Military Review

1939. The disaster of interwar Poland


Straight into the abyss

In mid-August 1939, two Polish underground organizations from East Prussia proposed to the Polish General Staff to carry out a series of sabotage at military and transport facilities throughout the region. Cheeky? Of course. But what else could one expect from the Poles, who advocated the secession in favor of Poland of the entire southern part of East Prussia and, of course, the final transfer to Poland of the "free city" of Danzig-Gdansk? More precisely, the entire small region, now called the Tricity or Trehgradie as part of Gdansk, Gdynia and Sopot, where the Polish and Polish-speaking population always prevailed.

The actions proposed by the underground were to disrupt the upcoming German aggression and facilitate the advance of Polish troops in this region and to Danzig. This controversial "free" city by then had already been completely taken over by the local Nazis, led by Albert Forster. This ardent anti-Semite literally a week before the start of the war - on August 23 he was elected Danzig's "state leader" ("Staatsführer").

With the accession of Danzig to the Reich, Albert Forster immediately became his Gauleiter

Nevertheless, the Polish General Staff ordered: "Be ready", without responding to this dashing initiative neither "yes" nor "no." Already on September 3, when fighting with the Germans was in full swing, the same organizations repeated their proposals. But this time, the answer was equally evasive (they say, "all the details of the operations must be agreed upon and clarified").

In the first ten days of September of the 1939, the Poles openly missed a chance to take advantage of the geographical advantage, which provided a real opportunity for a successful Polish counterattack in East Prussia. Moreover, even before the Germans approached from the west, it was possible to reach both nearby Danzig and the Lithuanian port of Memel occupied by Germany (in March 1939).

1939. The disaster of interwar Poland

Recall that Memel is the former and current Lithuanian Klaipeda. And again, it became Lithuanian only thanks to the liberation from the Nazis by the Soviet army in February 1945. In exactly the same way, the Polish leaders missed the opportunities associated with the fact that Lithuania immediately declared neutrality in the German-Polish war.

As you know, in Berlin they offered Lithuania to send their troops to the nearby Vilna Territory, captured by Poland 20 years before. Kaunas strictly adhered to its declared neutrality, providing Poland with a relatively calm rear. The rear from Ukraine was also ensured for two and a half weeks, until Moscow decided on the famous “Liberation Campaign”.

Defenziva - a branch of the Gestapo?

However, on 5 — 7 of September both of these organizations were defeated by the Gestapo. According to Boleslav Bierut, the Polish “defensive”, which participated in the development of the projects of the Polish-German “March to the East,” was probably involved in this. Moreover, as Bierut noted, she was stuffed with German agents ahead of time, and the Polish authorities, knowing this, deliberately did not identify her and did not interfere with her.

The first of those same organizations bore a distinctly Polish name - "1772". It was created in 1933, and it initially advocated the reconstruction of Poland within the borders of Russia, Prussia, and Austria on the eve of its first partition in the 1772. However, not in the form of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth with the elected king, but in the republican status. The second underground office was frankly monarchical, and was called "Nasza moc" ("Our Power"). It was created a little earlier, in the 1930 year, and for a long time deliberately distanced itself from official Warsaw.

The formation of the Polish paramilitary underground in East Prussia was initiated by the creator of the new Poland, Jozef Pilsudski. He, not without reason, considered him a lever of pressure on Berlin, but for a long time restrained the activity of these groups so as not to provoke Germany to invade Poland.

Moreover, if the first was not against the limited autonomy of the then East Polish regions (excluding, supposedly, the "originally Polish" Vilnius Territory), the second categorically rejected even propaganda allusions to the very possibility of any national autonomy in Poland within the same borders " to sections. " Both clandestine groups clearly demanded a military campaign by Warsaw to Danzig and the expropriation of all of East Prussia.

