Military Review

The Golden Age of Tortuga Island

On 6 on June 1665, a new governor arrived on Tortuga Island - Bertrand d'Ogeron de La Bouëre, a native of Rochefort-sur-Loire (Anjou province).

The Golden Age of Tortuga Island

Bertrand d'Ogeron

In his youth, he took part in the Catalan War (1646 – 1649 gg.), Having received the noble rank and the rank of captain for military merits. After the war ended, d'Ogeron lived peacefully at home, being the owner of the Cemetery of the Drowned in the city of Angers and nothing seemed to portend him an adventure in the West Indies. But in 1656, he succumbed to the entreaties of acquaintances and invested almost all of his funds in a company for the colonization of land on the South American river Ouatinigo (also known as Ouanatigo, Ovanatigo, Ouanarigo).

Beginning of the Caribbean Adventures of Bertrand d'Ogerona

In 1657, having chartered the Pelage ship, he went to the West Indies with hired servants. By the time he arrived in Martinique, it became known that the colonization project, which had such hopes, did not take place, and therefore d'Ogeron went to Hispaniola. On this island in the Gulf of Cul de Sac, near Leogan Harbor, his ship was wrecked. According to du Tertre, d'Ogeron and his servants had to
"Lead the life of the Buccaneers, that is, the life of the most disgusting, most painful, most dangerous, in a word, the most rogue that the world has ever known."

A few months later, d'Ogeron still managed to return to Martinique, where it turned out that the second ship, chartered by him, and which had been released later, had already been sold by a certain Mr. Vigne, who, in compensation, gave him only goods worth 500 livres. Going to France, d'Ogeron bought a consignment of wine and brandy with which he returned to Hispaniola, but this commercial enterprise was not successful, since many other merchants brought alcohol along with it, and its prices fell. It was easy to lose heart from such setbacks, but the stubborn Anjou, having borrowed money from his sister and obtained from the king the right to "exclusive trade within the Bahamas and Caicos Islands, also on Tortuga and the coast of Hispaniola", returned to the West Indies, having founded in Leogane.

The activities of Bertrand d'Ogeron as governor of Tortuga

In 1664, the French West Indies company acquired the rights to Tortuga and Saint-Domengo. On the recommendation of the governor of Martinique, Robert le Fischaux de Frische de Clodore d'Ogeron was appointed to Tortuga.

The beginning of his reign was overshadowed by a conflict with settlers, who were extremely dissatisfied with the demand of the West Indies company (namely, it appointed d'Ogeron Governor) to abandon trade with the Dutch, who offered their goods much cheaper.

Alexander Exvemelin wrote:
“The governor of Tortuga, whom the planters generally respected, tried to force them to work for the company ... and he announced that special ships would be sent to France four times a year under the command of his captains. Thus, forcing him to bring goods from France, he simultaneously forbade trading with foreigners locally. ”

In May 1670, the inhabitants of Tortuga and the Coast of Saint-Domengo, incited by the Dutch smugglers, revolted. D'Ogeron, acting by the “carrot and stick” method, managed to negotiate with them. On the one hand, he spread the word about the approach to the island of a powerful government squadron, on the other, he was negotiating, which ended in a compromise solution, according to which the French courts were allowed to trade on the coast of the colony of Saint-Domengo, deducting in favor of the West Indian company 5% of the price all goods sold or purchased. At the end of April 1671, Tortuga was pacified. Exvemeline reports:
"The governor ordered a couple of the most obvious instigators to be hanged, but he really forgave the rest."

And in October 1671, a decree was received from King Louis XIV on the complete amnesty of the inhabitants of Tortuga and the Coast of Saint-Domengo.

In the future, no friction between d'Ogeron and the inhabitants of Tortuga did not arise. He also had excellent relations with the “coastal fraternity”; he even stopped taking passport fees and permission to freely leave Tortuga harbor from corsairs. He also issued letters of marque for free, while the Governor of Jamaica took £ 20 (200 ecu) for letters of marque.

Jean-Baptiste du Tertre claims that d'Ogeron
“Did not take more than ten percent (of the value of the prize) and, out of sheer magnanimity, left half to the captain for division at his discretion between the soldiers who did the job better than others, thereby contributing to the increase of the captain's authority, keeping the soldiers in obedience and maintaining their courage .

In Jamaica, the corsairs were supposed to give a tenth of the booty in favor of the king, and one fifteenth in favor of the admiralty (a total of 17%).

In addition, d'Ogeron tried to supply “his” filibusters with letters of letters of those states that at that time were at war with Spain. All this contributed to both increasing the authority of the new governor of Tortuga and the prosperity of the island entrusted to him. The fact that the economy of Tortuga is now completely dependent on the luck of the Caribbean corsairs and the number of filibuster ships entering the island's harbor, the French authorities tried to ignore. Marshal of France Sebastian Le Pretre de Vauban said on this occasion:
“We need to decide on the use of corsairs, as the easiest and cheapest means, the least dangerous and burdensome for the state, especially since the king, who does not risk anything, will not incur any expenses; it will enrich the kingdom, supply the king with many good officers, and soon will force his enemies to peace. ”

This flexible policy of d'Ogeron led to the fact that some filibusters of Jamaica chose to leave there, taking advantage of the "hospitality" of the governor of Tortuga. Among these was John Bennett, who, at the end of 1670, went to Panama with Henry Morgan: when peace was made between England and Spain, he went to Tortuga, replenishing the crew with French corsairs and receiving a privateer certificate from d'Ogeron that allowed him to attack the Spanish and Dutch ships.

Another member of the Panamanian expedition of Henry Morgan, Humphrey Furston, refused the amnesty, which on behalf of the king was offered to all the corsairs of Jamaica and also moved to Tortuga. His consort ("partner") was the Dutch filibuster Peter Janszoon, better known in Jamaica as Peter Johnson.

Other “defectors” were John Neville, John Edmunds, James Brown and John Springer.

In 1672, captains Thomas Rogers and William Wright left Port Royal for Tortuga. Three years later, in March 1675, Rogers, sailing as a French marque, found your old acquaintance, Henry Morgan, on the east coast of the island, who was shipwrecked, heading for Jamaica from London already as a knight and vice-governor of this island - and kindly delivered him to the place of the new service. And in April of the same year, Sir Henry Morgan issued an official invitation to all his Jamaican comrades-in-arms to bring the captured prizes to the “good old Port Royal”. Unfortunately d'Ogeron, many of Morgan's friends then, indeed, turned back to Jamaica.

Jamaica Vice Governor Sir Henry Morgan

D'Ogeron also attended corsairs of other nationalities, the most famous of which was Dane Barthel Brandt, a native of Zealand. In April 1667, he brought a very serious vessel to Baster - the 34-gun frigate with a crew of 150 people. Having received a letter of marque, Brandt hijacked 9 English merchant ships (prizes are approximately 150 000 pesos) and 7 ships of his "colleagues" - English filibusters, the largest of which was the former Spanish frigate "Nuestra Senora del Carmen" armed with 22 guns. The number of ships taken on board was so great that Brandt was forced to burn 7 of them, 2 he generously gave to the captured British, 2 then sold the very best in Europe.

