Historical detective. German helmets: necks are intact, brains are broken

Not so long ago, in one of the materials, I sadly complained that the debilitation of society in the information space is becoming rampant. I translate: the people are dumb. And here is another confirmation of this.


Actually, I was looking for information completely off this topic, but I was simply shocked at how many people on the Internet simply thoughtlessly copying nonsense and nonsense. Fruiting myths and legends with such certainty that he takes the hell.

Just as all these Zen ones in particular fell off the chain. About social networks I am silent about frontal armor tank head, but there’s nothing to be done, apparently.

It remains only to take and debunk these myths, which, in general, are completely foolish. About helmets that puzzled soldiers, about guns that didn’t shoot, oh ... yes there are a lot of topics today.

I'll start with the myth, then let's talk about things not so serious, but entertaining. Forgive me, that everything is in one bowler hat, but we are talking about helmets, because it seems to be normal.



So, 9 of 10,5 Internet users (0,5 is the one who posted another myth) are sure that the horns on the German helmet are a tribute to the sagas and ancient German traditions. Okay, exaggerating, of course, but история with helmets on helmets is an indicator.

Through the efforts of Internet warriors, many are already aware that a steel plate was attached to these horns, which strengthened the armor and extinguished the effects of the rifle bullet.

This is where the doomsday began ...

The idea, type, class, performance is not a cake at all, because the poor German stormtroopers almost took their heads off. But yes, they quickly abandoned this venture precisely because the miserable necks of the German infantry were more expensive for them, infantry.

What is so? Well, nothing special, except that all this is fiction, from the first to the last word.

The indignant cries of "what about Wikipedia?" It would be interesting to find the one who posted this nonsense on Vika.

But the glory of coincidence, in Russia smart people were not transferred, capable of something more than to spread fiction in the yards. For example, Pavel Prokhorov from the Steel Helmet group, who gave a simply magnificent account of the entire history of this unfortunate shield. I’ll give a link in the sources, there is a lot of interesting information.



The only thing that is not there is the slightest documentary, well, at least some kind of piece of paper that can be referred to, on the basis of which it can be firmly said that the soldiers refused to use the foreheads, because their heads were torn off.

So, in fact, - Su-24, which de-energized the "Donald Cook."

And what was really?

But in fact it was the year 1915 and Reichswehr had problems. There was a war, helmets were needed to protect the heads of soldiers. Everyone understood that this thing was very useful in the trench warfare. Well, maybe, except for the Russians, and even then we ordered Adrian's helmets to the allies.

The Germans were simple. Helmets were necessary, but, starting the evolution from a ridiculous and not very durable "pickelhelm", the output was a steel helmet of Captain Schwerd. But he also began to raise complaints about his ability to stop bullets and splinters. In particular shrapnel.



The helmet had to either be thickened (heavier), or more modern materials should be used.

Captain Shverd wrote in an explanatory note on this subject that, in order for the helmet to meet all the requirements, 1,5% chromium-nickel steel must be used for its manufacture.

And the production of 1 million helmets required 15 tons of pure nickel. And Krupp, and "Steelwork" twisted a finger at the temple, giving birth to such an amount of nickel at that time was unrealistic. The blockade of Germany by the Entente has already affected.

And without nickel, the helmet would have been 15-20% heavier, which was also not very pleasant. Plus - again, the additional consumption of steel, which could be used for something else.

And then the Germans came up with a rather original move. This same steel plate was invented, which was attached with the help of horns and a belt on the front side of the helmet.

The plate weighed about 1 kg, which, in fact, was really hard.

However, no one had ever planned to send assault groups or simple fighters in helmets with these plates to attack. Indeed, this is just stupid, and the Germans were not stupid.

In the instructions for use, because the Germans were masters in terms of inventing instructions, it was said that the forehead should be used in special tactical conditions in the positional struggle and against the fire of enemy infantry.

The forehead had to be carried by a soldier in a satchel or in some other way along with personal belongings, but so that he (the forehead) could be quickly attached to the helmet.

They even came up with the appropriate command: “Schutzschilde hoch!” (“Shields up!”). The shields of the foreheads can be considered conditionally, but nonetheless.

The most interesting: who should throw the “shield” on top? That is, attach the visor to the helmet?

This was also regulated. And in German, simply and tastefully.

1. Artillery scouts.
2. Artillery and mortar spotters.
3. Trench observers. That is, those who were supposed to watch the movements of enemy infantry and (not least in World War I) gas attacks during artillery preparation.
4. Machine gun crew duty.

Everything is logical, those who did not leave for shelter and were in a situation where there was an opportunity to part with life should have received additional protection.





No stormtroopers with an extra kilogram of steel were on the head. Not about any soldiers going on the attack. Soldiers exclusively on the defensive are exposed, as they would say now, to additional risk factors.

This is the Germans, damn it, not the Papua Guard ...

And therefore, the head-pads were planned for the production of only 5% of the total.