Nazis and nations

In this connection, a detailed review of the national composition of this region is not without interest: see "East Prussia", a statistical review (materials marked with chipboard), USSR People's Commissariat of Defense, 1945:
"The named regions (Danzig, Memel, Masuria, Suvalkia. - Approx. Aut.) Remained Polish until the partitions of Poland in the 1772-1793 years. When they became part of the Prussian kingdom. From this time to the 20th century, forced Germanization of the Polish and the remnants continued the Lithuanian population in East Prussia. However, the Polish and Lithuanian population were preserved there. There is no exact information about its size, since the German censuses deliberately circumvent the issue of nationality of the population and are limited only to questions about their native language and religion. "

Further - in more detail:
"The Polish population is concentrated:
a) in the north-west of East Prussia - in the areas of Marienverder, Marienburg, Sturm, Rosenberg and Elbing; it is represented here by descendants of Pomors - kashuby, whose language is a dialect of the Polish language;
b) in the south - in the Allenstein district, in the Olecko region and partly in Marienverdere, Mazury live - Poles, speaking mostly in the same Polish language as the peasants north of Warsaw;
c) in the north of East Prussia - in the region of Ermland (Warmia) there is a Polish population. "

This review also noted the presence of the Lithuanian population in the region, despite the Prussian, Kaiser and then Nazi ethnocide:

"Along the lower reaches of the Neman River - in the areas of Tilsit, Ragnit, Niederung and Heidekrug, adjacent to Germany captured by the 1939 from Lithuania in the Klaipeda region - a compact Lithuanian population has remained. The number of Lithuanians in these areas is 100 thousand people (in Klaipeda in the region - about 80 thousand). In rural areas of those regions, Lithuanians make up about 60% of the population, in cities - about 10%. "

It is also noteworthy that the East Prussian Poles, including Kashubians, and Lithuanians, "according to German statistics, the majority are Catholics, but the Mazury are mainly Lutherans."

Meanwhile, even the pro-German Hungarian authorities, under various pretexts, didn’t miss two German divisions on their railways to the Hungarian-Polish (in ex-Czechoslovak Transcarpathian) and Slovak-Polish borders in early September (but the puppet neighboring Slovakia was already " crammed with "Reich troops for operations in southern Poland).

The unreliability of Hungary was briefly, but clearly recorded in the preamble of the Weiss plan (April 1939):
“In destroying Poland’s military power and resolving the Polish problem, the German side cannot count on Hungary as an unconditional ally.”

In short, the catastrophe of interwar Poland in September 1939 was largely prepared as a result of the pro-German, but essentially anti-Polish policy of its own authorities. The successors of Jozef Pilsudski turned out to be not just bad patriots, but rather - national traitors.

In any case, the already mentioned leader of the Danzig wing of the NSDAP, Albert Forster, having returned to Danzig on 10 on August 1939 after the meeting (8 on August) with the Fuhrer, said that a new meeting with him "will soon take place in German Danzig." And so it happened ...
Articles from this series:
The beginning of the Second World War. Alternative Polish
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  1. 210ox
    210ox 21 August 2019 05: 38
    Oh, these "hyenas of Europe" .... Without soap they are ready to crawl everywhere .. However, not only they. But they quickly poblomali. The same Swedes with the Finns, together .. And the Poles do not learn anything from history. Well, how is the ambition above Total.
    1. Max otto
      Max otto 21 August 2019 08: 47
      Absolutely accurate comparison with a hyena. Poland hoped to the last and passionately wanted to divide the lands of the USSR and others together with Germany. However, the lesson did not go in vain, and now they hope to share and grab something, only the owner is already different.
      1. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 21 August 2019 13: 10
        Quote: Max Otto
        Absolutely accurate comparison with a hyena.

