Military Review

Stechzeig for the Gestech from the Vienna Armory

73
Knights and armor. At the beginning of the XV century armorintended for tournament fights on spears have been completely modified. Concern for increasing the safety of knights who fought in the tournament, and the constant pursuit of its entertainment, led to the appearance of particularly difficult, special armor that minimized the possibility of serious injury. The fights themselves on spears began to be called Gestech (from it. Stechen - stabbing). Accordingly, the armor for such a duel became known as "Shtehtsoig." It is clear that in different countries of Europe, armor had its own local differences. However, in fact, there were only two armors of this type: the German shtehtsoig and the Italian.


Stechzeig for the Gestech from the Vienna Armory

The armor in the Vienna Imperial Arsenal occupies eight large halls surrounding a domed courtyard with loggias. Right in front of us is a rider in sumptuous corrugated armor, covering not only himself, but also his horse. In the next photo we will consider it in more detail.



This luxurious set of Ferdinand I for the rider and his horse could be used both in battle and in the tournament. Since the cost of combat and tournament armor in the 16th century began to go wild, plate headsets came into fashion, the details of which could be changed and thus had several armor at once at the same time, with significant cost savings. Nevertheless, the cost of such a headset was extremely high, and not surprisingly. After all, its details were corrugated, and corrugated armor is more labor-consuming to manufacture. Their edges were trimmed with gold on a blue background, depicting curls, trophies, fabulous animals and figures of people in the late style of the Augsburg master Daniel Hopfer. The reliable attribution of the belonging of this armor to Ferdinand I and the master Colman Helmschmidd was carried out with the help of the Tuna Codex, lost in the 1945 year, in which there were preliminary sketches relating to the orders of the Habsburgs at the workshops of the Helmschmids. Exhibited armor in the hall №3. The owner is Emperor Ferdinand I (1503 — 1564), the son of Philip of Habsburg. Manufacturer: Coleman Helmschmid (1471 — 1532 gg., Augsburg), as evidenced by his stigma. Materials and manufacturing techniques: corrugated wrought iron, gold, brass, leather.

The classic German shtehtsoig consisted of several parts. First of all, a new helmet was invented for him, which received the peculiar name “toad head”. Outwardly, it somewhat resembled old helmets-pots, its lower part also covered the face from neck to eyes, the back of the head and neck, but the parietal part was flattened and the front part was very elongated forward. The viewing gap was designed in such a way that in order to look through it, the knight had to tilt his head forward. As soon as it was raised, this gap became inaccessible to any weapons, including the tip of the spear, and all of its protective properties were based on this particular feature of it. Attacking the enemy, the horseman bowed his head, but immediately before the blow, with a well-aimed spear, he raised it and then the enemy spear, even if it fell into the helmet, could not do its owner the slightest harm. There were paired openings on both the toe and on both sides of the helmet; some served for fastening helmet-mounted jewelry, while others served for leather straps that pulled the comforter underneath.


Incomplete Stojceug of Emperor Maximilian I


The breastplate of this armor was short. The cuirass's left side was convex, and the right side, where the spear hook was located, was flat. By the way, this hook, which appeared precisely on these armors, became simply necessary, because the spear has now gained weight and holding it with one hand has become almost impossible. The helmet was mounted on the chest with three screws or with a special clamp. On the back, a helmet with a cuirass was connected by a vertically placed helmet bolt, which created a very strong and rigid structure. On the right side of the cuirass’s chest was a massive spear hook, and on the back there was also a bracket for fixing the back of the spear. On the left side of the cuirass, two holes are visible that sometimes replace the massive ring. All this was necessary for attaching a hemp rope, with the help of which a tarch shield was tied to the left side of the chest. The tarch was usually wooden and covered with leather and ... bone plates. Its width was about 40 cm, length about 35 cm. Before the fight, such a tarch was covered with fabric of the same color and pattern with horse blanket. Legs were protected by lamellar gaiters reaching to the knees. The lower part of the cuirass rested on the saddle and thus supported the full weight of this armor.


