Military Review

Laser weapons on combat aircraft. Is it possible to resist it?

36
The advent of new technologies is invariably changing the face. weapons and tactics of warfare. Often, the emergence of a new type of weapon completely “closes” the weapon of the previous generation. Firearms completely supplanted bows and arrows, and the creation tanks led to the disappearance of the cavalry.




No less changes can occur within the framework of one type of weapon, as its characteristics change. For example, on the example of a manned aviation You can see how the design of aircraft and their weapons changed, and in accordance with this the tactics of air war changed. Skirmishes of pilots from the personal weapons of the pilots of the first wooden biplanes gave way to fierce maneuverable air battles of the Second World War. In the Vietnam War, the use of air-to-air (V-B) guided missiles began, and at the moment, long-range aerial combat using guided missile weapons is considered to be the main method of air combat.


The evolution of combat aircraft over 100 years


Weapons on new physical principles


One of the most important areas of arms development in the 21st century can be considered the creation of weapons based on new physical principles (NFP). Despite the skepticism with which many perceive weapons at the NFP, its appearance can radically change the face of the armed forces of the near future. Speaking about weapons at the NFP, they primarily mean laser weapons (LO) and kinetic weapons with electric / electromagnetic acceleration of the projectile.

Leading world powers are investing heavily in the development of laser and kinetic weapons. The leaders in the number of ongoing projects are countries such as the USA, Germany, Israel, China, Turkey. The political-geographical spread of the developments does not allow us to suggest a “conspiracy”, with the aim of taking the enemy (Russia) to a deliberately deadlock direction of arms development. To carry out work, in particular, on the creation of laser weapons, the largest defense concerns were involved: the American Lockheed Martin, Northrop Grumman, Boeing, General Atomic and General Dynamics, the German Rheinmetall AG and MBDA, and many others.

When talking about laser weapons, they often recall the negative experience gained in the 20th century in the framework of Soviet and American programs for creating combat lasers. Here we must take into account the key difference - the lasers of that period, capable of providing sufficient power to hit targets, were either chemical or gas-dynamic, which led to their significant size, the presence of combustible and toxic components, inconvenience of operation, and low efficiency. The rejection of armament of military models according to the results of those tests was perceived by many as the final collapse of the idea of ​​laser weapons.

In the 21st century, the emphasis shifted to the creation of fiber and solid-state lasers, which were widely used in industry. At the same time, target guidance and tracking technologies have significantly advanced, new optical schemes and packet combining of the rays of several laser blocks into a single beam using diffraction gratings have been implemented. All this made the appearance of laser weapons a close reality.


1980's MIRACL chemical laser and Rheinmetall's latest fiber combat laser


At the moment, we can assume that the receipt of serial laser weapons in the armed forces of the leading countries of the world has already begun. At the beginning of 2019 year Rheinmetall AG Announces Successful Testing of 100 kW Combat Laser, which can be integrated into the MANTIS air defense system of the Bundeswehr armed forces. US Army Signs Northrop Grumman and Raytheon on creation of a 50 kW laser weapon for equipping Stryker combat vehicles converted for short-range air defense mission (M-SHORAD). But the biggest surprise was the Turks, using a ground-based laser system to destroy a combat unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) during real hostilities in Libya.


Chinese reconnaissance and strike UAV, shot down by a Turkish combat laser in Libya


At the moment, most of the laser weapons are being developed for use from land and sea platforms, which is understandable by the smaller requirements imposed on the developers of laser weapons in terms of weight and size characteristics and energy consumption. Nevertheless, it can be assumed that laser weapons will have the greatest impact on the appearance and tactics of using military aircraft.

Laser weapons on combat aircraft


The ability to effectively use laser weapons in combat aircraft is due to the following factors:
- high atmospheric permeability for laser radiation, increasing with increasing altitude;
- potentially vulnerable targets in the form of air-to-air missiles, especially with optical and thermal homing heads;
- weight and size restrictions imposed on the anti-laser protection of aircraft and aircraft ammunition.

At the moment, the United States is most active in equipping military aircraft with laser weapons. One of the most likely candidates for the installation of LO is a fifth-generation aircraft F-35B. During installation, a lifting fan is dismantled, providing the F-35B with vertical take-off and landing. Instead, a complex should be installed, including an electric generator driven by a jet engine shaft, a cooling system and a laser weapon with a beam guidance and retention system. The estimated power should be from 100 kW at the initial stage, followed by a phased increase to 300 kW and up to 500 kW. Taking into account the emerging progress in the creation of laser weapons, one can expect the first results after the 2025 year and the appearance of serial samples with a 300 kW laser and more after the 2030 year.


