Military Review

Russia. Objective reasons for lag

141
In Peter's pale sky - calm,
Flotilla free fog

And at the ends of the octagonal
All the same golden dust.
V. Nabokov. St. Petersburg


Misunderstanding of the past, erroneous data or a false picture stories, illusions and delusions lead to mistakes in planning the future.



Backlog?


Russia, being a "genetically" European country, developed, like other European countries, but of course, had its own specifics.

First, when Russia arose, France was already an early feudal state, Germany became one.

Secondly, the German kingdoms of the 6th — 7th centuries. in Western Europe (that is, all the early state formations of Europe) arose on the fertilized soil of the Greco-Roman civilization both in philosophical and legal and material terms: the presence of roads, structures, developed agriculture, etc., etc. ., while Russia developed in the "desert": forest and forest-steppe territory, which was developed from scratch. As a result, a completely different result was obtained for one unit of effort: the climate, the level of yield, and the agricultural periods were different. From here and various possibilities for accumulation of potential.

Thirdly, the Tatar-Mongol invasion, and behind it the establishment of tributary relations between the Horde and the Russian principalities had, first of all, an extremely negative impact on the economy of Russia. But the yoke had no significant influence on the state structure of the country (about which we wrote in the article on "VO" "Russia as part of the Eastern Empire?").

The political growth of the Russian principalities continued in the framework of natural development, expressed in the collection of land and the creation of a military estate - the nobility. The same situation, only much earlier, was in other European lands, and to a large extent under the influence of external aggression from the Hungarians, Arabs, Vikings.

In the framework of the same movement in Russia there was a struggle of the supreme power (grand ducal) with the aristocracy, in the process of which the institution of monarchy emerged at the end of the fifteenth century.

Russia was formed as a new civilization on the basis of the Russian people and Orthodoxy, ideologically connected with the lost Byzantium, a new civilization - the “Third Rome”.

In the course of this organic development, a new, advanced form of government — the monarchy faced the conservative forces of a specific period. These forces, which had once actively supported the formation of the Moscow principality, could not accept the new rules of the game, considering the Grand Duke as the first among equals, and were not ready to part with generic privileges without a fight. At the end of the struggle of the monarchy to eliminate the power of the aristocracy and the formation of the service class, which occupied the entire sixteenth century, the Troubles broke out.

Smoot beginning of the seventeenth century. - the first civil war in which the question was decided: how will the country develop? Who will pull the "plots", who will be freed from him? Which class will dominate in Russia?

The distemper, complicated by the intervention, ended with the undermining of the power of the aristocracy and the beginning of the formation of the military estate (knighthood) through enslavement of the rural free population. We draw attention to the fact that the military service class or knighthood in Russia was formed in the second half of the fifteenth century, and essentially in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, while in France and Germany this process took place in the eighth and tenth centuries. Finally, this situation was legally issued by the Council Code of the Year 1649! What knights could we talk about at this time in Western Europe? Is that the knight of Don Quixote, who fought with the windmills, "giants".

When we talk about knights, we mean not only the rider in the armor, rather, not so much his, but the estate itself and the related system of relations, which in this period fell into decay. Spain of the XVI century, for example, is not the most socially advanced state, which was associated with a long struggle with the "Arab yoke" (the caliphate occupied almost the entire territory of Spain, to the borders of modern France!). But it is from Spain, thanks to Cervantes, who himself was a hidalgo - a warrior, we get a "knight of the sad image" - a nobleman whose knightly principles are in glaring contradictions with the developing world of monetary relations, where, in fact, he looks like an anachronism - in a sad way.

First upgrade


It turns out that Russia is moving in its natural, organic way, but there is a significant delay, and due to the growth of technology in the military and naval affairs in the West, the backlog becomes obvious and threatening for the country.

During the reign of the first Romanovs, with the end of the civil war, there is a constant search for the proper country management systems, adequate to external dangers of Russia. At the same time, attempts are made to "point" modernization. The introduction of the regiments of the new system, dragoons, the construction of the frigate "Eagle", the creation of the "German settlement" and the attraction of "foreign specialists", finally, the reform of the Nikon church in the Little Russian way, changing the legislation using the documents of the western neighbor (Rzecz Pospolita) are all significant changes did not bring, as a "point" modernization did not change Turkey, Persia and Egypt in the nineteenth century.

The victories of the local army over the forces of the Commonwealth in the struggle for part of the southern and south-western Russian lands or Ukraine (Smolensk, part of Belarus and Little Russia) can be largely explained by the fact that the state of the Poles and Lithuanians went along a dead-end path of development for a given period of time: it was formed as an “aristocratic republic” —anarchy.

By the way, taking into account the “genetic” historical kinship of these peoples with the eastern neighbor, Russia could have gone the same way by the magnate-szlachta “republic” if other forces had won in the Troubles.

As a result, with the coming to power of Peter I, the genius Russian reformer, Russia was able to respond adequately to the challenges of the time - the first Russian modernization began (A. Toynbee).

Of course, Peter I, in terms of technology, laid the foundation for many of Russia's most important institutions, which, it must be emphasized, played an important role in the development of our country, unlike many countries where modernization was point or surface. And getting into skilled hands, they (technologies) significantly influenced the development of the state, this can be said, for example, of the Academy of Sciences.

Admiralty, shipyards, universities and secular educational institutions, newspapers, secular scientific publishing houses, professional military schools, industrial development of the Urals, and northern Palmyra, a city of three revolutions - we have all this thanks to the modernization of Peter, well, or it was until recently ...

M. N. Pokrovsky wittily wrote:
“Meanwhile, Peter could be convinced that the transformation of the army and navy according to European models gave excellent results: he, a military instructor and a ship engineer, first and foremost another, naturally had the idea that using the same methods in civil administration, it is easy and this last one can be made as exemplary as the Baltic fleet or the Transfiguration grenadiers. ”


But has Moscow Russia ended, as is commonly believed in historiography and journalism: has the organic development of Russia ended?

Simultaneously with modernization, Russia continued to move along the path of “feudalism”, but in new circumstances, in the conditions of the formation of new economic relations in the West. Modernization has protected this path. It was the strengthening of “knighthood” in the form of dictatorship, the final closure of the political issue with aristocrats: legally, Peter's brother destroyed King Feodor in 1682. An attempt by the aristocracy to regain power during the reign of Peter II and at the beginning of the reign of Anna Ioannovna came across a sharp rejection of side of the "gentry", eliminated the "mediator" between the nobles and the autocracy.

Peter I, served the country, perhaps, as more than one sovereign after him, he also defined an extremely harsh "service" to all estates. As in medieval Europe: fighting, plowing, praying.

Before the 17th century, this service was the subject of a private contract between the tsars and the king, then from the beginning of the reign of the Romanovs it became a duty, the service was legally enshrined in the Council Code of 1649 and enshrined in practice by the tsar Peter: the state endowed the serving people with an estate for his service.

V. O. Klyuchevsky cites a vivid example from the “feudal” relations of this period. Actually, it had little to do with the “Old Russian orders”, however:
“Once a crowd of nobles who did not want to go to math school, enrolled in the Zaikonospasskoye spiritual school in Moscow. Peter ordered to take lovers of theology to St. Petersburg to the naval school and, as a punishment, forced them to beat the piles on the Moika. General-Admiral Apraksin, faithful to the ancient Russian concepts of patrimonial honor, was offended for his younger brotherhood and in a simple-minded form expressed his protest. Appearing at Moika and seeing the approaching king, he took off his admiral's uniform with Andrew's ribbon, hung it on a pole and began to hammer in piles diligently with the nobles. Peter, coming up, asked with surprise: “How, Fedor Matveyevich, being the general-admiral and cavalier, do you drive piles yourself?” Apraksin jokingly answered: “Here, sir, all my nephews and grandchildren beat piles (younger brother, according to local terminology ), and what kind of person am I, what kind of advantage do I have? ”


After the death of Peter through the efforts of “noble delegates with weapons"- Guard serving people gradually draws up his own" dictatorship.

"Dictatorship of the Nobles" and the organic path of development of the country


The technologies brought by Peter defended Russia from external aggression, gave it acceleration right up to the 19th century, but at the same time, as a result of the increasing importance of the military class, public relations were conserved, which, in new historical conditions, becomes a social problem for the country.

For almost two centuries, the “dictatorship of the nobility” determined the political and economic structure of the state, conducting, especially in the first period, a kind of unwritten election of kings, up to the accession of Nicholas I to the throne, inclusive, the king, who saw first of all perturbed nobles

Catherine II, the “European” empress, called herself “a Kazan landowner” in solidarity with the nobles of Kazan, who had experienced the horrors of the peasant war of Yemelyan Pugachev, caused by the oppression of their own management. But even Catherine the Great tried to “ballot” with failed coups during the crisis of 1776 and 1791-1792. in favor of her son Pavel Petrovich.

Of course, we do not want to say that in the “revolts” of the 18th century. there were no other reasons: dissatisfaction with the domination of foreigners or the struggle between groups of nobles, by no means. But there was one reason - namely, the retention by the class of “knights” of the nobility of power on their own terms.

The key question of Russia throughout the entire dictatorship of the nobility remained the issue of land and the freedom of the peasants, which was never resolved. The leader of the Kaluga nobility, N. G. Vyazemsky, wrote:
“It has not yet come to their senses that the liberty of this idol of alien blind men inevitably leads to disastrous vainness, tumult, debauchery and the overthrow of all the authorities! .. In France, the nobility became - she fell; in Russia it was - and Russia rebelled, triumphed and blissful. ”


The Vologda landowner O.A. Pozdeev in 1814:
“Is Russia still Tatar? [Nothing reminds? - Auth.] In which the sovereign should be autocratic, backed up by many nobles, in the absence of them - their clerks-officials, who the slightest spark of non-payment of taxes and deliveries of the recruit ... are extinguished, preventing them from igniting in this vast empire with the peasants will not cope ... "


The enslavement meant the transfer to a serviceman for the service of the peasants with their work, and not with the land, the land remained communal or peasant. And all this period the peasants remembered it. But in the 18th century, the noble dictatorship decided differently, turning not only the identity of the farmer and his family into private property, but also the land belonging to him.