Francois Olone - the most famous and terrible filibuster of the island of Tortuga

During the reign of Bertrand d'Ogeron on Tortug, Francois But, better known as Francois Olone (he received the nickname by the name of the port city of Sables d'Olonnne in Lower Poitou, from which he was a native), became one of the most cruel West corsairs -India.

He was called the “Scourge of Spain,” no one knew the reason for the hatred that Olone had throughout his life been with the Spaniards. Of the captured Spaniards, he usually left only one alive - so that he could talk about his next "feat". Others were executed, and often - Olone himself. Exvemelin claims that he could have licked the blood of victims from his saber.

Here we see in the hands of Olone a boarding saber, which is fully consistent historical realities

And this painted tin figurine depicts Olone with a sword - weak and unsuitable for a real fight weaponsthat pirates never used

His first high-profile feat was the capture of an 10 cannon ship on the island of Cuba, on which there were 90 soldiers - despite the fact that there were only 20 people in the command of Olone himself, and the Spanish ship was sent by the Governor of Havana precisely to hunt for this pirate (1665 g. ) In 1666, Mr. Olone led the extremely successful campaign of the corsairs Tortuga and Espanyola to Maracaibo (d'Ogeron carefully furnished him with the Portuguese privateer certificate).

Olone was lucky from the very beginning: at Espanyola he intercepted a Spanish merchant ship with a load of cocoa and jewelry, which was sent to Tortuga (the total cost of the “prize” was about 200 000 pesos). And on the island of Saona, a ship was seized with weapons and a salary for the Spanish garrison of Santo Domingo (12 000 pesos). Having landed the crew of this ship ashore, the corsairs attached the ship to their squadron. After the corsairs seized the fort El Fuerte de la Barra, which was covering the Maracaibo, panic broke out among the townspeople: rumors circulated that the number of Frenchmen exceeded 2 000 people (in fact, about 400). As a result, the inhabitants of Maracaibo fled:
“The owners of the ships loaded their goods onto the ships and set off for Gibraltar. Who had no ships, went on donkeys and horses inland "


Gulf (lake) of Maracaibo on a map of Venezuela

Gibraltar, which was located on the opposite side of the bay (sometimes called the lake) of Maracaibo, was also captured by corsairs. His defenders resisted the pirates, but Olone told his people:
“I want to warn you that the one who chicks, I will immediately chop with my own hand.”

The outcome of the battle was decided by the false retreat of the French, which the Spaniards rashly pursued. According to Spanish data, about a hundred soldiers died in that battle, the same number were captured.

Filibuster and captive Spaniard. Engraving from the book of A. O. Exkemelin "Pirates of America" ​​(Amsterdam, 1678)

Losses among the people of Olone amounted to one hundred people.

Having received a ransom for Maracaibo and Gibraltar (30 thousand pesos and 10 thousand, respectively), the corsairs went to the island of Gonav off the west coast of Hispaniola, where they divided the money, valuables and slaves that were seized, then returned to Tortuga.

Exememeline evaluates the prey of a trip to Maracaibo in 260 000 pesos, Charlevoix - in 400 000 ecu. The popularity of Olone in a pirate environment after this expedition was so great that the Governor of Jamaica, Thomas Modiford, entered into a correspondence with him, urging him to "come to Port Royal, where he promised him the same privileges as the natural English enjoyed." Apparently, he did not have enough “prizes” from Morgan and other “his” filibusters, he also had to get the hands of the most successful corsair Tortuga at that time. However, Francois Olone in Tortug was happy with everything, and he did not leave for Jamaica.

In 1667, Olone assembled a new flotilla - This time he decided to plunder the Spanish settlement near Lake Nicaragua in Central America. 5 ships set off from Tortuga and one from the island of Hispaniola. The largest of them was the ship of Olone himself - the 26-gun flute captured in Maracaibo. However, the pirate squadron fell into calm, and the current carried the ships towards the Gulf of Honduras. Experiencing big food problems, the pirates began to rob coastal Indian villages. Finally, they reached the city of Puerto Cavallo (now Puerto Cortes, Honduras), in which they captured the Spanish 24-gun ship and plundered warehouses, after which they headed inland to the city of San Pedro (San Pedro Sula). Despite the three ambushes organized by the Spaniards, the corsairs managed to reach the city and capture it. On the way back, pirates captured another large Spanish ship in the Gulf of Guatemala. In general, the extraction turned out to be less than expected, therefore, at the general meeting, the corsairs did not want to continue the joint expedition and divided. The ship of Moses Vauclain sank, flying on the reefs, the corsairs were saved by the ship of a certain Chevalier du Plessis, who arrived from France with a privateer certificate from the Duke of Beaufort. The unsuccessful Chevalier soon died in battle, and Vauclan who replaced him captured a flute with a load of cocoa, with which he returned to Tortuga. Pierre Picard sacked the city of Veragua in Costa Rica. Olone also sailed east and off the coast of Nicaragua, his ship hit a reef off one of the small islands. It was not possible to save the ship, and therefore the people of Olone dismantled it into parts in order to build a barcalone (a long barque). On this island, Olon had to spend several months, his people even planted a small field with beans, wheat and vegetables, and received a harvest. Having finally built a new ship, the corsairs split up again: some of them went to the mouth of the San Juan river on a barcalone, some remained on the island, others, led by Olone, went to the coast of Nicaragua to go along the coast of Costa Rica and Panama to Cartagena, hoping to capture some ship and return on it to their companions.

Exvemeline reports:
“Subsequently, it turned out that God no longer wanted to help these people, and he decided to punish Olona with the most terrible death for all the cruelties that he inflicted on many unfortunates. So, when the pirates arrived in the Gulf of Darien, Olone with his people fell right into the hands of savages, whom the Spaniards call "indios bravo." The Indians were known as cannibals and, unfortunately, the French were just about to eat. They tore Olone to shreds and roasted his remains. This was told by one of his accomplices, who managed to avoid such a fate, because he fled. ”

Exememeline dates these events in September of 1668.

West Indian Echoes of European Wars

Tortuga colonists took part in the “official” wars waged by France, according to the good old tradition, while not forgetting about their benefits.

In 1666 during the short war between France and Britain, Captain Champagne in the frigate La Fortson off the coast of Cuba entered into battle with a “colleague” from Port Royal. The fighters were well acquainted with each other, and for Champagne, who did not know about the war, the attack was a surprise - he even decided at first that he was attacked by the Spaniards who had captured the ship of the "English friend". In fact, there were two Jamaican ships, but the second ship did not participate in the battle due to the unfavorable (headwind) wind for him. The English ship attacking the Champagne frigate was commanded by John Morris, a captain known for his courage, one of Henry Morgan's associates, who in 1665 sailed with him to the shores of Mexico and Central America. The battle of the French and English corsairs was so fierce that the ship of Champagne barely made it to Tortuga later, and the ship of Morris became completely unusable, and it had to be burned.