And the foreheads were quite successfully worn by the Germans and their allies until the end of the war.


Bulgarians



Austrians


Nothing broke down, the Reichswehr continued to order his foreheads, moreover, such devices were in service with the French and American armies.

Yes, the weight was a negative point. In principle, he spoiled the whole thing, but nevertheless, the annals of history did not save ANY case of fractures of the cervical vertebrae in any soldier in the warring armies.

By the way, I completely admit that there have been cases. Single. And then the “soldier’s radio” spread the rumors and gossip into units. And the "horror stories" did their job.

Well, in our time, in general, God himself ordered to post gossip and fables that have nothing to do with reality. Alas, this is the reality of today.






So, in terms of output:

1. The guards for steel helmets of the German army were produced in scanty quantities. There were only about 50 000 pieces of them, with a total production of helmets of more than 6 millions.

2. There were no cases of neck fractures when a bullet hit a helmet weighted by a shield.

3. In the same way, helmets were reinforced in other armies. Helmets fought the whole war.

4. Neither the attack aircraft nor the infantry went on the attack with the helmet on their helmets, did not make marches in such vestments. The headband was intended for use in limited prescribed situations.

Stories about serious injuries are nothing more than the myth-making of an online audience.

Materials here.
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  1. Cartalon 7 August 2019 06: 05 New
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    Somehow, it was suspiciously not long ago that I watched a video on one YouTube channel on this topic
    1. Buffet 7 August 2019 23: 27 New
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      And I only looked at 10 minutes ago and here is ... coincidence? The beginning even looks like the beginning of the video))))
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    1. svp67 7 August 2019 15: 37 New
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      Quote: Mik13
      I suggest readers to draw conclusions on this issue on their own.

      And the conclusion is simple, like the layout you proposed according to the physics of the process.
      Quote: Mik13
      The muzzle energy of the cartridge 7,62 × 54R - 3500 J.
      Everything is correct, but now it remains to remember what is muzzle energy and this initial kinetic energy of a bullet at the time of departure from the trunk. Which falls with each meter of removal from a cut of the trunk. And if so, then the impact of the bullet on such an armor plate and the steel helmet itself will be different with increasing distance.
  3. Amateur 7 August 2019 06: 06 New
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    And the production of 1 million helmets required 15 tons of pure nickel. And Krupp, and "Steelwork" twisted a finger at the temple, giving birth to such an amount of nickel at that time was unrealistic.

    In the years 1901-1905. 11,5 thousand tons of nickel were produced. (http://metal-archive.ru/osnovy-metallurgii/1602-nikel.html)
    1. edasko 7 August 2019 13: 13 New
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      By whom? Only the Germans or the whole world?
      1. Amateur 7 August 2019 13: 15 New
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        All over the world. But in that world and at that time, the German Empire was not the last state.
        ps Well, look at the link. I brought her in vain.
        1. edasko 7 August 2019 14: 17 New
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          Yes, thanks for the link. But just the same, it is not clear how much nickel was in Germany. Judging by the trend, more than half ate America. Germany did not produce nickel. The Entente was blocking. The Germans most likely had nickel in short supply, and helmets were, by and large, consumables. I also would not spend valuable metal on them wink
  4. Mik13 7 August 2019 06: 15 New
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    There were no cases of neck fractures when a bullet hit a helmet weighted by a shield.


    The fact is that in addition to the features of German reporting, there is also physics, which tells us the following:
    1. The muzzle energy of the cartridge 7,62 × 54R - 3500 J. This is a lot.
    2. For comparison - this energy will have a body weighing 80 kg when falling from a height of 4.5 meters.
    3. And all this load will affect exactly the neck, as the weakest link.
    4. Personally, it’s very difficult for me to imagine a situation in which the neck can withstand head down from a height of 4.5 meters. Even in a helmet.
    5. It should be borne in mind that when a bullet hits, the load on the spine is shear, not compressive.
    1. Mentor 7 August 2019 06: 40 New
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      And if you use mathematics to help physics, then you can calculate the probability of a bullet hitting exactly in the center of the helmet's frontal projection so that the factors you specify are fully involved ... Honestly, I myself can’t do this, because probability theory is memorized his time and forgot immediately after passing the standings. But I guess that 50000 issued headbands is very small for such a coincidence.
      1. Mik13 7 August 2019 06: 54 New
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        Quote: Mentor
        But I guess that the 50000 of the released headbands is very small for such a coincidence.

        In fact, still more fun. According to statistics, 75-85% of wounds (including and fatal) are fragmentation and mine-blast wounds. That is, basically the personnel are killed by artillery. Such data were obtained on the basis of WWII, in modern conflicts (if they are not quite of low intensity), the values ​​are noticeably the same. KVM, during the WWII there was something similar. On the one hand, artillery was far from perfect, on the other hand, the fire density of small arms was lower than during WWII.