Ivan Pososhkov wrote: “... other noblemen have already grown old, they live in villages, and have not been in the service of one foot”. The nobles were rigorously seeking the possibility of not fulfilling their obligations, while remaining owners of the “estates” received from the state.

First, they “got rid of” the burden and deprivation associated with the beginning of service by the rank and file, finding a legal loophole of writing to the shelves from birth, then creating “military schools”. And in 1761, 1762. By decree of Peter III, and then Catherine II, were generally released from military and civil service. According to the apt remark of V.O. Kliuchevskiy, after the nobles were freed from the service of the state, should have freed the peasants attached to them only because of their ministry. And such a decree was adopted! But exactly 100 years!

Thus, we see that Russia, which was following its natural or organic path of development, faced with external threats from countries that had passed this path earlier, overcame the “challenges” by conducting the first modernization.

Of course, about any absolute monarchy in the eighteenth century. there is no need to speak here: Russian emperors, similar to French kings of the seventeenth — eighteenth centuries. outwardly, in fact, had little to do with classical absolutism.

Peter I, through the borrowing of Western technologies, has given acceleration for a century. As F. Braudel wrote, “Russia even perfectly adapted itself to the industrial“ pre-revolution ”, to the general rise of production in the 18th century.”

His heirs on the throne gladly took advantage of this opportunity, but at the same time they preserved social relations, stopping the organic path of development of the people, because, logically, the next step in this path was to be the legal liberation of farmers and the development of the third estate. I will quote Brodell once more: “But when the genuine industrial revolution of the nineteenth century comes, Russia will remain in place and will gradually lag behind.”

At the end of the "acceleration", at the zenith of military glory, several factors determined the development of the country in the subsequent period:

1. The great French bourgeois revolution.
2. Strengthening non-economic exploitation of the main tax-paying population of the country.
3. The first industrial revolution.
4. The coming to power of the bourgeoisie in most Western countries.

And finally, the design of the monarchy as a form of government exclusively nobles.

In such difficult conditions, the country was governed ... However, it would be better to say that A. Pushkin about the works of Emperor Alexander I:

Learn, the Russian people,
What the whole world knows:
Both Prussian and Austrian
I sewed my uniform.
Oh, rejoice, people: I am full, healthy and fat;
I was glorified by a newspaperman;
I ate, and drank, and promised -
And the case is not tortured.


To be continued ...
Author:
Articles from this series:
The death of the Byzantine civilization
Russia as part of the Eastern Empire?
Civilization Russia. Challenges and Answers
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 5 August 2019 15: 20
    +7
    Thank you, we are waiting for the continuation ...
    1. Underwater hunter
      Underwater hunter 5 August 2019 15: 50
      0
      Really interesting article .. there is an intrigue in it, I'm waiting for a speedy continuation ..

      Looking ahead on the topic - objective reasons for the lag, I would like to express my opinion. I think that an important factor in the lag is our mentality, as history shows, Russia makes a serious leap, only if there is a Person at the head of state. In other words, when the state is headed by a strong, patriotic personality, the state goes forward, and at such a pace that subsequent rulers reap the benefits of that strong personality for a long time. In Russia, on the one hand, the people have high hopes for the leader of the country, on the other hand, they are very keen on not justice, but this reaction, unlike the west, is cumulative, in other words, we are used to waiting a long time, patience with there are many of us .. and this already comes from religion and faith .. We can continue to continue, but to be brief and go to conclusions, in order to be ahead of the rest, we need to work and implement the idea of ​​social justice. And through this idea, choose a strong personality at the head of state.
      1. Alexey Sommer
        Alexey Sommer 5 August 2019 16: 20
        -1
        Quote: Underwater Hunter
        And through this idea, choose a strong personality at the head of state.

        The key problem of Russia in constant wars, large and small ..
        And the fact is that, as a rule, after a strong ruler in Russia, nature rests.
        It is necessary that during the reign a galaxy of strong receivers would be prepared.
        It seems to me that today there are worthy candidates in the team after the deadline.
        1. Underwater hunter
          Underwater hunter 5 August 2019 16: 21
          -2
          Quote: Alexey Sommer
          It seems to me that today there are worthy candidates in the team after the deadline.

          Who is this in your opinion?
          1. Alexey Sommer
            Alexey Sommer 5 August 2019 16: 43
            -10
            Quote: Underwater Hunter
            Who is this in your opinion?

            Given that Putin at the time he came to power was completely unknown as a contender, I honestly do not see much point in deepening.
            I think the potential list will coincide with us, plus or minus.
            If so important, I can list. )
            Dyumin, Matvienko, Volodin, Lavrov, Shoigu, Zhirinovsky, Bulk ..
            Can I have some more..
            1. Underwater hunter
              Underwater hunter 5 August 2019 16: 54
              +8
              Quote: Alexey Sommer
              Dyumin, Matvienko, Volodin, Lavrov, Shoigu, Zhirinovsky, Bulk ..
              Can I have some more..

              I would not want to see any of the above at the head of state.
              1. Per se.
                Per se. 5 August 2019 19: 26
                +9
                Vladimir, Russian mentality, a consequence of many reasons, one of them is the peculiarities of the geographical position, the vastness of Russia. The author called his article "Russia. Objective Reasons for Lagging," looking ahead, I would like to say that the main reason for the lag was the lack of plans for world domination. Alexander I, became the last emperor when Russia had a chance to take advantage of either an alliance with Napoleon, or the fruits of victory over him, when the Russian army reached Paris. Alas, they gave everything nobly, England warmed up her hands the most, although Russia, less Austria and Prussia bore the brunt of the war. As soon as a new social system, capitalism, was born in Holland and England, the race for dominance over the world began. After the Great French Revolution, England and France were the main competitors for leadership. England dragged Russia into an alliance against Napoleon, and eliminated a competitor with someone else's blood.

                Further, Kaiser Germany became the new contender for the world throne of capitalism. England again pulled Russia into the union, the Entente, and again retained and strengthened its position by the blood of others. Despite the fact that all of us were empress Germans and half-blood Germans, Russia harnessed to fight in alliance with those who always set Turks against Russia, and relatively recently during that period, the Japanese who defeated the 1904 -1905 war.

                World War I not only eliminated the main rival of the Anglo-Saxons - Germany, but also destroyed all the forces in Europe that could in any way pose a danger to British rule. In addition to the German Pali, the Austro - Hungarian, Ottoman and Russian empires. The Japanese empire remained in the east, with which the Anglo-Saxons were to deal later. It would be Britain, and their overseas miscarriage of the USA, complete happiness, but metaphorosis occurred, the Bolsheviks did not completely collapse Russia after the fall of the autocracy, but gave rise to a new social system, not controlled by the Rothschilds and Rockefellers, socialism, began to build a powerful Soviet Union.

                World War II is, first of all, a war against the USSR, where they began to make an antipode out of defeated Germany, anti-Russia, anti-USSR, Nazi Germany with Hitler. They turned a blind eye to the violation of the restrictions of Versailles, surrendered Austria and Czechoslovakia. Moreover, the "strange war" allowed the Nazis to include in the Third Reich practically all the potential of Europe, everything to destroy socialism, the Soviet Union.

                They did not succeed in destroying the USSR at once, once again pitting the Germans and Russians so that, as Harry Truman cynically put it, they would kill each other as much as possible. But, all of Western Europe was after a debt to the Anglo-Saxons, it was done away with Japan as an empire, which is also dependent on Washington and London. In addition, a lot of money was received during the war, the dollar became the world currency, and in capitalism the leader and master were finally formed.

                Again, it would be happiness for the Anglo-Saxons, but the world was divided into two poles, one pole capitalism, the second pole socialism. Socialism could and should have won, since capitalism needs an endless expansion of the economic pyramid at the expense of colonies that ended, but, after the death of Stalin, the Soviet party nomenclature believed in peaceful coexistence with the West, and, to all that, was tempted by the temptations of the Golden Calf. So betrayed the idea, betrayed the victory of socialism, including in space.

                Now we are in capitalism, in the pole, in which we have long been our leader-master. Our powers that be keep their junk in foreign banks and foreign currency ... Russia is not in fact a completely independent country. What are the reasons for the lag now, when the Soviet margin of safety is being consumed from a superpower? Maybe the author, in the continuation of the articles, will explain how effective managers, lawyers, economists, instead of a colonial economy under the West, with a fallen culture, education and science with health care, will squeeze their Western masters, make Russia a superpower again ... It seems that to close the gap, a great country can be revived only in renewed socialism, in a social system independent of world capitalism, in another world pole of power.
                1. Underwater hunter
                  Underwater hunter 5 August 2019 19: 33
                  0
                  Vladimir, the Russian mentality, the consequence of many reasons, one of them is the peculiarity of the geographical position, the vastness of Russia.

                  Sergey, thanks. Your vision of history, including the latest, fully coincides with mine. And for me, the intrigue of this series of articles is where the author will turn next .. hi
                2. aybolyt678
                  aybolyt678 6 August 2019 14: 19
                  +2
                  Quote: Per se.
                  It seems that eliminating the backlog, reviving a great country, is possible only in renewed socialism,

                  +++ bravo, wonderful and the author was also indicated !!!
                3. vlados
                  vlados 9 August 2019 22: 51
                  0
                  In short, the stupidity of the Russians and their autocrats is to blame ...
              2. Alexey Sommer
                Alexey Sommer 6 August 2019 05: 22
                -2
                Quote: Underwater Hunter
                I would not want to see any of the above at the head of state.

                You do not want. Good.
                What are your options?)
              3. ZAV69
                ZAV69 6 August 2019 18: 41
                0
                Dyumin works with us right now. I can’t say anything bad.
            2. Sergey1987
              Sergey1987 6 August 2019 13: 04
              +2
              Quote: Alexey Sommer
              Zhirinovsky, Bulk ..