And here is another curious “armor”: the Grand Guard of the tournament headset of King Francis I (that is, an additional patch armor that easily turned ordinary combat armor into tournament armor!). In 1539, the tournament armor set along with a spear shield (template) were ordered by Emperor Ferdinand I for the French king Francis I as a gift. Master Jörg Seusenhofer personally went to Paris to measure the king. The design of the armor was carried out by several masters at once, as evidenced by some eclecticism of its patterns. In 1540, the work was completed, but the gift itself was not given due to deteriorating relationships. As a result, the armor got to Vienna, from where in the 1805 year Napoleon took them to Paris, where most of them remained (Museum of Art, Inv.G G 117). In Vienna, left a guard and a template. Such armor was intended for group combat on horseback, the purpose of which was to knock the enemy out with a heavy blunt spear from the saddle. At the same time, horses galloping towards each other were separated by a barrier called pallium. As for the reasons for the donation, they are connected with the fact that King Francis I of France at that time four times fought with Emperor Charles V for supremacy in Italy. He was captured at the Battle of Pavia in the 1525 year and was released only in connection with the Peace of Madrid concluded in the 1526 year. In a short period of peace between 1538-1542 years. between the Habsburgs and Francis I these armors were created. The deterioration of relations prevented the delivery of the gift to the French king. Manufacturers: Jörg Zeusenhofer (1528 - 1580, Innsbruck), Degen Pirger (etching) (1537 - 1558, Innsbruck). Material and technology: wrought iron, the so-called white armor with etched gilded pattern.

It should be noted that, as a rule, a pleated skirt made of fabric, decorated with luxurious embroideries and falling down on the hips with beautiful folds, was usually worn on the shtehtsoig. The spear shaft was made of soft wood, and had a standard length of 370 cm and a diameter of about 9 cm. The tip was crowned and consisted of a short sleeve with three to four not too long but sharp teeth. A protective disk was put on the spear, which was screwed to the iron ring on the spear shaft.


A knight (left) in a pleated skirt was knocked out by a spear from the saddle. The Tournament Book of Emperor Maximilian I (1459 - 1519). (Vienna imperial arsenal).



Another very important piece of armor for a spear duel is the protective disk template. Belonged to Emperor Maximilian II (1527 - 1576) and was made in Augsburg c. 1548 / 1550 on the occasion of the election of Maximilian II as king of Bohemia, along with tournament armor. The Augsburg gunsmith Matteus Frauenprays worked on its manufacture, who made two replaceable disks at once. Refined ornaments, gilded stripes with patterns belong to etching artist Jörg Sorg.



“Troikik” - the tip of the tournament spear from the armor of the stekhtsoig of Emperor Maximilian I. It is exhibited in Hall No. 1.


Spurs, although they are not shown here, had the same design for all varieties of tournaments. They were made of iron, although on the outside they happened to be covered with brass. Their length reached 20 cm. At the end there was a rotating star. Spurs of this form allowed the rider to control the horse during the tournament. The saddle had high, metal-clad bows, which gave good protection to the rider even without any armor.


Saddle of Archduke Charles II, son of Ferdinand I, 1563



Typical shtehtsoyg, approximately 1483 / 1484 gg. owned by Archduke Sigmund of Tyrol, son of Emperor Frederick IV (1427 - 1496). A heavy tanker weighing about 40-45 kg consisted of carefully designed equipment elements that were firmly connected to each other, so that a person who was inside such armor was almost completely protected from possible damage. The goal of the duel was to hit a thick wooden shield with leather upholstered with a spear tied to the chest of the knight on the left. The creator of this armor was Caspar Reader, one of the many Tyrolean armor masters who worked in the suburbs of the city of Innsbruck. In 1472, he, with three other masters, he carried out an order for the manufacture of armor for the king of Naples. High appreciation of his work by Emperor Maximilian I was expressed in the fact that in addition to the usual pay for work, he received an honorary dress from him.

The Italian shtehtsoig was also intended for the spear tournament, called the "Romanesque". It differed from German in details. Firstly, his helmet was attached to the bib and back with screws. Moreover, on the front wall of the helmet there was a plate with holes - a clasp. Well, the helmet itself had a wide rectangular door on the right, a kind of window for ventilation. Secondly, the side of the cuirass on the right was convex, and not flat, that is, the cuirass had an asymmetric shape. Thirdly, in front it was covered with a thin Kamchatka canvas, on which heraldic emblems were embroidered. There was a tharch ring on the left side of the cuirass. On the right side, on the belt, was a leather cup covered with cloth, into which a spear was inserted before entering the lists. Moreover, it was much lighter than those copies that were used in the German tournament. For this reason, there was no rear arm for the spear shaft on the armor.


The axillary hollows of the stechtzuig often covered with convex discs.