        But during WWI, a very special ammunition was used - shrapnel. And against shrapnel bullets, such protection was really relevant. But 20 years later (after giving up shrapnel) - no longer. The impact of OFS on infantry in the trench from shrapnel differs quite significantly.
        1. Pavel57 30 September 2019 10: 59 New
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          There is no statistics on the effect of such protection. I suppose that it rather had a psychological effect, because it did not cover the face and neck.
    2. SKS_PRO 7 August 2019 07: 11 New
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      Quote: Mik13
      ... physics that tells us the following:
      1. The muzzle energy of the cartridge 7,62 × 54R - 3500 J. This is a lot.
      .

      And physics tells us that "muzzle energy" is the initial kinetic energy of a bullet at the time of departure from the barrel, that is, at the cut of the barrel. And with increasing distance she, this energy, falls.

      In fact, as in the article the plate was written, this was supposed to slightly increase (relative to the helmet) the protection of the soldiers at risk. In this case, of course, no one expected to make it absolute and even more capable of stopping the bullet from the mosquito point-blank.
      1. Lopatov 7 August 2019 08: 03 New
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        Quote: SKS_PRO
        And with increasing distance, it, this energy, falls.

        At the SVD at a range of 300 meters, the energy of the bullet is about 1800 J
    3. Alex_59 7 August 2019 07: 41 New
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      Quote: Mik13
      1. The muzzle energy of the cartridge 7,62 × 54R - 3500 J. This is a lot.

      This is at the cut of the trunk. At a distance already in 200 meters, the energy of the bullet will be 2500 J, and 300 meters - 2000 J. If you hit on a tangent, you can be calm for the cervical vertebrae of the target.
    4. Lopatov 7 August 2019 07: 47 New
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      Quote: Mik13
      And all this load will affect exactly the neck

      Only in such an incredible case. when the bullet and the pad would be absolutely solid, the “pendant” did not dampen the blow, and at the same time transferred all the energy to the skull. That is, the steel helmet was absolutely motionless relative to the skull.
      And, of course, airless space and the absence of gravity.
    5. andrewkor 7 August 2019 08: 08 New
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      Muzzle energy in your case, dear Mik13, is focused at point-blank range at an enemy soldier? Please explain, otherwise it doesn’t work out correctly.
    6. abrakadabre 7 August 2019 08: 12 New
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      Then it is worth recalling Newton's laws. Namely, equal and oppositely directed forces act on the rifle-bullet system. Something seems to me that if a soldier even once falls from a height of 4.5 meters to the ground with his shoulder, then he will not allow a second such fall in principle. That is, he will not be able to make a second shot. However, practice shows that a soldier is able to survive two or three or even more rifle shots at the enemy without harm to his shoulder. wink Moreover, there are "unique ones" who repeatedly outlived their shots from anti-tank rifles with their shoulder. In which the muzzle energy of a bullet during a shot is not comparable with a rifle. Here's a modern video about it:
      You do not think that the muzzle brake in this video compensates for recoil to the level of air?
      So somewhere in your calculations there is an error. I think that with a great desire and some persistence, you yourself will figure out exactly where the error is.
    7. bar
      bar 7 August 2019 09: 21 New
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      Quote: Mik13

      The fact is that in addition to the features of German reporting, there is also physics, which tells us the following:
      1. The muzzle energy of the cartridge 7,62 × 54R - 3500 J. This is a lot.
      2. For comparison - this energy will have a body weighing 80 kg when falling from a height of 4.5 meters.


      physics still speaks of the law of conservation of momentum. namely, a helmet with a plate has a decent weight compared to a bullet and due to this significantly reduces the impact of a light bullet on the neck. as an example, circus numbers with a sledgehammer breaking a concrete slab lying on his chest. if you hit the same sledgehammer on the same chest without a plate, then you yourself understand ...
    8. tihonmarine 7 August 2019 09: 43 New
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      But for me it’s so indifferent to how many “Fritz” died from or without the “foreheads”, the main thing is that they died.
    9. Simargl 8 August 2019 20: 48 New
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      Quote: Mik13
      The muzzle energy of the cartridge 7,62 × 54R - 3500 J. This is a lot.
      For starters, in those technical cartridges there were only 2500-2700J.
      However, it is not energy that breaks down the legs and breaks the neck, but an impulse!
      Take the energy of 2500 J (shot close), the mass of the helmet is 2 kg + pumpkin 5 kg ... then the final speed of the non-punctured helmet with the pumpkin inside will be ... 0,6 m / s ... a lot, but far from breaking the vertebrae.
    10. Ehanatone 14 August 2019 02: 58 New
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      "And all this load will affect exactly the neck, as the weakest link."
      See the comment about muzzle energy and the distance above
  5. Potter 7 August 2019 06: 44 New
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    In a word, for the dispelling of the myth not a single evidence is presented, but only an assumption.
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. Bormanxnumx 7 August 2019 07: 33 New
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      Quote: Potter
      In a word, not a single evidence is presented for the dispelling of the myth, but only an assumption

      Honestly, there is no particular evidence of a massive fracture of the necks)
    3. tomket 8 August 2019 00: 25 New
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      Quote: Potter
      In a word, for the dispelling of the myth not a single evidence is presented, but only an assumption.