F-35B with integrated laser weapon system


Another model under development is Lockheed Martin's SHiELD system for equipping F-15 Eagle and F-16 Fighting Falcon fighters. Ground tests of the SHiELD complex successfully passed at the beginning of the 2019 yearAir tests are planned for the 2021 year; Admission to service is planned after the 2025 year.

In addition to creating laser weapons, the development of compact power supplies is equally important. In this direction, work is also actively ongoing, for example, in May 2019, a British company Rolls-Royce Demonstrates Compact Hybrid Powerplant for Combat Lasers.

Thus, it is highly likely that in the coming decades, laser weapons will occupy their niche in the arsenal of military aircraft. What tasks will it solve in this capacity?

The use of laser weapons in combat aircraft


The main declared objective of laser weapons aboard combat aircraft should be the interception of attacking enemy missiles of the air-to-air and land-air type (Z-V). At the moment, the possibility of intercepting uncontrolled mortar mines and rockets of multiple launch rocket systems with lasers with power from 30 kW (the value from 100 kW is considered optimal) at a distance of several kilometers has been confirmed. Laser and optical jamming systems have already been put into service and are actively operating, providing temporary blinding of the sensitive optical heads of man-portable air defense systems (MANPADS).


The main objective of laser weapons is to intercept attacking missiles V-V and Z-V


Thus, the appearance of on-board laser weapons with power from 100 kW and above will protect the aircraft from V-V and Z-V missiles with optical and thermal homing heads, i.e. MANPADS and short-range missiles. Moreover, such missiles are likely to be affected at a distance of five kilometers or more in a short period of time. At the moment, the presence of short-range all-angle B-B missiles is considered one of the reasons for the lack of the need for maneuverable close combat, since the combination of transparent armor technology and advanced guidance systems allows missile armament without a significant change in the position of the aircraft in space. The limited weight and size characteristics of V-V and MANPADS missiles will make it difficult to install effective anti-laser protection on them.

Laser weapons on combat aircraft. Is it possible to resist it?

Short-range B-B missiles and MANPADS may become the first “victims” of aviation laser weapons


The next candidates for defeat by laser weapons will be missiles B-B and Z-B long and medium-range, which use active radar homing (ARLGSN). First of all, the question arises of creating a radio-transparent protective material that protects the ARLGSN canvas. In addition, the processes that will occur when the head fairing is irradiated with laser radiation require a separate study. It is possible that the resulting heating products will impede the passage of radar radiation and disrupt the capture of the target. If a solution to this problem is not found, then you will have to return to the radio command guidance of the V-V and Z-V missiles directly by airplane or anti-aircraft missile system (SAM). And this again brings us back to the problem of a limited number of channels for simultaneously guiding missiles and the need to maintain the course of the aircraft until the target is hit by missiles.

With an increase in the laser radiation power, not only elements of the homing system can be damaged, but also other structural elements of the V-V and Z-V missiles, which will require equipping them with anti-laser protection. The use of anti-laser protection will increase the size and weight, significantly reduce the characteristics of the range, speed and maneuverability of missiles V-V and Z-V. In addition to the deterioration of performance characteristics (TTX), making it difficult to hit the target, missiles with anti-laser protection will be more vulnerable to highly maneuverable anti-missile missiles such as CUDA, which will not require protection from laser radiation.


Small-sized highly maneuverable B-B CUDA missiles


Thus, the appearance of laser weapons on combat aircraft is to some extent a one-goal game. To protect the V-V and Z-V missiles from laser damage, they will need to be equipped with anti-laser protection, increase the flight speed to hypersonic to minimize the time spent in the laser radiation zone and, possibly, give up homing heads. At the same time, the ammunition of larger and more massive B-B and 3-B missiles will decrease, and they themselves will be more susceptible to interception by small-sized, highly maneuverable CUDA-type missiles.

The limited ammunition capacity of fifth-generation aircraft, which is especially evident due to the increase in size and mass of B-B missiles, combined with a high probability of interception by a laser or anti-missile, can lead to the fact that warring combat aircraft with laser weapons on board will reach melee range , weapons for which are even more vulnerable to laser weapons.

Laser weapons and close air combat (BVB)


Suppose that two combat aircraft, having shot their stock of guided V-V missiles, reached a range of 10-15 km relative to each other. In this case, a laser weapon with a power of 300-500 kW can directly affect an enemy aircraft. Modern guidance systems at such a range are quite capable of accurately targeting the laser beam at vulnerable elements of the enemy’s aircraft — the cockpit, reconnaissance equipment, engines, and controls. At the same time, on-board electronic equipment, based on the optical and radar signature of a particular aircraft, can independently select vulnerable points and direct a laser beam at them.

Given the high reaction rate that laser weapons can provide, as a result of a clash using short-range LOs, both aircraft of a traditional design are likely to be damaged or destroyed, both pilots will be killed first.