“But the good Monsieur d'Ogeron, in order to thank him (Champagne) for such a glorious deed, forked out and gave him eight hundred piastres, equal to eight hundred ecu, to spend them on his frigate, and sent him back to cruising.”


In 1667, during the war between the Metropolis and Spain, a detachment that left Cayon landed on the north coast of Hispaniola and captured the city of Santiago de los Caballeros.

The war against Holland, which began in April 1672, was extremely unsuccessful for d'Ogeron. His own ship Ekyuel, carrying 400 buccaneers, fell into a storm and flew into a reef near Puerto Rico. The ashore Frenchmen were captured by the Spaniards.

Exememeline and Charlevoix report that d'Ogeron and some of his comrades were able to escape in a captured boat:
“The ends of the boards replaced them with oars, hats and shirts served as sails, the sea was beautiful, and they quite easily covered the path from the island of Puerto Rico to Saint-Domeng. And indeed, when the four travelers arrived in Samana, they were more likely dead than alive. ”

To the honor of d'Ogeron, he immediately tried to organize an expedition to Puerto Rico in order to free his subordinates. On October 7, on October 1673, he set sail again, but due to bad weather the landing attempt failed.

The Golden Age of Tortuga

Bertrand D'Ageron ruled Tortuga and the Coast of Saint-Domingue until 1675, and we must admit that this period was the "golden" time of the island, it is about this stretch of its history that is described in "pirate" novels and movies. Bertrand d'Ogeron himself became the hero of the books of Gustav Emard (“Sea Gypsies”, “Golden Castile”, “Teddy Bear Iron Head” - the action takes place in the 60 of the XVII century) and Rafael Sabatini (here the author was mistaken, since the action of the novels about Captain Blade develops in the 80 years of the same century).

Illustration for the novel by R. Sabatini "Odyssey of Captain Blood"

Illustration for Gustave Emard’s novel “Little Bear Iron Head”: the ship of this captain. The hero of the novel fell on the Caribbean as a “temporary recruited” (like Alexander Exvemelin, Raveno de Lussan and Henry Morgan)

D'Ogeron took measures to relocate to Tortuga approximately 1000 buccaneers who still lived in remote areas of Hispaniola. Tortuga's population grew rapidly, mainly in the eastern part of the island. The famous French scientist and diplomat Francois Blondel, who visited Tortuga in 1667, compiled a list of Tortuga settlements - these turned out to be 25. In addition to Baster, which became the patrimony of visiting filibusters, such settlements as Cayon (the richest colonists lived in it), La Montagne (the governor's residence was located here), Le Millplantage, Le Ringo, La Pointe o Mason.

In the second half of the 17th century, the composition of Tortuga’s population was approximately the following: about three thousand buccaneers (who hunted, including Espanyol), three to four thousand “inhabitants” (colonists involved in agriculture) and “recruited” (about them described in the article Filibusters and buccaneers), up to three thousand privateers and filibusters, which, however, could hardly be called permanent residents.

Fun life on Tortuga island

Over time, even a bank appeared on Tortug, and then - Catholic churches and Protestant chapels, in which "workers of the sea" could ask their beloved saint for intercession and help. Naturally, the “service sector” began to develop: the owners of taverns, gambling houses and brothels gladly provided pirates with the opportunity to leave all their “earnings” in their establishments.

By the way, the first brothel of Tortuga (which also became the first brothel of all America) by order of d'Ogeron was opened in 1667 - and this immediately increased the number of pirate ships arriving unloading booty in the harbor of Baster and Cayonne, and therefore increased revenue islands. Port Royal, a competitor to Tortuga, appreciated this initiative, and very soon brothels appeared in Jamaica's Pirate Babylon.

In 1669, 2 ships were delivered to Tortuga 400 by fellow countrymen d'Ogeron (from Anjou), among whom were about 100 women. Some authors report that they were “perverted young girls” who were sent to Tortuga as punishment, having previously been publicly punished with a whip. It seems that they replenished the brothels of the "merry" island. In total, during the reign of d'Ogeron, about 1200 prostitutes were brought to Tortuga.

However, it was d'Ageron who came up with the idea to bring respectable ladies ready to become wives of the colonists to Tortuga and San Domingo from Europe. These women were “sold” to those who wanted to start a family, and for a lot of money.

Martial traditions of filibusters

How profitable were the corsair raids?

Tortuga Island Pirate, Tin Figurine, circa 1660

Before the campaign, the filibusters made an agreement, which they called la chasse-partie - "hunting salary." It agreed in advance on the shares of team members and the captain. The only crew member who received a salary, even in the event of an unsuccessful raid, was a ship's doctor. Part of the money paid immediately - for the purchase of drugs.

After the battle, the filibusters piled all their booty on the deck near the main mast, while everyone (including the captain) had to swear on the Bible that he had not hidden anything from his comrades. Violators, at best, were stripped of their shares in the division of the loot. But they could “condemn the landing”: leave on an uninhabited island with a gun, a small supply of gunpowder, lead and water.

The income of an ordinary filibuster after a successful trip could be from 50 to 200 pesos (1 pesos equaled 25 grams of silver). The captain received at least 4 shares of an ordinary pirate, but sometimes even 5 or 6, an assistant and a quartermaster - two shares each, a young man - only half the share of an ordinary. Separate remuneration was given to the ship carpenter and the ship's doctor, who were so valuable specialists that they usually did not take part in the hostilities. The ship's doctor, as a rule, received a “salary” of at least (and often more) the assistant captain. Moreover, remuneration was also paid to the doctor of an enemy ship, if he, having been captured, provided assistance to wounded corsairs. Bonuses for “military merit” were also paid - usually in the amount of 50 pesos. If the ship acted as part of a squadron, and before the voyage an agreement was reached on a “fair” division of production between the crews of all ships, then, in the event of the capture of an enemy ship, his team was paid a bonus in 1000 pesos. In addition, relied on "insurance" payments - for injury or injury. Loss of the right hand was usually estimated at 600 pesos or six slaves, loss of the left hand or right leg, or serious injury - at 500, loss of the left foot - 400 piastres, loss of the eye or finger - 100. Part of the production was transferred to the relatives (or matlot) of the victims.

There were other expense items: 10% of production was paid for a letter of marque, corsairs who didn’t have it, presented the same amount to the governor of “their own” island so that he would not be too nitpicking and ask unnecessary questions.