              Are you joking?
              1. Alexey Sommer
                Alexey Sommer 6 August 2019 13: 43
                0
                In every joke, only a fraction of the joke)
                But seriously, I just wanted to show that the personality of the successor may be even more unexpected than the prepositional options.
            3. nesvobodnaja
              nesvobodnaja 12 August 2019 13: 42
              0
              Lists, however .... Not serious.
      2. Sadam
        Sadam 5 August 2019 18: 38
        +1
        ..... choose a strong personality as head of state.
        how do you imagine the current criterion is loyalty to the previous government ...
        personality .... that’s where the bottleneck - of these creative energetic with state thinking over the past 3 centuries on the fingers of one hand. two of the last XNUMX at first the empire collapsed then were generally on the verge ... and you imagine if what happened to the breadwinner in that bathyscaphe, God forbid ...
        1. Ross xnumx
          Ross xnumx 5 August 2019 19: 19
          +5
          Quote: Sadam
          and you imagine if what happened to the breadwinner in that bathyscaphe, God forbid ...

          Everything would go to dust. Everything that was acquired by overwork would fall apart and crumble into small particles ... belay
          You did not ask yourself the question, for what reasons Putin climbed into the bathyscaphe? Do you think Peskov advised? He came up and began to say softly:
          "Vladimir Vladimirovich! The rating is falling! The people are unhappy - the president says it is not a real one! We must either fly high or dive deeply. That is something people will be delighted. They will say that our guarantor is still wow !!!" fellow Maybe they will leave for a new term ... " laughing
          This is for those who put Putin forward, one must think that nothing would happen to him, because neither in United Russia, nor in the government, nor in the State Duma there is a worthy person who can get popular support. And all these gray cardinals from Shokhin to Chubais know that with the departure of Putin they will receive kirdyk. Nobody will endure their tricks already ... And the people themselves are tired of this hopeless humiliation.
          The author can not try. There is only one reason for the lag - the Russian government is afraid of its own people, because it has never lived on its interests for real. In the country in the whole history, so many discoveries and inventions have been made, one hundred and even a tenth of a share would have been enough to become world leaders. But our power loves copper pipes. From flattery and toady, she just dies. And the highest praise for the authorities is that which sounds in a foreign language.
          Why does GB always dictate certain conditions to us and accuse us of the most base acts? This is because they parasitized in the colonies and exterminated their population in the most barbaric ways. Maybe the USA has some kind of special magnetism? No ... But these partners are the most coveted for the Russian elite. Their recognition is important, not mass rallies and demonstrations of their own people.
          It was necessary to try so hard that in twenty years to minimize achievements in education, health, culture, heavy and light industry ... Ditch human resources and wait for the country to go somewhere and overtake someone.
          In what sound mind can one come up with a labor bondage until death to satisfy the whims of people who do not care what place the country will be in and what we will eat tomorrow ... They built their lives according to the correct concepts ...
          1. Sadam
            Sadam 5 August 2019 20: 15
            +1
            ... There is only one reason for the lag - the Russian government is afraid of its own people ....
            according to the description, everything is beautiful and will collect the pluses))) but I didn’t catch what your proposal was? if the autocrats do not stand the test of copper pipes and lose touch with reality .... if the succession of politics does not depend on the collective mind but on the personal qualities of the anointed of God .... 10 years ago, a worthy person measured the sausage with his elbows and now 20 million for some reason and I doubt that he will move in 24m
        2. Underwater hunter
          Underwater hunter 5 August 2019 22: 16
          +3
          Quote: Sadam
          and you imagine if what happened to the breadwinner in that bathyscaphe, God forbid ...

          I think nothing would have happened .. If the breadwinner remained in the elements of Neptune, the team that appointed him would simply appoint another .. Political technologists would have blinded him the image of the protector and collector of Russian lands and everything would go on, as it is now. namely the looting and withdrawal of money abroad ..
          Quote: Sadam
          .to choose a strong personality as head of state. how do you imagine?

          If you noticed, then I wrote that first social justice and only then a strong personality, in other words, a personality should be born among people who are supporters of socialism. We need to return to the path of socialism, while taking into account the mistakes of the past.
      3. tihonmarine
        tihonmarine 6 August 2019 10: 32
        +2
        Quote: Underwater Hunter
        as history shows, Russia makes a serious leap, only if there is a Person at the head of state

        Well, Germany is also Bismarck, Hitler, in America Washington, in Lithuania Gediminas and in Turkey, Sweden, Poland. A person at the head of state is not the last role in his development. In Russia, there are simply more of them (both in the positive direction and in the negative).
    2. lucul
      lucul 5 August 2019 22: 35
      +10
      Thank you, we are waiting for the continuation.

      And what is there to continue? ???
      The reasons for the lag lie on the surface - the jerk of Peter the Great - was the result of a sharp increase in the level of education of the nobles. The exhaust from him was enough for 200 years.
      Under Stalin, a sharp increase in the level of education of the entire population is the secret to the success of the USSR, it was not for nothing that Kennedy said that the USSR defeated them even on a school bench.
      Science, education, its own written language, a developed state institution - these are the main drivers of the growth of ANY civilization.
      In order for the above factors to start working, you need to save a person from everyday life - that is, free a person from the time spent on food, housing, raising offspring, etc. That is, to increase a person’s free time and direct (a momentous moment !!!!) precisely to the development of the state and science, and not to idleness, it was then that idleness triumphed, but such issues are solved by religion.
      In ancient Greece / Rome, such an early development of the state was facilitated by a mild climate and, oddly enough, the slave system, it was he who freed the slave owners from everyday life and was able to direct the time that people freed up to the development of the state.
      In Russia, due to the poor climate, he ate all his free time, it was much more difficult to survive on this territory than Italy / Greece.
      In the future, a big breakthrough is possible only when robots free a person from physical labor and household expenses. And the freed up resources of time, humanity will spend on the development of man and the state - but this is communal utopia, loan interest will not allow this to happen. )))
      1. megavolt823
        megavolt823 6 August 2019 10: 01
        -3
        Not in education. And in the ambitions of the ruler. WHAT ARE THESE AMBITIONS. Stalin’s ambitions are clear. But comrade Khrushchev was only trying to sit. And that did not work out. The gunsmith TT Tokarev had no education. Yes, and many in the Stalin era had no education. But the auto prom was not far behind. Armament too. Education has priority, it is. But if a person does not need the inventor of a helicopter or a television and a camera, they leave or get drunk. Today, inventors and scientists are not needed. Only managers. In their understanding, - And try to sell, anyone can make a product! Something like that . hi
        1. aybolyt678
          aybolyt678 6 August 2019 14: 41
          +2
          Quote: megavolt823
          Not in education

          it is in education. You listen to how this word sounds! what a semantic connotation has an expression - human education! it turns out that education forms a person and society too!
      2. tihonmarine
        tihonmarine 6 August 2019 10: 35
        0
        Quote: lucul
        Science, education, its own written language, a developed state institute - these are the main growth drivers of ANY civilization

        There is no arguing. Take Japan, which in one generation has moved from medieval to capitalist.
        1. megavolt823
          megavolt823 7 August 2019 10: 26
          +1
          Dear tihonmarine and aybolyt678! Japan was subjected to occupation, but from this territory it was decided to make a representative country of capital. They weren’t put in the wheel, the sales were wide, the technology was available. The army was absent. The peak of education in the USSR came in the middle of the 80x. But the moment the production level lagged was terrible. That production was not technological. There were technologies. Many are ahead of the rest. The implementation was not to hell. So we ran into the rulers. Where else can you prove? hi
          1. tihonmarine
            tihonmarine 7 August 2019 21: 14
            0
            Yes, I'm not talking about that Japan, about the one that was literate before the revolution "Meiji in 1867. From that time until 1904, one generation passed and only literate people could do it. Japan is the east, so ... well, just about she needs to know a lot.
      3. vlados
        vlados 9 August 2019 22: 53
        0
        Recall what happened there with the USSR? Really educated population did not want to live in it?
  2. Destiny
    Destiny 5 August 2019 15: 24
    0
    Russia, unfortunately, has always been under external control, under the tsar, which is now. Now it just looks more clearly, that’s the whole difference ... one .. the other is teasing .. That's what you want to tell me, but you would live your richer mind and happier than us no one would be under this sky ...
    1. Underwater hunter
      Underwater hunter 5 August 2019 15: 52
      +7
      Quote: Destiny
      Russia, unfortunately, has always been under external control

      Under Stalin, too, were under external control?
      1. Destiny
        Destiny 5 August 2019 15: 56
        +4
        Stalin do not mention in vain
        1. Alexey Sommer
          Alexey Sommer 5 August 2019 16: 26
          +3
          Any system of socialist, capitalist, current has its pros and cons. Listing and arguing about them is probably not necessary here.
          Russia, unfortunately, has always been under external control, with the tsar, now

          Speaking of external management in any period of Russia, we can talk about the depth of its influence, the human and material resources spent on this (Marxism, for example) and the results achieved.
          ps If you can name a state that has not been subjected to foreign influence.
        2. Vadim237
          Vadim237 5 August 2019 16: 46
          -3
          Inflation of 4%, the rest is a price increase - the work of speculators.
        3. tihonmarine
          tihonmarine 6 August 2019 10: 51
          +1
          At the exercises of the Kiev military district in the 1935 year, the USSR showed the world tank formations, aviation, and airborne assault forces. At sea, modern squadrons. All the equipment was created by the hands of Soviet engineers and workers, and this equipment was controlled by pilots, tankers, navigators learned under Soviet rule in Soviet schools, institutes and military schools. And this is for 10 years.
      2. apro
        apro 5 August 2019 16: 13
        +3
        Under IVS Stalin, the USSR was a little different state ...
        1. Alexey Sommer
          Alexey Sommer 5 August 2019 16: 48
          -7
          Quote: apro
          Under IVS Stalin, the USSR was a little different state ...

          I agree. Under Stalin, a feudal capitalist state was built.
          Where the nobility was replaced by the communist nomenclature, and private property by the state with the return of serfdom, because the peasants were restricted for immigration to the city.
          1. tihonmarine
            tihonmarine 6 August 2019 11: 03
            +1
            Under I.V. Stalin of the USSR it was - the State.
      3. The comment was deleted.
        1. Underwater hunter
          Underwater hunter 5 August 2019 16: 29
          +8
          Quote: Saw
          How many Stalin shot innocent people?