The French shtehtsoig was almost identical to the Italian, but English, although it was called the steitzoig, had the most similarities with the combat and tournament armor of the XIV century than with the real German armor of the XV - XVI centuries. The reason was that in England the renewal of knightly tournament equipment was very slow.

PS The author and the site administration express their heartfelt gratitude to the curators of the chamber Ilse Jung and Florian Kugler for the opportunity to use the photographic materials of the Vienna Armory.

To be continued ...
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Articles from this series:
Vienna Armory. Tournament Armor
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  1. polpot
    polpot 3 September 2019 18: 09
    +3
    Thanks for the interesting article, wonderful illustrations.
  2. Lipchanin
    Lipchanin 3 September 2019 18: 39
    +2
    How interesting. good
    Real tanks. I can imagine how much labor and time it took to manufacture, and especially to decorate such armor.
    Yes, and horses are not sweet such a burden to wear. After all, it was necessary to speed with all speed.
    The spectacle of the tournament was probably amazing.
    1. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master 3 September 2019 20: 23
      +6
      Quote: Lipchanin
      Real tanks.

      To fill up such a monster on the battlefield is practically unrealistic - only if knocked down and thrashed ten times in shifts. Considering the fact that an uncle dressed in such luxuries, as a rule, learned to fight from early childhood, trained and knew how to stand up for himself and not fall, as well as properly boil any ill-wisher, the task of reassuring him became almost impossible, even if on the field battle, he, at some point, was left alone and surrounded.
      I can imagine the state of a hypothetical infantryman who, in the confusion of battle, managed to get close to such a "battleship", for example, from behind and, with all the foolishness, attach it on the coupol, for example, with a halberd or a reed. I think that after the goal only slightly shakes and immediately, with the same energy, without even turning around, continues to do what he loves, the enthusiasm and halberdist will diminish. And when the second and third blows have the same effect, the mood should drop sharply in general, this is if by this time he himself is not applied with something heavy.
      Although, of course, the formation of the Swiss battle could well overturn such handsome men, but they were Swiss.
      1. Lipchanin
        Lipchanin 3 September 2019 20: 29
        +3
        You know, I'm certainly not a specialist, not a historian. But it seems to me very much that they did not fight with infantry on the battlefield. A light infantryman can only be taken with a sword. You can't wave a lot with a sword. They were severe infections. The goal was probably the same knights, Well, probably punch the passage through the ranks. And there is already the case of the infantry.
        Although military historians know this, I only have thoughts aloud smile
        1. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master 3 September 2019 21: 02
          +5
          In the XV century. knights often had to get up on foot. Thus, additional stability was given to the infantry formation, firstly, the knights - the first-class fighters - were, as it were, the centers of crystallization of the human mass, and secondly, the morale of the infantrymen was raised, since they were with the dismounted knights, as they say, "in the same boat", that is, "win or die", for it was impossible for a knight chained in steel to escape from the battlefield on foot, whether you were even a count, even a duke, or even a prince. Seeing a baron or count next to him, a creature, for an ordinary infantryman, in fact, from another world, the infantryman felt safer, felt less fear.
          You can recall the Battle of Agincourt or, for example, the Wars of the Roses, the Battle of Barnet, when the "kingmaker" Earl of Warwick died and precisely because he fought on foot. Many such examples can be found if you search.
          In Germany, they even introduced a special tournament discipline - the knights' foot battle and at that very time.
          1. Lipchanin
            Lipchanin 3 September 2019 21: 10
            +2
            I didn’t think about the battle on foot. It never occurred to me that in such armor you can move on foot request
            In 1966, I ended up in St. Basil’s Cathedral on Red Square. There was a knight on the ground floor. Well, of course, armor. The guide said that they decided to try on a modern man. Not one man of standard height and size of the mid-20th century did not fit into it smile
      2. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 3 September 2019 21: 01
        +2
        Almost unrealistic. But under Kurtra they fell!
        1. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master 3 September 2019 21: 10
          +3
          Greetings, Anton.
          Courtray - the beginning of the XIV century, and here we are talking about the XV - XVI centuries. At the time of Courtrau, such armor was not yet available. You can recall both Charles the Bold and the "kingmaker" I have already mentioned, Earl of Warwick, even Richard III, but that's why it is a war, that anything is possible on it. If you focus on finishing off the fallen, and even doing this not in the conditions of an ongoing battle, but in the course of pursuing the fleeing, you can open the visor of the helmet ...
          In general, nobles of this level rarely died precisely during an active battle.
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 3 September 2019 21: 26
            +2
            Hello Mikhail! After the "tank" we haven't crossed paths for a long time. I am glad that you were not included in the list of "my tank builders" laughing For they will all pour out!
            1. Trilobite Master
              Trilobite Master 3 September 2019 22: 22
              +1
              Quote: 3x3zsave
              were not included in the list of "my tank builders"