Spanish Peso (Piastre), 17th Century Coin

One could buy a horse for 10 pesos in Europe, a good house for 100. And on Tortug, the price of one bottle of rum sometimes reached 2 pesos. In addition, ordinary pirates rarely saw gold or silver: captains often paid with them goods from boarded ships. These could be rolls of cloth, clothes, a variety of tools, bags of cocoa beans. Tortuga resellers took the goods at a huge discount, to sell production at half price was considered a great success.

“What is a bank robbery compared to the foundation of a bank?” B. Brecht asked a rhetorical question in The Three Penny Opera. The filibusters, who were not afraid of either God or the hell, look like just petty punks in comparison with these “sharks” who robbed and literally “undressed” the “gentlemen of fortune”, risking only hemorrhoids from long sitting at their desks. At the same time, nothing is known about the attempts of the drunken filibusters to rob these bloodsuckers: perhaps they had strong security teams, and maybe it was believed that attacking the merchants and owners of the entertainment establishments of “their” island “out of concept”.

Pirates in the Charleston Tavern, South Carolina, lithograph, 1700. There were probably about the same taverns on Tortuga Island in those days.

In general, the profit of all kinds of "businessmen" and the owners of the "evil places" of Tortuga was simply outrageous. Therefore, few of the filibusters who returned here managed to “walk beautifully” on the shore for more than a week. Here is what Exvemelin writes about the “trick” on Tortug’s corsairs Olon after the famous and very successful trip to Maracaibo, according to which each ordinary pirate received an amount equal to the four-year income of the buccaneer:
“About three days, maybe a day less or a day more, they let go of all their goods and lost all their money ... and a great drinking party began. But it did not last long - after all, a bottle of vodka (vodka? Such is the Russian translation) cost four piastres. Well, then some of the pirates engaged in trade on Tortug, while others went fishing. The governor purchased a ship with cocoa for a twentieth of its value. Part of the pirated money was received by innkeepers, and part by whores. ”

But to get drunk at sea, risking drunks to meet a storm or a warship, could only suicides. And the prospect of losing production due to an inappropriately asleep forward looking or bast of a non-knitting steering did not inspire anyone.

In the famous film, we constantly see this hero with a bottle in his hands. It is not surprising that the Black Pearl is “stolen” from time to time.

But this captain prefers apples to the sea, and therefore he has complete order on the ship

In sea trips, rum was added only in small amounts to spoiled water. The discipline on board the pirate ships was very strict, and, to discuss the orders of the captain, during the campaign was not accepted. Instead of an extraordinary outfit for a galley, an excessively talkative “gentleman of fortune” could immediately go to the sea to sharks, or with a bottle of rum to the very notorious “dead man's chest”: a deserted island in the middle of the ocean (if a human skeleton was found on one of these uninhabited islands, questions about how and why he was here, no one came up with). Such a case of punishment for disobedience and violation of discipline is described: in 1697, two French filibusters continued to rob the inhabitants of Cartagena after receiving an order to end the riots, while raping several townspeople. For this, they were immediately shot.

But when the ship did not conduct military operations, the captain’s power was limited, all issues were resolved at the general gathering of the team. Moreover, at that time the powers of the captain were often less than that of the quartermaster, who was elected by the crew. The quartermaster was in charge of supplying the ship with military and food supplies, monitored order on board, single-handedly decided on penalties for minor misconduct and acted as a judge in the event of serious violations (the captain acted as “prosecutor”, team members were “juries”), and he led the flogging of guilty sailors. He was often the head of the boarding team (that is, the commander of the most dashing corsairs - the "Marines"). In the event of a conflict, the pirates had to turn to the quartermaster, who could either independently resolve the dispute or attend their duel (which was held only on the shore), in order to track that each of the opponents had the opportunity to load a gun, and was not attacked from behind .

Now you understand why John Silver remembered with such pride that he was a quartermaster on John Flint's ship? And why he, not afraid to seem like a funny bouncer, said:
“Some were afraid of Pugh, others - of Billy Bons. And Flint himself was afraid of me. ”

Robert Newton as John Silver - Former Quartermaster of the Flint Ship, 1950

Since we remembered the "dead man's chest" and the "literary" corsairs Stevenson, at the same time we will tell about some of the "heroes" of the notorious "multi-series" Pirates of the Caribbean.

Sea Devil Davy Jones

So, get acquainted - Davy Jones, the sea devil, the hero of sailor tales and some "pirate" novels. The first of these books was The Adventures of Peregrine Peaks, written by Tobias Smollett in 1751. Here Davy Jones is a monster with round eyes, three rows of teeth, horns, a tail and a nose, from which comes blue smoke. And the "chest (or cache) of Davy Jones" in which Jack Sparrow fell is the seabed, where, according to legend, restless souls of drowned sailors live.

Not quite right Davy Jones in the movie “Pirates of the Caribbean. Dead Man's Chest". However, the present, after all, no one saw

Kraken: the monster of other seas

But the Kraken fell on the Caribbean for a misunderstanding: this legendary sea monster, in fact, "lived" off the coast of Norway and Iceland. The first mention of this monster belongs to the Danish Bishop Eric Pontopnidan, in 1752 he described it as a giant crab fish that drags the ships to the bottom:
“The kraken, which is also called the crab fish, has a head and many tails, and in length no more than the island of Öland (16 kilometers). When the kraken rises to the surface, all ships should immediately sail from there, for it floats up with a huge splash, emits water from its terrible nostrils, and the waves diverge from it in a mile a whole height. ”

Kraken got its name from the epithet "Kraks", which applies to abnormal mutant animals.

Kraken, medieval engraving

Another medieval image of the Kraken

Fishermen believed that when the Kraken rests, huge schools of fish gather around him, which feed on his excrement. The Norwegian and Icelandic sailors used to say the big catch: "You must have been fishing on the Kraken." And in the XVIII-XIX centuries. The kraken is already described as an octopus, which is attributed to the squid's lifestyle: octopuses live on the seabed, and squids live in the water column. In German, the word "kraken" began to mean cuttlefish or octopus. Karl Linney, misled by the numerous accounts of “eyewitnesses,” included Kraken in the classification of real living organisms as cephalopods, giving him the Latin name Microcosmus marinus (book System of Nature, 1735). But later he removed from his writings all references to him. Real squids sometimes really reach a large size - specimens up to 9 meters long are described, with tentacles making up about half the body length. The weight of such record-breaking individuals reaches several centners. Theoretically, they can be dangerous for divers and divers, but they are not a threat to ships.

"Flying Dutchman" and his real captain

Well, a few words about the “Flying Dutchman”: oddly enough, the legend of the ghost ship did not appear in the Netherlands, but in Portugal. In 1488, Mr. Bartolomeu Dias reached the southern tip of Africa - the Cape of Good Hope, which he originally called the Cape of Storms. It was in those places that he disappeared with his ship during one of his subsequent voyages - in 1500. Then, among the Portuguese sailors, a belief was born that Dias always roams the seas on a ghost ship. In the next century, hegemony on the seas passed to the Netherlands, and the captain of the ship of the dead changed his nationality - apparently because the Dutch really did not like competitors, and therefore the meeting with their ship on the high seas did not bode well for the British, French, Portuguese, or Spaniards. Even the name of the captain of the ship of the dead was known and his name was by no means Davy Jones, but Van Straaten or Van der Decken.

