range. The bomb load was about the same.

Mosquito flew quite normally on one engine. It turned out that it is possible to perform deep turns with a roll towards the turned off engine. In general, the handling of the British aircraft was praised.

There were also negative points. It turned out that the bomber is unstable in the longitudinal relation, and its lateral and track stability, by the standards of the LII, was insufficient. Landing was relatively uncomplicated, but on the run the car had a tendency to vigorously turn around.

In general, the Mosquito was a very good aircraft, but it required pilots with a high level of training, which in wartime was not an easy task.

But from the point of view of operation, the car was beyond praise. Good access to the main units, ease of replacing the engine, thoughtful and reliable petrol and oil systems, an abundance of machine guns that facilitated the work of the crew in flight - all this impressed our experts.

It is clear that the purpose of the tests in the LII was with an implication. The possibility of organizing a licensed (or unlicensed, as with Tu-4) production of Mosquito in the USSR was studied.

Yes, the solid wood construction bribed. Alas, these dreams were not destined to come true, because the technology of manufacturing the wing and especially the fuselage was unacceptable to Soviet aircraft plants.

To top it all, in our country there was no balsa, there were no motors like the Merlin. Therefore, plans had to be abandoned.

Strange, of course, but the wooden plane turned out to be a very good combat vehicle. And despite the archaic nature of the materials, it had an impact on aircraft builders in other countries.

With a slight stretch, the really multipurpose Me-210 and Me-410 aircraft can be considered German copies of the Mosquito, but what is it, the Germans themselves wrote that this was a response to the appearance of the British with such a machine. We Myasischev also created the project Pe-2I, very similar to the Germans, that is, all-metal.

But such fame was gained only by the British Pinocchio "Mossi", which served until 1955 year.

LTX Mosquito B Mk.IV

Wingspan, m: 16,51
Length, m: 12,43
Height, m: 4,65
Wing area, м2: 42,18

Weight, kg:
- empty aircraft: 6 080
- normal takeoff: 9 900
- Maximum takeoff: 10 152

Engine: 2 x Rolls-Royce Merlin 21 x 1480 hp

Maximum speed km / h: 619
Cruising speed, km / h: 491
Practical range, km: 2 570
Rate of climb, m / min: 816
Practical ceiling, m: 10 400

Crew, prs: 2
Armament:
bomb load up to 908 kg: one 454-kg bomb and two 227-kg bombs or four 227-kg bombs.
Author:
55 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. svp67
    svp67 17 August 2019 09: 36
    +12
    With a slight stretch, the really multipurpose Me-210 and Me-410 aircraft can be considered German copies of the Mosquito, but what is it, the Germans themselves wrote that this was a response to the appearance of the British with such a machine
    Still, the full answer would be the appearance of Ta-154 Kurt Tank
    1. AUL
      AUL 17 August 2019 10: 32
      +12
      It turned out that according to the performance characteristics of the Moskito, it was practically equal to the Tu-2 with the difference that the latter had good defensive weapons, and the British aircraft was somewhat faster across the entire altitude range. The bomb load was about the same.
      And at the same time:
      Armament: (Mosquito)
      bomb load up to 908 kg: one 454-kg bomb and two 227-kg bombs or four 227-kg bombs.
      And the Tu-2 up to 2 tons!
      What is a divorce?
      1. svp67
        svp67 17 August 2019 10: 54
        +2
        Quote: AUL
        What is a divorce?

        Well, it says "ABOUT" ... wassat
      2. Earthshaker
        Earthshaker 17 August 2019 10: 59
        +4
        What is a divorce?