              I also participated, Anton ... feel
              True, I limited myself to one remark, but words cannot be erased from a song ... smile "Twilight smells like a Jamaican tank ..." smile
              So I'm ready for a just retribution. When it is cast, I am ready to participate. laughing
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 3 September 2019 22: 30
                +2
                Past the box office, Michael! You were sophisticated and pussy! good Everyone else: hold me three !!! (Between us, call me to change my nickname, all one thing is to call you "Trilobitych")
                1. Trilobite Master
                  Trilobite Master 3 September 2019 22: 58
                  +2
                  I don’t cherish my nickname at all, I just think that distorting someone else’s nicknames — any — is some bad manners, so I react. smile
                  The charm of communicating on the Internet in many respects lies in the fact that here a person has the opportunity to be called as he wants to be called. I approach the selection of pseudonyms (as well as many other things) with extraordinary ease, without spending more than a minute or two on this and believing that the main thing is not form, but content. The sales manager is of me, of course, because of this, it’s like a ballerina from the stool, but, thank God, this is not required of me ... laughing
                  So, you don’t need to expect seriousness in relation to your own nickname, and in general I don’t understand how to take such things seriously. Which, however, does not negate respect for someone else, in this case, to your opinion on this issue. smile
                  I will follow the casting process with interest. laughing
              2. Catfish
                Catfish 4 September 2019 09: 44
                +1
                How, how, I remember. Jamaican rum in the sense of replacing diesel fuel as fuel for armored vehicles. laughing Then I thought that for such an idea, tankers from all over the world would erect a lifetime monument to you. But Anton "casts" a bullet to us and, I'm afraid that the caliber there will be serious. I'll leave for Baden-Baden, it all went - life is more expensive. sad
            2. Catfish
              Catfish 4 September 2019 09: 34
              +2
              Well, he just emerged from the nightmare of night dreams, and here they promise to beat his face almost.

              Now I am a tank, let alone write, I dare not say it aloud. And what to do now? I'll go, "I'll drink three hundred drops of valerian out of grief," or whatever Koroviev advised. I’m in trouble — so in trouble! Unlucky in life.
              Yes, I have a question: our friend, Seryoga, who is FIL, has disappeared from that memorable discussion of your nickname ... Isn't this your job? recourse
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 4 September 2019 19: 28
                +1
                Hello, Konstantin!
                The credible one! It fully corresponds to my ideas about Russian folk tales, in my favorite "steam-punk" style. You, +5 to karma! Consider that you got rid of it. laughing We are waiting for other "competitors".
                As for "Fil77", well, a person on vacation, maybe he rushed into nature ...
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 4 September 2019 19: 53
                  +1
                  Hello Anton! hi Cheesy - yes, but grandma, grandma! I'm in love. laughing
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 4 September 2019 20: 03
                    +3
                    I'm sorry, but I can not resist.
                    "When our grandfather returns home after midnight, he smells of wine and grandmothers" (c) laughing drinks
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 4 September 2019 20: 59
                      +1
                      Yeah, well, just like me in my youth. laughing drinks
                      1. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 4 September 2019 21: 14
                        +1
                        "In youth" ... Do not be dashing, otherwise I will cry crying
                        I'm serious...
                      2. Catfish
                        Catfish 4 September 2019 21: 18
                        +1
                        "Yes, there were people in our time, not like the current tribe ..." (C) crying drinks
                      3. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 4 September 2019 21: 28
                        +1
                        "And I am circling lost
                        With the windiest of women
                        I've been looking for this for a long time,
                        And no more and no less "(c)
                        "I'll walk along the" apricot "
                        I will turn to "grape" "(c)
                      4. Catfish
                        Catfish 4 September 2019 21: 32
                        +1
                        "Buy bagels, hot bagels,
                        Drive the rubble here soon
                        And on a rainy night, miserable for me,
                        Take pity on the private merchant! "(C)
                      5. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 4 September 2019 21: 38
                        +1
                        "Kamaraden, geben zi world, bitte, aine cigarette" (c)
                      6. Catfish
                        Catfish 4 September 2019 22: 08
                        0
                        Nicht Tsigaretten, their bean is sick, Herr Brigadeführer! soldier
                      7. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 4 September 2019 22: 39
                        +1
                        Ich nicht Brigadenfurer! Ich bin Generalmajor. Unsere Brigadenfurer und Parteigenosse, ist Heer Shcpakovski.
                      8. Catfish
                        Catfish 5 September 2019 11: 27
                        +1
                        "In your opinion, he does not understand that you are worried about the foreign tourist, citizen." (C)
      3. akunin
        akunin 4 September 2019 09: 52
        0
        Quote: Trilobite Master
        Quote: Lipchanin
        Real tanks.