One solution could be the development of compact high-speed short-range ammunition with radio command guidance, capable of overcoming the protection provided by laser weapons due to the high flight speed and volley density. Just as several modern anti-tank guided missiles (ATGMs) are required to destroy one modern tank equipped with an active defense complex (KAZ), simultaneous salvo of a certain number of small-sized melee missiles may be required to destroy one enemy aircraft with laser weapons.

The end of the "invisible" era


Speaking about the military aviation of the future, one cannot fail to mention the promising radio-optical phased array antenna (ROFAR), which should become the basis of military aviation intelligence. While details about all the possibilities of this technology are unknown, the potential appearance of ROFAR will put an end to all existing technologies for reducing visibility. In the event that difficulties arise with ROFAR, advanced aircraft will use advanced models of radar stations with active phased array antennas (radar with AFAR), which, in combination with the intensive use of electronic warfare technologies, can also significantly reduce the effectiveness of the stealth technology.


ROFAR Technology


Based on the foregoing, it can be assumed that in the event of the appearance of an enemy aircraft with laser weapons in the arsenal of the Air Force, the use of aircraft with a large number of weapons on an external load will be an effective solution. A certain “rollback” to the 4 + / 4 ++ generation will take place and the deeply modernized Su-35С, Eurofighter Typhoon or F-15X may become actual models. For example, the Su-35C can carry weapons at twelve points of suspension, the Eurofighter Typhoon has thirteen points of suspension, and the upgraded F-15X can carry up to twenty V-B missiles.


4 + / 4 ++ generation fighters - Su-35С, Eurofighter Typhoon and F-15X


The latest Russian multifunctional Su-57 fighter has slightly less capabilities. On external and internal suspensions of the Su-57, a total of up to twelve V-B missiles can be located. It is likely that suspension units could be developed for Russian fighters, which, by analogy with the F-15X fighter, can accommodate several ammunition on one unit, which will increase the ammunition load of C-35С and Su-57 fighters to 18-22 V-B missiles .


Multifunctional fifth-generation fighter Su-57


weaponry


Getting close to an aircraft equipped with laser weapons can be extremely dangerous due to the high reaction rate of LO. In the event that this happens, it is necessary to maximize the probability of defeating the enemy in a minimum period. As one of the possible solutions can be considered 30 mm fast-firing automatic aircraft guns with guided projectiles.


MAD-FIRES guided projectiles are planned to be implemented in calibers up to 20 mm


The presence of guided missiles will allow you to attack an enemy aircraft from a greater distance than is possible with unguided munitions. At the same time, interception of 30-40-caliber shells with a mm laser can be difficult due to their small size and the large number of ammunition in the queue (15-30 shells).

As mentioned earlier, laser weapons are primarily a threat to missiles with optical and thermal seekers, and possibly to missiles with ARLGS. This will affect the nature of the weapons used by combat aircraft to counter enemy aircraft with LO. The main armament intended for hitting aircraft with aircraft should be V-B remote-controlled missiles with protection against laser radiation. In this case, the radar capabilities for simultaneously guiding several V-V missiles at the target will be of particular importance.

Equally important is the equipping of V-V and Z-V rockets with ramjet engines. This will not only provide the rocket with the energy necessary for maneuvering at maximum range, but will also reduce the time of the LO impact due to the high speed of the rocket at the end of the flight. In addition, high-speed B-B missiles will be a more difficult target for CUDA-type missiles.


Long-range air-to-air guided missile MBDA Meteor, equipped with ARGSN and march ramjet engine


And finally, a small part of the fighter’s ammunition should be small-sized anti-missiles, deployed several units at one suspension point, capable of intercepting the enemy’s V-B and Z-V missiles.

conclusions


1. The advent of laser weapons on combat aircraft, especially in combination with small-sized anti-missiles, will require an increase in the carrying capacity of V-B missiles for combat aircraft. Since the capacity of the internal compartments of fifth-generation aircraft is limited, the placement of missiles on the external suspension will be required, which will extremely negatively affect stealth. This may mean a certain “renaissance” of 4 + / 4 ++ generation aircraft.

2. Laser weapons will pose an exceptional danger in close combat, therefore, in the event of an unsuccessful attack from long and medium ranges, pilots will avoid close combat with aircraft equipped with aircraft, if possible.