        The normal bomb load of the Tu-2 is 1000 kg. And in Mosquito, the entire bomb load was placed in the bomb compartment of the fuselage. I think the catch is this, 4 bombs of 250 (227) were tested at approximately the same load.
      3. Dooplet11
        Dooplet11 18 August 2019 10: 15
        +2
        It's just that Roman once again did not exactly copy-paste it. Without the thought of "dissolving"
      4. psy06
        psy06 27 August 2019 23: 08
        0
        Tu-2s-44 3t. True, "slightly faster" means a difference of 100 km / h. As with ours, they constantly confused the desired with the actual.
        1. itarnmag
          itarnmag 28 September 2019 09: 52
          0
          Tu-2 was produced in such a small quantity that there is nothing to talk about
    2. NF68
      NF68 17 August 2019 16: 47
      0
      Quote: svp67
      With a slight stretch, the really multipurpose Me-210 and Me-410 aircraft can be considered German copies of the Mosquito, but what is it, the Germans themselves wrote that this was a response to the appearance of the British with such a machine
      Still, the full answer would be the appearance of Ta-154 Kurt Tank


      Ar.440 was another serious argument.
      1. svp67
        svp67 17 August 2019 16: 49
        +1
        Quote: NF68
        Ar.440 was another serious argument.

        Yes, there were enough of them, these "arguments", just this Ta-154 had a proper name: "Mosquito"
        1. AUL
          AUL 17 August 2019 20: 11
          +2
          In the 30s, we also had an SB, which was superior in speed to the then fighters. Alas, we were not able to repeat this at a higher level.
          1. svp67
            svp67 17 August 2019 20: 22
            -1
            Quote: AUL
            Alas, we were not able to repeat this at a higher level.

            Why, and Tu-160 ...
            1. AUL
              AUL 17 August 2019 22: 14
              +1
              Well, actually it was about the period of the Second World War!
              And now, at M = 1.84, you will not be far from any fighter.
  2. Vinnibuh
    Vinnibuh 17 August 2019 09: 57
    +8
    Thanks for the article, very informative hi
  3. ENOTE
    ENOTE 17 August 2019 10: 17
    +7
    The funniest thing is that in the USSR, when tested, they broke it with an inept landing. And then they said that the design is fragile ...
  4. Madcover
    Madcover 17 August 2019 10: 21
    +1
    Excellent article
    1. Dooplet11
      Dooplet11 18 August 2019 10: 16
      +1
      Different from what?
  5. knn54
    knn54 17 August 2019 10: 21
    +11
    what is not the "Stealth bomber" of WWII ...
    1. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I 17 August 2019 13: 51
      +2
      Quote: knn54
      what is not a "stealth bomber" of WWII ..

      Actually, among the "techies" it is considered that the first "stealth" aircraft is the Horten No-229 of WW2 ...

      The creators of the German prototype were the Horten brothers, who on March 1, 1945 presented the German leadership with a description of the design of the two-seater version of the Horten H IX aircraft. This is the first turbojet aircraft built according to the "Flying Wing" aerodynamic design ("Unsichtbar"). It was the result of more than a decade of design work by the brothers Reimar and Walter Horten, whose main goal was to create an aircraft with minimal resistance. As a result, the Horten Ho 229 did not have a fuselage per se. The thickness of the center section was sufficient to accommodate the pilot and engine. There was no vertical tail. The course was controlled by spoilers mounted on the wing.
      An analysis of the design features of the aircraft shows that the Hortens developed the world's first “invisible” aircraft, designed to covertly penetrate the target. For the first time, they purposefully applied the Unsichtbar concept, the essence of which was to reduce the radar and infrared visibility of the aircraft. The aircraft’s radar signature was reduced by selecting the “flying wing” scheme, the location of the engines in the center section, recessed air intakes and lining of radar absorbing materials. Unlike other aircraft of the time, the prototype was made of steel pipes and plywood. Engineers believed that the tree weakly reflects radio waves, thereby being hardly noticeable to locators. The aircraft was also distinguished by high speed, rate of climb and high flight duration. These characteristics made him truly unique. The plane did not have time to go into the series due to the defeat of the German army, and its surrender. After the war, the plane fell into the hands of the Americans and later served as the basis for the creation of already American stealth aircraft such as the Northrop B-2 Spirit.

