BCC sniper rifle (top) and a special machine gun AU (bottom)
To equip the special-purpose units formed in the Soviet Union by the 1970s-1980s - several brigades and separate battalions of special purpose, as well as special units of the KGB and the Ministry of Internal Affairs; reconnaissance units of motorized rifle, tank, airborne divisions and formations of the marines of the Soviet Army and the Naval fleet effective weapons of covert use of various types and purposes were required, including small-sized and silent small arms.
One of such means for the national special forces was the unified system of silent small arms developed at TsNIITOCHMASH in the 1980s. It consisted of a special sniper complex, consisting of an 9-mm rifle sniper special ARIA, an 9-mm automatic rifle of a special speaker and special 9-mm cartridges.
This complex emerged as a result of the intensification of the confrontation between the Soviet Union and the West in the 1960's - 1970's. The expansion at this time of the geography of undeclared wars and local military conflicts that were fought on almost all continents required for successful combat with our potential adversaries more and more new types of special weapons, including for defeating enemy forces at short distances, equipped with personal protection.
A significant disadvantage of domestic samples of silent small weapons the first generation, by which time Soviet special forces were in service, were relatively low compared to general purpose weapons, combat and service-operational characteristics — accurate firing range, slaughter and penetrative action of the bullet, mass-dimensional characteristics. As a result, the existing models of silent weapons could not fully replace the standard all-arms and were, in essence, only an addition to the standard weapons of special forces. These samples of automatic small arms were equipped with special muzzle devices for silently flameless firing, the so-called "silencers", and their cartridges were refined in the direction of increasing the mass of the bullet and reducing its initial speed to subsonic. However, since the most important condition for the performance of combat missions by special forces units on the enemy’s territory was the secrecy of actions, the use of weapons with small unmasking factors of a shot — sound, flame and smoke, i.e., “silent” weapons — acquired particular importance in carrying out such operations. In addition, when by the end of the 1970's, the combat missions of the special forces had significantly changed, the insufficient effectiveness of individual samples of special (silent) weapons and their ammunition was revealed.
At that time, in accordance with the state program for the development of weapons and military equipment, the beginning of research and development (R & D) to develop a concept and create a unified system of silent small arms instead of certain types of special weapons, which then were in service Special Forces of the Soviet Army and the KGB.
These works were entrusted to the Central Scientific Research Institute of Precision Engineering (TsNIITOCHMASH) in Klimovsk, with the leading role of the Research Institute of the KGB of the USSR together with the General Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff of the USSR Armed Forces. The Soviet gunsmiths approached the solution of the task in a comprehensive manner. The creation of a unified system of silent small arms was planned to be carried out through the development of new designs; reducing the range of special weapons and ammunition, working out the necessary types of such weapons, designed for standardized ammunition.
After analyzing typical tactical tasks solved by special forces units and carrying out a number of diverse research work, it was decided to create for all special forces several silent rifle complexes, including a sniper one, which would include three main components: - ammunition - sight.
9-mm SCREW SNIPPING SPECIAL WSS "SCREW"
In 1983, the requirements for a new special sniper complex (received the “Vintorez” code) were developed. This weapon was supposed to ensure the covert defeat of enemy personnel at ranges up to 400 m, including in the means of individual defense. Such a task could be solved only with the use of a new cartridge with a heavy bullet, which would have a sufficiently destructive effect and high accuracy of combat throughout the entire target range to 400. Sniper firing at such a range required the creation of new optical (day) and electron-optical ) sights.
Incomplete disassembly of the BCC sniper rifle
Since all the necessary equipment for performing combat missions in the enemy's rear had to be carried by the special forces, the new weapons were subject to very strict requirements for weight and dimensions. In addition, for a number of special operations, such a rifle had to be disassembled into small-sized basic units, which allowed it to be covertly transferred and quickly transferred to a combat position.
Based on the requirements, research on the topic “Vintorez” was carried out by Klimovsky gunsmiths in the following directions:
- practicing the technical ability to ensure effective firing of a silent sniper rifle (i.e. firing at a range of 400 m, in which the probability of hitting the target must be at least 0,8);
- the choice of the principle of silencing the sound of a shot and reducing its flame;
- the development of the constructive scheme of the sniper cartridge with a subsonic speed of the bullet, which provides the specified accuracy, amazing effect and reliable operation of the automatics when firing;
- design of the cartridge and the justification of its main design parameters;
- the development of a constructive scheme of automatic weapons, ensuring the specified accuracy of fire; the sound level of the shot; reliable operation of automation; overall dimensions;
- designing a sniper rifle;
- development of new optical sights.