        Duc ... Winnie, like any public politician, loved and knew how to burn with a verb. smile
        And now, when all these advantages and all this help were lost and discarded, England, leading France along with her, offers to guarantee the integrity of Poland - Poland itself, which only six months ago with the greed of a hyena took part in the robbery and destruction of the Czechoslovak state.
        © Churchill. The Second World War.
        1. Revolver
          Revolver 21 August 2019 20: 01
          The Poles are good themselves. As one of the responses to the German proposals for the Danzig corridor, they staged not just genocide, but very close repressions against ethnic Germans in Poland, including in areas with a significant German minority, and in some places a majority, gnawed by Poland when dividing the former Austria-Hungary. The Germans were openly convinced, but in fact they were forced, to give up everything and leave for Germany. The Poles did not think of the extermination camps, but options such as "indignant crowds of Polish patriots beat suspected German spies" or "an arrested man, presumably a German agent, fell from his bunk in a dream and broke his ribs, arms, legs, neck" were commonplace.
          The Poles provoked a war, hoping that while the bulk of the Wehrmacht would be occupied in the West against France and England (well, they promised to fit in!) They famously chopped down the Germans with cavalry, and in a matter of days, Polish lancers would prank through the streets of Berlin. Slightly miscalculated.
        2. yehat
          yehat 22 August 2019 13: 11
          Well here Churchill is a little disingenuous
          it was the policy of Chamberlain and pre-war Britain that generally led to Poland becoming impudent and, in general, able to separate from Russia.
          If England promised to support Luxembourg during the war, he would also bend his fingers when dealing with Germany. So the Poles were provoked to an unrestrained aggressive policy, both by the British and the French. And then suddenly "hyenna". No, rather a dog fed by them.
  2. Victor jnnjdfy
    Victor jnnjdfy 21 August 2019 06: 13
    "Nasza moc" is not "Our state", but "Our strength" or "Our power". If you don’t know Polish, the Internet will help you. Or not write how it is translated into Russian. Yes, and koshubs (Donald Tusk is one of them) are not kashubs.
    1. Operator
      Operator 21 August 2019 11: 12
      In Kashubian, Polish and German, the West Slavic ethnic minority (descendants of the Wends) are called kaszëbi, kaszubi and Kaschuben, respectively. Therefore "a", not "o".
      1. Victor jnnjdfy
        Victor jnnjdfy 21 August 2019 11: 46
        These guys from Gnevino recently came to my hometown. I used to read (and believed) that in Russian it is written with "o". Perhaps a correction has now been made. I'm sorry.
    2. podymych
      21 August 2019 12: 04
      Do not be so rude - take the Russian-Polish dictionary or if you can not find it, googol translator and check, pzh ...
      1. Victor jnnjdfy
        Victor jnnjdfy 21 August 2019 14: 08
        I am an ethnic Pole. It is sinful. You hammer into the translator, for example, "państwo polskie" and then "polska moc". Only "n" with a "dash". The Poles have the letter "en".
        1. Nycomed
          Nycomed 21 August 2019 14: 40
          Very nice hi , but this is a RUSSIAN-language site. So, kindly - in Russian winked .
        2. The comment was deleted.
        3. podymych
          21 August 2019 20: 20
          By the way, in the reverse translation from Polish into Russian Google generally gives POLISH AUTHORITY
          1. haron
            haron 21 August 2019 22: 03
            Quote: podymych
            By the way, in the reverse translation from Polish into Russian Google generally gives POLISH AUTHORITY

            "... Paronymy is explained by an unsteady knowledge of the meaning of one of the words or even both, the incompetence of the speaker (writer) in the field of activity from which the word is taken, as well as parapraxis (for example, reservations). It is especially important to pay attention to paronyms when learning foreign languages, since many paronyms may not be distinguished by foreign language learners due to discrepancies in the articulatory base ... "
            And will such a phrase in Russian suit you?