        I can imagine the state of a hypothetical infantryman who, in the confusion of battle, managed to get close to such an "battleship", for example, from behind and, with all the foolishness, attach it to the coupol, for example, with a halberd or a reed.

        if a horseman, then they killed / crippled the horse, pulled it off with bograms or hooks, then clerics / chasers and lucernhammers
        1. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master 4 September 2019 10: 31
          +3
          Quote: akunin
          pulled off by goggles or hooks

          This is not a simple and dangerous business. smile And I'm not sure that even by catching a hook, it was possible to easily pull a knight out of a high saddle with stirrups if he interferes with this process. With the same probability, the knight can pull off the hapless "hauler" after him, if he does not throw the gaff. smile
          You probably imagine the battle of the late Middle Ages as a kind of dump, where slow and heavy knights on horses rise here and there, and between them agile infantrymen scurrying back and forth with hooks and dummies.
          I have a slightly different idea. A typical battle appears to me as a collision of dense ranks of infantry with a clearly visible line of contact, while the cavalry operates on the flanks in a "bounce-and-bounce" mode. To force the cavalry to accept a battle with a dense infantry with three, depriving it of room for movement and dispersal is the dream of any commander of that time, and when this succeeded, more often out of the stupidity and arrogance of the cavalry commander, noble defeats followed. There are a lot of examples. Loss of speed, and even more so, a stop for a mounted warrior is tantamount to defeat. Acceleration - blow - pursuit - that's his element. If it was not possible to break through the formation or drive - a turn, retreat, a short rest and again acceleration, a blow. And sitting on a horse in the middle of a fight you can't do much.
          1. akunin
            akunin 4 September 2019 10: 49
            0
            the cavalry, on the other hand, operates on the flanks in the "bounced" mode [
            not a specialist in tactics (especially medieval), but
            "bounced and bounced"
            in relation to a healthy bull, hung with metal basins and with it on his head, riding on a percheron, hung with even heavier basins, it somehow does not fit. To accelerate with that weight, you need to do an enema with a hot ski every time hi
            1. akunin
              akunin 4 September 2019 11: 13
              0
              Quote: akunin
              ski

              I mean ski pi gift (built-in censor cut off).
            2. Trilobite Master
              Trilobite Master 4 September 2019 11: 35
              +2
              Long spears, kick from acceleration, U-turn and retreat. No dashing leaps. A light trot with a gallop only at the last 30 meters, an attack not with deep loose lava, as we are shown in the movies, but with a maximum depth of a couple of rows and a distance between the horsemen of two meters and between rows of five to six meters. The attack of two hundred heavy horsemen is a hundred practically simultaneous ram blows with spears and after a few seconds another hundred - the second wave. For the third, there will already be no place, so turn back and trot back. If the enemy system faltered, or collapsed, then vice versa - forward, swords in hand and chop the fleeing.

              We all heard about Curtre, Crescie, Poitiers, Agencourt, etc., where the knights were bogged down in a dense infantry formation and were defeated. But for some reason, in our historiography, such battles as Kassel and Castillon, where the result was exactly the opposite, are not particularly explored. The war then did not take place in the form of large battles (they were an exception), but mainly in the form of small skirmishes with a total number of participants up to 1000 people, more than one hundred such battles took place. 10 years have passed between Crescy and Poitiers, 10 years of active war. Between Poitiers and Agincourt - 60 years, during which the French managed to expel the British from a huge part of their territories - all this happened during small skirmishes, sieges, etc. It was at these skirmishes that tactics were formed, methods and principles of warfare, etc., were honed, which were then transferred to major battles with various successes. But major battles, despite their scale and resonance, were just episodes, yes, significant, yes, vivid and beautiful, but episodes. Wars were won by many small skirmishes in which it was the knights who dominated and with precisely such tactics.
          2. Catfish
            Catfish 4 September 2019 18: 51
            +1
            And sitting on a horse in the middle of a fight you won’t get much.