      By the way, there is a continuation of the myth. Or if I may say so, its creative processing. At least from two people, participants of the First Chechen I heard that they never fastened their helmets on their helmets. This was explained by the fact that the helmets are strong, titanium, and the bullet does not pierce them, but breaks the neck. But he didn’t fasten it, the bullet hit and flew along with the helmet. And the head is whole and the neck is not broken. I heard about German shields much later.
  6. Moore 7 August 2019 06: 44 New
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    Through the efforts of Internet warriors, many are already aware that a steel plate was attached to these horns, which strengthened the armor and extinguished the effects of the rifle bullet.

    I suppose the same warriors managed to inform the masses that these "horns" are also ventilation devices?
    I will not argue, but IMHO only the Germans asked questions of ventilation - even with "Pickelhaube"

    photo from warspot.ru
    1. AK64 7 August 2019 09: 24 New
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      Quote: Moore
      I will not argue, but IMHO only the Germans asked ventilation questions

      This is not true. Look at the French helmets of the WWI
    2. Puzoter 8 August 2019 13: 42 New
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      Compare the diameter of the holes in the horns and the section of the under-neck space - a ratio of 1k1000. The ventilation effect from these openings is close to zero. The Germans wondered about saving metal and reducing weight, but not ventilation, when they drilled these holes.
  7. Potter 7 August 2019 08: 09 New
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    Various sources on this issue write that when a bullet enters a helmet, it deforms with an effect on the skull, which, as a rule, leads to destruction of the skull with an effect on what is in the cranium. So, the author is probably right in the title of the article, and this, as you can understand, refers to helmets in general, and not just German ones. so all the same we put a plus.
  8. bubalik 7 August 2019 09: 04 New
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    It’s just that all these Zen ones in particular fell off the chain. I’m silent about social networks about the frontal armor of the tank with my head, but there’s nothing to be done, apparently.

    ,,, and that's not true angry grandfather told me everything in detail.
    It turns out that a helmet for the military was made from a nickel alloy, which clasped its head well and had a cylindrical shape. On this side helmet, small washers protruded, in other words “horns,” which served as ventilation for the German soldier. In winter, the soldiers had to peck this ventilation with something warm. And also to intimidate the enemy.
    But that’s not all, additional protection, the so-called head plate, was attached to these “horns” to protect the German soldier. Her purpose was to protect the soldier from bullets. But, alas, after some time, this head plate was removed from the German helmet, as it did not live up to expectations. Tests conducted at the stand showed its effectiveness, adjusted its production and transferred the first batch to the troops. There was an embarrassment, a helmet held a bullet, but at the same time the bones of the neck broke in the soldiers and she did not take root. The armor plates remained in the warehouses, and the horns remained and they were not so easy to remove from the helmet. Moreover, they were designed the same size for all helmets and it turned out that the biggest horns were present on the small helmet. belay what wink
    1. alebor 7 August 2019 10: 58 New
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      Indeed, a little strange: after all, a helmet with "horns" is probably more difficult to manufacture and, therefore, more expensive than without them. If the horns were intended only for a relatively small number of plates, then why would millions of helmets be made horned, and therefore more expensive for the country's budget? Wouldn't it be easier and cheaper to release a limited batch of “horned” ones, and to produce the main helmet “hornless”? But, if practical Germans made all helmets horned, is it likely that the horns were needed not only for steel plates, but also for something else, for example, for ventilation?
      1. your1970 8 August 2019 16: 00 New
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        Quote: alebor
        that horns were needed not only for steel plates, but also for something else, for example, for ventilation?
        - that is, what's below hole have helmets on all sides of the head for ventilation - not enough? do you need another 5mm hole ??? fool
  9. Undecim 7 August 2019 10: 29 New
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    The author decided to debunk the myth, but immediately created several new ones.
    But in fact it was the year 1915 and the Reichswehr had problems
    In the 1915 year, the Reichswehr did not exist. The German army was called Deutsches Kaiserliches Heer or Reisheer. And Reyshver was called the German army from 1919 to 1935 year.
    Now about the information. There is a classic study of the Bavarian War Museum, which is referenced by almost all authors.

    It sets out in detail the entire history of the creation of the German steel helmet up to business correspondence and the history of its use.
    1. Undecim 7 August 2019 10: 48 New
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      Along with the above, there is a truly fundamental two-volume study by Ludwig Baer (Hrsg.): Vom Stahlhelm zum Gefechtshelm. Eine Entwicklungsgeschichte von 1915 bis 1994 Bände (Bd. 2: 1–1915. Bd. 1945: 2–1945.). Baer, ​​Neu-Anspach 1994.
      For those who do not speak German, this publication is also in English.
      1. Undecim 7 August 2019 11: 39 New
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        Now back to the spread of myths.
        And the production of 1 million helmets required 15 tons of pure nickel. And Krupp, and "Steelwork" twisted a finger at the temple, giving birth to such an amount of nickel at that time was unrealistic. The blockade of Germany by the Entente has already affected.
        Krupp at the temple did not twist. Krupp looked for materials and found them.