      1. Alexey G
        Alexey G 18 August 2019 02: 00
        +1
        It turns out the Germans are not only pioneers of jet fighters, but also stealth, not sickly. What will the Anglophiles say ???
        1. Nikolaevich I
          Nikolaevich I 18 August 2019 07: 03
          +3
          Well, they will say that the "Anglo-Saxons" were still the first! yes They were the first to come up with the word "stealth"! fellow
  6. Andrey Shmelev
    Andrey Shmelev 17 August 2019 10: 44
    +2
    Total was released 7700 aircraft of all modifications, which in general is not a god knows what indicator.
    Mosquito bombers at the European theater of operations completed 26255 combat sorties

    although total bombers

    need to dig, even then a little
    1. Dooplet11
      Dooplet11 18 August 2019 10: 19
      +1
      Issued in 10 years from 40 to 50. And combat sorties were made by aircraft released during the war.
  7. Earthshaker
    Earthshaker 17 August 2019 10: 49
    +5
    Thanks a lot, especially for the wing manufacturing technology. Very informative.
  8. serg.shishkov2015
    serg.shishkov2015 17 August 2019 11: 02
    +3
    Termite dream, High-speed wooden miracle, there were different nicknames! But the Israeli pilots added a proverb about him- * Hit * Mosquito * - be proud! Don’t get there, rejoice! *, No! The plane is great! It’s just that they got into a worn-out state in Israel, the book was 20 years ago * - Wings of Retaliation, History of the Israeli Air Force *, Very interesting!
    1. Theodore
      Theodore 17 August 2019 13: 40
      +1
      Show me the termite that is interested in plywood! Pzhlsta!
      1. serg.shishkov2015
        serg.shishkov2015 17 August 2019 13: 54
        0
        it was not me who invented it, but this plywood is also saturated with phenol-formaldehyde resins, and there are different termites! like people! those too, because sometimes they eat and drink inedible!
        1. Theodore
          Theodore 17 August 2019 13: 55
          0
          So do not show ...... crying
          1. serg.shishkov2015
            serg.shishkov2015 17 August 2019 14: 43
            +1
            I can show only the omnivorous loader! he is an outright rotten man, he gnaws at cereals and pasta not boiled, but drinks everything that burns with superluminal speed! But it is unlikely that you will like its appearance - a clear confirmation of Darwin's theory!
  9. PilotS37
    PilotS37 17 August 2019 11: 11
    +1
    And when the German air defense in the person of anti-aircraft batteries and fighters slightly thinned out the formation of British bomber aircraft, here in the military department they seriously considered the proposal of De Heaviland. Well, the Messerschmitts turned out to be too fast.

    At the end of 1939, De Havilland introduced three new solid wood unarmed bomber projects: two with Merlin engines and another with the latest Griffins.


    The author got something wrong: at the end of 1939, the "Strange War" was in full swing, and the Messerschmitts were not yet "too fast," and the German air defense had not yet managed to "thin out the formation of the British bomber aviation."
    1. PilotS37
      PilotS37 17 August 2019 11: 42
      +6
      We Myasischev also created the project Pe-2I