Flying Dutchman, German medieval engraving

In the next article, we will talk about the corsairs of Jamaica - the allies and competitors of the Tortuga filibusters.
Articles from this series:
Ryzhov V.A. Filibusters and buccaneers
Ryzhov V.A. Tortuga. Caribbean Paradise Filibusters

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  1. Aerodrome
    Aerodrome 8 August 2019 05: 40
    easier "pirates of the caribbean" to look ... the same fantasy.
  2. Korsar4
    Korsar4 8 August 2019 06: 38
    Great. But when, reading about Captain Blood, you see the remark "the author was mistaken here," you understand that something is wrong.
    1. VLR
      8 August 2019 07: 11
      It is clear that the novel about Blood is not a historical work. But you would not be "scratched" if you had read that Pugachev raised an uprising not under Catherine 2, but under Alexander 1, and Russia was at that time at war not with Turkey, but with France (Napoleonic Wars). The situation is roughly the same here. In the 80s, Ozheron had already died and Morgan retired, the era of filibusters Tortuga and Port Royal was declining. I am just now writing an article about their very different, but sad fate. The last time the corsairs of the West Indies will "light up" back in Nassau - where Edward Teach will become famous. This pirate republic will also be discussed in the last article of the cycle.
      1. Simargl
        Simargl 10 August 2019 18: 13
        Valery, and who is that? quartermaster? wassat
        1. Vasya Pupenko
          Vasya Pupenko 15 August 2019 17: 38
          The chief on the quarterdeck is a superstructure on the bow of the ship where the boarding team was going, the commander of the most notorious thugs. Not to be confused with the army quartermaster - this is completely different.
          1. Simargl
            Simargl 15 August 2019 18: 11
            Quote: Vasya Pupenko
            Not to be confused with the army quartermaster - this is completely different.
            Quartermaster (somehow) ... is it all about transcription?
            1. Vasya Pupenko
              Vasya Pupenko 15 August 2019 19: 12
              Yes. Rather, even Quartermaster.
    2. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 8 August 2019 09: 13
      By the way, Stevenson was also "a little wrong." The events described in "Treasure Island" take place more than half a century after the main persons involved in the "pirate libertine" left this world.
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 8 August 2019 16: 21
        Quote: 3x3zsave
        The events described in "Treasure Island" take place more than half a century after the main persons involved in the "pirate libertine" left this world.

        Blackbeard Edward Teach (died in 1718), mentioned in the novel, was a contemporary of Flint. Silver, according to him, if I remember correctly, also swam with Ingland (d. 1720), after which for a long time he was a member of Flint's team.
        Dr. Livesey, shortly before the events described in the novel, fought at Fontenoy (1745). Fifty years have failed, but twenty-twenty-five years or so has come out ... smile
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 8 August 2019 20: 31
          Hello Michael!
          I do not like to appeal to Wikipedia, however, in this case, I see no obstacles not to believe in it.
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 8 August 2019 20: 57
            Unfortunately, except for "Treasure Island" and Archengolts's book (and even then a quarter of a century ago) I have not read anything on this topic. There is also a book by Slyusarenko "Gentlemen of Fortune", but it did not fall into my hands, only "Knights of Fortune". In addition, Stevenson's "Black Arrow" turned out to be closer to me, interrupting the pirate romance with chivalrous romance ... smile
            The marine theme for me is probably Jack London. And Stanyukovich. smile
            "Pirates of the Caribbean" didn't look from the word "not at all" and I'm not going to. There was another film with Geena Davis on this topic - I saw it out of the corner of my eye, I don't remember anything. And, I also forgot, of course, Sabatini - books and a film ... But that's definitely all.
            So I told almost everything I knew on the topic. laughing
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 8 August 2019 21: 06
              You can count Stevenson and arrange an investigation. It is in your spirit! good
              1. Trilobite Master
                Trilobite Master 8 August 2019 21: 22
                Quote: 3x3zsave
                arrange an investigation.

                Not so interesting how to arrange a lawsuit. But here we need an opponent and judges, then in general a show can turn out. And when the investigator, the prosecutor, the lawyer and the judge are bored, they will not joke you, nor will you snitch.
                In general, it is quite interesting and amusing to discuss literary heroes in the context of the current modern legislation - I talked about musketeers. Sometimes such incidents pop up - the mind goes beyond the mind.
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 8 August 2019 21: 35
                  No, it is clear that any historical character for 20 years of a strict regime "struggles" at least! And even life ...
                2. Korsar4
                  Korsar4 8 August 2019 23: 03
                  The trial of Prince Igor from the "First Circle".
            2. VLR
              9 August 2019 06: 24
              Mikhail, I watched these films (from the "Pirates of the Caribbean" series) with my daughter, so I can say that you can watch the very first one - a normal "fairy tale about pirates". The rest are not worth it. They were filming for the sole purpose of "making money stupidly." It is the same with the Harry Potter books: with the naked eye it is clear that the first was written by Rolling very diligently and "for the soul", the rest - by contract and quickly - "forged the iron while it was hot."
              1. Greenwood
                Greenwood 9 August 2019 08: 08
                About the Pirates, I agree with you. The first film was shot with a finished ending and, in general, did not contain hints of a sequel. Apart from the immortal restless pirates from the "Black Pearl", it does a good job of showing life in the British island colonies, Tortuga, etc. But then the fantastic nonsense went further with the invention of more and more enemies and illogical plot moves.
      2. Korsar4
        Korsar4 8 August 2019 17: 52
        "And we will believe, just like children,
        As in an obsession, in the order of words "(c).
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 8 August 2019 20: 24
          "Among the melted candles and evening prayers,
          Among the military trophies and peaceful fires,
          Lived book children who did not know the battles,
          Suffering from his petty disasters. "
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 8 August 2019 21: 09
            Man, have fun sailing
            Yo ho ho have fun like hell
            Some killed by bullets, others killed by old age
            Yo ho ho anyway overboard