3. The ability to confront the 4 + / 4 ++ / 5 generation combat aircraft with a large number of B-B missiles and an inconspicuous 5 generation aircraft with laser weapons on board is determined by the performance of the airborne and intercept missiles to intercept V-B missiles. Starting from a certain moment, the tactics of using massive launches of B-B missiles on aircraft equipped with airborne and anti-missile systems may become inoperative, which will require a rethinking of the concept of multifunctional combat aircraft, which we will consider in the following article.
Author:
Photos used:
topwar.ru, forum.militaryparitet.com, naukatehnika.com, aviaru.rf
Articles from this series:
Laser weapons: technology, history, status, prospects. Part of 1
Laser weapons: prospects in the air force. Part of 2
Laser weapons: ground forces and air defense. Part of 3
Laser weapons: navy. Part of 4
Resist light: protection from laser weapons. Part of 5
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  1. E.S.
    E.S. 15 August 2019 18: 20
    0
    25-30mm guided projectiles for aerial combat - these are five!
    1. Shopping Mall
      15 August 2019 18: 44
      +2
      Quote: E.S.
      25-30mm guided projectiles for aerial combat - these are five!


      These are not my inventions - https://www.popmech.ru/weapon/news-480002-amerikantsy-ispitali-dvigatel-dlya-mad-fires/

      According to the Pentagon, the new ammunition should be suitable for firing from artillery guns of caliber from 20 to 40 millimeters.


      Of course, it cannot be argued that this will be realized. But for the Air Force, this is not a critical technology. For me, it’s more important for the Navy and Air Defense.
      1. KCA
        KCA 16 August 2019 03: 21
        0
        Popmekhanika is an extremely authoritative magazine, all the leading sofa scientists, designers, engineers, military men, eagerly read his articles, which at one time the magazine "Young Technician" would not publish, only if there was a magazine "Well, a very young technician", for children from 5 to 10 years old
        1. Ross xnumx
          Ross xnumx 16 August 2019 04: 37
          +2
          Quote: KCA
          which at one time the magazine "Young Technician" would not publish, only if there was a magazine "Well, a very young technician", for children from 5 to 10 years old

          You explained in such detail that no room was left for the Tekhnika Molodyozhi magazine at all ...
          The author wrote an interesting article about the prospects of laser weapons in aviation, and to blame his work without offering his own attention is simply indecent.
          You perfectly remember the video from 1991 of the year:

          And he was perceived with humor and a certain doom, based on the memory of the quick discharge of "batteries" for portable tape recorders and their weight.
          Today, thirty years later, how do you perceive this video while holding a smartphone?
          As for charging the batteries, it decreased from a few hours to:
          Samsung has patented a graphene battery charging in 12 seconds. New batteries will provide high speed charging, and at the same time - protection from high temperatures, reports ZDNet.
          The publication reports that graphene conducts electricity 140 times faster than silicon. And this, in turn, increases the battery charging speed by five times.

          Sitting on the sofa, of course, it is difficult to imagine SOMETHING ... But the time is not far off, if, of course, "super-humans" do not destroy each other, when fantastic theories and assumptions will be considered in the order of ordinary everyday things.
          With equipment and weapons, this will (can) happen much faster and grander.
          Just for this you need to live a little longer ... yes
          PS As a child, I listened to music and fairy tales recorded on shellac gramophone records. Later they were replaced with vinyl ones, and inserts from the magazine "Krugozor" were so popular that they found a continuation on the "carriers" from X-rays.
          My first tape recorder, bought in 1972 for the money I earned, was:

          Costing about 140 rubles ...
          Imagine how many changes have occurred since then.
          By the way, many of the perspectives from "Young Technician" have been successfully translated into reality.
          hi
          1. umah
            umah 23 October 2019 10: 48
            0
            If a laser on an aircraft is capable of giving a 100 kW pulse every half a second, then yes - it can be a dangerous weapon. And if charging a shot will last from tens of seconds, then you shouldn't bother with the installation of which "weapon"
  2. Demagogue
    Demagogue 15 August 2019 18: 33
    -1
    Now screams will begin that all laser projects drank it and, in general, "you are all lying")))
    1. bk316
      bk316 15 August 2019 18: 55
      +2
      all laser projects it drank

      And then drank? It's about sharing the skin of an unkilled bear. There is no aviation weapon yet and it is not known when it will be, and no one denies that it is necessary to work in this direction. But when they create a combat laser located on the fighter, then, depending on its performance characteristics, the tactics of use will become clear.

      I, too, can fantasize no worse than the author: right now, our guys from Sarov will drive up the 100 megawatt compact reactor and we will heat the aircraft carriers from one shot with a laser gun from orbit. belay
  3. bk316
    bk316 15 August 2019 18: 38
    +4
    NDA is not an article but a disappointment. A bunch of inaccuracies, all in a bunch and unfounded conclusions.
    Here are just a few examples.