      In fact, in a completely orderly manner, in August 1941, Petlyakov developed the Pe-3 fighter, which went to the series.
      Well, we must start with the fact that Sotka was originally designed as a high-altitude interceptor fighter and a long-range escort fighter. They "entrusted" it to the lighter already in the process of state tests. But, of course, I never pulled the Pe-2 / -3 on the Mosquito ...
      The author, the history of his own aviation must be studied before starting to start writing articles!
      1. mark1
        mark1 17 August 2019 12: 46
        +1
        Pe-2/3 and Pe-2A little bit different.
        1. Popov Konstantin Ivanovich
          Popov Konstantin Ivanovich 17 August 2019 13: 50
          +6
          Pe-2I (Myasishcheva) was developed and tested in 1943 - 1944. it was under the impression of "Mossi", but when, in fact, it was no longer so necessary, it was not finalized, the development was not financed enough, the plant with a pre-series production of 5 units did not cope on time, V.M. Myasishchev assigned a major general of the engineering and technical service and awarded the order, and then they forgot about the plane. And so the airplane was good, at least in the very idea.
          1. psy06
            psy06 27 August 2019 23: 19
            0
            Better than a thousand words.
        2. The comment was deleted.
  10. Amurets
    Amurets 17 August 2019 12: 12
    +4
    It is a total deception of the German air defense detection system. Several Mosquitoes dropped tapes of their aluminum foil of a certain width, which, hanging in the air, disrupted the operation of the radars and virtually eliminated the determination of the scale of the raid.
    In his memoirs "We are military engineers" MM, Lobanov wrote that some regions of Germany were literally covered with foil dipoles. The allies used passive interference so widely.
  11. Alex013
    Alex013 17 August 2019 17: 01
    +2
    One loss for 243 flights .... the plane turned out to be tenacious. Or the optimal way of its combat use.
  12. Observer2014
    Observer2014 17 August 2019 17: 15
    +7
    There was a phenomenal aircraft for its time. Try to make and come up with a better shape for those engines and those tasks. I had one of the first models of this aircraft. A beautiful car. From the German Me 262 Swallow distinguished him from the beaten track. But it was different. To use the beaten track. And I still pay tribute to engineering. And the thoughts of the designers. Bravo. We look forward to the phenomenal planes of that era. I want to see which car will be chosen for publication from the one invented in the USSR.
    1. soaring
      soaring 20 August 2019 09: 16
      0
      No wonder they say, beautiful planes fly well and beautifully!
  13. Nycomed
    Nycomed 17 August 2019 17: 28
    +3
    Thanks to the author, overall a good article. One small mistake: not Albermal, but Albemarl Armstrong Whitworth AW.41 ALBEMARLE. I recommend to everyone interested in the book: A.N. Bear "The illustrious" Mosquito ". Churchill's wooden aircraft masterpiece" Moscow: Yauza: Eksmo, 2014- (War and us. Aviation collection)
    1. PilotS37
      PilotS37 18 August 2019 13: 10
      0
      Oops! So I'm not the biggest connoisseur of the history of English aviation, so I immediately missed ...
      And the author is here to pull us such a owl on the globe ...

      Well, Sir Geoffrey, just in case (well, almost by accident) instructed to carry out approximate calculations for remaking the liner into a bomber. Actually, did the Germans do this easily and naturally in general, why did the British worse?

      Redid. With 1000 kg of bombs, an aircraft could fly 2400 km at an average speed of 350 km / h. Plus 5 machine guns for defense. In general, it turned out to be Albermal, which, although it went into the series, turned out to be probably the worst British bomber.


      Moreover, in reality
      In June 1938, mock-ups of both the AW.41 and Bristol 155 were examined and new specifications B.17 / 38 and B.18 / 38 were drawn up for the respective designs. De Havilland did not submit a design.
      ([media = https: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armstrong_Whitworth_Albemarle#Background]), That is, De Haviland submitted to the competition, but did not even present her project. And Armstrong Whitworth won it with AW.41 Albemarle.
      1. Nycomed
        Nycomed 18 August 2019 13: 21
        0
        Mistaken a bit, with whom it does not happen. But in general, the article is not bad.
  14. slasha
    slasha 17 August 2019 18: 57
    +1
    Thank you, it was interesting to read!
  15. bubalik
    bubalik 17 August 2019 19: 03
    +2
    ,,, “Mosquito” was immortalized in the 1964 film of the year “633 Squadron”, which used 10 original planes, as well as genuine military vehicles and equipment.
    ,,,1944 year. 633 British Squadron Pilots Gets Dangerous Mission To Destroy Norway's Strongly Protected Nazi Arms Factory


    shooting with all weapons good
    1. bubalik
      bubalik 17 August 2019 20: 04
      +5
      ,,, I would like to note that since November 1943 of the year “Mosquito” was also used against submarines.
      Directly they were sunk U-976, U-804, U-843 and in cooperation with other aircraft U-821, U-998, U-1065, U-251, U-2359.



      Attack on a submarine
  16. bbss
    bbss 17 August 2019 22: 32
    0
    Everything rested, in the absence of engines ...
  17. abc_alex
    abc_alex 18 August 2019 09: 26
    +4


    And despite the archaic nature of the materials, it had an impact on aircraft builders in other countries.



    Hmm ... Judging by the description, the material was not so archaic. Count the multilayer composite. And what, what is the basis of cellulose, steeloplastik is also based on ordinary glass :)
    1. Dooplet11
      Dooplet11 18 August 2019 10: 22
      +4
      The material was groundbreaking. A composite based on cellulose fibers. wink
  18. bubalik
    bubalik 18 August 2019 10: 39
    +3
    Everything was glued under pressure with formaldehyde glue, the skin of the machine was easily putty and sanded before painting, after which it was glued with a cloth.