          How many? How many did he personally shoot?
          Quote: Saw
          Why did not Stalin listen to intelligence and allow attacks on the USSR?

          Why did you win the Second World War? How in 15 years managed to make an industrial country from an agricultural country? As the population made 100% educated, just 15 years ago, only 14% were literate. How to provide a nuclear shield to the country .. it is possible to list Stalin’s services for a very long time ..
          1. The comment was deleted.
            1. Underwater hunter
              Underwater hunter 5 August 2019 16: 43
              +6
              Quote: Saw
              Why did you win the Second World War?
              Stalin ate a cutlet with buckwheat while in Leningrad they ate grass in the summer ... He slept on the bed while in Leningrad they died from the cold ... Why did he win the Second World War - how many Germans did he personally kill?

              Yes, you need to learn history .. They are eating pheasants now that it’s 20 miles, beggars .. and Stalin left the property, dying his worn boots, and his overcoat .. Stalin is the winner and no liberal propaganda can dispute this fact. Compare how the population grew under Stalin and now, compare how much was done under Stalin and now, over the same period of time ..
              1. The comment was deleted.
              2. Sadam
                Sadam 5 August 2019 18: 46
                -5
                and you personally would like to live at that time under Stalin.? and I would clarify under Stalin in the 36 year and not post-war Stalin when half of Europe was bent
                1. Underwater hunter
                  Underwater hunter 5 August 2019 19: 13
                  +2
                  Quote: Sadam
                  and you personally would like to live at that time under Stalin.? and I would clarify under Stalin in the 36 year and not post-war Stalin when half of Europe was bent

                  I didn’t want to live in the past under any leader .. Somehow I’m more drawn to the future .. laughing hi
                  1. depressant
                    depressant 5 August 2019 20: 14
                    +1
                    Thus, like Peter the Great, Stalin managed in a few years to pull Russia to the advanced technical level, and the "nobles" - to responsible service to the people. But after his death, the "nobles", with the connivance of subsequent weak rulers, followed the beaten track, consistently expanding their needs to obscene proportions, and narrowing their responsibility to the country to negative values. Everything is according to the historically knurled scenario. As if the historical tracing paper was superimposed on reality.
                    But the theme of our mentality, which allows this, sounds somehow unconvincing. Our people are very inventive. "Grandees" are no exception. The law is in their hands.
                    1. Underwater hunter
                      Underwater hunter 5 August 2019 22: 20
                      -2
                      Quote: depressant
                      But somehow the topic of our mentality that allows such

                      The topic of mentality is not even disclosed, only a hint. But I think that mentality plays an important role in our troubles and victories.
                      Quote: depressant
                      Our people are very inventive. "Grandees" are no exception. The law is in their hands.

                      Of course this is so ... but this also applies to mentality.
                  2. Cat man null
                    Cat man null 5 August 2019 22: 21
                    -3
                    Quote: Underwater Hunter
                    Quote: Sadam
                    and you personally would like to live at that time under Stalin.? and I would clarify under Stalin in the 36 year and not post-war Stalin when half of Europe was bent

                    I didn’t want to live in the past under any leader .. Somehow I’m more drawn to the future .. laughing hi

                    This is called "pull out at the bazaar" yes
                    1. Underwater hunter
                      Underwater hunter 5 August 2019 22: 23
                      -1
                      Quote: Cat Man Null
                      This is called "pull out at the bazaar"



                      Kitty, what’s called, what are you doing? Troll again? On the topic have something to say? Or do you want me to act and send you a complaint?
                      1. Cat man null
                        Cat man null 5 August 2019 22: 27
                        -3
                        Quote: Underwater Hunter
                        Underwater hunter

                        And this is called flood wink

                        Man, all my animals are fed and walked. What are you talking about?

                        Quote: Underwater Hunter
                        Troll again?

                        You troll here. And constantly yes

                        And how else does the earth carry you request

                        Quote: Underwater Hunter
                        On the topic have something to say?

                        Much more "on the topic": to advertise Stalin and his time in this way, and so puncture on a simple question laughing
                    2. tihonmarine
                      tihonmarine 6 August 2019 11: 07
                      +1
                      Quote: Cat Man Null
                      I didn’t want to live in the past under any leader .. Somehow I’m more drawn to the future.

                      Each sandpiper is drawn into its swamp.
        2. The comment was deleted.
        3. tihonmarine
          tihonmarine 6 August 2019 11: 06
          0
          Again bourgeois liberal propaganda with a dill slanted. Thank you for enlightening us ....
  3. Tomich3
    Tomich3 5 August 2019 15: 24
    +5
    This is called, as in one article to cram half of the course of the secondary school "History of Russia".
    1. Alexey Sommer
      Alexey Sommer 5 August 2019 16: 30
      +1
      Well, at least almost without obvious distortions, the essence is stated.
      You can put the author of the article. Where we made a mistake we can indicate here.
    2. Ryazan87
      Ryazan87 5 August 2019 17: 03
      0
      with obvious result.
  4. fa2998
    fa2998 5 August 2019 15: 28
    +11
    Where did the author go back centuries? Does he see the reasons for the lag? So what was the development even in the Middle Ages in Singapore (and all of Southeast Asia! What happened in China even a century ago! Tribal system? The reasons must be sought in modern management.
    To indicate that Europe began to build capitalism early, so there all the bowels are empty. A catastrophic lack of resources.
    And we have - the entire periodic table is buried, only there is no master, but theft everywhere (for the elite). hi
    1. Underwater hunter
      Underwater hunter 5 August 2019 15: 53
      0
      Quote: fa2998
      Where did the author go back centuries? Does he see the reasons for the lag? So what was the development even in the Middle Ages in Singapore (and indeed all of Southeast Asia!

      I think this is the beginning, it will be more interesting further .. the author intrigued me ..
      And the rest I agree with you.
    2. mikh-korsakov
      mikh-korsakov 5 August 2019 15: 56
      0
      Well, I don't agree with China. In China, gunpowder, paper, compass and many other useful things were invented. when in Europe people were still on "Christmas trees". Theft isn't just for the elite either. The only question is the scale. And so that I guard, I have. The motto of the warrant officer CA.
    3. apro
      apro 5 August 2019 16: 15
      -1
      Quote: fa2998
      And we have the entire periodic table buried, only the owner is not

      Love you master ...
      Well, the owners appeared. What is easier?
      1. tihonmarine
        tihonmarine 6 August 2019 11: 12
        0
        I.V. Stalin was the Boss, and the rest were all proprietors.
    4. kapitan92
      kapitan92 5 August 2019 16: 16
      +3
      Quote: fa2998
      Where did the author go back centuries?

      And he takes an example from the Guarantor! According to Putin, the Germans are to blame for the adoption of the pension reform, not the "robochs", not the "fucking Chubais", but the Germans.
      Quote: fa2998
      And we have the entire periodic table buried, only the owner is not

      Do you have owners, name, or do you yourself know? laughing

      Quote: fa2998
      The reasons must be sought in modern management.

      I partially agree! Putin built a power vertical that worked effectively in the first terms of his rule, and then this system began to "devour" himself.
      “The King is made by the retinue” N. Machiavelli. hi
      1. tihonmarine
        tihonmarine 6 August 2019 11: 14
        0
        If the problem was only in the "pension system", then consider that Russia is a country without problems.
    5. Alexey Sommer
      Alexey Sommer 5 August 2019 16: 37
      -3
      So what was the development even in the Middle Ages in Singapore (and indeed all of Southeast Asia! What happened in the same China even a century ago! Tribal system?

      They grew from zero in the 20th century. The world has changed globally and copying the Western model multiplied by social backwardness and Asian ferocity, Asian economic dragons were born. If we do so, then there will be an explosion.
      We are developing normally. If there is no war, Russia will overtake Europe in the next 20-30 years. And overtake, as a good styer of the bad, confident, by a wide margin.
    6. naidas
      naidas 5 August 2019 16: 53
      -1
      Quote: fa2998
      on the territory of Singapore (and indeed all of Southeast Asia!

      Yes, how much money and technology were invested there and how much was invested in Russia?
      Quote: fa2998
      it was in the same China even a century ago! Tribal system?
      in fact, in the 7-10th century, China was a superpower, unlike the poor Europeans.
      Quote: fa2998
      And we have - the entire periodic table is buried -

      that's why Russia in the 20th century was torn three times, like no other country.
    7. Ryazan87
      Ryazan87 5 August 2019 17: 12
      0
      To indicate that Europe began to build capitalism early, so there all the bowels are empty. A catastrophic lack of resources.