            Or better:
            Was the pirate greedy Billy,
            True, Billy did not like
            Neither sailors nor pirates,
            Neither kids nor relatives
            And could not temper Billy
            Crocodile appetites,
            And so that Billy isn’t beaten,
            There simply was not a day.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 8 August 2019 21: 22
              Favorite topic.
              "From birth Bobby" was a good boy,
              Bobby had a hobby, he loved money "(c)
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 8 August 2019 23: 07
                "Lords, sirs, peers,
                Know the sense of proportion:
                Avoid drunkenness you like a trap "(c).
          2. Korsar4
            Korsar4 8 August 2019 23: 06
            "And the silent granite will untie the tongue.
            And the cold past will talk about campaigns, battles, victories "(c).
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 9 August 2019 06: 10
              "About battles, conflagrations,
              About friends, comrades,
              Anybody ever
              Will speak "(c)
              1. VLR
                9 August 2019 06: 43
                "They tell him that the fight is over
                And it's time to keep records of unfulfilled dreams
                They tell him it's time to go home -
                At home, according to rumors, it's already spring "(c)
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 9 August 2019 07: 14
                  "But at last the war is over,
                  From the shoulders we dropped the word tons of cargo,
                  I meet Earring Fomin,
                  And he is a Hero of the Soviet Union "(c)
                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 9 August 2019 09: 18
                    "The eyes say goodbye. They study for a long time.
                    And so everything is clear - don't say words "(c).
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 9 August 2019 19: 21
                      "In our eyes - shouts" Forward! "
                      In our eyes - shouts "Stop!"
                      In our eyes is the birth of the day
                      And fire death "
                      (Words: V. Tsoi, my punctuation)
            2. VLR
              9 August 2019 10: 08
              Quote: Korsar4
              "And the silent granite will untie the tongue.
              And the cold past will talk about campaigns, battles, victories "(c).

              From favorite:
              "About how we walked on an icy night
              And with swords, graves were cut in the ice,
              About how swords stuck to the hands,
              And the stars froze in my eyes
              Like the tattered silk of our proud banners
              Dawned on the calm of dead faces
              Like curses in my mouth frozen in ice
              And the words of prayers were dying in their hearts ... "(c)
              (Saruman and Ayre, "Word of the Squire")
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 9 August 2019 10: 30
                "Day-night, day-night ...
                We also dem on Africa "(c).
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 9 August 2019 19: 46
                  "Small children,
                  No way,
                  Don't go for a walk in Africa "
                  (F. Forsyth "Dogs of War")
                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 9 August 2019 20: 46
                    But what about Barmaley?

                    "These are emerald plains
                    And fan spreading palm trees "(c).
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 9 August 2019 21: 17
                      And what about Barmaley? As well as "the valiant Vanya Vasilchikov" goes into the field of literary criticism.
                    2. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 9 August 2019 21: 26
                      "The parrot threatened us mysteriously,
                      Palm twig "(c)
                      1. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 9 August 2019 21: 43
                        "Some lost sailor
                        Sold me into slavery for a broken penny.
                        And I was already a speaker "(c).
              2. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 9 August 2019 19: 36
                "How is this:
                The water in the machine gun boils, -
                will you understand? "
                (I do not like Rozhdestvensky, but an association has surfaced)
                1. Korsar4
                  Korsar4 9 August 2019 20: 47
                  "New songs will come up with life.
                  No need, guys, to grieve about the song "(c).
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 9 August 2019 21: 07
                    "From Seville to Grenada,
                    In the quiet dusk of nights
                    There are serenades
                    The ringing of swords is heard "(c)
                    1. Korsar4
                      Korsar4 9 August 2019 21: 44
                      "The sword has shown many
                      What is dust and fluff "(c).
                    2. Solo2503
                      Solo2503 9 August 2019 22: 47
                      What does the Soviet school mean? In a shootout of quotes, they will take a walk through the entire history and literature of the 20th century without any help from Wikipedia and any search engines! Bravo!
                      1. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 10 August 2019 08: 10
                        So still walks nearby.

                        “So the books you need
                        You read in childhood ”(c).
  3. Avior
    Avior 8 August 2019 07: 18
    It seems that the author made a common translation error.
    The quartermaster is the rear, why would he have a double share?
    But the quater master, this is the head of the boarding team, the most dangerous part of the battle at sea, the main thug on the ship. The name came from the Quaterdeck - part of the ship, with which it landed during boarding.
    So Flint was afraid of John Silver not in vain - he did not serve him as a cook, but as the head of the boarding team. laughing
    1. VLR
      8 August 2019 07: 23
      This is exactly what I am writing about. Well, I used the word "quartermaster" because it appears in all Russian-language sources - so that there is no confusion. And, yes, taking care of the supply of the ship was the main task of Silver's colleagues - because boarding does not happen often, and "lunch should be on schedule." And the work on the "household part" did not diminish the authority of the quartermaster, but increased it - since it was from him that one could get various "tasty buns" in peacetime.
      1. Avior
        Avior 8 August 2019 07: 34
        In modern Russian, these subtleties of translation are poorly visible, so many wonder why Flint was afraid of some cook.
        1. VLR
          8 August 2019 07: 38
          And he was very surprised at the first reading (in school years) smile
      2. Undecim
        Undecim 8 August 2019 09: 27
        Quartermaster is also featured in all English-speaking and German-speaking (Quartiermeister) sources.
        And there is no translation error. The meaning of the word "quartermaster" depends on time, country and place of service. Initially, this was the name of the persons responsible for the maintenance of the monarch's sleeping quarters.
        The term "quartermaster" has been used in the land armies since the 17th century as a designation for the supply chain.
        In the navy, "everything is not so simple."
        In Royal Navy, as well as in Royal Canadian Navy, Royal Australian Navy, Royal New Zealand Navy, South African Navy, the quartermaster is the helmsman.
        In the French navy and navies with "French traditions" Quartier-maître is a junior rank, equivalent to a land corporal, and has nothing to do with supplies.
        The pirate quartermaster deserves a separate description, since he had much broader powers on pirate ships. First of all, it was a person who served as a kind of counterbalance to the captain and who had the right to "veto" the captain's decisions.
        As for the origin from the quarterdeck, I already wrote above - the word has a land origin. By the way, among the Dutch, a quarterdeck is called schans, but a quartermaster is called kvartermeyster.
        So the surprise of Flint's "power" is not caused by the intricacies of translation, but by ignorance of the peculiarities in relation to the functions of the quartermaster.
        1. Avior
          Avior 8 August 2019 09: 48
          Yes, this version of the explanation also wanders in our "tyrnets" laughing
          Generally speaking, a literary translation should not be a verbatim transliteration of the term, not a word is translated, but a concept, and this concept in modern literary Russian combat is the overwhelming majority of readers associated with the rear service and in relation to sailors requires explanation in translation. I have not seen such an explanation in any of the Treasure Island publications, but this is an important characteristic of the image of Silver, affecting the reader’s perception of it.
          1. Avior
            Avior 8 August 2019 09: 49
            Russian battlefield = Russian language.
            Thanks t9 for not letting me get bored laughing
          2. Undecim
            Undecim 8 August 2019 11: 49
            This is not from the "tyrnet", it is from the book "'Piratical Schemes and Contracts': Pirate Articles and their Society, 1660-1730. In it, the structure of pirate crews and who the quartermaster is in a pirate crew is given a lot of attention.
        2. Solo2503
          Solo2503 9 August 2019 22: 51
          Bravo!!! Thanks for the clarifications.
    2. Serg-IF
      Serg-IF 8 August 2019 09: 05
      rear - quartermaster, quartermaster is just the head of the deck team from the word quarterdeck
      1. Serg-IF
        Serg-IF 8 August 2019 09: 37
        the chest, by the way, has two translation meanings - a chest and a chest, so a more correct translation of a song is fifteen people and a dead man’s backbone :)
        1. Serg-IF
          Serg-IF 8 August 2019 09: 41
          By the way, in a couple of articles of the cycle as a model of the frigate "Queen Anne's Revenge", for some reason, a model of the cinematic version is given without a corresponding reservation, in reality the frigate should look at least like the frigate "Standart", a replica of which runs around Europe.
  4. Avior
    Avior 8 August 2019 07: 56
    John Silver in the photo aims with his right hand, closing his right eye. That shooter! laughing
    1. Captain45
      Captain45 9 August 2019 00: 27
      Quote: Avior
      John Silver in the photo aims with his right hand, closing his right eye. That shooter!