    - The author writes as a fait accompli
    But the Turks presented the greatest surprise, using a ground-based laser system to destroy a combat unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) during real hostilities in Libya.
    THIS IS NOT A FACT, AND IT IS EVERYTHING FOR CONSCIOUSNESS, maybe corresponding to the truth or maybe not.
    - the author writes
    the appearance of serial samples with an 300 kW laser or more after the 2030 year.
    Well, do not take away from the turbine of the fighter PROTO SO MEGAWATT power, to do this you need a RESERVE IN MEGAWATT power. Do you think the F-35 has it?
    - the author writes
    Speaking about the military aviation of the future, one cannot fail to mention the promising radio-optical phased antenna array (ROFAR),
    An article about laser weapons, where does ROFAR?

    ETC. ETC.

    The conclusions are not well founded
    it’s probably that they will learn how to shoot close-range V-V missiles, but this will be the RESPONSE to the desire to engage in close combat and
    use the gun.
    - against the background of the forecast of the installation for the fifth generation of aircraft, the hypothesis about the renaissance of the 4 + generation is generally untenable (or does the author suggest equipping the aircraft with old aircraft?)
    1. Shopping Mall
      15 August 2019 18: 50
      0
      Quote: bk316
      NDA is not an article but a disappointment. A bunch of inaccuracies, all in a bunch and unfounded conclusions.
      Here are just a few examples.

      - The author writes as a fait accompli
      But the Turks presented the greatest surprise, using a ground-based laser system to destroy a combat unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) during real hostilities in Libya.
      THIS IS NOT A FACT, AND IT IS EVERYTHING FOR CONSCIOUSNESS, maybe corresponding to the truth or maybe not.


      Maybe not, but presented as follows. And even if not, it is a question of the near future. I generally assumed that Israel would be the first LO to apply.

      Quote: bk316
      - the author writes
      the appearance of serial samples with an 300 kW laser or more after the 2030 year.
      Well, do not take away from the turbine of the fighter PROTO SO MEGAWATT power, to do this you need a RESERVE IN MEGAWATT power. Do you think the F-35 has it?


      And what is the power of the lifting fan? And there is not a megawatt. For an 100 kW laser, 250-300 kW of power is required; for 300 kW, 600-800 kW is required.

      Quote: bk316
      - the author writes
      Speaking about the military aviation of the future, one cannot fail to mention the promising radio-optical phased antenna array (ROFAR),
      An article about laser weapons, where does ROFAR?


      Despite the fact that it will depreciate Stealth technology, and without it, the advantage of the fifth generation over the fourth is not so obvious.

      Quote: bk316
      The conclusions are not well founded
      it’s probably that they will learn how to shoot close-range V-V missiles, but this will be the RESPONSE to the desire to engage in close combat and
      use the gun.


      The laser will burn the brains of the pilot before he enters the position to attack. No maneuvering can be compared with the speed of guidance LO.

      Quote: bk316
      - against the background of the forecast of the installation for the fifth generation of aircraft, the hypothesis about the renaissance of the 4 + generation is generally untenable (or does the author suggest equipping the aircraft with old aircraft?)


      Not the author, but the US Air Force -
      Another model under development is Lockheed Martin's SHiELD system for equipping F-15 Eagle and F-16 Fighting Falcon fighters. Ground tests of the SHiELD complex were successfully completed at the beginning of the 2019 year, air tests are planned for the 2021 year, and arming is planned after the 2025 year.
      1. Shahno
        Shahno 15 August 2019 18: 56
        -2
        // I generally assumed that Israel would be the first LO to use.
        Well, the combat use of the Nurses was. True infa will be classified and the power of the installation. Until the competing firms are lit. Mauger is still half a year, I think a year.
        Again, this is just, let's say, prototypes.
      2. bk316
        bk316 15 August 2019 19: 05
        0
        The laser will burn the pilot’s brain before

        How is that? Make an opaque cockpit and a helmet with augmented reality WHERE AS SIMPLE than a combat laser. Yes, actually they’ve already done it.


        For an 100 kW laser, 250-300 kW of power is required; for 300 kW, 600-800 kW is required.

        And for
        with subsequent incremental increase to 300 kW and up 500 kW.

        Exact Megawatt.


        air Tests scheduled for 2021 year,

        You see all this while fantasy ...
        1. Shopping Mall
          15 August 2019 19: 44
          0
          Quote: bk316
          The laser will burn the pilot’s brain before

          How is that? Make an opaque cockpit and a helmet with augmented reality WHERE AS SIMPLE than a combat laser. Yes, actually they’ve already done it.


          That's right, more on that in the next article. But this is only part of the solution. Because at near range, the LO will pointly work on the enemy’s aircraft in automatic mode, damaging all weak points.

          Quote: bk316
          For an 100 kW laser, 250-300 kW of power is required; for 300 kW, 600-800 kW is required.