      yep) Okay, simple question: key resources of the first industrial revolution? Well, the presence of these in "empty" Europe.
    8. Sadam
      Sadam 5 August 2019 18: 56
      +5
      really why do you need to go so deep if the States weren’t 300 years ago and China generally took place over the past 20 years in my lifetime
      I think the Mongol yoke has nothing to do with it .... something is missing somewhere
      1. depressant
        depressant 6 August 2019 00: 14
        +3
        At one time, I was surprised by the fairy tales of the brothers Grimm and Hans Christian Andersen. Something like this: "The prince went to a neighboring kingdom and brought from there ..." I did not understand for a long time: how did it go abroad? After all, walking takes months, and even years! Then I realized: yes, they have it - over the fence. And if you ride a horse, then you can accidentally slip through the desired kingdom and end up in the third. And there, if it is unfriendly, you can snatch it off.
        They, Europe, have always lived very closely, and we are widely. We always had a place to get away from difficulties and to be alone with ourselves and ourselves, without bothering ourselves with the imposed ideas of others. Hence the phenomenon of the Cossacks. Even now, we have many places where you can walk or drive hundreds of kilometers and not meet anyone. For thousands of years we have been evolving in circumstances that allowed us to avoid problems and maintained our originality, often only knowing firsthand that there are other people who are different from us. In Europe - a step to the right, and you are in a foreign kingdom, where you are punched in the neck; a step to the left is the same. Because they had nowhere to go from their own and others' problems. They solved them on the spot, and therefore, being in eternal tension, developed faster than us - tightness strains, makes us spin, forms aggression and an increased level of passionarity. Again, there is an accelerated exchange of information with each other and neighbors in a very small part of the world - Europe. And information is the engine of progress. Do you think why scientists need communication with colleagues from different countries? Only in this way science is developing rapidly. But the nation too - when cooking together in a cramped cauldron of passions.
        And we are leisurely. We don’t need much. We can always leave if we are strained - even into the forest without end and edge, even into the endless steppe, even in dreams - to the stars. And we don’t need anything from others either.
        And even the gradual intensification of our life, which began at the end of the year before last, could not do anything about it. And can’t. We Russians are the naive romantics of planet Earth. And we do not want anything else. Just stay yourself.
        But it seems that our mentality began to break through the knee.
      2. tihonmarine
        tihonmarine 6 August 2019 11: 17
        0
        It would not have lagged behind, but Russia has always occupied the third - fourth place in the world.
  5. E.S.
    E.S. 5 August 2019 16: 08
    +5
    And what is the "lag" then? That's how the whole history lagged behind, lagged behind and lagged behind to 1/6 of the land? And before (at some point) free health care and education? Have you retired to the successfully living northernmost city in the world - a millionaire? Until the world's second economy built NOT on 500 years of plunder of African and Asian colonies? Lagging behind whom? From those who still drive on the roads that the slaves of Rome began to build?
  6. balunn
    balunn 5 August 2019 16: 11
    +2
    The author tried to look at Russia's troubles in comparison with European countries. Yes, we had a yoke, but part of Europe until the 19th century was under the Ottoman Empire (Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria). And how were plague epidemics going on in Europe?
    The problem is most likely different. Until 1861, Russia remained a state with a serfdom, which in modern conditions at that time of life was a clear hindrance to development. But the abolition of serfdom on paper itself did not lead to its abolition in the head. This ultimately led to shocks of the Russian state in the 20th century.
    1. Underwater hunter
      Underwater hunter 5 August 2019 16: 15
      0
      Quote: balunn
      This ultimately led to shocks of the Russian state in the 20th century.

      Campaign and in the 21st century will be the same result .. we love to walk on a rake ..
    2. Sadam
      Sadam 5 August 2019 19: 03
      0
      Well, actually the collective farms of the 20th century are the reincarnation of serfdom among those, although St. George's Day was in the last week of autumn when it was possible to escape))
  7. fa2998
    fa2998 5 August 2019 16: 20
    -1
    Quote: apro
    Quote: fa2998
    And we have the entire periodic table buried, only the owner is not

    Love you master ...
    Well, the owners appeared. What is easier?

    We do not have owners. There is PLUTOCRACY. hi
    1. The comment was deleted.
  8. Undecim
    Undecim 5 August 2019 16: 25
    +1
    And the second article of the cycle did not bring clarity to the author’s plan, preserving the intrigue, only a few questions appeared in terms of how much the author understands the essence of the processes he analyzes.
    In particular, the sentence is alarming: "At the same time, attempts are being made to" point "modernization. The introduction of regiments of a new system, dragoons, the construction of the frigate" Eagle ", the creation of a" German settlement "and the attraction of" foreign specialists ", finally, the reform of the Church of Nikon in a Little Russian way, a change in legislation using the documents of the western neighbor (Rzeczpospolita) - all this did not bring significant changes, just as “pinpoint” modernization did not change Turkey, Persia and Egypt in the nineteenth century."
    Economic modernization refers to structural, technological and institutional changes in the national economy aimed at increasing its global competitiveness.
    Even though point-based modernization does not imply radical structural changes and its task is simpler: to maximize the modernization of the remaining traditional industries, the events listed by the author do not somehow extend to modernization in relation to the national economy.
    Let's wait for the continuation.
    1. Edward Vashchenko
      5 August 2019 20: 13
      0
      Dear,
      The fact is that not everyone most likely remembers the whole history of Russia, therefore, I try to repeat the whole way, but only briefly.
      With regard to modernization, Toynbee believed that this was a borrowing of Western "technologies", and technology - a "tool bag" from the ancient Greek.
      The listed borrowing actions from the West: these are facts of our history, the Romanovs tried to borrow some things that seemed to change everything now.
      There is no fault, no questions for them: everyone went this way empirically, the same example of Turkey, which, within the framework of Islamic civilization, could not conduct it psychologically, although there were no problems in technology: but it was not necessary to create it ourselves, but all the time "To borrow."
      Modern history shows us that despite this gigantic experience, our authorities and their economists borrow "technology" in the same way as in the 17th century ... This is by the way: there is no science, there was no historical experience, again by trial and error, but ... with over time, the price of error increases. Did Peter Senate go on a trip to the Prut, and so what? If something is wrong there, it did not radically affect the situation, another thing these days: any such “experience” seriously wraps us in the wrong direction ...
      Yours faithfully,
      Edward
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 5 August 2019 23: 29
        0
        With regard to modernization, Toynbee believed that this was a borrowing of Western "technologies", and technology - a "tool bag" from the ancient Greek.
        The listed borrowing actions from the West: these are facts of our history, the Romanovs tried to borrow some things that seemed to change everything now.

        And what side to these borrowings was the German settlement founded by Vasily the Third and the Nikon reform?
  9. yehat
    yehat 5 August 2019 16: 43
    +2
    the article is curious, but it doesn’t add any understanding of the past at all
    the author reduces everything to some kind of formal inner butting.
    However, history had a lot of examples, equivalents of a tub with water, turning the country - the Crimean war against the Entente, the Russo-Japanese war, etc.
    and all the author’s arguments about dominant power go through the forest, because the present makes one be adequate to the moment. Stalin understood this and began industrialization before ww2
    1. Edward Vashchenko
      5 August 2019 20: 16
      +2
      Dear Sergey,
      everything has its time,
      if everything is clear to you, then a huge number of people ask questions: how, well, where? Who has done everything?
      It is important for me to show the whole process: from and to.
      To be continued...
    2. Saw
      Saw 6 August 2019 16: 45
      0
      I completely agree with you!
  10. Cats
    Cats 5 August 2019 18: 02
    +5
    In order to develop normally, Russia has everything - natural, intellectual and human resources. Only one thing is missing - an adequate State Management System.
    1. Edward Vashchenko
      5 August 2019 20: 19
      +1
      Dear Sergey,
      in principle, and I about it. But what is an adequate system?
      What should it be?
      But first you need to show how it was, so as not to step on the rake ...
      Yours faithfully,
      Edward
  11. fa2998
    fa2998 5 August 2019 18: 03
    +4
    Quote: mikh-korsakov
    In China, they invented gunpowder, paper, a compass and many other useful things

    I don’t know where the gunpowder was invented, but I know for sure that we got motorbikes there, trucks delivered and much more. Look at today's market. Our lag is obvious. And there is no need for a knight in a deep history. Who is in power is to blame. yes
    1. Hypatius
      Hypatius 5 August 2019 21: 08
      -2
      I support. The first Chinese scientific work dates back to 1912, statehood appeared in the 20th century, the language is still being unified. Distributors of Jesuit historical myths about "great empires" are not friendly with logic.
      1. Kronos
        Kronos 5 August 2019 22: 05
        +1
        Not friendly with the logic of the Fomenkoid, whose world conspiracy of historians and scientists does not allow revealing the terrible "truth"
        1. Hypatius
          Hypatius 6 August 2019 18: 59
          -1
          Are these all the arguments? I somehow justified. And the fact that the Jesuits wrote the Chin story is a fact.
          1. Kronos
            Kronos 6 August 2019 19: 18
            -1
            You haven’t said anything new; everything has already been discussed dozens of times and it has been proved that this is not so. But conspirators will still find something to cling to here your friend is running around with stories that all revolutions are connected with solar activity
            1. Hypatius
              Hypatius 6 August 2019 19: 20
              0
              It is disproved that the first Chinese scientific work was published in 1912. Where and by whom? Or what is still, there are a lot of dialects. No need to hint that I did not write.
              1. Kronos
                Kronos 6 August 2019 20: 22
                -1
                What does a bunch of dialects have to do with it, it’s not clear if in the same Germany there were many dialects or in many other fragmented states
            2. Hypatius
              Hypatius 6 August 2019 20: 04
              -2
              But conspirators will still find something to cling to here, your friend runs around ..
              And your friend, that sits quietly in the ravine and the horse eats up. Z.Y. You will minus everything in a row - you will fall into the ban.
  12. Radikal
    Radikal 5 August 2019 18: 12
    0
    Quote: Underwater Hunter
    Quote: Saw
    Why did you win the Second World War?
    Stalin ate a cutlet with buckwheat while in Leningrad they ate grass in the summer ... He slept on the bed while in Leningrad they died from the cold ... Why did he win the Second World War - how many Germans did he personally kill?

    Yes, you need to learn history .. They are eating pheasants now that it’s 20 miles, beggars .. and Stalin left the property, dying his worn boots, and his overcoat .. Stalin is the winner and no liberal propaganda can dispute this fact. Compare how the population grew under Stalin and now, compare how much was done under Stalin and now, over the same period of time ..

    Leave it, he probably taught history from the textbooks of Chubais's elder brother - the Unified State Examination generation, what to take from him .... winked
  13. Unknown
    Unknown 5 August 2019 19: 20
    +1
    Of course, we were 100-150 years behind the kings. most of the country was illiterate, from the word at all. in R.I. estates existed, and it was in the 20th century that anachronism, somehow, was. the nobles did not pay taxes, they lived like parasites, on the body of the state. the peasants dragged all this camarilla on their own hump. And the main thing is that the nobility, for the most part, did not want to live differently, they arranged this order. this is the legacy left by tsarist rule. and this had to be reckoned with. the country was put on the brink of existence, like Russia, or the USSR as you like. Comrade STALIN understood this, for example, that he spoke at one of the party congresses .................. In the past, we did not and could not have a fatherland. But now that we have overthrown capitalism, and we, the people have power, we have a fatherland and we will defend its independence. Do you want our socialist fatherland to be beaten and to lose its independence? But if you do not want this, you must as soon as possible eliminate its backwardness and develop the real Bolshevik pace in building its socialist economy. There are no other ways. That is why Lenin said on the eve of October: "Either death, or catch up and overtake the advanced capitalist countries."