      You obviously never shot a pistol and you don’t know that when you aim with different eyes - left or right, you get different results. I explained this when I went through the initial training at the training center. I shoot a pistol myself, aiming with my left eye and, it’s better not at this moment to be on the target lol
      1. Avior
        Avior 9 August 2019 07: 22
        He shot, but did not hear about such subtleties. Live and learn.
        I have never seen a single person who would shoot with his right hand, aiming with his left eye. After all, you need to take your hand away or turn the brush out, IMHO, this will negatively affect the heavy pistol in his hand. drinks
        1. Captain45
          Captain45 9 August 2019 22: 22
          Quote: Avior
          After all, you need to take your hand aside or turn the brush out,

          What for? If you shoot at a target from a standard rack, with your right shoulder forward, the gun in your right hand, you don’t need to turn anything out, just cover your right eye and look at the front sight with the left pillar slot. You can try it at home, taking an iron instead of a gun, everything turns out easily and simply. wink
  5. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 8 August 2019 08: 00
    Thanks for the article, Valery!
    Interested in a shared hierarchy in pirate teams. As far as I understand, in addition to the captain, the quartet deck of the master, the doctor and the carpenter, a few other narrow specialists could apply for an increased percentage of production. Like that: navigator, senior gunner ...
    But Peter Blood is what a hit! He is both a captain and a doctor!
    1. VLR
      8 August 2019 08: 11
      "a few more narrow specialists could apply for an increased percentage of production"
      Yes, if they were on this ship - because many posts were combined on small ships, the quartet deck master, for example, often performed the duties of a boatswain.
  6. smaug78
    smaug78 8 August 2019 11: 09
    The Kraken, a medieval engraving, is an illustration for the book "80 Km. Underwater"
    1. Avior
      Avior 8 August 2019 11: 20
      Also drew attention. However, maybe the old drawing was used for decoration
    2. Captain45
      Captain45 9 August 2019 00: 29
      Quote: smaug78
      The Kraken, a medieval engraving, is an illustration for the book "80 Km. Underwater"