          And for
          with subsequent incremental increase to 300 kW and up 500 kW.

          Exact Megawatt.


          It is supposed to use the F-35B motor drive shaft, which usually drives the lift fan, to drive a generator with power above 500 kW (in STOVL mode, the drive shaft supplies up to 20 MW of shaft power to the lift-fan).

          Quote: bk316
          air Tests scheduled for 2021 year,

          You see all this while fantasy ...


          So any forecast can be called fantasies.
          1. bk316
            bk316 16 August 2019 13: 08
            +1
            So any forecast can be called fantasies.

            Of course. From a scientific point of view, there are facts and conjectures AND MORE THAN ANYTHING. Forecasts are speculation, fantasies are also speculation, plans are also speculation, interpretation of facts is speculation.
            You are writing an article as if it were facts.
            Facts must be clearly distinguished from speculation, the statement of facts must be accurate.
            If you clearly wrote, these are my personal fantasies about the development of LO, not based on facts. I would love to read and praise for the direction of thought ...
            I'm just used to reading nonfiction so sorry laughing
      3. E.S.
        E.S. 15 August 2019 19: 12
        -1
        If Israel is the first to present a working LO, the Persians will be the first to present to the Kassam with a leading plasma generator, and the construct will cost 15 kopecks
      4. Ka-52
        Ka-52 16 August 2019 05: 28
        +1
        The laser will burn the brains of the pilot before he enters the position to attack. No maneuvering can be compared with the speed of guidance LO.

        please don't put up with your couch vision of air combat practice. Active maneuvering will negate all your attempts to aim at the pilot's brain.
        high atmospheric permeability for laser radiation, increasing with increasing altitude

        Yes, what are you? And about the fact that clouds form starting from heights from 300m to 8-9km you probably have not heard? Or in your version of the WB they only happen to the stratosphere Or will it be held exclusively in the desert regions of North Africa and Arabia?
  4. Shahno
    Shahno 15 August 2019 18: 48
    +1
    Cool. But the idea is clear. ... Stealth is not effective, and the laser is our future. winked
  5. E.S.
    E.S. 15 August 2019 19: 07
    -1
    Quote: AVM
    Quote: E.S.
    25-30mm guided projectiles for aerial combat - these are five!


    These are not my inventions - https://www.popmech.ru/weapon/news-480002-amerikantsy-ispitali-dvigatel-dlya-mad-fires/

    According to the Pentagon, the new ammunition should be suitable for firing from artillery guns of caliber from 20 to 40 millimeters.


    Of course, it cannot be argued that this will be realized. But for the Air Force, this is not a critical technology. For me, it’s more important for the Navy and Air Defense.

    The 40 textbook a year ago and the slide rule make sure that the aiming range of the corrected 25-30mm projectile will be commensurate with the spread of the shells in the queue.
    It makes no sense to correct such a projectile, selecting an already small explosive charge of such a projectile on the correction system
    1. Shopping Mall
      15 August 2019 19: 38
      -1
      Quote: E.S.
      Quote: AVM
      Quote: E.S.
      25-30mm guided projectiles for aerial combat - these are five!


      These are not my inventions - https://www.popmech.ru/weapon/news-480002-amerikantsy-ispitali-dvigatel-dlya-mad-fires/

      According to the Pentagon, the new ammunition should be suitable for firing from artillery guns of caliber from 20 to 40 millimeters.


      Of course, it cannot be argued that this will be realized. But for the Air Force, this is not a critical technology. For me, it’s more important for the Navy and Air Defense.

      The 40 textbook a year ago and the slide rule make sure that the aiming range of the corrected 25-30mm projectile will be commensurate with the spread of the shells in the queue.
      It makes no sense to correct such a projectile, selecting an already small explosive charge of such a projectile on the correction system


      Everything is so, only the dispersion is evenly distributed, and guided projectiles fly at the target. If you have 2000 shells and you release them in 10 seconds, then this is not so important. And if you have 100-120 shells, then the alignment is completely different.

      Guided projectiles should not "chase" a maneuvering target, only simplify aiming (it is not necessary to precisely set the axis of the aircraft-gun and partially compensate for the deviation of the target.

      There will be no sense of explosives if there was no hit on the target.
  6. E.S.
    E.S. 15 August 2019 19: 54
    -2
    Quote: AVM
    Quote: E.S.
    Quote: AVM
    Quote: E.S.
    25-30mm guided projectiles for aerial combat - these are five!


    These are not my inventions - https://www.popmech.ru/weapon/news-480002-amerikantsy-ispitali-dvigatel-dlya-mad-fires/

    According to the Pentagon, the new ammunition should be suitable for firing from artillery guns of caliber from 20 to 40 millimeters.