            Or like that. "..Logic friends of a translator, or interlanguage homonyms (interlanguage pairs) - a pair of words in two languages, similar in spelling and / or pronunciation, often with a common origin, but differing in meaning. For example, the Slovak word mesto is consonant with the Russian word place, although its translation into Russian is a city .... "
            An accurate, scientific, semantic translation of only one word, to put it mildly, is not very possible. That is why good dictionaries do not become outdated, because they always translate a word with a similar spelling in several semantic variants. That is why Google translator better translates correctly and fully formulated sentences and not one word or monosyllabic phrase with a bunch of paronyms. And even then Google translation "is better" is still often far from the true semantic translation.
            Good luck.
            PS. I hope you will not demand links to scientific sources of the cited texts.
          2. Victor jnnjdfy
            Victor jnnjdfy 22 August 2019 06: 06
            Power is there, probably wladza, where "l" with a dash, that is, solid. Poles are soft without a dash. And God is with him. You just can't be a specialist in the same "Polish question" without knowing the Polish language, which, by the way, I myself have forgotten for 34 years in Russia. In my homeland, many people easily spit in Polish. Knowing the language, for example, one can study the Polish official press from 1939. and learn from it that the Poles sincerely believed that if they had a mess with Germany, then in two weeks there will already be a Polish military parade in Berlin. "Miracle on the Vistula" played a cruel joke with the gentlemen. They greatly overestimated themselves and the possible "help" of their "faithful" allies.
  3. Basil50
    Basil50 21 August 2019 06: 35
    The author is wrong.
    Poland and its army were created as the basis for a future invasion of the SOVIET UNION. But the Poles in the 1918-1920s demonstrated that they can fight only with external help, and nothing else, although there were many promises of future victories. The publications of the Polish media were more than victorious.
    In the thirties in Germany, Hitler stood out and defeated all Nazi and other spiders in Germany. The symbiosis of the Germans with the Poles did not work, the Poles did too much too much. The fact that the Poles mobilized in the spring of 1939 and when they published it in their own media outlets already captured and even managed to assimilate the Germans.
    WWII began with the provocation of the Poles against the Germans, this is when the Poles captured the German town of Gleivice and seized the radio station. The only thing is that in parallel a jewelry store-bank was robbed and wealthy citizens after the end of WWII were not mentioned, nor was the fact that the robbers hid in Poland. How did the robbers * manage * to seep into Poland past mobilized troops and gendarmes?
    The beginning of WWII war began with the GERMAN GENOCIDE in Poland, which is rarely mentioned today. Although the Germans remember this, as well as the fact that the Poles carried out the genocide of Germans and Jews AFTER 1945.
    About Naukos and about dressing up corpses appeared when the British had Shelenberg in their hands, only somehow very on time and very quickly died after interrogations ..................... ...........
    1. Pedrodepackes
      Pedrodepackes 21 August 2019 07: 34
      Quote: Vasily50
      The symbiosis of the Germans with the Poles did not work, the Poles did too much too much.

      not that heaped up, but tried to control Germany, drawing it into an anti-Soviet campaign. The Germans, of course, did not have love for Soviet Russia, but they were also, to put it mildly, intolerant to the Poles. In addition, there was little interest in the Danzig corridor, aka the Polish corridor.
    2. Olgovich
      Olgovich 21 August 2019 09: 04
      Quote: Vasily50
      WWII began with the provocation of the Poles against the Germans, this is when Poles captured the German town of Gleivice и captured the radio station.

      belay negative Fuh, what a rude playing along Nazi Nazi propaganda. It has long been exposed even in Soviet textbooks: Operation "canned food" help you.

      I haven’t met Dr. Goebbels frank admirers for a long time
    3. ccsr
      ccsr 21 August 2019 12: 00
      Quote: Vasily50
      The symbiosis of the Germans with the Poles did not work, the Poles did too much too much. The fact that the Poles mobilized in the spring of 1939 and when they published it in their own media outlets already captured and even managed to assimilate the Germans.

      I think that the question lies in a completely different plane, namely, that Hitler did not need Poland as an ally, otherwise it could not have been robbed, as was done by the Wehrmacht in relation to other countries during their capture. The economic situation in Germany was already difficult in 1939 due to the growth of military spending, and even before the attack on Poland, a rationing system for certain goods was introduced for the first time. That is why Hitler decided to simply seize Poland, and primarily to rob it and to obtain cheap labor, which was done. So the question of the fate of Poland was decided not in the context of the war with the USSR, but simply because of the needs of the German economy, which is why Hitler willingly agreed to sign the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, according to which, by the way, he received another source of raw materials for the duration of the "strange "wars in Europe.
      1. tihonmarine
        tihonmarine 21 August 2019 13: 15
        Quote: ccsr
        So the question of the fate of Poland was not decided in the context of the war with the USSR

        I do not agree. Germany needed a border with the USSR. Indeed, in 1939, the issue of war with the USSR was already resolved. And do not think that everything was decided by the Germans alone, it is naive.
        1. ccsr
          ccsr 21 August 2019 18: 53
          Quote: tihonmarine
          Indeed, in 1939, the issue of war with the USSR was already resolved.