Designing a special sniper complex at TsNIITOCHMASH began with the creation of a new assault rifle cartridge, designed to defeat enemy personnel in specific conditions.
The main problem that the Klimovsk designers had to solve was to solve the issue of silencing a sound and a shot.
The intensity of the sound of a shot depends on the muzzle pressure of the powder gases. In addition, the bullet itself, if it has a supersonic initial velocity (more than 330 m / s), also generates a shock (ballistic) wave. All this unmasks the firing position of the shooter. To eliminate sound from a ballistic wave, a weapon with a silencer must have a subsonic bullet velocity. However, the slower the speed of the bullet, the less its damaging effect and worse the flatness of the trajectory, which significantly reduces the effective range. Thus, in the special rifle armament of concealed use, two incompatible properties had to be combined — the necessary effective range of fire and the sufficient striking effect of the bullet at its relatively low initial velocity. Moreover, the jamming of the shot in such a sniper complex could only be achieved with the use of silencers and subsonic initial speed.
The result of this work was a new 7,62-mm experienced cartridge, consisting of a 7,62 x54-mm sniper rifle cartridge 7 H1 bullet and 7,62 x25-mm TT pistol cartridge bullet. This cartridge satisfied the requirements of the tactical and technical assignment (TTZ) for the “Vintorez” in terms of accuracy, but its bullet did not provide the necessary lethal effect. In addition, when developing a new sniper cartridge, it was taken into account that in the long term, increased demands may be placed on the bullet penetration to a silent automatic rifle complex. In the course of the work, the issue of unification of a sniper rifle and an assault rifle for used ammunition was also considered.
Further work on promising ammunition was aimed at creating a fundamentally new design of the cartridge. A group of specialists from TsNIITOCHMASH under the leadership of Vladimir Fedorovich Krasnikov developed another 5,45-mm sniper cartridge with subsonic (39 m / s) bullet speed, which received the index "РГ7,62", on the basis of the 300 liner x037-mm automaton cartridge. His bullet was structurally made according to the scheme of a bullet rifle sniper cartridge 7 H1. Its external form was determined taking into account the requirements of external ballistics for bullets with subsonic speed. The new sniper cartridge had a length of 46 mm, a total mass of 16 g, a mass of bullet 10,6 g and had excellent accuracy. So, at a range of 100 m for this cartridge R50 was 4 cm, and on 400 m - 16,5 see. However, the new cartridge RGO37 did not allow to confidently hit the enemy's manpower in an anti-fragmentation armor at a range of direct shot 400 m.
Under the 7,62-mm cartridge RGO37 was designed noiseless sniper rifle, which received the index "РГ036". The leading designer of the rifle was Peter Ivanovich Serdyukov.
The chosen scheme of operation of the automatics with a gas engine and rigid locking of the bore when turning the bolt ensured reliable operation of the rifle in various operating conditions. The combined silencer, consisting of a chamber muzzle silencer with obliquely spaced separator walls and an expansion chamber for partial discharge of powder gases from the barrel, reduced the sound level of the shot to a value similar to the 9-mm PB pistol.
But despite the fact that the 7,62-mm sniper complex as part of the РГ036 rifle and the РГ037 cartridge passed preliminary tests, further work with it was stopped, because by the end of 1985, the USSR Ministry of Defense Industry approves new requirements for a special machine complex - another element of the system silent weapons. On the basis of the TTZ, it was necessary to create a weapon that would confidently hit group targets (manpower), protected by 6 B2 type bulletproof vests (III class of defense) at a distance of up to 400 m. The machine also had high requirements for noiseless firing, including automatic by fire. It was assumed that, for ease of carrying, he would receive a folding butt, moreover, it was possible to be equipped with various optical sights. Therefore, it was unambiguously required to unify the sniper and assault rifle complexes of the used ammunition.
20-charging stores to a special automatic speaker with 10-charging holders with xNUMX x9-mm special cartridges (from left to right): 39 H7; JV 12; JV Xnumx
Based on the new tasks, the designers were able to correctly assess that the bullet 7,62-mm cartridge РГ037 could not ensure the defeat of manpower, protected by promising personal protective equipment. In accordance with this, the requirements for the silent sniper complex were revised.