    ,,, De Havilland Aircraft Pty Ltd, Annandale, New South Wales, Australia, where the 212 Mosquito was assembled.





  19. D-Master
    D-Master 18 August 2019 12: 27
    +1
    Thank you so much for the article, and in general for the cycles of articles on aviation of the Second World War I read with pleasure. Thanks again.
  20. Potter
    Potter 18 August 2019 22: 22
    +3
    Well, in general, solid wood is an indicator of the technical backwardness of England - a varnished guaranteed coffin. LAGG-3, and then LA-5 - made of composite material, ecological, modified wood! So we have a solid-wood Mosquito - sucks and an indicator of technical technical backwardness, or LAGG-3 - an indicator of the advancement and foresight of the USSR, where they understood the whole problem of increasing the production of metal aircraft during the war?
    Seriously - Mossi is a great plane, along with Spitfire one of the only bright spots in the FAC. Thanks for the junk. The dance!
  21. DAOs
    DAOs 19 August 2019 01: 49
    +6
    When it comes to De Havilland Mosquito aircraft, many aviation enthusiasts primarily recall that it was wooden and draw an analogy with the domestic aircraft of the 30s and early 40s. Like, both there and there, the main material was wood, which means that such a structure at that time is already a priori morally obsolete. By the way, the author of the article also did not avoid this error. Although from the outside it is really so, but, in fact, everything is completely different :)
    So what is the secret of Mosquito and why it is a revolutionary aircraft, in fact, opened the way to high speeds around the world. The fact is that almost 2/3 of the resistance is created by the wing, and the thinner it is, the lower the resistance and the higher the speed. But the backside - in a thin wing it is difficult to provide the necessary strength. And if you follow the traditional (for the end of the 30s) path - one or two spar wings with trimmed with stringers and even make it all out of wood, then this design will certainly lose to metal. Apparently, the designers of De Havilland understood this perfectly, and therefore they applied a fundamentally new constructive power circuit to the Mosquito - the xesson wing. That is, the main element of the wing that perceived both bending and torsion loading was a closed loop formed by powerful sheathing and lightweight side members. The question is how to make such a power casing, the answer is simple - to increase its moment of inertia. And here comes the second revolutionary solution implemented in Mosquito - three-layer panels with filler, which was a light balsa. Now, panels on a similar principle are used in aviation in huge numbers, both metal and composite. But that is not all. It is not enough to come up with a new constructively power circuit, and it is not enough to develop new elements for it. In order for all this to fly, it is necessary to make a calculation of strength. And the methods for calculating the caisson wing did not exist then, they had to be created from scratch. So it turns out that De Havilland engineers made three revolutions - they developed a new structurally power circuit of the wing, for the first time used three-layer panels as a power element, and learned how to calculate a monoblock wing for strength. Something like that. And you say a tree :)
    1. Dooplet11
      Dooplet11 19 August 2019 08: 34
      +2
      100500+
      Like, both there and there, the main material was wood, which means that such a structure at that time is already a priori morally obsolete. By the way, the author of the article also did not avoid this error.

      By Senka and a hat. The retelling of murzilka cannot be an in-depth analysis.
  22. Petrol cutter
    Petrol cutter 20 August 2019 20: 42
    0
    Thank. It was interesting and informative. yes
  23. Vasya Pupenko
    Vasya Pupenko 25 August 2019 23: 12
    0
    0,4% loss for a bomber is very good!
  24. DimerVladimer
    DimerVladimer 26 August 2019 10: 08
    +1
    Not a bad article and could be noted positively, if not for the author's "witty" insertions like:
    Sir Jeffrey continued with the tenacity of a woodpecker to hollow the idea of ​​a high-speed wooden bomber

    Well, it’s not solid to draw ideas from mediocre journalism: to find fault with the smart, that would pass for the smart ...
  25. psy06
    psy06 27 August 2019 23: 20
    0
    Quote: mark1
    Pe-2/3 and Pe-2A little bit different.

    Not much, the design difference in the glider is less than 50%.