          To be precise, the first mention of the war with the USSR, as a further target after the capture of France, appeared at Hitler in July-August 1940, as evidenced by several senior Wehrmacht generals. So in 1939, Hitler did not yet know what the situation would be after the capture of Poland, which is why he decided to protect himself by signing the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact.
    4. tihonmarine
      tihonmarine 21 August 2019 13: 11
      Quote: Vasily50
      Poland and its army were created as the basis for a future invasion of the SOVIET UNION.

      The British answered the Poles clearly, "We do not need a great Poland, we need Poland, which borders on the USSR."
      The beginning of WWII war began with the GERMAN GENOCIDE in Poland, which is rarely mentioned today.
      and not only in Poland, but also in Germany in East Prussia, the network has many photos about the cruelty of the Poles. So that the Poles have long run into a fist and received.
    5. Basil50
      Basil50 21 August 2019 17: 29
      Touches unconditional faith in the British and others in Europe. It seems like samples of the lies of the English government * never * were.
      About the * heroism * of the Poles in Gleivitz, the Poles themselves wrote in detail. This is when they wrote in the nineties about close cooperation with the Nazis, then about the heroic battles with the same Nazis. The mentioned terrorist attacks in Prussia did not take place only because, apart from conversations and ambition, no provision was provided for. But about Gleivice they wrote about success ....
      Internet to help those who can read.
  4. svp67
    svp67 21 August 2019 06: 35
    But what else could you expect from the Poles,
    Honestly, all, but not this. Since the spring of 1939, clashes with German saboteurs have already taken place on the territory of Poland, and since the second half of August they have generally become massive and do not take advantage of such a chance? Interestingly, in modern Poland, someone raises the issue of betrayal in their leadership during this period? Is it like our "betrayal of the generals" or even here "Russia is to blame for everything"?
  5. Avior
    Avior 21 August 2019 07: 36
    I did not quite understand the authors.
    While the Germans stepped on Warsaw, the Poles had to rush to Lithuania?
    It seems that something in the article has been reduced, but not very successfully.
  6. Vadim T.
    Vadim T. 21 August 2019 07: 37
    In general, I am amazed at how the Poles are able to create problems for themselves. Before WWII, they were friends with Hitler. Against us, of course. They did not sign a peace treaty with the USSR, hoping, apparently, after the victory over us, they would grow a land plot and get access to the Black Sea. Poles' appetites can be judged at least by the passion with which they shared neighboring Czechoslovakia with the Germans. And when the population of the former eastern Poland expressed a desire to join the USSR, they began to blow their lips offendedly: "And what about us?" Yes, for the fact that it goes around and responds!
    Now they have plans for the division of Ukraine. East Kresy they, you see, wanted. Moreover, they also roll a barrel in Germany. They demand non-stop compensation, subsidies. Still not demand when the hegemon himself stands behind him. In 1939, I remember that behind their back, the hegemon also stood and gave as many 1000% guarantees. Do the Poles only remember where these guarantees suddenly disappeared? Do they remember who restored their statehood? Do you remember how many of our soldiers died liberating the Polish land? Or is there enough intelligence only to lick the backside of the owners, bark in our direction and desecrate the graves of Soviet soldiers?
    1. tihonmarine
      tihonmarine 21 August 2019 13: 30
      Quote: Vadim T.
      Now they have plans for the division of Ukraine. East Kresy they, you see, wanted.

      And I do not mind, the Poles should take what is theirs. If you say no, I will answer with the words of Stalin and Churchill, "Comrade Stalin Lvov was never Russian," to which Stalin replied, "And Varshyava was." And about independence and statehood, everything is simple. During the war, approximately 2 million Polish soldiers fought on the fronts of the First World War on the side of the Entente, while Polish political elites tried to persuade France, Great Britain and Russia to return Poland's independence. Thanks to joint efforts, and also thanks to a number of important events (primarily the revolutions in Russia and Germany), on November 11, 1918, Poland regained its independence.
      1. Angelica
        Angelica 21 August 2019 15: 19
        tihonmarine (Vlad) Today, 13: 30
        And I do not mind, the Poles should take their own.