        This is just Schwerd’s letter on the use of chromium-nickel steel, where he says that 15 tons of nickel are needed to produce one million steel helmets.
        And then the text says that Director Striebeck, who had the opinion that Krupp would have problems with providing nickel, assured that the necessary amount of nickel would be provided despite its use in the production of other types of products.
        So what about the “finger at the temple” is pure myth from the Internet.
        1. hohol95 7 August 2019 15: 10 New
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          On September 4, 1915, Professor Schwerd arrived in Berlin and participated in a meeting with the uniform department. As a result of this conference, on September 7, he proposed the following written proposals:
          .
          7. The best material for manufacturing is 5% nickel steel, or 11% manganese steel can be used as a replacement.

          Already immediately offered 2 options for steel! There will be little nickel - apply manganese!
      2. Catfish 8 August 2019 22: 11 New
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        Of these helmets, a neighbor polka grandmother fed her chickens. It was in the early fifties on the outskirts of Vilnius. laughing A worthy finale of design thought.
        1. Undecim 8 August 2019 22: 27 New
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          In the early fifties, chickens were no longer fed from these helmets. This is most likely M42, although there may be M35 / 40.
          1. Catfish 8 August 2019 22: 29 New
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            I meant the helmet depicted in your post on the cover of an English two-volume.
            1. Undecim 8 August 2019 22: 41 New
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              If we talk about design ideas, then the Germans used these models until the mid-50s, already in the Bundeswehr. Then came the M56 model, if I'm not mistaken, it already looks different.
              1. Catfish 8 August 2019 23: 41 New
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                Yes, this helmet already looks quite American. As far as I remember, when creating the Bundeswehr, they even had the term "Citizens in Military Uniforms" and no soldiers there. So the kosochka was quite neutral for itself and no “Teutonic” spirit.
    2. arturpraetor 7 August 2019 14: 18 New
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      Quote: Undecim
      In the 1915 year, the Reichswehr did not exist. The German army was called Deutsches Kaiserliches Heer or Reisheer. And Reyshver was called the German army from 1919 to 1935 year.

      Incidentally, a popular misconception among even more or less adequate historians has more than once met those who are called the Reichswehr by the German Army during WWI. Even in one type-historical documentary series from Russian historians, the term was used. True, there was still a statement that near Warsaw about a million Russian soldiers died in the WWII due to German gas attacks, but something like that laughing
      1. Undecim 7 August 2019 14: 31 New
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        Incidentally, a popular misconception among even more or less adequate historians
        A person subject to such errors cannot be attributed to historians. Rather, they are history buffs.
        1. arturpraetor 7 August 2019 14: 41 New
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          Yes, I kind of agree, but some applicants have diplomas of historians, and some even taught at universities, as far as I know laughing Although here, perhaps, the specialization of these historians is affecting - some are an Egyptologist, some over the Middle Ages, some over a different period, as they take to talk about a topic that has not been studied in detail for so long - they sit in a puddle .... What can also be understood. Although, without possessing a sufficient amount of information, you can simply not get into these topics, but, apparently. It does not always work request
  10. garri-lin 7 August 2019 11: 26 New
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    And there is also a myth that a bullet caught in a helmet on a reel is deployed ricochet into the center. And there is also a myth that a bullet in a helmet is stuck, but fragments of a helmet pierce the skull and affect the brain. Aescheo, and also ....... the Internet is full of myths. Everything to dispel life is not enough. People stubbornly choose information and stupidity from two information.
  11. Crimea26 7 August 2019 12: 10 New
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    Between the bullet falling into the bulletproof shield on the helmet and the skull of the "lucky" there is an air gap, which provides ANY FALSE OF ANY HELMET precisely to absorb blows on it (stones, logs, fragments, bone with meat, etc.) And for air circulation, of course . Therefore, such an instantaneous effect on the vertebrae will not be possible in principle - the heavy helmet will take an impulse on itself, transmit it to the soft comforter, select that air gap and only then come into contact with the skull. Well, what will be the impulse from the helmet to the skull? if you recall the mass of the bullet and the mass of the helmet - 9 grams and 1500 grams + 1000 grams of plate ..
    1. Simargl 8 August 2019 20: 59 New
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      Quote: Crimea26
      Well, and what will be the impulse from the helmet to the skull - you can imagine if you recall the mass of the bullet and the mass of the helmet - 9 grams and 1500 grams + 1000 grams of plate ..
      Here !!! And in joules, bullets are worse! Just think - the impulse is 700 (m / s) * 0,009 (i.e. 9 g) - 6,3 in total! But 2200 J is cool!
  12. Beregovic_1 7 August 2019 12: 14 New
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    Good article, thanks Roman. I myself was captive of misconceptions)))
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  14. verp19 7 August 2019 12: 53 New
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    I served in the Bulgarian Army in the years 94-95. We had one such helmet in our company. The forehead was not for her. These horns also interested me, but I did not understand why they were made. By the way - one pretty big-headed guy got a helmet. And he stood like a thimble on a pumpkin.