    We are 50-100 years behind advanced countries. We must make good this distance in ten years. Either we do it, or they crush us.

    This is what our obligations to the workers and peasants of the USSR dictate to us ....... it’s hard to disagree.
  14. Hazarov
    Hazarov 5 August 2019 19: 21
    +1
    And where are the objective reasons for the lag? request
    while Russia developed in the "desert": forest and forest-steppe territory, which was developed from scratch. As a result, a completely different result was obtained per unit of effort: the climate, yield level, and agricultural periods were different. Hence the various possibilities for building capacity.

    Stunned! But the Khazar Kaganate, of which the lands of the Russian princes were a part, is not a state? And the Bulgarian kingdom is not part of Russia and not a state? But there were no Russian princes at the head of the Scythian kingdoms? Did the Huns fall from the moon? And Oman Manda, which is even mentioned in the Bible, is not the Russian king of the Scythians?
    First, they “got rid” of the hardships and hardships associated with starting an ordinary soldier’s service, finding a legal loophole for entry into regiments from birth, then creating “military schools”. And in 1761, 1762. By decree of Peter III, and then Catherine II, they were generally exempted from military and civil service. According to apt observation by V.O. Klyuchevsky, after the nobles were freed from service to the state, the peasants who were attached to them only because of their service should be freed. And such a decree was passed!

    And this is what the author calls harmonious development!
    Tin! Mda
    I stand on the pavement, I'm shod in skis!
    Do skis not ride? I don’t understand something! negative
    And this is in the article! Is this article preparing us for a new king and a new nobility?
    Author! Okts!
    1. Fayter2017
      Fayter2017 5 August 2019 20: 08
      -1
      Of course, you’ll excuse me, but when you sober up, start to state your thought or question in an accessible sense.
      1. Hazarov
        Hazarov 5 August 2019 20: 46
        +1
        Of course! Who would doubt that?! Heh! Already drunk, and inaccessible to understanding, I state thoughts! Heh! I look in Landon did not teach you Russian Speech! You Aglitz agents for not knowing Russian Speech and dialects of the Russian Language has always been easy to identify! fool
    2. Edward Vashchenko
      5 August 2019 20: 27
      +2
      Dear Konstantin,
      what I am writing is a professional modern view of history, if in the 15th century or in the 17th century. monarchism was the only real form of government from this does not mean at all that monarchism is needed in the 21st century, where did you find it from me?
      The second, about feudalism in the eighteenth century. I write as about a system that is becoming a brake on development.
      Wait to continue.
      Yours faithfully,
      Edward
      1. Hazarov
        Hazarov 5 August 2019 20: 57
        0
        what i am writing is a professional modern look at history

        Yes? Amazing Heh! Whose professional is this modern look? Who are these professional contemporaries? AND? Edik! Hehe hehe! Not the case of British scientists? AND? Those. Is British propaganda a modern and professional point of view ?! So?
        May cry! crying
    3. yehat
      yehat 6 August 2019 17: 03
      +1
      Quote: Hazarov
      And where are the objective reasons for the lag?

      By the way, about the lag. under the Mongol yoke.
      the Mongols brought with them a globally operating logistics and mail.
      brought a bunch of technology from China, brought a number of standards for organizing the empire.
      brought a massive approach to army organization
      in the end, the Mongols forced to fight in Russia with feudal fragmentation
      so that part of the ruinous processes was accompanied by the opposite.
  15. Lieutenant Colonel of the USSR Air Force in stock
    +1
    They say that every nation is worthy of its government ... They also say which gentleman, these are slaves .... Which leader is the country .... And how did the leader and leadership of the country come to power: through inheritance, through elections, by coup, on the shoulders of the crowd - no difference for the end result ...
    Power can be any, but not weak .... otherwise, sooner or later, others will come ...
    1. Sadam
      Sadam 5 August 2019 23: 06
      -2
      and you recorded Boriska in the weak? when he came to power on the armored car, what a dashing thing he was and he had enough of the boyars to shoot from the tank ... and how he transferred the power to us from him - not the election and not the heir, but that’s how the prize-winner for the new year wanted ... This system of checks and limitations only works for Anglo-Saxons. This is an abusive word.
  16. Lieutenant Colonel of the USSR Air Force in stock
    -1
    Quote: Destiny
    Russia, unfortunately, has always been under external control, under the tsar, which is now. Now it just looks more clearly, that’s the whole difference ... one .. the other is teasing .. That's what you want to tell me, but you would live your richer mind and happier than us no one would be under this sky ...

    ***
    Since all countries are located on the globe, they are in a certain environment, and therefore, they are affected by this environment. You are a supporter of conspiracy theories, however ...
    No enemy has so harmed RI, the USSR and the Russian Federation as their own power, their own, their own scum!
    Well, and the people ... where they lead him, he goes there.
    PS Well, and under what external control was Russia, for example, during the time of Catherine 2?
  17. Lieutenant Colonel of the USSR Air Force in stock
    -2
    Quote: evgic
    Unread

    ***
    Are you sure about that? It seems to me that there are many supporters of xREN.TV ...
  18. Lieutenant Colonel of the USSR Air Force in stock
    -2
    Quote: mikh-korsakov
    Unread

    Only then did China isolate itself and remained at the level of the invention of paper and gunpowder until the mid-20th century ...
  19. Lieutenant Colonel of the USSR Air Force in stock
    -2
    Quote: Alexey Sommer
    So what was the development even in the Middle Ages in Singapore (and indeed all of Southeast Asia! What happened in the same China even a century ago! Tribal system?

    They grew from zero in the 20th century. The world has changed globally and copying the Western model multiplied by social backwardness and Asian ferocity, Asian economic dragons were born. If we do so, then there will be an explosion.
    We are developing normally. If there is no war, Russia will overtake Europe in the next 20-30 years. And overtake, as a good styer of the bad, confident, by a wide margin.

    ***
    Well, well, the people again ran to buy dollars and euros: they are afraid of losing their savings, they are afraid of default in August 2019, and Oreshkin and Nabiullina publicly discuss the recession in Russia in 2020 or 2021 ....
    You alone are an optimist "We are developing normally. If there is no war, Russia will overtake Europe in the next 20-30 years. Moreover, it will overtake, like a good stayer, the bad, confidently, by a large margin" ... you should at least study the growth rates of the world and different countries ....
  20. Lieutenant Colonel of the USSR Air Force in stock
    -2
    Quote: Sadam
    Well, actually the collective farms of the 20th century are the reincarnation of serfdom among those, although St. George's Day was in the last week of autumn when it was possible to escape))

    “Under Tsar Ivan Vasilievich ... the peasants had a free exit, and Tsar Fedor Ioannovich, according to the reprimand of Boris Godunov, without listening to the advice of the oldest boyars, ordered the peasants to leave and, from whom there were so many peasants, he made books ...”
  21. Alex Nevs
    Alex Nevs 5 August 2019 20: 06
    -1
    Many words from the author. Many, very many. It is easier and faster to put things in order in a family. It is very difficult to put things in order in the whole house. In the microdistrict, the city is almost impossible. But! If you go "difficulties" !!!! (war, etc.), the people will rally so much that everyone !!!! the rest will be well Sooooo "little". Well ooooo. And it doesn't matter whether it's a family or a city or a country. And strangers - only "Hold on". Mustache fall. We are only waiting for these "difficulties." And a country of three villages is an undergrowth.
  22. karabass
    karabass 5 August 2019 20: 14
    0
    I intrigued the title of the article, and after the first paragraph I spat in my hearts, didn’t read further, because the author will excuse me for being straightforward, but wrote a lie at the very beginning of the article! I will not go into lengthy bickering, BUT at the very time that the author describes how difficult it was in Russia. The reverse conditions for development were excellent! And a hundred years later, too, beautiful! In evidence, I will give one HISTORICAL document After another hundred years, EVERY family paid tribute to the horde and, among other things, other things; - ONE BEAR SKIN FROM ONE SMOKE !!! (from one family)
    1. Edward Vashchenko
      5 August 2019 20: 38
      +3
      Dear Ivan, I will not argue with you if everything is clear to you already.
      You just read at least one scientific work on the tribute of the Mongolian, how easy it was.
      And then draw your superficial conclusions, and then in history, as in football, all the experts. wink
      1. karabass
        karabass 5 August 2019 21: 54
        +1
        And I, dear Eduard, in my criticism of your article did not write about the ease of paying tribute, but tried to draw your attention to the fact that if EVERY family could get (buy) a bear's skin once a year, imagine their number at this time! And the bear on the territory of Russia was at the top of the food chain - and now think how many other animals and fish were in this historical period. And from this fact I allowed myself to conclude that your hypothesis about the difficult situation of Russia at the start of development is untenable
        1. Operator
          Operator 5 August 2019 22: 15
          -1
          Quite right - the Eastern Slavs lived too long in excellent material conditions compared with the bulk of Europeans: the abundance of game, fruits, berries and other natural wealth in Russia, a healthy lifestyle, low population density, a lot of free land for agriculture, small taxes (otherwise the inhabitants will go deep into the forests), etc. etc.