        But I am against. Given their frantic Russophobia, shish them with oil. And also to take away what was presented by Stalin. am
        1. tihonmarine
          tihonmarine 21 August 2019 15: 22
          Quote: angelica
          But I am against. Given their frantic Russophobia, shish them with oil.

          And here Russophobia and the territory of the Eastern Kresy, this territory does not belong to Russia.
  7. Olgovich
    Olgovich 21 August 2019 09: 29
    В first decade of September In 1939, the Poles openly missed a chance to take advantage of the geographical advantage, which provided a real opportunity for a successful Polish counterattack in East Prussia.
    Nonsense: Already 2.09.1939-3.09.39 Germans freed the Polish corridor, restoring Germany’s land connection with the East. Prussia. Moreover, strikes were made from TWO sides. What is the Poles offensive ...
    Moreover, even before the Germans approached from the west, it was possible to reach both the nearby Danzig and the Lithuanian port occupied by Germany (in March 1939) Memel
    1. When is it, already on September 2, on the 2nd day of the war, itself .... Gdynia was blocked by the Germans with blows from East Prussia and from the West?
    2. To get to Memel, it was necessary .... to occupy neutral Lithuania request
    The three cities in Gdansk, Gdynia and Sopot, where always prevailed Polish and the Polish-speaking population.

    Danzig (Gdansk) - almost pure немецкий city...
  8. Operator
    Operator 21 August 2019 11: 51
    An exhibition of genuine reports by Soviet diplomats and intelligence agents from the end of August 1939 is being held in Moscow, which speaks of Chamberlain's secret offer to Hitler to conclude a military alliance between Britain and the Third Reich. The proposal contained a clause that from the moment of signing the relevant agreement the British guarantees to Poland expire - without notice to Poland. At the airport of Berlin on the taxiway at the same time there were two government aircraft with a readiness to take off - British and German, for the flight of the German Foreign Minister Ribbentrop to London or Moscow, respectively.

    In connection with the unwillingness of Britain and France to enter into a military alliance with the USSR (Moscow negotiations between the Soviet people's commissars of defense and foreign affairs with the military delegations of Britain and France came to a standstill due to the reluctance of these countries to guarantee their entry into the war in the event of the Third Reich attack on the USSR) Stalin On August 22 of 1939, Hitler sent a telegram of consent to the conclusion of a Soviet-German non-aggression treaty. 23 August 1939 years Ribbentrop flew to Moscow on a German plane.

    During the remaining eight days of August 1939, Poland could only hope for Britain and France to fulfill their obligations to attack Germany from the west if the Third Reich attacked Poland, which, as you know, did not happen.

    In fact, the second Munich agreement of Britain, France and Germany took place, about which the hyenas of Europe still "do not moo and do not calve"bully
  9. vladcub
    vladcub 21 August 2019 13: 04
    "cannot count on Hungary as an unconditional ally" Horthy dynamil Fuhrer?
  10. iouris
    iouris 21 August 2019 13: 48
    The author believes that there was "pre-war Poland", therefore "interwar Poland" suffered a catastrophe. According to the history, there was no "pre-war Poland", therefore there was no "interwar Poland" either. I would call it simpler: "The last catastrophe of Poland."
  11. ololo
    ololo 21 August 2019 16: 17
    The author does not know the question at all. Some kind of crazy propaganda. Although it is possible that he simply slammed an article from a foreign resource and drove it through a Google translator.
  12. Artashes
    Artashes 21 August 2019 16: 23
    THIS IS WILD -, JUSTIFYING THE NAZI VERSIONS OF THE ATTACK IN POLAND! Apparently, do not count diamonds, according to cr. least technical, in brain caves ....
    Already in early September, Warsaw had a real chance to counterattack in East Prussia (up to Danzig or to the border with Lithuania), including with the help of the Poles there. As for kashubov, etc. , so (specified) in the original. So it doesn’t matter.
    This is amazing: it’s so professional to cook and sign your own sentence! And then to complain about the Soviet aggression. Something, apparently, genetic .. It’s very correct that you remind all THIS of Warsaw!
  13. viking
    viking 21 August 2019 22: 20
    Recall that Memel is the former and current Lithuanian Klaipeda.

    please, if you write to the historical forum, adhere to the truth.