Therefore, the designers of TsNIITOCHMASH N. V. Zabelin and L. S. Dvoryaninova had to begin work on the creation of a new 7,62 x X1943-mm special sniper cartridge SP from the 9 case of a new 39 x X5-mm automatic cartridge cartridge. 7 (index 8 Н16,2) with a heavy bullet with a mass of 290 g (with subsonic initial velocity - 7,62 m / s). This bullet was more than twice as heavy as the 39 x1943-mm cartridge bullet of the 5,45 sample of the year and almost five times as heavy as the 39 xXNUMX-mm bullet of the automatic cartridge.
Bullet cartridge sp. 5 had a composite core: a steel head (with a truncated tip with a diameter of 0,5 mm) and a lead core rolled into a bimetallic shell. A steel core to enhance the bullet penetration was placed in its nose section. The lead core not only gave the bullet the necessary mass, but also ensured its penetration into the grooves of the bore. The peaked ogival shape of the bullet provided her with good ballistic properties when flying at a subsonic speed. Despite the subsonic initial velocity, a bullet with such a mass possessed considerable kinetic energy — on departure it was about 60 kgm, and at a distance of 450 m - 45 kgm. This was quite enough for reliable destruction of manpower in light personal protective equipment. Tests have shown that at a distance of 400 m bullet cartridge SP. 5 has enough energy to break through the 2-mm steel sheet while maintaining the required killing effect. The mass of the cartridge SP. 5 – 32,2 g, cartridge length - 56 mm, cartridge bullet length - 36 mm.
Distinctive coloration bullet cartridges sp. 5 do not have. Only on the carton cartons on the 10 cartridges the inscription "Sniper" was applied.
Already in 1987, a new sample of special sniper weapons, created on the basis of РГ036, and re-squeezed under the 9-mm cartridge SP. 5 (known under the code name "Vintorez"), adopt for service the special purpose units of the KGB of the USSR and reconnaissance and sabotage units of the Soviet Armed Forces under the designation "special sniper rifle" (BCC) 6 ПХNUMX index.
The new weapon, which is a group means of covert attack and defense, was designed to hit targets with sniper fire in conditions requiring silent flameless firing at the enemy’s open manpower (destruction of the enemy’s command personnel; its reconnaissance groups; observers and sentries), as well as for withdrawal from building surveillance devices, elements of military equipment and destruction of unarmored equipment at distances up to 400 m.
BCC rifle consisted of: a barrel with a receiver; silencer with sights; butt; gas piston bolt; shutter; return mechanism; impact mechanism; trigger mechanism; handguards; gas tube; covers the receiver and the store.
The automatic equipment of the BCC sniper rifle worked on the principle of removal of powder gases from the barrel. Locking was carried out when turning the bolt around its axis on the 6 lugs. The fuse box, displayed on the right side of the receiver at the same time, closed the slot for the reloading handle, preventing dust and dirt from getting inside. A translator of the type of fire is mounted inside the trigger guard, behind the trigger. When it is horizontally moved to the right, a single fire is fired, and when it is moved to the left - automatic shooting. The reloading handle is located on the right side of the receiver. Sights consisted of an open sector sight mounted on the body of the muffler and designed for a firing range of up to 420 m, and a front sight in a headset. Food was carried out from a plastic box magazine with a double row arrangement of 10 cartridges. Butt wooden frame type with a rubber nape.
The BCC rifle trigger mechanism ensured high accuracy of firing with single shots. The percussion mechanism with a separate mainspring allowed both single and automatic fire.
A single fire is essential for the BCC sniper rifle; It is characterized by high accuracy. When shooting single shots from a prone position from a stop at a distance of 100 and 5 series of shots R 50, 4 cm, and 400 m - R50 – 16,5. At the same time, continuous fire bursts can be used in case of a sudden meeting with an opponent on short distances, or when there is a need to hit the target, not clearly observed. Given that the BCC magazine’s magazine capacity is just 10 ammunition, therefore, automatic fire can usually be fired in short bursts at the 2 – 4 shot, and in exceptional cases, with one continuous burst until the magazine is depleted.
Reducing the sound of a shot (up to 130 decibels at a distance of 3 meters from the muzzle - corresponds to the sound level when fired from a small-caliber rifle) was achieved along with a special "integrated type" silencer with a powder flow separator SP. 5 with optimal ballistic performance. The “integrated” silencer has significantly reduced the overall length of the weapon.