            "And then a tank comes around the corner ..." (C) Anton.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 4 September 2019 19: 46
              +1
              And here I am! "On a white camel! At a white piano! On black keys:" Sha-buda-buda "! On white - sha-buda-buda! On red - sha-buda-buda! On" green "- sha-buda-buda! " (from)
              Another 5 karma, Konstantin! Get in a positive balance. laughing
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 4 September 2019 19: 50
                +1
                On white - sha-buda-buda! In red - sha-buda-buda!


                "Hit the whites until they turn red! Hit the red ones until they turn white!" (FROM)

                And below - "Figs catch up!" laughing drinks
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 4 September 2019 20: 27
                  +1
                  No, it is usually written below: "I confuse the pedals" and the filthy "St. George's ribbon" on the hitch ...
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 4 September 2019 21: 03
                    +1
                    Well this is how much you need to take on your chest in order to confuse the towbar with the antenna, and the brake with gas. I haven’t gotten into this state even in the army. drinks
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 4 September 2019 21: 57
                      +2
                      You know, Konstantin, I will never tie this ribbon to the car, I won’t even pin it on my chest, because I’m not worthy.
                      1. Catfish
                        Catfish 4 September 2019 22: 09
                        +2
                        I also don’t toil. There is a good expression - "Memory of the heart", but the ribbons have nothing to do with it.
  3. Aleksandre
    Aleksandre 3 September 2019 18: 48
    0
    If the armor for Francis I was made in 1539-1540, then the master Jörg Zeusenhofer (1528-1580) at that time was 11 years old, does it work? And the lawbreaker Degen Pirger (1537-1558) just broke away from his mother’s tits the other day)
    1. kalibr
      3 September 2019 19: 17
      +7
      You have noticed this well. I also noticed this and asked where it was necessary. So the answer is this: "business" was hereditary, this is firstly. Brands passed from father to sons and often sons were allowed to work - to learn a craft. Secondly, dates of birth are often not known. Only years of first mentions. And so it turns out that "the master is 11 years old." I did not explain this in the text about armor. If asked, I decided, I will answer.
      1. Aleksandre
        Aleksandre 3 September 2019 19: 41
        +3
        Thank. It turns out that the masters, like the monarchs, were celebrated for years of work)
    2. Undecim
      Undecim 3 September 2019 19: 22
      +5
      For Jörg Seusenhofer, the date of birth is incorrect. The exact date of his birth is generally unknown. In the literature, 1516 is most often found, less often 1510.
      According to Pirger, I think it’s also a mistake, you need to look through books.
      The armor itself looks like this.
      1. Aleksandre
        Aleksandre 3 September 2019 19: 44
        +4
        Yes, I found it on some French site:
        Seusenhofer Jörg (1510-1580)
        Pirger Degen graveur (actif dans la 1ère moitié du 16e siècle) - active in the first half of the 16th century.
  4. kalibr
    3 September 2019 19: 19
    +4
    About how they were made and decorated there will still be materials.
  5. Catfish
    Catfish 3 September 2019 19: 55
    +4
    We had several exhibits in a closed exposition in the museum; on the butts of rifles in brass ovals there was an inscription in ligature "Arsenal Vien". I remember that once the Austrians had to come unexpectedly on an excursion, so we, three men, dragged these trunks in armfuls into the back room - God forbid the former owners will see.
    In addition to the guns, from there, there were still amazingly made models of guns from the time of the 1 World War. All the mechanisms worked and, I suspect, that they could be fired, but did not try. All this was brought by our military after the war, and perhaps somewhere in the attics something is still gathering dust from there.
    Thanks to Vyacheslav hi ... "People lived richly" (C).
  6. kalibr
    3 September 2019 20: 28
    +2
    Aleksandre (Alexander) Today, 19: 44
    Yes, I found on which ...

    Thank! I used the materials of the Vienna arsenal ... what they had ... word for word.
  7. kalibr
    3 September 2019 20: 30
    +3
    Quote: Sea Cat
    In addition to the guns, from there, there were still amazingly made models of guns from the time of the 1 World War. All the mechanisms worked and, I suspect, that they could be fired, but did not try. All this was brought by our military after the war, and perhaps somewhere in the attics something is still gathering dust from there.