      And I remember that this illustration was in the novel "Workers of the Sea".
      1. naGua
        naGua 9 August 2019 10: 57
        No, brothers. This is an illustration for the first edition of Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea by artists Alphonse de Neuville and Edouard Riou. The illustration shows an episode of the grandiose battle of the Nautilus crew with octopuses. In general, by octopuses, Monsieur Verne means a giant squid, which, incidentally, is shown in the illustration and follows from the textual description of the animal. By the way, an interesting detail, the artist Riu gave Professor Aronax the features of Jules Verne himself.
        A selection of illustrations can be found here
        The desired illustration at number 17.
        And yet, here comrades listed films on a pirate theme. However, no one remembered Roman Polanski's excellent 1986 film Pirates. Walter Mattow as Captain Red. The film is simply great, I highly recommend watching it. All sorts of "Caribbean Seas" were not even close :)
  7. smaug78
    smaug78 8 August 2019 11: 23
    Quote: Avior
    Also drew attention. However, maybe the old drawing was used for decoration
    artist de Neuville, now looked
  8. Butchcassidy
    Butchcassidy 8 August 2019 12: 59
    To anyone interested in the topic of piracy, I recommend: "The Great Ocean Hour" by Georges Blon.
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 8 August 2019 17: 06
      Yes, the books are good, there are just as many of them as there are oceans on the planet. By the way, in one of them there is a chapter called "The Last Corsair" about the adventures of the cruiser "Emden".
      1. DMoroz
        DMoroz 9 August 2019 02: 22
        exactly so, there is - Igor Bunich "Kaiser's Corsairs" and "Pirates of the Fuehrer". There are chronicles of the voyages of auxiliary cruisers Germanium "Emden" in the First and Second World War ...
  9. bubalik
    bubalik 8 August 2019 13: 00
    ,,, and how many more treasures are waiting for their late owners winked or is it all fiction of novelists in their literary works. request
  10. Oleg Kolsky 051
    Oleg Kolsky 051 8 August 2019 15: 08
    Thank you for the article. +. I am interested in a question to which I have not found an answer, why did the pirates feel so at ease on the Maine, okay at sea, and they visited the Spanish cities as if they were in their closet, as needed, and the Spaniards? If we recall the defeat of the Spanish squadron by Morgan at Maracaibo ... And the capture of Panama is already far from the sea. It is understandable why Morgan sent a pistol as a gift to the Spanish Vice King and promised to teach him how to use it. A kind of savory spit in the face in pursuit. A clear sign of sympathy for the degenerate descendants of the conquistadors. By the way, I remembered the site "Jolly Roger", the respected author did not write articles there, but did it inspire?
    1. VLR
      8 August 2019 15: 17
      Yes, the Spaniards were losing their passion at that time. Only a few heroes tried to resist. most either fled with their goods, hoping that they would not catch up and not be caught, or surrendered, hoping to pay off. In the following articles ("Privateers and corsairs of the island of Jamaica" and "" Through hardships to the stars. The fate of the most famous corsair in Jamaica ") examples will be given - both individual heroes and numerous crowds of cowardly inhabitants.
      I didn't write anything on the Jolly Roger website, I don't even know about one.
      1. Oleg Kolsky 051
        Oleg Kolsky 051 8 August 2019 15: 24
        Thank you for refreshing the memory of a very long time read. I still like your articles with an abundance of illustrations.
  11. heavy division
    heavy division 8 August 2019 15: 11
    Very interesting cycle. And the pirate topic always interested, even collected books on it
  12. DMoroz
    DMoroz 8 August 2019 15: 30
    Thanks for the article, Valery.
    I’ll add that regarding the difference between the quartermaster and the quartermaster.
    In the English fleet there is a separate term for the commander of a quarterdeck - master of the Quarterdeck. At a later time, the term was already virtual, used only in battle, this term was called either the master or the captain of the ship - and rightly so, because it was they who headed the boarding.
    Until the middle of the XVIII century, the quartermaster was not the quartermaster, because For this, Purser existed for himself, he is also a battalion.
    Therefore, in Royal Nevi, the quartermaster is the chief helmsman, that is, a sailor who can not only stand at the helm, but also knows the basics of navigation, including the compass. "Flint was the captain. I was the quartermaster because I have one wooden leg." (Silver)
    In the French Navy, its counterpart is matelot timonier.
    In battle, the quortemeister was responsible for the signals sent by the ship. (From Webster's Dictionary - Quartermaster - "a petty officer who attends to a ship's helm, binnacle, and signals".)
    In addition, the quatermaster, when docked in the port, took over the functions of maintaining order, and controlled the arrival of the crew, goods and spare parts on board. Sometimes using police functions, that is, he could lead a small detachment to force deserters or lead a press team.
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 8 August 2019 17: 04
      Sorry, question. Which Webster dictionaries are you referring to?
      1. DMoroz
        DMoroz 8 August 2019 17: 15
        hi Etymology: Middle English quarter master, from quarter (I) + master master
        1.: a petty officer who attends to a ship's helm, binnacle, and signals under the master or navigator
        2.: a commissioned officer of the United States Army Quartermaster Corps: a commissioned officer whose duty is to provide clothing and subsistence for a body of troops
        Webster's New International English Dictionary. Webster. 2012
        1. Undecim
          Undecim 8 August 2019 17: 20
          Quarter-masler, in an army, an oflicer whose business is to attend to the quarters for the soldiers, their provisions, fuel, forage,
          & c. ; in the n.ivy. an officer who assists the mates in tln ^ ir duties, in stowing the hold, coiling the cables, attending the steerage, and kee |) ing time by the watch glasses.
          The 1828 edition of the American Dictionary of the English Language (2 volumes; New York: S. Converse)
          1. DMoroz
            DMoroz 8 August 2019 19: 24
            Yes, a link to Noah Webster’s American English Dictionary ed. 1828 ... Do you think that the closer to the time described in the article, the more accurate?
            And about Noah Webster himself and the reasons for publishing the dictionary, I hope you are aware of. That he, being an ardent Britishophobe, compiled his dictionary for use exclusively by Americans, creating an "American" version of the English language. At the same time, he introduced innovations into it, into which, using the old English language form, he managed to put in a completely different content from English, generally accepted in his time. The fact that the dictionary of 1828 was published during his lifetime suggests that no conceptual verification with the English-language content of words was made. But it was not until 1841 that the Merriams acquired the rights to revise, create and publish revised editions.
            So the Webster’s New International English Dictionary of the later edition of trust is somehow more, and other sources confirm its interpretation.
            1. Undecim
              Undecim 8 August 2019 21: 09
              That he, being an ardent Britishophobe, compiled his dictionary for use exclusively by Americans, creating an "American" version of the English language. At the same time, he introduced innovations into it, into which, using the old English language form, he managed to put in a completely different content from English, generally accepted in his time. The fact that the dictionary of 1828 was published during his lifetime suggests that no conceptual verification with the English-language content of words was made
              And to determine the etymology of words, Webster learned twenty-eight languages, including Old English, Hebrew and Sanskrit. And he obviously did not learn these languages ​​in order to disfigure the English language.
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 8 August 2019 23: 11
                Just awesome. There are things that are classic as mammoths, that you don’t even look behind the screen, how it all began.
              2. DMoroz
                DMoroz 9 August 2019 01: 24
                I agree with linguistics hi but with limitations because Webster learned according to published data twenty six languages, including Anglo-Saxon, German, Greek, Latin, Italian, Spanish, French, Arabic, Hebrew and Sanskrit (if you consider (native, half-native) American and classical English then + 2 = 28)
                Moreover, writing a dictionary took him twenty-seven years, only to replenish the dictionary with only the etymology of words,
                He was simply trying to standardize American speech, because the same "citizens of the independent states of America" ​​in different parts of the country pronounced and wrote words differently.
                Despite the fact that in 1825 he completed his vocabulary while already in France. And it contained 70 thousand words, and of them 12 thousand had never appeared in published books anywhere.
                Webster believed that the rules of English spelling were unnecessarily complex, so he introduced an "American" way of English spelling, abbreviating and sometimes replacing the spellings of classical English words, as well as adding common American words that were not in British dictionaries.
                But this is a separate topic for discussion of the untouchable article, which is undoubtedly +. You - if you have time, write a dissertation, the topic is inexhaustible hi
                1. DMoroz
                  DMoroz 9 August 2019 01: 58
                  To you - if you have time
                  Do not count (-) as a minus, spelling rules are commas ...
  13. Avior
    Avior 8 August 2019 20: 59
    Features of the translation, in my opinion, cannot be reduced to the selection of words from the dictionary.
    Therefore, for example, it is difficult for a Russian-speaking reader to understand why Agatha Christie changed the name Ten Little Indians during her lifetime.
    Perhaps, at the time of Stevenson, these subtleties were understandable to the reader, maybe they are understood by the English-speaking reader even now.
    But in the Russian edition there should be a footnote with an explanation if the translator is not sure that his translation is clear to the reader in the original sense.
  14. Antares
    Antares 9 August 2019 11: 46
    However, it was d'Ageron who came up with the idea to bring respectable ladies ready to become wives of the colonists to Tortuga and San Domingo from Europe. These women were “sold” to those who wanted to start a family, and for a lot of money.

    the first ministers of France (especially after Fouquet) under Louis 14 and later took up this matter. They began to send "wives" to Canada in large quantities. For the population to grow. True, neither the taxes on celibacy and the prohibition of vodka to unmarried (and the trade in furs) did not help much. Indian women were held in high esteem.
    Therefore, the British won the demographic growth (+ the climate is better than in Canada), they moved their families. And the French, though better fought, lost in general.
    But with "wives" in tropical colonies it was generally bad. The people are undisciplined (worse than in Canada) - more satisfaction of needs and quicker.
    A woman is the same legal booty of a corsair, filibuster and other guys of a knife and an ax ..
    Olone with his people fell right into the hands of savages, whom the Spaniards call "indios bravo." The Indians were known as cannibals and, unfortunately, the French were just about to eat. They tore Olone to shreds and roasted his remains.

    a rare case of retaliation.
    When cannibals punish a maniac ...
  15. AAK
    AAK 9 August 2019 16: 08
    How nice it is to read all the same indifferent, interested and sincere comments .... Still, we all played pirates in childhood ... :))
    1. Antares
      Antares 9 August 2019 21: 17
      Quote: AAK
      Still, we all played pirates in childhood ... :))

      Captain Blood I have a favorite book - especially Captain Blood Chronicles. I re-read it once a month probably. Well, Stevenson too. Yes, I also watched films. Plus, the history of the development of the region.
      Plus An and Serge Gollon (Angelica in the New World / Quebec) there is also a lot about pirates.
      In different books and stories you can always find.