          Like - not a caplet above us laughing

          That's why we were delayed at the start, now we are catching up - starting from Peter the Great we narrowed the gap with the advanced countries from 300 to 30 years, in some areas we go head to head (space exploration), and in others (the nuclear missile industry) we overtake by several decades.
        2. Edward Vashchenko
          5 August 2019 22: 34
          -2
          Dear Ivan,
          this is an amateur approach, not a conclusion based on sources ...
          I did not write
          about the difficult situation of Russia at the start of development

          Read carefully.
      2. Sadam
        Sadam 5 August 2019 23: 19
        0
        oh let me be smart I’m just fond of it right now))) 30 tons of silver per year for 10 million people, well, people 10%.
  23. Hypatius
    Hypatius 5 August 2019 20: 44
    0
    Firstly, when Russia arose, France was already an early feudal state, Germany became
    Or maybe this: When John Vasilyevich built a single state of Russia from feudal principalities, all of Europe was in feudal bandit fragmentation, and did not have statehood. And a century later, after the organization of Grozny several regiments of archers, in France managed to create a company of musketeers. good
    Further even disassemble laziness, such as Parsley Crazy, destroying the entire Pomeranian fleet and the Volga beads, but almost the whole country. Ugh, than the children are stuffed. fool
  24. Rwmos
    Rwmos 5 August 2019 20: 53
    0
    The author forgot to mention the main reason for the prosperity of Europe. The notorious "golden guilder per square meter" is the robbery of colonies. While in Russia, on the contrary, the province developed in fact at the expense of the center. How much has been invested in the development of Siberia ?! And how much to Argentina?
    And from here comes a lot of things, up to a change in mentality. If the bourgeois is able to put a guilder on a meter of pavement in front of his house, for example, he may well pay a silver policeman a year, so that the proletariat does not pick up this pavement on its weapons. At all. the topic is very long, but ultimately the slavish psychology of Europe is growing from here - there are a lot of gendarmes. pay they get paid. Yes, and Europe - not even the forests of the middle zone, where, if desired, you can now get lost so that the army with dogs will be swept to search for you
    1. Kronos
      Kronos 5 August 2019 22: 09
      -2
      It's not so tough Siberia was robbed of taking wealth out of there
      1. Rwmos
        Rwmos 5 August 2019 22: 14
        -1
        Where are the Demidovs built more - in Tula or in the Urals ?!
        From 1716 to 1725, the year of Demidov built five more enterprises - the Shuralinsky (1716) and Byngovsky (1718) hammers, the cast iron of Nevyansk plant, as well as the Verkhnetagil plant (1720), Nizhny Tagil plant (1723) and Nizhny Tagil plant.

        Teach materiel
    2. Sadam
      Sadam 5 August 2019 23: 31
      -1
      well, robbed - so then everyone lived like that and now too. but on this guilder, he will be furious with a sweetheart and will buy a fish tooth like all decent people. and these Portuguese Spaniards were blown away quickly. but that steam shaitan machine made the difference ... Spartak champion
  25. Beringovsky
    Beringovsky 5 August 2019 21: 18
    +1
    Great article. Itself has long come to the same conclusions about the reasons for the lag.
    But I believe that the activities of Peter brought Russia both benefit and tremendous harm. The consequences we disentangle so far. I include in this Peter's legacy the following monarchs who, one way or another, followed the line of Peter. In general, Peter is universal; he is also fond of the patriots of the statists and liberals of the Westerners. One for Poltava, the other for cutting beards and a chopped window.
    Which is better - the free element of the creative activity of citizens, only in an extreme case limited by the state? Or a state will pushing people towards goals that are often unclear even to that state itself? Peter chose the second.
  26. Konstantin Shevchenko
    Konstantin Shevchenko 5 August 2019 22: 49
    +2
    You can shovel and revise everything, make out every episode of history under a magnifying glass, scold or praise one and the same power, instead of answering there will be an eternal dispute. External control will always be and it does not matter direct or indirect. "Mouse Fuss", as they say. There is such a "lazy engine of progress" ie. the path to comfort. I don't know, maybe by chance, but where there is national pride, they strive for that comfort, both political and technological. Throughout its history, Russia has only one, proud and beloved "I", hence the difficulties to comfort, no matter at what point in the history of your linear time. You can call it - "Difficulties of mentality".
  27. Antares
    Antares 5 August 2019 22: 52
    +2
    An interesting approach of course .. look for reasons somewhere, but not at the root.
    Climate! He formed the living conditions and activities in this territory.
    Let's see the difference between the climate of Europe and Russia. Yeah, less moisture and less heat (more continental climate). That is, when Europe could produce a crop of the usual seven itself, then in Russia itself 3 itself four it was a successful year. But it could not have been.
    That is, with the European 1-10, it is possible to make and develop reserves. And in Russian 1-3 God forbid to survive ...
    and cattle is bad because there is nothing to feed and you will not squeeze anything from the ground ..
    cities are not as centers of trade, but as strongholds. And without trade, there is no development. Neither communications nor science nor consumption ..
    And that's it ... a vicious circle. Poor productivity, few surpluses, few investments in science, few technologies to increase productivity --- poor productivity .. The city takes little, the village gives little .. There is no trade.
    Moreover, an aggressive state takes a lot because it cannot survive surrounded by the same neighbors (who have a better climate but the organization is also lame)
    And Europe and China and the Arab world developed. And Russia tried to catch up with Europe all the time. But the climate cannot be changed. The material base remained poor.
    MIT only aggravated the process, for the power vertical in Russia was formed in the image of not the European, but the Horde. And the whole society. Tsar slaves.
    In the absence of trade, few freedoms, what kind of development could there be at all? Therefore, capitalism turned out to be ugly. and then socialism .. in general, the basis because of the climate was initially bad.
    And the presence of min. resources in Siberia did not save Russia.
    Unless the chances were in history when there were Lithuanians, when Novgorod, but Moscow Russia with MIT destroyed it all ... and only in the 20th century began a rapid development (by the way, warming)
    and any jump in climate for Russia is very painful .. for a country with a cold north pole. the hemisphere and the risky area are all risky.
    1. Antropos
      Antropos 6 August 2019 09: 39
      0
      Perhaps this article is a brief historical review before revealing the meanings afterwards.
      In addition to the climate, I think there are two more factors that shaped our mentality and exacerbated the lag: inheritance law and Orthodoxy. He wrote about the influence of climate and religion in articles. I'm going to scribble everything about the inheritance right.
      However, until recently, the combination of these factors saved us as a people and a state. In a world of pure capitalism, it hurts terribly. And I don’t see a way out yet.
      1. Edward Vashchenko
        6 August 2019 10: 46
        -1
        Dear Anthropos,
        I agree with this, do not touch on in detail, since I did not set out to examine in detail the question of the formation of Russian civilization.
        Orthodoxy - yes, inheritance law - as a factor, but not so significant, the heritage object was formed only in the XNUMXth - XNUMXth centuries, and in Russian truth - there are no problems with this, the classic "barbaric truth" is straightforward.
        In a world of pure capitalism, it hurts terribly.

        Mentally agree - very, absenteeism is, more on that later)
        Yours faithfully,
        Edward
        1. Antropos
          Antropos 6 August 2019 11: 27
          +1
          In general, I believe that the law of succession is the most important factor in slowing down progress in our area.
          1. Antares
            Antares 6 August 2019 20: 41
            +1
            Quote: Anthropos
            In general, I believe that the law of succession is the most important factor in slowing down progress in our area.

            according to the degree of influence, all the same, in the first climate, in the second religion, rights still in the third
            but I agree that they had a great influence on Russia, having formed an attitude.
            But mentality is a derivative of the climate. It determines the nuances of behavior in a given territory (different from another) of the primacy of homo sapiens.
  28. Jurkovs
    Jurkovs 6 August 2019 09: 05
    0
    Analysis within the framework of their education. Hence the randomly jerky quotes. Everything is much deeper and more dialectical. For example:
    finally, the reform of the Nikon Church in Little Russia

    In fact, church reforms were carried out for two reasons. Firstly, in order not to completely lose Ukraine, since after the Horde invasion, the Patriarchate of Constantinople temporarily took control of the Ukrainian church metropolis, and naturally made sure that copyists of books did not make mistakes in the text. Secondly, if Russia claimed the title of the Third Rome, then it should not have ideological and church contradictions with the Second Rome. So the church schism in Russia is a tribute to our geopolitical aspirations.
    1. Edward Vashchenko
      6 August 2019 10: 49
      -2
      Dear Sergey,
      interesting conclusions!
      very much, you only confirm my opinion that these are all attempts to grope for "modernization".
      As Trubetskoy wrote: a small culture that was provincial to Polish, which in turn was provincial to western.
      Yours faithfully,
      Edward
  29. Begemot
    Begemot 6 August 2019 09: 19
    -1
    Good article.
    The nobles strictly sought the opportunity not to fulfill their obligations, while remaining owners of the "estates" received from the state.
    This is right to the point, today we are observing the same thing: the ruling class of officials and oligarchs is doing everything to maintain access to the bowels and feeding troughs, to preserve the ability to squeeze juices out of the population, while not having any obligations to the state or, especially, the people, and preferably not to let anyone in to the country's riches not only to the bowels, but in general, even if they’re sitting at home, you can’t even approach the rivers closer than 200 meters, and don’t think about anything, don’t compete with officials and oligarchs - the laws do not allow, they will punish and s suffocate. And it is advisable to completely stop wasting money on these, as theirs is the population. Medicine, education, pensions, culture, social support - these are such unjustified expenses, it is necessary to minimize them, but it is desirable to completely reset them. Recently, currency control has been abolished altogether - for themselves, of course, this means that a large crook finally bought all the lawmakers. Those. goods and raw materials can be exported, but money is not required to be returned to Russia. And indeed, why did this country need money, did not live richly, and why not start. And it’s more convenient to keep money behind the hill, just a little - jumping over the hill, and there the gold coin is already in store. All great empires perished because the peoples who inhabited them ceased to be needed.
  30. Engineer
    Engineer 6 August 2019 12: 23
    0
    The second "civilizational" article by the author. Nevertheless, there is no definition of what is considered a civilization and the difference between it as an ordinary country. Generally. It feels like everything is according to individual feelings.
    My opinion is that civilization is an entity that is expressed in influence and expansion. First of all, cultural and ideological. But this is the very first approximation. For example, France in the era of Voltaire would be an advanced super civilization by this criterion, but it is traditionally considered to be part of the Western world. A shaky criterion, but I can’t formulate another one straight away.
    By the way, I’m not at all sure that modern Russia is a separate civilization.
    Once again, the term organic path surfaced. How constructive is it? In my opinion, a purely speculative thing without filling. And 100% subjective
    About the backwardness. It is necessary to look and compare specific countries and specific eras. Where for example is the noticeable backwardness of Russia in the era of Ivan the Terrible? The same archers are very advanced for that time.
    Among the reasons hindering the development of our country, its comparative geographical isolation is not indicated. The most important. There are no cultural and economic ties with centers generating innovations and remoteness from the main trade routes.