    Yes, it would be nice to find, photograph and describe in the article ...
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 3 September 2019 21: 15
      +4
      Just imagine, Vyacheslav Olegovich, Konstantin carried this "iron" in armfuls, in bulk. If only the bourgeoisie would not see something superfluous! They didn't see, but neither did we, in the first place. And this is the GIM! Feeley then butt with hamsters about the "secret archives of the Vatican" ?!
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 3 September 2019 21: 33
        +3
        It was a closed exposition, groups of no more than six people were taken there on excursions, and at the same time at least three employees of the department were present - the cabinets were not locked. This repository was called "Bioncourt" after the very count who created this museum. After the repair, everything was covered with a copper basin and, thank God, I did not see this anymore. Yes, there was also a funny exhibit - a sword donated to Adolf Aloizych by the steel magnates of Germany.
    2. Catfish
      Catfish 3 September 2019 21: 27
      +3
      In the nineties I left the museum, I had to somehow feed the children, then from acquaintances and a friend from numismatics I heard unpleasant stories about theft from my former department. I’m not sure that these models remained there: small-sized and already very beautiful, high-quality, I didn’t see a single woman who couldn’t help but pick up one of them, and her eyes burned, just like in jewelry.
  8. kalibr
    3 September 2019 20: 32
    +2
    Quote: Aleksandre
    Thank. It turns out that the masters, like the monarchs, were celebrated for years of work)

    Apparently so. In any case, the data that I brought is taken on the website of the Vienna Arsenal and you can check if this is a mistake ...
  9. kalibr
    3 September 2019 20: 34
    +1
    Quote: Lipchanin
    You can't wave a lot with a sword. They were severe infections. The goal was probably the same knights, Well, probably punch the passage through the ranks. And there is already the case of the infantry.
    Although military historians know this, I only have thoughts aloud

    You have good thoughts. But the swords were not very heavy ... 1200 g, and the bastards - 1.500 g. And, of course, the knights fought with the knights. And pikemen with pikemen, and musketeers with musketeers ... such were the strange customs of war. For the most part, people in general ...!
    1. Aleksandre
      Aleksandre 3 September 2019 21: 38
      +1
      Who argues, one and a half kilograms of weight, of course, is not heavy. But actively chop down with all the dope with such a sword it’s hard. In the absence of a sword, you can experiment with an ax of a similar weight and chop some log for 15-20 minutes. It’s good to chop it, from the heart) Very quickly, the thought comes to my mind that a leather cord with which the handle can be wound to the hand would not be superfluous. And all because of the characteristic grip, the forearm is extremely numb and tired. Not deltas, not biceps / triceps, which are easy to lift and lower such a small weight, and the forearm and hand are a weak point.
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 4 September 2019 09: 54
        +2
        Quote: Aleksandre
        you can experiment with an ax of a similar weight and chop some log for 15-20 minutes

        It all depends on training. From a young age I had to chop wood - spent with a cleaver (it is heavier than an ax) in the alley every day for several hours on vacation. By the 15 years, firewood had already been chopped with one hand, only the most crooked and dull ones had to be broken apart in a big way. Four to five hours in this mode was not a problem. And an ax (cleaver) is a much heavier tool than a sword (cleaver), but if the right technique is installed and the corresponding muscle groups are trained, the process of manipulating such an instrument is greatly simplified. And the fact that these guys had the highest level of technology, and the corresponding muscles were trained completely, there is no doubt - this was their professional duty.
        1. Aleksandre
          Aleksandre 4 September 2019 20: 06
          0
          Of course it depends. But the cleaver, oddly enough, is designed to split along the fibers of the tree, and not at all, which is indicated by its weight and characteristic blunt shape) And when struck by a cleaver, the brush and forearm are loaded to a much lesser extent than when struck by a lighter ax, since the main work is due to its weight, sort of like a woman's for driving piles.
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 4 September 2019 23: 32
            0
            A cleaver, like an ax, must also be sent with a brush when struck, it does not depend on weight. The only difference is that the cleaver is harder to lift. smile But in one you are right - the main burden falls on the forearm and hand during such work. Also, by the way, as in paddling. It all comes down to training. I think that the average knight was able to wave his sword for several hours in a row without any problems.
  10. kalibr
    3 September 2019 20: 37
    +4
    Quote: Trilobite Master
    since the early childhood