    Of course, it cannot be argued that this will be realized. But for the Air Force, this is not a critical technology. For me, it’s more important for the Navy and Air Defense.

    The 40 textbook a year ago and the slide rule make sure that the aiming range of the corrected 25-30mm projectile will be commensurate with the spread of the shells in the queue.
    It makes no sense to correct such a projectile, selecting an already small explosive charge of such a projectile on the correction system


    Everything is so, only the dispersion is evenly distributed, and guided projectiles fly at the target. If you have 2000 shells and you release them in 10 seconds, then this is not so important. And if you have 100-120 shells, then the alignment is completely different.

    Guided projectiles should not "chase" a maneuvering target, only simplify aiming (it is not necessary to precisely set the axis of the aircraft-gun and partially compensate for the deviation of the target.

    There will be no sense of explosives if there was no hit on the target.


    It is still necessary to "set the axis" because the correction limits are commensurate with the spread of the queue.
    The result of the firing by the corrected projectile will be the hit not of five shells with 150 gr BB each, but of ten with 50 grams.
    But if the queue of 50 conventional shells all went by, then the corrected shells do not have the limit of the path correction to select such an aiming error
  7. Klingon
    Klingon 15 August 2019 23: 04
    0
    Quote: E.S.
    25-30mm guided projectiles for aerial combat - these are five!

    why not if we have already talked about "smart" guided bullets for small arms
    1. Ka-52
      Ka-52 16 August 2019 06: 20
      +1
      25-30mm guided projectiles for aerial combat - these are five!

      why not if we have already talked about "smart" guided bullets for small arms

      so where are they? Probably in the same place as the 25-30mm guided shells - only in projectors' designs and articles like this
  8. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 16 August 2019 00: 31
    -4
    The review is approximately correct.
    ROFAR will replace not AFAR, but the optical guidance system.
    Which has a drawback: narrow hover angle. A little sharply to the side - optics
    loses target like a sniper scope. And ROFAR will keep the goal.
    But at small ("optical") distances.
    1. Avior
      Avior 16 August 2019 01: 23
      0
      IMHO, you are mistaken.
      In ROFAR, the optical control system is only the first-order magnetic modules, and the rest is AFAR, although with a large number of modules and high resolution when mapping
      1. Ka-52
        Ka-52 16 August 2019 06: 55
        0
        Avior (Sergey) Today, 01: 23
        IMHO, you are mistaken.
        In ROFAR, the optical control system is only the PPM modules, and the rest is AFAR,

        absolutely no afar. Since in AFAR, the PMD generates a given level of microwave power of the radio wave and receives the same signal with a given sensitivity of the receiving channel. And at ROFAR, the PPM modulates the laser beam in amplitude with a carrier microwave signal. It is easier to say that AFAR radiation is an electromagnetic wave with a certain frequency and long. And in ROFAR - photons with a certain polarization.
        1. Avior
          Avior 16 August 2019 08: 38
          0
          Judging by the statements of the developer, it looks a bit different.
          The laser beam in the rofar is used to control the PMD - this is the difference from the Afar, in which the control of the modules is electric.
          This control method, according to the developers of Rofar, can significantly increase the efficiency of the modules, and therefore the radiation power, and significantly expand the frequency range in which the modules can operate, which in turn allows you to get new properties for such a radar.
          . In radio photonics, the energy of light radiation, that is, a laser with a power of hundreds of kilowatts, is converted using the so-called photonic crystal into microwave radiation. In this case, the efficiency of devices based on crystalline photons reaches the order of 70-80%. Remains quite a bit of excess thermal radiation.

          Is this the only advantage of radio photonics? Otherwise, radar using radio photonics technology will work the same as the existing ones?

          The capabilities of the so-called active phased array antenna, created using the technology of radio photonics (ROFAR), will significantly exceed the capabilities of modern radars.

          http://www.kr-media.ru/news/avionika-i-vooruzhenie/sovetnik-pervogo-zamestitelya-generalnogo-direktora-kret-v-g-mikheev-intervyu/

          Another thing is that the developers are so confused about the essence of the issue, that this multiplies various misconceptions among readers.
          For example
          . Radar stations operating on the principles of radio-optical phased antenna arrays will provide us with the output not of the dots typical of current radars in the form of dots on the screen, but of a video image familiar to human vision, as if we could see an object hundreds of kilometers away

          In fact, this is a description of a synthetic aperture radar that has long existed.
          For example http://www.vega.su/production/detail.php?ID=2101
          And the statement looks all the more strange
          . , Everything happens in real time since the speed of the photon exceeds the speed of light.
          what
          But we will wait until the first really valid model is presented, I think, then a more intelligible description of the principle of work will appear
          hi
          1. Ka-52
            Ka-52 16 August 2019 09: 19
            0
            In principle, according to your link, Mikheev said the same thing, and I wrote:
            In radio photonics, the energy of light radiation, that is, a laser with a power of hundreds of kilowatts, is converted using the so-called photonic crystal into microwave radiation. In this case, the efficiency of devices based on crystalline photons reaches the order of 70-80%
            1. Avior
              Avior 16 August 2019 11: 31
              0
              Sorry, but you said the exact opposite -
              . AFAR radiation is an electromagnetic wave with a certain frequency and long. And in ROFAR - photons with a certain polarization.