    Well, and the classic problem of Peter in Russian historiography. I am closer to the point of view that he "reared" Russia. Having strangled, among other things, the third estate.

    The author is repelled by Toynbee. Meanwhile, his concept of challenges does not explain why some countries give an answer and others do not. Or give but after three hundred years. What about Diamond Jarred? It is much more fruitful as it seems to me.

    My opinion is that the author should end each part with a clear summary. Otherwise, the author’s intention at such a pace will simply be lost for many.
    1. Edward Vashchenko
      6 August 2019 19: 04
      0
      Dear Denis,
      this is not an article for the encyclopedia, whoever has questions: let them see what civilization is on the Internet.
      This work is my opinion, based on a number of modern studies, which, of course, are close to me (works of twenty to twenty-five of the last years).
      This is an attempt to build causal relationships that, due to the growing strength of cognitive dissonance in our society, are becoming increasingly difficult for many to see.
      "Favorite" our theme with you: "and the Slavs are 5 million years old - this is the topic, here is the truth6 which the grief-storytellers hid from us! And the Etruscans are Russians."

      By the way, Jarred, unlike Toynbee, is not a historian: he is coming ... I don’t know from what, but Toynbee is from sources (initially)

      Yours faithfully,
      Edward
      1. Engineer
        Engineer 6 August 2019 19: 21
        0
        Good evening, edward

        Have you read Toynbee? I ask without jokes. After all, 12 volumes after all
        Jarred is a biologist. But the kick gave historians the most powerful. The English-language Internet was full of discussions at one time, and Jarred’s position on most issues seemed more convincing to me.
        In our country, his work was mostly ignored. I am interested in the opinion of professionals

        Best regards
        1. Edward Vashchenko
          6 August 2019 22: 10
          0
          Dear Denis,
          Good evening,
          I did not read all the 12 volumes, unlike Jarer Diamond, I read the translated favorites in Russian, as well as his memoirs.
          The fact that he did not find answers to his questions from Toynbee is not Toynbee's problem.
          As for the work "Shotguns, germs and steel" ("RMS"), it is about the formation of "civilization" in terms of ethnology or ethnography, as anyone likes.
          There was nothing new for me, all the facts are known from the more professional works of ethnographers (for example, Fraser, Levi-Bruhl, Kubbel). It is difficult to argue with these factors: yes, the Volga flows into the Caspian Sea.
          Does climate or epidemic affect? It is strange to deny whether they are often extremely important on the path of development, but, of course, they do not determine the development of society.
          The biologist is mistaken when he relies as if only on “natural selection,” since he naturally exists (tautalogy), but when we encounter human society, other mechanisms come into force here. Maori killing example: which animals do this? Only animals "having customs", that is, social.

          But all this has little to do with the topic that I am trying to develop on the basis of Toynbee's theory of civilizations, as well as the stage-by-stage theory of the development of European peoples.
          And yet, this is a “medical fact”, which I’m trying to say about in the history of Europe and of mankind, the speed of progress varies by periods: roughly: before bourgeois and industrial revolutions and after.
          The speed of material progress increases sharply with the Industrial Revolution, and levels or nullifies all that was previously.
          A bit messy, but somehow.
          Yours faithfully,
          Edward
          1. Engineer
            Engineer 6 August 2019 22: 46
            0
            Thanks for the opinion
            Jarred, roughly speaking, proclaimed the primacy of the food base over everything else food-> population density-> social development. Unusually for me, but thoroughly substantiated, devil). Naturally, he was immediately labeled as a geographic determinist, biologist, and even a social Darwinist.
            By the way, LN, I do not like Gumilyov, but he also did not see Toynbee's answers. Even the chapter in the book "Ethnogenesis and the Biosphere" was called "Why I do not agree with Toynbee." And he criticized it well. Arguably.
            Best regards
  31. gv2000
    gv2000 6 August 2019 12: 35
    0
    1. Look at China.
    2. In the end, people always betrayed Bor.
  32. yehat
    yehat 6 August 2019 16: 54
    +2
    Quote: Eduard Vaschenko
    if everything is clear to you

    I do not understand
    smearing the description of the process from a couple of paragraphs into a set of articles makes everything incomprehensible.
    you list the numerous features of a process without naming it, but you just need to name the process and
    give examples and differences of its development in history, so that from the beginning of the first article it is clear what the article is about, and what the reader will then read
    but as a detective you don’t understand what you are reading about and how it will end.
    1. Hazarov
      Hazarov 6 August 2019 18: 27
      -1
      I do not understand
      smearing process descriptions from a couple of paragraphs into a set of articles

      And who told you, the author sets himself the task of revealing the topic, and not talking about it?
      1. yehat
        yehat 7 August 2019 10: 37
        0
        the author himself declared that he was going to reveal the topic. Just did not specify in which article and in which sentence. And I'm tired of looking for meaning in the sea of ​​words.
        1. Hazarov
          Hazarov 7 August 2019 15: 23
          0
          My friend! You can declare anything like that! It is not the declaration that is important, but the content! There is a declared "horseradish" on the fence, and you look in, so there is firewood!
          So it is here. People set the task to distort the meaning and not give you a complete understanding of what is happening, but to leave it in the world of patchwork thinking. People whose heads are only scraps of thoughts are very easy to manipulate! Those. author, banal propagondon chopping loot on suckers readers! That's the whole squiggle! hi
          1. yehat
            yehat 7 August 2019 15: 29
            +1
            you know, there is fiction, which I call viscous
            there, just like a fly in a creister you get stuck and you can’t read on
            I attributed Solzhenitsyn to such, and these articles seem to be the same.
            1. Hazarov
              Hazarov 7 August 2019 15: 41
              -1
              Correctly. And there is. If you give old info in the normal way, then the descendant of bedside footman Mikhalka will never become a nobleman Mikhalkov! Those. everything is very simple! bully
  33. Chaldon48
    Chaldon48 6 August 2019 16: 54
    0
    What Pushkin said about the nobles is very suitable for modern officials
  34. 1536
    1536 7 August 2019 11: 18
    +1
    I somehow came across a history textbook for a gymnasium in 1908. So on the first page of this textbook for children of by no means poor parents in the then understanding, one of the reasons for the "difficult life" in the Russian Empire was considered the climate. It is said in plain text that the climatic conditions of living in Russia leave much to be desired, but our people stoically and heroically resist the whims of nature. And if these efforts were directed in a different direction? It captures the spirit, whatever it was.
    By the way, in the same 1908 the second edition of the monograph by V.I. Ulyanov (Lenin) "History of Capitalism in Russia", where the author devoted many chapters to the analysis of Russian agriculture and its capitalization. Only Ilyich did not write about the production of bicycles, that's bad luck.
    1. Alexander Saveliev
      Alexander Saveliev 30 October 2019 00: 38
      0
      If in winter, instead of chopping firewood, "direct your efforts in a different direction", for example, start growing cotton, you freeze to hell.
  35. Sunstorm
    Sunstorm 7 August 2019 19: 10
    -2
    Well, you give a pancake ... And why not compare Russia - as the border of Europe with Spain, which at one time was also the border of Europe and also lagged behind in development?
    Secondly Ancient Rus (Kievan Rus) collapsed because of what? is it not because of feudal fragmentation? "Firstly, when Russia arose, France was already an early feudal state, Germany was becoming it." Just don’t remind me of the period of feudal fragmentation in European countries, eh?
    Thirdly "Russia developed in the" desert ":" How do you understand this? There were no Greek colonies on the Black Sea? Likewise, there was no influence of Arab and Scandinavian cultures? You probably don't remember that through the Scandinavian (Germanic) elements of the Roman were perfectly transmitted to yourself? and through Arabic Greek, Chinese, Indian?
    And that’s all you have in the introduction ... Then, excuse me, it became completely uninteresting to read you.
    ZY read further and found this "Russia was formed as a new civilization on the basis of the Russian people and Orthodoxy, ideologically connected with the perished Byzantium, a new civilization -" Third Rome. "And now let's return a little higher" Russia developed in the "desert": ".. Either I'm stupid and can't understand what you wanted to say in the introduction, or your skis are not going ... (in reality, of course, both options are possible at the same time)
    1. nesvobodnaja
      nesvobodnaja 12 August 2019 16: 36
      0
      Apparently, in this context, "desert" means, for the author, vast territories with a low population density.
  36. Suraikin.Aleksandr
    Suraikin.Aleksandr 9 August 2019 17: 11
    0
    Let’s from the very beginning. First of all, Ladder law, the custom of the princely succession in Russia, which involved the transfer of hereditary rights first horizontally - between brothers, from older to younger to the end of the generation, and only then vertically - between generations, again to the eldest of the younger generation brothers.
    The Russian prince during his life could change several princely thrones on which he ruled, the same Alexander Nevsky ruled in: Novgorod, Pereyaslavl-Zalessky, Kiev and Vladimir. The princes were not interested in strengthening the estates that he would replace in the future. As a result, even the largest cities of Russia, such as Kiev, met the Tatar-Mongol invasion with wooden fortifications. A medieval stone castle, for its time a fairly high-tech military fortification, requiring a sufficiently high qualification of craftsmen (masons, blacksmiths and carpenters), high organization (attracting huge masses of people to build, working quarries, delivering stone for construction to the construction site) and a large number of financial resources. Nothing of this was in Russia and the princes did not strive for this. Active construction of fortresses began only with Ivan the 3rd.
  37. leoni53
    leoni53 10 August 2019 08: 06
    0
    Dangerous delirium of "author", smells of inferiority of the Slavs ...
    Someone in the 3rd Reich already wrote about this, now they have taken up the same.
  38. Alexander Saveliev
    Alexander Saveliev 30 October 2019 00: 34
    0
    The author believes in the unconditional goodness of progress as in the Lord God.