    I am confused by such a moment. If the forehead was invented later and was for limited use, then why did all helmets of this type have horns? Those. logically, at least helmets before the invention of the forehead, do not have to have horns?
    1. Undecim 7 August 2019 13: 54 New
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      I am confused by such a moment. If the forehead was invented later and was for limited use, then why did all helmets of this type have horns? Those. logically, at least helmets before the invention of the forehead, do not have to have horns?
      Good question. All helmets had horns because they were air vents. Their design prevents moisture from entering under the helmet. When there was a need for a face shield (and it arose according to the first experience of use), ventilation holes were used to attach it.

      The above text is just about that.
      Just clear evidence that the maxim of the author: “And without nickel, the helmet would be 15-20% heavier, which was also not very pleasant. Plus - again, the additional expense of steel, which could be used for something else.
      And then the Germans came up with a rather original move. This same steel plate was invented, which was fastened with the help of horns and a belt on the front side of the helmet. "
      - Another Internet myth that he successfully added. Those. debunking one myth, created three others.
    2. alatanas 8 August 2019 15: 29 New
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      The helmet you are talking about is a Bulgarian helmet from the time of WWII (by the way it differs from German) the horns are short, ventilating, you can’t hang the armor plate on them. In WWI helmets were of a different model, as can be seen in the photo. I saw such defective when I was a cadet. They really have horns somewhere 1 - 1,5 see
      1. verp19 8 August 2019 15: 40 New
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        Quote: alatanas
        The helmet you are talking about is a Bulgarian helmet from WWII


        Yes, probably so. Straining my memory I can’t recall such a characteristic visor as in the photo.
  15. Disorder 7 August 2019 13: 57 New
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    Quote: Mik13
    The fact is that in addition to the features of German reporting, there is also physics, which tells us the following:
    1. The muzzle energy of the cartridge 7,62 × 54R - 3500 J. This is a lot.
    2. For comparison - this energy will have a body weighing 80 kg when falling from a height of 4.5 meters.
    3. And all this load will affect exactly the neck, as the weakest link.
    4. Personally, it’s very difficult for me to imagine a situation in which the neck can withstand head down from a height of 4.5 meters. Even in a helmet.
    5. It should be borne in mind that when a bullet hits, the load on the spine is shear, not compressive.

    Firstly, it is energy when leaving a bullet barrel. With distance it falls.
    Secondly, part of the energy is spent on the deformation and penetration of platinum.
    Thirdly, the effect is on the skull, and not on the spine. So the load is more tensile than shear.
    So it is necessary to calculate whether a bullet weighing about 10 g can give the head in the helmet a speed sufficient to fracture the cervical vertebrae, taking into account the resistance of the capillary and neck muscles?
    1. igordok 7 August 2019 20: 23 New
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      Fourth, as mentioned above, it is necessary to take into account the depreciation of the balaclava.
      1. your1970 8 August 2019 16: 04 New
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        fifthly, when a bullet pierces the forehead, the bullet will lose a significant part of the energy and only then will it meet the helmet
        1. Simargl 8 August 2019 21: 03 New
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          Sixth, then the bullets were lead, mostly. This then began to be done by heat-strengthened cores, which would break this helmet for flyout with the head, and not be sprayed like lead.
  16. Alexander Trebuntsev 7 August 2019 14: 10 New
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    In the newsreels of World War II, Germans often see helmets with horns. Either remained from the previous war, or continued to release.
    1. garri-lin 7 August 2019 14: 46 New
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      Add another question. Compare the thickness of the head plate and the thickness of the helmet. From the photographs it seems that the plate is quite thick.
    2. Crimea26 7 August 2019 18: 03 New
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      Because the ventilation openings in the WWII remained there and their protection remained the same - only during the release they became slightly smaller in size. And the plate about 8 mm thick - a decent piece of iron, held in his hands.
  17. vladcub 7 August 2019 14: 26 New
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    “they heard a ringing but didn’t understand where he came from” and “with the foreheads”: someone, somewhere, found out about these disks on a helmet and posted on the Internet, and the tenth thing
  18. hohol95 7 August 2019 15: 07 New
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    Dear Roman!
    Here's another question:
    Captain Schwerd wrote in an explanatory note on this subject, in order for the helmet to meet all the requirements, 1,5% chromium-nickel steel should be used for its manufacture.

    And the Internet gives out -
    The 1916 helmet was developed in 1915 after examining typical head injuries and the causes that caused them. Professor Friedrich Schwerd supervised the workwho was in charge of the technical part and military doctor, Professor August Bier. The work was carried out at the Hanover Polytechnic School, which had university rights, today known as the University of Hanover Wilhelm Leibniz.