BCC sniper rifle controls
Along with this, the capabilities of the BCC rifle significantly expanded the whole range of sights, both optical and night vision. At the customer's request, sniper rifles were completed with various sights: for the KGB, the 1 П43 optical daylight (which allows accurate target 400 m shooting in the daytime) and the 1 PN75 nightly illumination 1, in the dark day, calculated on the way to the figure, but it’s not enough, it’s at the and for GRU special forces, respectively - daily PSO-300 – 1 and 1 x4 software and night 34 PN1 (NSPU-51). Specially commissioned by state security agencies to ensure the hidden carrying rifle can be disassembled into three nodes (barrel with a silencer, receiver with a trigger mechanism and butt) and together with the sight and the shops are packed in a diplomat suitcase with dimensions 3 x X450 x X370 mm, and the time required to transfer weapons from the transport position to the combat position is no more than one minute.
The BCC rifle kit includes a sight carrying bag, four stores, a spare parts kit, and a rifle carrying bag.
After the appearance of the cartridge SP. 6 its use in the BCC sniper rifle made it possible to defeat enemy personnel even at the ultimate range of aimed fire, and at 100 m distance - in body armor to class II protection inclusive (according to modern classification), which put it on a par with the most formidable types of infantry small arms.
BCC sniper rifle with a tactical flashlight (top) and a special AC submachine gun (bottom) (right view)
In 2000, the teachers of the Combined Arms Military Academy. Frunze and its subsidiary, “Shot” courses, Colonels V. V. Korablin and A. A. Lovi published in the brochure “Modern Rifle Armament of Russia” a review of the combat use of these weapons, which allows them to more fully appreciate the high qualities of the BCC sniper rifle: companies of one of the regiments operating in the 1995 year in the mountainous district of Yarysh-Mordy, south of Grozny, now Major V.A. Lukashov, from personal experience, considers VSS to be a good addition to the standard weapons of motorized rifle subunits in those conditions. His company acted in isolation from the main forces of the unit and conducted reconnaissance of the enemy with its own forces and means. The company was supplied with several sets of BCC rifles. The commander of the group allocated for reconnaissance - usually the company commander himself or one of the platoon commanders - armed himself, in addition to the standard machine gun, with a BCC rifle and carried it behind his back on a belt. When in the course of reconnaissance it was necessary to hit a separate target at a distance of up to 400 m, a silent shot from the BCC did not allow the enemy to detect the group. These weapons were successfully used in other cases requiring silent and flameless shooting. ”
9-mm AUTOMATIC SPECIAL AU "VAL"
The BCC sniper rifle turned out to be such a successful model of special small arms that P. I. Serdyukov at the same time, on the basis of it, is developing another set of silent weapons on the “Val” theme. The new complex included: a special machine gun AU, which is a modernized version of the "Vintorez" and a special cartridge SP. 6 with a bullet enhanced penetrability.
Special automatic speaker with folded butt (left view)
In TsNIITOCHMASH, the designer Yu. Z. Frolov and the technologist E. S. Kornilova developed a fundamentally new special cartridge for the automaton complex “Val”. 6 (index 7 Н9) with an armor-piercing bullet (with a bare core). This bullet had a higher punching effect than the bullet cartridge SP. 5. Designed to defeat manpower protected by splinter vest up to class III protection inclusive (according to modern classification), as well as unarmored vehicles at a distance of 400 m, it provided 100-percent penetration of 6-mm sheet of special steel at the range of 100 m, and at distances up to 400 m - 2-mm steel sheet (steel army helmet (helmet) or steel sheet with a thickness of 1,6 mm and 25-mm pine board, while maintaining sufficient slaughter supergrade action, which is equivalent to the penetration effect of AME ikanskoy 5,56-mm automatic rifle M16 A1, 7,62-mm AKM rifle and 5,45-mm AK 74.
Ballistic characteristics of cartridges of the joint venture. 5 and SP. 6 are close to each other, so both cartridges can be used in weapons with the same scope. Accuracy of bullets of the cartridge SP. 5 higher than that of bullets of the cartridge SP. 6.
The device of bullets, their penetrating action and ballistics determined the purpose of these cartridges: for the sniper shooting at openly located unprotected manpower, as a rule, SP cartridges are used. 5, and for defeat purposes in personal protective equipment located in vehicles or behind lightweight shelters, - cartridges of the joint venture. 6.