              According to Mikheev, Rofar has the same electromagnetic microwave radiation as afar, only the frequency range is wider.
              I think it’s better to wait until working samples appear, then the description will be more distinct, until, frankly, they are very advertising
              1. voyaka uh
                voyaka uh 16 August 2019 12: 34
                -1
                "Rofar is the same electromagnetic microwave radiation as afar" ////
                -----
                That's right. The laser only generates waves from sub-millimeter to
                decimeter range. They are sent to the object, and no photons
                (otherwise it would be called just a laser smile ).
                ROFAR is an advanced AFAR.
                1. Avior
                  Avior 16 August 2019 12: 36
                  0
                  It’s even more correct to say that it does not generate, but controls the generation, they actually generate MRP.
        2. voyaka uh
          voyaka uh 16 August 2019 12: 44
          0
          ". And ROFAR has photons with a certain polarization" ////
          ----
          Laser emits photons. They will not return to the source of radiation in any way.
    2. Ka-52
      Ka-52 16 August 2019 07: 01
      0
      voyaka uh (Alexey) Today, 00: 31
      ROFAR will replace not AFAR, but the optical guidance system.

      But at small ("optical") distances.

      Warrior, you unfortunately do not understand the principle of work of ROFAR. This is not an optical station, like OLS-35 or AN / AAQ-37
      1. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 16 August 2019 12: 30
        -2
        I didn’t write that. I wrote that ROFAR will replace the OLS. And he wrote that ROFAR,
        since it operates in a sub-millimeter wavelength, it is not suitable for large
        distance (due to unavoidable losses).
        It is possible that technology will be combined into a single device, the basis of which
        will be the usual detection in the centimeter range.
        In any case, ROFAR will not help with the fight against stealth, so
        how sub-millimeter waves are easily absorbed by the stealth coating.
  9. Avior
    Avior 16 August 2019 01: 19
    0
    There is such information on ROFAR
    . KRET conducts this work, is the lead organization under the order of the Advanced Research Foundation (FPI) under the government of the Russian Federation. The project was launched in February 2015, and ends in July 2019. We must present the ROFAR demonstrator model and conduct research on the possibilities of its use on promising media.

    http://www.kr-media.ru/news/avionika-i-vooruzhenie/sovetnik-pervogo-zamestitelya-generalnogo-direktora-kret-v-g-mikheev-intervyu/

    July passed, but there seemed to be no information that the layout was presented.
    There was no information that the project was extended.
    There is, of course, the option that at the last moment they finish something and tighten it up, as it has been established in Russia from time immemorial, and in the near future we will see messages that the layout-demostrator is presented, and the topic is extended.
  10. Klingon
    Klingon 16 August 2019 10: 34
    0
    Quote: Ka-52
    25-30mm guided projectiles for aerial combat - these are five!

    why not if we have already talked about "smart" guided bullets for small arms

    so where are they? Probably in the same place as the 25-30mm guided shells - only in projectors' designs and articles like this

    In developing. Projects were even in the USSR (atomic bullets) also bullets with a jet booster.
    wait, everything is in development, DARPA seems to have represented them already. - Or do you take it out right now?
    Of course, we can only talk about bullets of large caliber of at least 14 mm. And sticking a microelement base into an 30mm projectile is much easier. So there is still ahead and guided hand grenades too.
    Believe me someday any fiction becomes a reality. Remember the folding communicators from Captain Kirk and the Enterprise teams from Star Trek (original series) 60's. Doesn’t resemble anything ??
  11. 3danimal
    3danimal 18 August 2019 00: 30
    0
    For "massive launches" you need to have no less massive air forces and the corresponding number of missiles.
  12. Victor V. Apollonov
    Victor V. Apollonov April 18 2020 23: 00
    0
    Victor V. Apollonov (Victor V. Apollonov) Today, 22:31 PM
    0
    This article once again shows the importance of a good understanding of the subject under discussion. Without an idea of ​​the development trends of laser physics, one can dramatically go the other way in the development of aviation and rocket technology. A gross error in one can lead to gigantic errors in other areas of military technology! And these are hundreds of billions and decades of hard work.
    Reply