    It turns out that the professor was also a captain!
    And we find -
    The idea of ​​creating a steel helmet was born in a correspondence between a technical specialist and a doctor in the summer of 1915 after visiting the 2nd Army Hospital in St. Quentin. Friedrich Schwerd, a professor at the Technical Institute in Hanover, was captain of the Landwehr in a unit that was part of the Second Army in France. His colleague was a professor, Dr. August Bir, chief physician and consultant surgeon in the XVIII Army Corps. Professor Schwerd created a strong electromagnet in the operating room, which was equipped to work with head injuries. With this equipment, he planned to pull small metal fragments from the brain of the wounded. During the conversation, Schwerd assured the doctor that it would be advisable to produce a completely stamped helmet made of nickel-chromium steel or with the addition of a similar alloy. He believed that the helmet would protect the neck and eyes and would be able to withstand the fragments that Bir had to deal with during operations .

    And then according to the text it turns out that the helmet M16 was created by a simple captain of artillery, who knew metallurgy!
  19. Flatter 7 August 2019 15: 17 New
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    Through the openings of the horns, excess air pressure was formed, which is formed when the helmet oscillates.
    Also filling horns for liquid food prepared in the field
    1. Crimea26 7 August 2019 18: 05 New
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      and from below the pressure could not be "relieved"? Around the forehead, ears, neck?
  20. hohol95 7 August 2019 15: 19 New
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    Dimensions of vents ("horns") for the M16 helmet
    1. your1970 8 August 2019 16: 07 New
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      judging by the hole, there is no more 5 mm. That is, around the head, ears, neck - wherever the helmet ended - it was not enough, but 2 holes on 5mm immediately saved the situation ???
      1. hohol95 8 August 2019 16: 14 New
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        All questions to Friedrich Schwerd - teacher (professor) at the Technical Institute in Hanover! The artillery captain of the Landwehr! A unit that was part of the Second Army in France.
        Ventilation is never superfluous! And additional holes are only for the benefit.
        1. your1970 8 August 2019 22: 15 New
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          Quote: hohol95
          Ventilation is never superfluous! And additional holes are only for the benefit.

          in the narrowest place at least 2 cm gap- strongly here 2 by 0,5 holes will save, yeah
          additional holes violate the integrity of the dome. Of course there are no statistics, but by analogy with tanks (and logic, too) - the armor resistance is lower in places of the holes
  21. Grossvater 7 August 2019 15: 26 New
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    Interesting and quite believable, but why so emotional!
  22. Plague doctor 7 August 2019 15: 50 New
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    As for me, the helmet shield, ventilation, an interesting enough solution for those years.
  23. A very good start to the article
  24. Stepych 8 August 2019 03: 37 New
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    everything is simple.
    It’s not the people who are getting dumb, this is modern electronics developing, simplifying, and the Internet is spreading and going to the masses.
    Just before, the Internet was used by smart, wealthy people who know how to connect to it, but now it has become simple, affordable and cheap. But the majority of people are illiterate, unable to think logically and draw any conclusions. So there is an effect as if the people are dumb.
    So it is with crime in the media. Previously, the USSR did not write about this. Wrote only rare, egregious cases which can not be hidden. And now they write about every pedophile, domestic conflict, drunken fights, etc. Do you think they weren't there before? They just kept silent about it. And there is a feeling that modern people have become angrier. But in reality, as it was, nothing has changed, they just began to write about him more often.
  25. Oleg Zorin 8 August 2019 13: 37 New
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    Strongly plus!
  26. Sandro 8 August 2019 15: 03 New
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    To the side the shield-forehead! The Second World War, follows from the results of the First World War, and the First, as you know, happened "thanks" to the Serbian oligophrenic freak! At the victory parade in 1995 in Moscow, Helmut Kohl from the rostrum apologized on behalf of Germany. And why so far, not a single Serbian politician or public figure has apologized to the world in which, due to the fault of the Serb, in Europe, two terrible wars took place, which claimed, together with the civilian population, 70.000.000 lives ?!
  27. nn sm 10 August 2019 01: 30 New
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    auto RU. - specially registered - for you ... did not read your other topics - but ... here ...
    all that you described in the title is true! and it can be attributed to you in terms of your statements ------ "but I was shocked how many people on the Internet just thoughtlessly copying rubbish and nonsense. Fruiting myths and legends with such confidence that the hell takes."

    I won’t be long
    straight to your conclusions:
    1. "The dashboards for steel helmets of the German army were produced in scanty quantities. There were only about 50 of them produced with a total production of helmets of more than 000 million."