    Memel was NEVER Lithuanian; the region was inhabited by Curonian or Prussians.

    Lithuania, in general, is a continental country and never before, until 1945. had no access to the sea.
  14. Artashes
    Artashes 21 August 2019 23: 41
    It is CORRECT that more and more aspects of Polish "self-betrayal" are being covered. Poland could easily cut the East. Prussia (with the support of local Poles) - up to the border with Lithuania and Danzig. Apparently, there is something genetic in the character of the Polish leadership NOT only of that period.
    You are wrong "Viking": Lithuania has always had a narrow, but access to the sea, even after the Nazi occupation of Memel (this is Palanga borough with Latvia)
  15. serg v stock
    serg v stock 22 August 2019 01: 07
    Can anyone give an example of learning the lessons of history? There is no such. Poles are no exception. And then, and now the nation state is being built, there are no resources of its own, which means we will follow them to our neighbors. Now they demand money, realizing the impossibility of chopping off territories. Even if they take from Ukraine, then they will give back more of their own, however, as always. It is ridiculous to read disputes about the beginning of the war, what difference does it make where Gleivitz was. If he hadn’t, then a fallen tablespoon or a broken cup led to the beginning of WWII.
  16. Alexey Gorshkov
    Alexey Gorshkov 22 August 2019 02: 30
    It seems that in the period from 1917 to 1939, from 1945 to 1991, from 1991 to the present, Poland is independent, but in my opinion - this "independence" is apparent, it always has an owner. From 1917 to 1939 - Europe, especially England, from 1991 - the United States! In both these periods, Poland is used by its masters as AntiRussia! It was pro-Russian only in the period from 1945 to 1991, and so much so that for some time our Rokossovsky was the Minister of Defense there! In short - Poland has ceased to be independent with partitions, after which it could be "Pro" by anyone, but not pro-Polish! I am more and more inclined to think that in general Nazism was originally an Anglo-Saxon project, though it later got out of the control of its creators! The goal was the domination of the Anglo-Saxons in Europe by playing off their main competitors - Germany and Russia, Poland, located between them, was just a "bargaining chip" - it is quite possible that its pro-English elite was actually pursuing an anti-Polish policy! Indeed, for the Anglo-Saxons, the main thing was not the greatness of Poland, but to play off Germany and Russia! We could be convinced of the treacherous position of the elites of their own states on the example of the late USSR and present-day Ukraine! They act in the selfish interests of their members, AGAINST the interests of their peoples, their states!
  17. yehat
    yehat 22 August 2019 13: 16
    Quote: vieking
    Lithuania, in general, is a continental country and never before, until 1945. had no access to the sea.

    Lithuania often became part of larger entities.
    There was the Principality of Lithuania with access to the sea, was part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth with access to 2 seas, was part of the Livonian Order and again with access to the sea, It was part of the Swedish state, finally it was part of the Republic of Ingushetia and everywhere there was access to the sea. Moreover, there was a brief episode of the alliance with Genghisides, when Lithuania theoretically got access even to the southeastern seas, the Aral Sea and the Pacific Ocean.
    1. joker
      joker 23 August 2019 06: 14
      Was it by chance part of the Pigwin Antarctica with access to the world Ocean?
    2. iouris
      iouris 23 August 2019 11: 49
      Moreover, when Lithuania was a part of Russia and the USSR, in that capacity it had such exits, including into the fifth ocean and into space, that now their heads might be spinning. And the Aral Sea was purely inland. A ticket to Vladivostok or Petropavlovsk cost two hundred rubles.