Bullet cartridge sp. 6 consisted of a steel core, a lead shirt and a bimetallic sheath. Due to its design, the bullet cartridge SP. 6 had a higher punching effect than the bullet of the SP cartridge. 5. Heavy bullet sp. 6 had a bimetal casing with a rear cone and a pointed steel heat-strengthened core (diameter 6,5 mm) protruding on the 7,5 mm in a lead jacket. The steel core of this bullet was significantly longer than that of the SP cartridge bullet. 5. The length of the leading part of the bullet joint venture. 6 was reduced to a 10 mm ledge, which forms a cylindrical centering section (diameter 9 mm and length 6 mm), so the nose of the bullet protruded from the shell. The core had an ogival head and a back cone. Bullet weight - 15,6 g. Bullet cartridge SP. 6 had weight - 15,6 g, core weight - 10,4 g, with a cartridge weight - 32,0 g. Cartridge length - 56 mm, bullet length 41 mm. Top bullet cartridge SP. 6 was painted black. On the corked cardboard boxes for these cartridges a distinctive black strip was applied. Later, after the appearance of 9-mm automaton cartridges with an 7 H12 armor-piercing bullet, the tip of the bullet of the cartridge SP. 6 began to turn blue.
New cartridge sp. 6 received the most accolades from experts. The developers of this patron wrote: “The 9-mm cartridge, which has a unique penetrating and damaging effect, will reach your enemy wherever your eyesight reaches it, simultaneously punching any body armor of those that a real person can wear without assistance. And a not too long lineup can do enough damage to damage a truck, launcher, or radar. ”
Incomplete disassembly of a special automaton speaker
The Val automatic machine (6 P30 index) is a personal weapon of covert attack and defense and is intended for hitting targets in conditions that require silently flameless firing at the protected enemy personnel, as well as unarmored or lightly armored combat vehicles.
Automatic AU consisted of: a barrel with a receiver; pistol grip and butt; silencer with sights; gas piston bolt; shutter; return mechanism; impact mechanism; trigger mechanism; handguards; gas tube; covers the receiver and the store.
The automatic equipment of the AS “Val” automated system worked on the principle of removal of powder gases from the barrel. Locking was also done by turning the bolt on the 6 lugs. The firing-type trigger mechanism was designed for single and automatic fire. A translator of the type of fire mounted in the back of the trigger guard. The fuse box, preventing a shot when the trigger is accidentally pressed and the barrel is unlocked, is displayed on the right side of the receiver above the pistol grip of the fire control. The reloading handle is located on the right side of the receiver. The sighting device consists of an open sight, designed for a firing range of up to 420 m and a fly in the earphone. Meals are supplied from plastic box magazines with a double row arrangement, the capacity of 20 cartridges. To speed up the equipment store in the machine are equipped with clips with a capacity of 10 cartridges. Unlike AK 74, the adapter for attaching the clip to the magazine was assembled with the clip. To reduce the sound level, a special “integrated type” silent-flameless device was used.
The design of the AU machine gun on 70% was unified with the BCC sniper rifle, including the types of sights used. However, the machine, unlike the rifle, received a new 20-charging magazine (completely interchangeable with the BCC 10-charging magazine) and a metal frame butt, folding on the left side of the receiver, which made it much more compact and more maneuverable. Automatic AU is convenient for conducting combat operations in limited quantities: in buildings, underground passages, trenches, etc .; when moving in thickets, bush, landing and disembarkation in vehicles; when landing. From the AU can be aimed fire with a folded butt. Like a rifle, the machine is equipped with day and night sights.
Special automaton loudspeaker with a telescope PSO-1 – 1
Cartridges for the BCC rifle and the AU machine gun are also interchangeable. Compared to the “Vintorez” rifle, the “Val” machine gun is more suited to automatic fire at targets protected by body armor at ranges up to 200 m - the SP cartridge. 6 short bursts for 2 – 4 shots; on unprotected targets - patron SP. 5, in tense moments of combat at short distances - in long bursts of 6 – 8 shots, and, if necessary, with continuous fire until the cartridges are spent in the store. At single targets more effective and economical shooting single fire. In all cases, the sound of the shot and the flame are significantly reduced by the silencer, making it difficult for the enemy to determine the position of the shooter. In terms of the reliability of the automation, including in difficult conditions, it is not inferior to the legendary Kalashnikov submachine gun, but weighs a whole kilogram less, which is extremely important in combat.
A case for carrying the machine; bag for carrying the sight and vest for placing and carrying six stores; two flares or one flare and knife; three hand grenades; PSS pistol and spare shop to it.
The production of the BCC sniper rifle and the special AU machine gun was mastered by the Tula Arms Plant.
Special automaton loudspeaker with night sight 1 ПН93 – 1 (right view)
Special-purpose weapons - the BCC sniper rifles and special automatic rifles of the AU, with dignity having gone through all the wars and military conflicts of the last thirty years, deservedly enjoy prestige not only in the elite units of special forces, but also in the Russian Armed Forces. Currently, BCC rifles are used as additional and very effective weapons in reconnaissance units of parachute and motorized rifle units.