    - where such infa? documents ? personal opinion?
    - A question that prompts you- The Germans were fools? 6 million helmets with horns released under the forehead? and produced them (foreheads) 50t pieces? or how? - the answer is right away - the foreheads were destroyed - (lost) - due to their inefficiency (not need) for the function for which they were designed (protection against rifle cartridge-mosinki).
    The rationale for this is simple (a huge number of M-16 helmets with "horns" have been preserved, but the original headbands are few nowadays (mostly fakes, including in the photo in the article) and their price is from 10 to oiro, unlike helmets with horns for 1k euro! - I’m telling you as a collector! And don’t tell me that in 1PMV the Germans first riveted helmets with “horns” and then came up with headbands for them.!

    2.2. "There were no cases of neck fractures when a bullet hit a helmet weighted by a shield." - who told you this? What happened over 100 years ago? Documents? expertise?

    author -> author -> author- Holding the forehead in the hands of the original in his hands? well, or at least the original is not a cop stag? - the first one is definitely not, at best only a stag and (bullshit) copy of the forehead is made old under the original bought on ipey for 100 tr, as the original costs 600-1 mil Russian rupees.

    In total, we take m16 + a forehead of -100 meters - a mosquito - breaking through at a departure of 50/50 (without breaking) - the spine will crumble anyway.
    author -> author -> author - do you want to check? I think no!
    For inclusion of brains Energy of a bullet 7,62х 54R, J from 2530 ... 2600 (arr. 1891)
    Mauser 7.92 × 57mm Mauser even more ... from 3000 j.

    To draw conclusions, it is necessary to study not only the post-war samples of protective helmets, but also the guests for which they were made.
    For aphthora
    Currently, of all known maximum protection provides. 2 class of protection (9x18 pm, 9x19 "luger". 7.62x25 "TT". 7,62 × 38 "Nagan" 5,45 × 18 mm. "PSM") (provided) .- up to 700j!
    serial
    Mask-1 (1sc (1P)).
    6б6-3( щ)( К6-3)Рысь-"Т"
    knight (u)
    Altyn
    "TIG" Psg (h) -77
    Ulbricht AM95, centurion.
    and some more but. no more than 2 cells of protection according to Gotst 1995!

    Attempts to make a helmet a protection class (3-5 graveyards 1995gv) higher (Russia-volcano-5 armokom) -5 class -AK-74, AKS-74, AKS-74U-5.45 (Energy bullet, J 1143 ... 1528) - led to the same problem — there wasn’t a helmet slamming — but there was a “separation of the spine”.
    As a result, the maximum class to date is -2! (5-10m -700j)

    Thus, the question to the aftor is what the Germans did on their foreheads?
    weapons of the PMV-Russian soldier -mosink, maxim / (Vickers) -7.62-54 and 7,62 × 38 "Nagan"
    During the trench warfare, from a distance of 200-1500 m, the Nagan bullet in general did not have a chance to fly ...
    there remains only the cartridge of the mosquito, maxim / Vickers -7.62-54.
    it was under him (the main patron of tsarist Russia) that the protection (forehead) of the helmet was created ....
    But not breaking the helmet caused such injuries that, as it was not cynical, it was not advisable to save life if the soldier survived, severe shell shock. or anyway after death.
    Therefore, the foreheads were simply thrown away or disposed of, (Kaiser soldiers preferred death immediately than torment and eternal concussion, at the level of medicine of that period!) Thus, it came to our time full of “Stagmen” but not “foreheads”!
    Or are there more options? -you (author -> author -> author) did not disclose the concept;


    in his article “use in limited prescribed situations” - (. “The forehead was intended for use in limited prescribed situations.”) - so what? when did artillery work in the trenches? - there flew shrapnel from all sides!
    -The handcuff was created for a trench war in the hope of protection against rifle cartridges and more! Which flew in front of another trench! not from the side, not from above or from behind - only in front! and at that time only a rifle bullet could fly!

    3.3. "In the same way, helmets were reinforced in other armies. Helmets fought the whole war."
    The name of the helmet ????? - I do not know others who strengthened in this way!
    maybe a helmet! -and then for special forces and not for the army .. and then in the late 1970s .... since the army turned out to be from high-tech helmets for a long time (maxim protection of which is only 2 cells and this is not enough) in view of them not efficiency and high cost.!

    4.4. “Neither the attack aircraft nor the infantry went on the attack with the helmet on the helmet, they did not make marches in such vestments. The helmet was intended for use in limited prescribed situations.” - You did not disclose in any way - I described everything above.


    5. "Stories of serious injuries are nothing more than the myth-making of an online audience."
    - unfortunately your article is true only at the beginning
    "In one of the materials I sadly complained that the debilitation of society in the information space is becoming rampant. I translate: the people are getting dull. And here’s another confirmation of this."

    Actually, I was looking for information completely off this topic, but I was simply shocked at how many people on the Internet simply thoughtlessly copying nonsense and nonsense. Fruiting myths and legends with such certainty that the hell is taking. "
    - completely agree with this!

    You are not competent in this area!

    with uv.
    almost an "expert" on helmets ....
    wanted briefly ... but in a nutshell.