    Famous and I have them photos - armor on 7-10-12-year-old children. That is, the muscle groups responsible for functioning have been training since childhood !!! Imagine a man replacing 2-3 of such armor ... Yes, he will not even feel them!
  11. kalibr
    3 September 2019 20: 40
    +2
    Quote: Trilobite Master
    Although, of course, the formation of the Swiss battle could well overturn such handsome men, but they were Swiss.
    Reply

    I had a drawing somewhere in a Japanese magazine, how a line of attacking gendarmes was torn apart by a cannonball ... Workshops painted. Where arms, legs, heads ...
  12. Adjutant
    Adjutant 3 September 2019 20: 49
    +2
    Very spectacular and beautiful.
    This is me and the armor, and about the article.
    And informatively.
    Thank you!
  13. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 3 September 2019 20: 54
    +3
    Bravo, Vyacheslav Olegovich!
    Meanwhile, I will note once again that nothing is new and "everything has been stolen before us." After 500 years, the automotive industry began to use the method of segmenting the load-bearing frame parts, in order to increase the survival rate in road accidents and to lighten the structure. As far as I understand, the corrugation of the armor was carried out for the same purpose.
    Again, the "tournament headset", now the car comes to the market "naked" (at least to the first dealer). Having paid an additional sum, you can almost always "sharpen" the car for yourself.
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 3 September 2019 23: 22
      +2
      As far as I understand, corrugation of armor was carried out for the same purpose.
      With the exact opposite. Corrugation improves the strength characteristics of the material and the ability of the material to resist deformation. An example is corrugated sheathing of aircraft.
      Corrugation is a distinctive feature of Maximilian's armor.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 4 September 2019 06: 41
        +1
        You are probably right, Viktor Nikolaevich. Sopromat is not the strongest area of ​​my knowledge.
  14. Undecim
    Undecim 3 September 2019 22: 18
    +3
    Spurs, although they are not shown here, had the same design for all varieties of tournaments. They were made of iron, although on the outside they happened to be covered with brass. Their length reached 20 cm. At the end there was a spinning asterisk.

    15th century. Gilded Bronze. Metropolitan Museum of Art.
  15. vlakos
    vlakos 3 September 2019 23: 13
    +1
    What is a group fight riding through a barrier? Is that a mistake in the labyrinth of the Minotaur?

    .
  16. Comrade
    Comrade 4 September 2019 02: 05
    0
    Since the cost of combat and tournament armor in the 16th century began to go wild

    But is there any information exactly how much the craftsmen took for such products? Probably, a number of factors influenced the price for this or that customer, but, perhaps, experts know how much, for example, a typical shtekhtsoyg cost?
    1. kalibr
      4 September 2019 06: 49
      +2
      It will be about the price of one armor in the next article.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 4 September 2019 22: 09
        0
        It would be interesting to count in the "sandwich index" at that time.
  17. kalibr
    4 September 2019 06: 53
    +1
    I just have to chop wood with an ax in the country and it’s 15-20 minutes and nothing ... it all depends on the training.
  18. kalibr
    4 September 2019 06: 57
    +3
    The armor of Heinrich 8 is designed for a man in 182 see. There is armor for a man in 220 see. So that the guides believe ... I'll write about their enemies!
    1. Romv
      Romv 4 September 2019 12: 18
      0
      Will wait
  19. kalibr
    4 September 2019 12: 00
    +3
    Quote: Trilobite Master
    It all depends on training. From a young age I had to chop wood - spent with a cleaver (it is heavier than an ax) in the alley every day for several hours on vacation. By the 15 years, firewood had already been chopped with one hand, only the most crooked and dull ones had to be broken apart in a big way.

    Same! From the age of ten, my grandfather taught chopping wood with an ax cleaver, especially healthy and knotty ones had to be broken with wedges and a sledgehammer. And also ... by the 20 years he had run into so much that when he got to work in the village he regretted only one thing - where was the grandfather's cleaver. The ax there seemed to me too light!
  20. Romv
    Romv 4 September 2019 12: 17
    +1
    Thanks for the interesting article
  21. kalibr
    4 September 2019 20: 07
    0
    Quote: vlakos
    What is a group battle riding through the barrier?

    Probably something is not written correctly, or the word fell out ...